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Ninth-century depiction of Charlemagne with popes Gelasius I and Gregory the Great
.The Middle Ages (adjectival form: medieval or mediæval) is a period of European history covering roughly a millennium in the 5th century through to the 16th century.^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The thousand years between is called the Middle Ages or the Medieval period.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was born in the medieval period of involuntary form.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_B: Barbarians Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and contrasted with a later Early Modern Period; the time during which the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance and the Reformation unfolded, are generally associated with the transition out of the Middle Ages, with European overseas expansion as a succeeding process, but such dates are approximate and based upon nuanced arguments.^ The middle ages began when the Roman Empire fell.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The time period between ancient and modern times is known as the Middle Ages, or medieval times.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Middle Ages leisure time was characterized by community participation.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

.More specific starting and ending points are sometimes adopted by scholars to suit their respective specializations or current focus.^ It has its problems, some due to its date and in light of more recent archaeology, but an excellent starting point.
  • Medieval Bibliography 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.ravensgard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In particular, in British history, the Middle Ages are often understood to start at the Norman conquest of 1066 and continue through to about the end of the 15th century (the era between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Norman conquest is referred to as the Anglo-Saxon period).^ The middle ages began when the Roman Empire fell.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Middle Ages refers to the period from the 4th to 5th century and lasted about 1000 years.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

."Periodization issues" are discussed in later section of this article.^ SML Stacks DF501 B89 [Current issues in Periodical Reading Room, section 16] Biennial.
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Wikipedia has an interesting article here which describes the mostly vegetable and grain diet of the peasants in the early Middle Ages, leading to more meat in the later period.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mudd Me10 R343 [Current issues in SML Periodical Reading Room Section 11] Divinity ZP R3266 [Current issues in rotunda] Each vol.
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The Middle Ages included the first sustained urbanization of northern and western Europe.^ Who was the first knight in the Middle Ages?
  • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Popular religion in the Middle Ages: Western Europe 1000-1300 .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (ISBN 0-688-02488-2) While including a number of pieces from the middle ages and renaissance, the woodworking on these pieces includes a number of non-period techniques and interpretations.
  • Medieval Bibliography 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.ravensgard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many modern European countries owe their origins to events and trends in the Middle Ages; present European political boundaries are, in many regards, the result of the military and dynastic outcomes during this period.^ Middle Ages - 4397 results .
  • Middle Ages: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

Contents

Middle Ages in history

.After the Middle Ages ended, subsequent generations imagined, portrayed, and interpreted the Middle Ages in very different ways.^ Furniture in the Middle Ages was very basic.

^ Continue reading "Middle age or the end?"
  • Kat Wilder: My So-called Midlife: Middle age Archives 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.marinij.com [Source type: General]

^ Feudalism was the way of life in the Middle Ages.
  • Middle Ages Web Page 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC cusd16.k12.il.us [Source type: Original source]

.Every century has created its own vision of the Middle Ages; the 16th century view of the Middle Ages was entirely different from the 19th century's, which was again different from the 20th century's, etc.^ There were THREE different Middle Ages: .
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Middle Ages provided many foundations to the Reformation of the 16th century.
  • European History/The Crises of the Middle Ages - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This work focuses on the lives and works of 20 of the great medievalists of this century, demonstrating how the events of their lives, and their emotional and spiritual outlooks influenced their interpretations of the Middle Ages.
  • Medieval History - Lund Books 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC lundbooks.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The different perceptions of the Middle Ages remain with us today in literature, art, revival styles of architecture, film, and popular conception.^ Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages carried .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plus lessons on Middle Ages Art and Architecture.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages these .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

Terminology

.Until the Renaissance (and for some time after that), the standard scheme of history was to divide history into six ages, inspired by the biblical six days of creation, or four monarchies based on Daniel 2:40.^ Yet they managed to rule at least some parts of India until 1850s, although they never regained the dignity and authority of their early days.

^ The miracle play , a long cycle of short plays based upon biblical episodes, was popular throughout the Middle Ages in England.
  • Middle Ages: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Life in the Middle Ages also include an entertainment section providing the History, Facts and Information about the sports and games played during the time of Middle Ages.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The early Renaissance historians, in their glorification of all things classical, declared two periods in history, that of Ancient times and that of the period referred to as the "Dark Age". Filippo Villani first mentioned a "middle period" between Antiquity and his present when he observed in a treatise of 1382 that the islands in the Mediterranean Sea were called by different names in priscis mediis modernisque temporibus ("primitive, middle, and modern times").^ Of or relating to a period of time between periods designated as ancient and modern.

^ The Middle Ages is the time period from 400 to about 1500.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ The time period between ancient and modern times is known as the Middle Ages, or medieval times.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the early 15th century, it was believed history had evolved from the Dark Age to a new period with its revival of things classical, so some scholars, such as Flavio Biondo, began to write about a middle period between the Ancient and Modern, which became known as the Middle Age.^ Of or relating to a period of time between periods designated as ancient and modern.

^ The time period between ancient and modern times is known as the Middle Ages, or medieval times.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was not until the late 17th century when German scholar Christoph Cellarius' published Universal History Divided into an Ancient, Medieval, and New Period that the tripartite periodization scheme began to be used more systemically.^ Updated by: The New Cambridge medieval history .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The program is divided into systems.
  • K-12...Science Sites 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC ginaotto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The style began in the late seventh century and continued until the ninth century.

[1]
.The plural form of the term, Middle Ages, is used in English, Dutch, Russian, Bulgarian, and Icelandic while other European languages use the singular form (Italian: medioevo, Croatian: Sredni vijek, French: le moyen âge, German: das Mittelalter, Polish: średniowiecze, Romanian: ev mediu, Russian: Средние века, Spanish: edad media).^ Middle Ages was that of the Germanic tribe of the Franks.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Was the fur of Russian squirrels used on the trim of robes in the Middle Ages?
  • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English, French, Italian and other secular legal systems were not an academic disciplines during the Middle Ages.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This difference originates in different Neo-Latin terms used for the Middle Ages before media aetas became the standard term.^ There were THREE different Middle Ages: .
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval, "belonging to the Middle Ages," is used here to refer to...from the period following upon the fall of Rome in 476...to the end of the 15th century .
  • Medieval 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.plu.edu [Source type: News]

^ It is equally hard to determine exactly when the Middle Ages ended, for decisive events leading to the modern age took place at different times.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some were singular (media aetas, media antiquitas, medium saeculum, and media tempestas),[2] others plural (media saecula and media tempora). .There seems to be no simple reason why a particular language ended up with the singular or the plural form.^ It seems there is no definitive recipe for this.

^ If consummation was not essential, it might follow that sexual impotence constituted no reason for holding a marriage invalid, and Augustine at any rate seems to have subscribed to this view.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The manner and reasons whereby particular forms are selected can throw light on how a local sense of Romanitas intersects with a sense of Romanitas elsewhere...
  • Medieval Conferences 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.efn.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .The term "medieval" (sometimes spelled "mediaeval") was first contracted from the Latin medium ævum, or "middle epoch", by Enlightenment thinkers as a pejorative descriptor of the Middle Ages.^ Who was the first knight in the Middle Ages?
  • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term is in fact mediaeval and refers to the Latin medium aevum, which means middle age(s).
  • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes – the Enlightenment came after the middle ages.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The common subdivision into Early, High, and Late Middle Ages came into use after World War I. It was caused by the works of Henri Pirenne (in particular the article "Les périodes de l'historie du capitalisme" in Académie Royale de Belgique.^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most popular tags used with middle age articles.
  • middle age | LifeTwo 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC lifetwo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Early Middle Ages, 500-1000 .
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulletin de la Classe des Lettres
, 1914) and Johan Huizinga (The Autumn of the Middle Ages, 1919).^ Make a chart showing the class system in the Middle Ages.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moeurs, usages et costumes au Moyen Age et a l'époque de la Renaissance / par Paul Lacroix.

^ Yet sometimes we forget all the great deeds of the middle ages and begin to think that they were all barbaric .
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dorothy Sayers, a noted scholar in medieval literature as well as a famous writer of detective books, strongly objected to the term.^ THE ARTS: "From famous writers to nameless actors, many contributors to the medieval art scene were women, who created literature, music, theatre, dance, and visual art."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medieval medical astrology books (the ones by Saunders & Culpeper , shown below), differ not only from modern medical astrology books, but also from modern medical texts as well.
  • Astrology Books: Medieval 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.astroamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medieval History A collection of sites for literature and art as well as history.
  • Medieval Sites on the Web 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.efn.org [Source type: Academic]

In the foreword to her translation of The Song of Roland, she writes "That new-washed world of clear sun and glittering colour, which we call the Middle Age (as though it were middle-aged), has perhaps a better right than the blown summer of the Renaissance to be called the Age of Re-Birth."

Periodization issues

.The Middle Ages form the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three "ages": the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the modern period.^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ Dawn of European civilization: the Dark Ages.

The idea of such a periodization is attributed to Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian.
.Commonly seen periodizations specify a beginning between ca. 400 CE and 476 (the sackings of Rome by the Visigoths to the deposing of Romulus Augustus).^ Medieval, "belonging to the Middle Ages," is used here to refer to...from the period following upon the fall of Rome in 476...to the end of the 15th century .
  • Medieval 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.plu.edu [Source type: News]

^ AD 376: Visigoths sack Rome AD 408: Vandals sack Rome AD 410: Goths sack Rome AD 450: Huns under the control of Attila the Great sack Rome AD 476: Augustulus deposed by barbarians .
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Middle Ages begin, we are told, with the death of Theodosius in 395, or with the settlement of Germanic tribes in the Roman Empire, or with the sack of Rome in 410, or with the fall of the Western Roman Empire (usually dated A.D. 476), or even as late as the Moslem occupation of the Mediterranean.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .An end is even less clear; scholars assign different dates in different parts of Europe.^ This period began and ended for different countries at different times across Europe.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.End dates range between ca. 1453 and 1517 (the Fall of Constantinople to the Protestant Reformation begun with Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses).^ Pointers were the fall of Constantinople, the end of the Hundred Year’ War, the development (in Europe) of printing, the end of the War of the Roses, the uniting of the Spanish crown, the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, the voyage of Columbus and the Protestant Reformation.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians say variously that the Middle Ages ended with the fall of Constantinople, in 1453; with the discovery of America, in 1492; or with the beginning of the Reformation, in 1517.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Protestant reformers have persuaded many that the Bible was neglected during the middle ages—according to Luther the Bible "lay forgotten in the dust under the bench".
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most scholars who work in 15th century Italian history, for instance, consider themselves Renaissance specialists, while anyone working elsewhere in Europe during the early 15th century is considered a medievalist.^ This work focuses on the lives and works of 20 of the great medievalists of this century, demonstrating how the events of their lives, and their emotional and spiritual outlooks influenced their interpretations of the Middle Ages.
  • Medieval History - Lund Books 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC lundbooks.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Covering the period from the 6th to the 15th centuries, Eco explores the relationship thatexisted between the theories & the artistic experience & practice of medieval culture.ART-History.
  • Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages - AbeBooks 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ The translation movement, which began in the late eleventh century, continued during the Renaissance and culminated in its final and arguably most important phase during the second half of the fifteenth century and into the sixteenth with the introduction of the printing press.
  • Fjordman: The Legend of the Middle Ages - Jihad Watch 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Others choose specific events, such as the Turkish capture of Constantinople or the end of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War (both 1453), the invention of the moveable type printing press in Europe by Johann Gutenberg (around 1455, independently of Asian innovations in the field centuries earlier), the fall of Muslim Spain or Christopher Columbus's voyage to America (both 1492), the Protestant Reformation starting 1517, or the Battle of Lepanto (1571) to mark the period's end.^ Historians say variously that the Middle Ages ended with the fall of Constantinople, in 1453; with the discovery of America, in 1492; or with the beginning of the Reformation, in 1517.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It ends … with the fall of Constantinople, or with the invention of printing, or with the discovery of America, or with the beginning of the Italian wars (1494), or with the Lutheran Reformation (1517), or with the election of Charles V (1519).
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are historians who believe that native tribes in North America had a sort of printing press by the time Europeans landed.
  • Top 10 Inventions of the Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.In England, the change of monarchs which occurred on 22 August 1485 at the Battle of Bosworth is often considered to mark the end of the period, Richard III representing the old medieval world, and the Tudors a new royal house and a new historical period.^ Biographical information on Queen Elizabeth I, Queen of England at the end of the medieval period.

^ Children’s and young adults’ fantasy works are often rife with medievalisms, and in the past few decades the impact of globalization has emerged in the expanding scope of fantasy worlds.
  • | SCGMA 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scgma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tudor period "begins when Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, defeated King Richard 111 at the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 ending the War of the Roses."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .The Catholic Monarchs are generally deemed the last medieval rulers of Spain.^ The 2nd volume includes 2 appendices (Monarchs and Rulers of the Medieval World and Genealogies), as well as a 50-page bibliography broken down into categories (e.g.
  • USMC Library - Research Guide to Mediaeval Studies 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.utoronto.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ CE : Medieval Europe - The last heir of the Capetian dynasty dies and is replaced by the first ruler of the Valois dynasty.
  • http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/mepage.htm 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ CE : Medieval Europe - Hugh Capet replaces the last of the Carolingian monarchs in France.
  • http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/mepage.htm 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

[6]
Richard III is considered the last medieval monarch of England
.Similar differences are now emerging in connection with the start of the period.^ As for taste: Hops were just starting to get added to beer in that time period, in parts of what is now Germany.
  • Survival tips for the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC kottke.org [Source type: General]

.Traditionally, the Middle Ages are said to have begun when the West Roman Empire formally ceased to exist in 476. However, that date is not important in itself, since the West Roman Empire had been very weak for some time, while Roman culture was to survive at least in Italy for yet a few decades or more.^ The middle ages began when the Roman Empire fell.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Furniture in the Middle Ages was very basic.

^ The Middle Ages was a time of invention.

Today, some date the beginning of the Middle Ages to the division and Christianization of the Roman Empire (4th century); others, like Henri Pirenne, see the period to the rise of Islam (7th century) as "late Classical".
.Another argument for a late beginning to the Middle Ages was presented by Peter Brown.^ The Late Middle Ages begins here and ends around 1500.
  • A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500) 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

^ The beginning of the Late Middle Ages witnesses the invention of the magnetic compass, greatly aiding overseas expansion and enhancing trade between places such as Italy and the North.
  • http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/mepage.htm 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500) 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Brown championed the idea of Late Antiquity, a period that was culturally distinct from both the preceding Empire and from the rest of the Middle Ages.^ Empires of the Middle Ages (SPI).zip .
  • Empires of the Middle Ages | Board Game | BoardGameGeek 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.boardgamegeek.com [Source type: General]

^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

.Brown’s argument rests less on the economic changes within the Mediterranean than on social and religious change within the Empire between 300 and 750. To Brown, the slow collapse of the Empire allowed a period of great creativity and expressiveness in which Christianity flourished and became institutionalized.^ With the rise of the military power of the amirs and the sultans, the status of the caliphs declined, and they became little more than figureheads with some religious prestige.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In this case Christian condemnation of both parties may ,as Trumbach predicted, have led each partner to act for pleasure rather than to preserve social status.
  • Paul Halsall: The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages, 1988 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On that long area of land reaching from the southern slope of the Cevennes to the Apennines, the hand of the barbarian had weighed much less heavily than on the rest of Europe.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Middle Ages in Western Europe are often subdivided into three intervals.^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

^ Popular religion in the Middle Ages: Western Europe 1000-1300 .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In reality, life in the Middle Ages, a period that extended from approximately the fifth century to the fifteenth century in Western Europe, was sometimes all these things, as well as harsh, uncertain, and often dangerous.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This includes an early period (sometimes called the "Dark Ages", at least from the fifth to eighth centuries) of shifting polities, a relatively low level of economic activity, and successful incursions by non-Christian peoples (Slavs, Arabs, Scandinavians, Avars).^ This is why the time was called the "Dark Ages."
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_B: Barbarians Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (ISBN 0-688-02488-2) While including a number of pieces from the middle ages and renaissance, the woodworking on these pieces includes a number of non-period techniques and interpretations.
  • Medieval Bibliography 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.ravensgard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our Middle Ages Project Pack includes a Research Guide and 23 hands-on activities that introduce your students to the three time periods of the Middle Ages, the people, the religion, the castles, what it took to become a knight, the devastating plague that killed millions and more!
  • Middle Ages Lapbook - Hands of a Child | CurrClick 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.currclick.com [Source type: General]

.The middle period (the High Middle Ages) follows, a time of developed institutions of lordship and vassalage, castle-building and mounted warfare, and reviving urban and commercial life.^ The church was the strongest institution of the Middle Ages.
  • Introduction to the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.medieval-faire.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Information on life in Britain in the Middle Ages.

^ Good areas of life in Middle Ages.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last span is a later period of growing royal power, the rise of commercial interests, and weakening customary ties of dependence, especially after the 14th century plague.^ In the 14th century the growth of maritime trade and the recognition that plague was introduced by ships returning from the Levant led to the adoption of quarantine in Venice.
  • Top 10 Inventions of the Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The Middle Ages refers to the period from the 4th to 5th century and lasted about 1000 years.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ The Crusades in the narrow sense of the expeditions to conquer and hold the Holy Land for the West began at the end of the eleventh century and lasted throughout the remainder of the medieval period.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the history of Scandinavia, the Middle Ages followed prehistory during the 11th century, as the rulers converted to Christianity, and substantial written records appeared.^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ History of the Middle Ages: 284-1500.

^ During the Middle Ages, everybody was middle aged.

.A similar shift from prehistory to the Middle Ages occurred in Estonia and Latvia during the 13th century.^ And, it is in cloth making that the first industrialization occurred during the Middle Ages.
  • Technology in the Medieval Age 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.engr.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Middle Ages, everybody was middle aged.

^ Feudalism, nobility, knights in shining armor, the Black Death - all of these things might sound like something out of a fairy tale to you, but in fact, they are things that occurred during the Middle Ages in Europe.
  • Middle Ages Lapbook - Hands of a Child | CurrClick 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.currclick.com [Source type: General]

Geographic issues

.While the term "medieval period", often used synonymously with "Middle Ages", is usually used to describe a period of European history, some 20th century historians have described non-European countries as "medieval" when those countries show characteristics of "feudal" organization.^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ Covers terms commonly used in undergraduate studies of Medieval history.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pre-Westernization period in the history of Japan, and the pre-colonial period in developed parts of sub-Saharan Africa, are also sometimes termed "medieval." These terms have fallen out of favor, as modern historians are reluctant to try to fit the history of other regions to the European model.

Origins: The later Roman Empire

Map of territorial boundaries ca. 450 AD
.The Roman empire reached its greatest territorial extent during the 2nd century.^ The Venetians had consuls in the Greek empire as early as the tenth century, and we may fairly presume that the French had consuls in Palestine during the reign of Charlemagne.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then moved to the territory of today’s Ukraine, where they could trade with Byzantine Empire (IIIrd century AD).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The history of the migration period is traced back to the third century when the Roman Empire fell to the Germans.

.The following two centuries witnessed the slow decline of Roman control over its outlying territories.^ "Le Roman de Claris," a manuscript which belongs to the commencement of the fourteenth century, says that in a town winch was taken by storm the following stores were found:--: .
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover trade boomed in the following two centuries and many new towns were founded.

^ The thirteenth century witnessed obstinate and sanguinary feuds between these two parties, each of which was alternately victorious.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The Emperor Diocletian split the empire into separately administered eastern and western halves in 285. The division between east and west was encouraged by Constantine, who refounded the city of Byzantium as the new capital, Constantinople, in 330.
.Military expenses increased steadily during the 4th century, even as Rome’s neighbours became restless and increasingly powerful.^ I can tell you about how chicken coops were similar in Rome and in Palestine during the same period of time, and that the coops described in thirteenth century France were about the same.

^ Hence we can understand how the bourgeois, who during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were a distinct section of the community, became at last the important commercial body itself.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What had been the exception during the sixteenth century became the rule two centuries later.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tribes who previously had contact with the Romans as trading partners, rivals, or mercenaries had sought entrance to the empire and access to its wealth throughout the 4th century.^ Christian Europe was in constant contact with the Byzantine Eastern Empire and imported many trade goods, technologies, scientific and literary contribution from the Muslim East.
  • MEDIEVAL THOUGHT 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.molloy.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Empire The Huns were an aggressive, dangerous, conquering tribe who swept westward through Asia, terrifying other Germanic tribes and pressing them on to Rome.
  • Geometry.Net - Basic_B: Barbarians Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christianity throughout the Roman Empire through the Edict of Milan in 313.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Diocletian’s reforms had created a strong governmental bureaucracy, reformed taxation, and strengthened the army.[4]
.These reforms bought the Empire time, but they demanded money.^ Before German tribes invaded the Roman Empire, they for some time migrated thorough the border searching for a work and better future in civilized lands.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These times Byzantine Empire waged serious wars with Bulgaria - a Slavian kingdom on Balkan peninsula ruled by the narrow elite of Bulgars.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From time to time he administered a certain drink to ten or twelve of these young men, which sent them to sleep, and when they were in deep stupor, he had them carried into the garden.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Roman power had been maintained by its well-trained and equipped armies.^ One of the foundations of his power was scara , a standing army paid and equipped by Charlemagne where younger sons of nobles had a chance for a social advance.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

These armies, however, were a constant drain on the Empire's finances. .As warfare became more dependent on heavy cavalry, the infantry-based Roman military started to lose its advantage against its rivals.^ In accordance with Augustine's view of warfare, Christians were entitled to ask the Roman authorities, including those among them who were Christian, for military protection against the violence of heretics and anti-Christians.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But at the end of VIth century European economy reached its lowest level, so the strategy of robbery became ineffective, and new barbarian rulers of post-roman kingdoms started to prefer the strategy of feudal conquest (expanding their new states which became stable bases for their military operations).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the rise of the military power of the amirs and the sultans, the status of the caliphs declined, and they became little more than figureheads with some religious prestige.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.The defeat in 378 at the Battle of Adrianople, at the hands of mounted Gothic lancers, destroyed much of the Roman army and left the western empire undefended.^ In many battles, archer armies that were outnumbered by as much as 8 to 1 accomplished kill ratios of 1000's to 1.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy and the Western Roman empire slipped into the Dark Ages, where there was a decline in technological advances.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, the Dark Ages referred to the period of time ushered in by the fall of the Western Roman Empire."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .Without a strong army, the empire was forced to accommodate the large numbers of Germanic tribes who sought refuge within its frontiers.^ So, finally the West Empire had: Large population of German immigrants (peasants).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Franks, Huns, Goths, Visigoths, and other Germanic tribes invaded the Empire from every direction.
  • MEDIEVAL THOUGHT 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.molloy.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He led his armies into battle a number of times and extended the frontiers of his empire further down in the Deccan, although he lost Kandhar.
  • Medieval Indian History,Medieval History of India,Medieval India,Indian Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC voice.indiasite.com [Source type: Original source]

.Known in traditional historiography collectively as the “barbarian invasions”, the Migration Period, or the Völkerwanderung ("wandering of the peoples"), this migration was a complicated and gradual process.^ The Barbarians are Coming - From the History Channel Movie "The period of history between <> the decline of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance known as the Dark Ages are an era of superstition, war, and death.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the barbarians, this new settlement was the culmination of a period of defeat, migration and conquest know as the Vlkerwanderung - the 'Wandering of the Peoples."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technology During the Middle Ages Although the Middle Ages is known as a backward period in history, many inventions greatly changed the lives of the European people.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these "barbarian" tribes rejected the classical culture of Rome, while others admired and aspired to it.^ But the views of these so-called Political Augustinians were generally rejected by other medieval political thinkers.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If not the Bulgars, some other nomadic tribe was settle down in Balkans.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the only outward signs of the confessions of these churches - some were of the Catholic cult, others in the Orthodox.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

.In return for land to farm and, in some regions, the right to collect tax revenues for the state, federated tribes provided military support to the empire.^ The land granted to each vassal was inhabited by serfs who worked the land for him, providing him with income to support his military endeavors; in turn, the vassal would protect the serfs from attack and invasion.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many sheriffs farmed out their shires, contracting in advance to pay a fixed annual sum to the crown, thus obtaining the right to collect any additional royal revenues for their own profit.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The escheator was to take the lands into the king's hands, discover their value by inquisition, and collect the revenue arising from the lands until he was commanded to deliver the lands to the rightful landholders.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.Other incursions were small-scale military invasions of tribal groups assembled to gather plunder.^ Possibly there were small groups in some monasteries, and men who played with other as youths might have remained in contact, but this remains speculation.
  • Paul Halsall: The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages, 1988 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small networks must have grown up accidentally as a group of acquaintances came to recognize their sexuality in each other.
  • Paul Halsall: The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages, 1988 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Huns, Bulgars, Avars, and Magyars all raided the Empire's territories and terrorised its inhabitants.^ Fleeing from Hun raids German tribes broke through the border, and invaded the West Empire.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still having strong economy East Empire could avoid Huns raids paying tribute to the Attila.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, Slavic and Germanic peoples would settle the lands previously taken by these tribes.^ In later times, people would throw shoes at the couple, and now we just tie shoes to their car.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These financial expedients would not have been tolerated by the people had not the King taken the précaution to have them approved by the States-General of the provincial states, which he annually assembled.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most famous invasion culminated in the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410, the first time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to an enemy.^ AD 376: Visigoths sack Rome AD 408: Vandals sack Rome AD 410: Goths sack Rome AD 450: Huns under the control of Attila the Great sack Rome AD 476: Augustulus deposed by barbarians .
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Early Church Fathers is a 38-volume collection of writings from the first 800 years of the Church.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Full Text Sources 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After that time, Plague epidemics occurred almost regularly for 200 years.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the 5th century, Roman institutions were crumbling.^ The Catholic Church was already a powerful institution at the end of the Roman Empire and it continued to be the unifying force between the many small kingdoms that would become Europe.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resurrection of Roman law at the end of the eleventh century was a unique event in legal history and changed the future of European law.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some early historians have given this period of societal collapse the epithet of "Dark Ages" because of the contrast to earlier times.^ I suspect it is because some people are not comfortable with the realities of life in the Middle Ages.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think the feces in the street was (ironically) mostly from the period of the Enlightenment – not the so-called (wrongly) Dark Ages .
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The period in the history of Latin Europe after that of the "Fathers of the Church" has traditionally been called the "dark age", because very few writings were produced then.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The last emperor of the west, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the barbarian king Odoacer in 476.[4] The Eastern Roman Empire (conventionally referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" after the fall of its western counterpart) had little ability to assert control over the lost western territories.^ Augustulus, the last emperor of the West was deposed by barbarian mercanaries.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why Byzantine Empire did not fall?
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Emperor Justinian the Byzantines tried to get the western Roman Empire back .
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.mce.k12tn.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though Byzantine emperors maintained a claim over the territory, and no "barbarian" king dared to elevate himself to the position of Emperor of the west, Byzantine control of most of the West could not be sustained; the renovatio imperii ("imperial restoration", entailing reconquest of the Italian peninsula and Mediterranean periphery) by Justinian was the sole, and temporary, exception.^ Most people could not even read.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally there was three basic reasons: Byzantine (or East) Empire neighboured not only with barbarian lands but also with quite rich states of Persia, Armenia, Georgia and remnants of West Empire, so the diffusion processes were not so strong here (except northern territories of Balkan peninsula).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Power does not reside at a center, or at the top, even though there a pyramidal structure in theory, with the emperor at the top and the simple knight at the bottom.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As Roman authority disappeared in the west, cities, literacy, trading networks and urban infrastructure declined.^ The decline of the Roman Empire in the West and the assimilation of the Germanic peoples into the church had great impact on all aspects of religious life, including a lessening of Church authority from the 7th to the 11th century.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore there was no longer need for infrastructure that supported this trade: large cities, bureaucratic machine, highly-qualified specialists, etc.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only city inhabitants supported the Empire but population of cities (comparing with the population of rural areas) had shrunk because of the decline of long-range trade.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

Where civic functions and infrastructure were maintained, it was mainly by the Christian Church. .Augustine of Hippo is an example of one bishop who became a capable civic administrator.^ Augustine of Hippo "Saint Augustine was one of the foremost philosopher-theologians of early Christianity and the leading figure in the church of North Africa.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once established he showed himself a firm and capable administrator who retained his grip of power until his death at the age of 88.
  • Medieval Indian History,Medieval History of India,Medieval India,Indian Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC voice.indiasite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were a number of homosexual monarchs, who, with the exception of Edward II, seem to have escaped any severe punishment; one example would be Richard I of England.
  • Paul Halsall: The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages, 1988 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Early Middle Ages

The Book of Kells is one of the most famous artworks of the Early Middle Ages.

Breakdown of Roman society

The breakdown of Roman society was dramatic. .The patchwork of petty rulers was incapable of supporting the depth of civic infrastructure required to maintain libraries, public baths, arenas, and major educational institutions.^ Monastic centers encouraged a fiercely intellectual environment, requiring literacy of brothers and sisters and creating major libraries."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Any new building was on a far smaller scale than before. The social effects of the fracture of the Roman state were manifold. .Cities and merchants lost the economic benefits of safe conditions for trade and manufacture, and intellectual development suffered from the loss of a unified cultural and educational milieu of far-ranging connections.^ Again: ideologies, religions or cultures are not fixed but evolve, shaped by the economic conditions.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The artizans and merchants of these industrious cities then established their powerful corporations, whose unwearied energy gave rise to that commercial freedom so favourable to trade.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The culture of the vine having thus developed, the wine trade acquired an enormous importance in France.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.As it became unsafe to travel or carry goods over any distance, there was a collapse in trade and manufacture for export.^ Traveling from region to region carrying and selling goods.
  • Survival tips for the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ Exchange method was often barter (goods for gods without money) or there was no noticeable trade exchange at all.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.The major industries that depended on long-distance trade, such as large-scale pottery manufacture, vanished almost overnight in places like Britain.^ The result has been quite a long and involved debate over the place of women in Islam, but almost no real progress.

^ The possibility of a site such as this, as with other collections of electronic texts, depends on the large availability of public domain material from texts translated before 1923.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Full Text Sources 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long before this, Normandy had depended on other branches of trade for its commercial prosperity.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whereas sites like Tintagel in Cornwall (the extreme southwest of modern day England) had managed to obtain supplies of Mediterranean luxury goods well into the 6th century, this connection was now lost.^ Plebeians come into the scene very rare in times of great economic prosperity or great crisis (a peasant rebellions are extremely rare, and happens once a century or two).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marius Victorinus is said to have translated some of the Enneads into Latin in the fourth century, but his translation, if in fact it really existed, seems to have been lost soon afterwards.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few days after, Hassan wrote to him, "If one had not good intentions towards the Sultan, one might have driven the dagger, which was stuck in the earth by his head, into his bosom."
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Between the 5th and 8th centuries, new peoples and powerful individuals filled the political void left by Roman centralized government.^ From this argument Marsilius (and others) concluded that the people are the ultimate political authority, a view already suggested by the Roman law.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ CCL JA82 U44 "Survey of political thought from late Roman times to fifteenth century, emphasizing clericalization of political theory.
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The doctrine that the source of political authority is the people, who have, however, entrusted their power to the emperor or other ruler.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Germanic tribes established regional hegemonies within the former boundaries of the Empire, creating divided, decentralized kingdoms like those of the Ostrogoths in Italy, the Visigoths in Hispania, the Franks and Burgundians in Gaul and western Germany, the Angles and the Saxons in Britain, and the Vandals in North Africa.^ Middle Ages was that of the Germanic tribe of the Franks.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Middle Ages begin, we are told, with the death of Theodosius in 395, or with the settlement of Germanic tribes in the Roman Empire, or with the sack of Rome in 410, or with the fall of the Western Roman Empire (usually dated A.D. 476), or even as late as the Moslem occupation of the Mediterranean.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the sixth and seventh centuries, the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Burgundians, Franks, Frisians, Saxons, Lombards, and other tribes committed their unwritten law to written codes.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roman landholders beyond the confines of city walls were also vulnerable to extreme changes, and they could not simply pack up their land and move elsewhere.^ The time came when they had no direct masters, and when the almost absolute dependence of serfs was changed by the nobles requiring them to farm the land and pay tithes and fees.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were indeed almost like the Romans who in olden times, before their wars with eastern nations, gave up making bread, and ate their corn simply boiled in water.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then moved to the territory of today’s Ukraine, where they could trade with Byzantine Empire (IIIrd century AD).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some were dispossessed and fled to Byzantine regions; others quickly pledged their allegiances to their new rulers.^ Pepin of Heristal, a Merovingian ruler, unites the Frankish territories and builds the center of his kingdom in Belgium and other Rhine regions.
  • A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500) 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CE : Medieval Europe - Pepin of Heristal, a Merovingian ruler, unites the Frankish territories and builds the center of his kingdom in Belgium and other Rhine regions.
  • http://eawc.evansville.edu/chronology/mepage.htm 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC eawc.evansville.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In areas like Spain and Italy, this often meant little more than acknowledging a new overlord, while Roman forms of law and religion could be maintained.^ The laws of different time periods and areas varied greatly, and nowhere is this more true than in the case of laws pertaining to women.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the land was much more fertile in the north you could have larger farms in the north than you could in the south.
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^ This was the court which more than any other made the Common Law, and the chief of the "central royal courts."
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.In other areas, where there was a greater weight of population movement, it might be necessary to adopt new modes of dress, language, and custom.^ There are five weights of 7, and one weight of each of the others.
  • The Middle Ages - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC math.truman.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Possibly there were small groups in some monasteries, and men who played with other as youths might have remained in contact, but this remains speculation.
  • Paul Halsall: The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages, 1988 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "There was a young and pretty woman there, quite differently dressed from the others; every one stared at her as if she had been a wild beast.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries of the Persian Empire, Roman Syria, Roman Egypt, Roman North Africa, Visigothic Spain, Sicily and southern Italy eroded the area of the Roman Empire and controlled strategic areas of the Mediterranean Sea.^ The decline of the Roman Empire in the West and the assimilation of the Germanic peoples into the church had great impact on all aspects of religious life, including a lessening of Church authority from the 7th to the 11th century.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is easy to track how Arabic translations of Greek texts from Byzantine manuscripts, almost always made by non-Muslims, made their way from the Islamic East to Sicily and southern Italy or to the Iberian Peninsula in the Islamic West where some of them were translated by Jews and Christians, for instance in the multilingual city of Toledo in Spain, to Latin.
  • Fjordman: The Legend of the Middle Ages - Jihad Watch 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Army of his general Belisarius conquered Italy, Northern Africa (Vandals Kingdom) and Southern Spain - thus Byzantine sea trade could regain the markets in West Mediterranean region (economic prosperity of populistic Byzantine Empire largely depended on sea-trade).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the end of the 8th century, the former Western Roman Empire was decentralized and overwhelmingly rural.^ Italy and the Western Roman empire slipped into the Dark Ages, where there was a decline in technological advances.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the IXth and first half of Xth century crisis of the former Frank Empire was responsible for feudal fragmentation of four kingdoms: France Germany, Italy and Burgundy.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally, the Dark Ages referred to the period of time ushered in by the fall of the Western Roman Empire."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Church and monasticism

.The Catholic Church was the major unifying cultural influence, preserving its selection from Latin learning, maintaining the art of writing, and a centralized administration through its network of bishops.^ The Catholic Church didn't really consolidate into a major political power--capable of jurisprudence--really until Pope Gregory VII in 1073.
  • Survival tips for the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ As for Plato, for a long time much of his influence was felt mainly through the writings of Augustine.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had a major influence on Latin scientists but was practically forgotten in the Islamic world, where philosophy went into permanent decline.
  • Fjordman: The Legend of the Middle Ages - Jihad Watch 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some regions that were populated by Catholics were conquered by Arian rulers, which provoked much tension between Arian kings and the Catholic hierarchy.^ Philip installs royal officials in the conquered regions in order to win allegience to the king.
  • A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500) 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The analogy was also noticed by some of those who wrote during the quarrel between Parliament and the King in 17th century England.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the Merovingian kings listened to the advice of the ministers of the Catholic religion, and tried to reform these noisy excesses, and themselves abandoned the evil custom.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Clovis I of the Franks is a well-known example of a barbarian king who chose Catholic orthodoxy over Arianism.^ The life of a Frank, by right, was worth twice that of a Roman; the life of a servant of the King was worth three times that of an ordinary individual who did not possess that protecting tie.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Stylistic changes took place everywhere in the leading artwork of the time, and in the works of lesser-known masters who worked in Slavic copying shops at the time as well.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A well-trained falcon was a bird of great value, and was the finest present that could be made to a lady, to a nobleman, or to the King himself, by any one who had received a favour.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

His conversion marked a turning point for the Frankish tribes of Gaul.
.Bishops were central to Middle Age society due to the literacy they possessed.^ They have extensive resources from the Middle Ages.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.mrtschool.com [Source type: General]
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ In the Middle Ages society was organised into a kind of pyramid called the feudal system.

^ The people of the Middle Ages had an insatiable love of sight-seeing; they came great distances, from all parts, to witness any amusing exhibition.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.As a result, they often played a significant role in governance.^ Franks played an especially significant role.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were schools associated with the official church of a bishop, and played a role similar to that of the monastic schools for monasteries: they trained young clerics and occasionally others as well.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreigners played a decisive role at crucial moments, when they introduced the most recent artistic ideas and the high standards of more well developed milieus.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, beyond the core areas of Western Europe, there remained many peoples with little or no contact with Christianity or with classical Roman culture.^ There remains Europe, the third continent.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bloch shows that wherever powerful agnatic groups survived (e.g., in Celtic areas), there was no feudalism.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ DC70 .C36 1993 Christianity and paganism, 350-750: the conversion of Western Europe / J.N. Hillgarth.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Martial societies such as the Avars and the Vikings were still capable of causing major disruption to the newly emerging societies of Western Europe.^ What trade still existed between Byzantium and western Europe, except .
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thirty-eight papers that examine broad aspects of Medieval society, such as Medieval Monasticism, What the Crusades Meant to Europe, and Sexuality in the Middle Ages .
  • USMC Library - Research Guide to Mediaeval Studies 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.utoronto.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ As part of the revival that began after the turn of the millennium, new forms of education began to emerge in Western Europe.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Early Middle Ages witnessed the rise of monasticism within the west.^ The Early Middle Ages, 500-1000 .
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Middle Ages: 500-1000 AD .
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The people of the Middle Ages had an insatiable love of sight-seeing; they came great distances, from all parts, to witness any amusing exhibition.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the impulse to withdraw from society to focus upon a spiritual life is experienced by people of all cultures, the shape of European monasticism was determined by traditions and ideas that originated in the deserts of Egypt and Syria.^ He had a profound influence on the subsequent development of Western thought and culture, and shaped the themes and defined the problems that have characterized the Western tradition of Christian theology."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It exists because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from people in all walks of life.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Working in an Irish Viking/Medieval centre means we get a lot of people who have all these preconceptions about life in these times so we have to explain the truth to a lot of people.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The style of monasticism that focuses on community experience of the spiritual life, called cenobitism, was pioneered by the saint Pachomius in the 4th century.^ This work focuses on the lives and works of 20 of the great medievalists of this century, demonstrating how the events of their lives, and their emotional and spiritual outlooks influenced their interpretations of the Middle Ages.
  • Medieval History - Lund Books 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC lundbooks.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Pachomius, Saint The Life of Saint Pachomius and his disciples / translated and introduced by Armand Veilleux; foreword by Adalbert de Vogue.
  • English Translations of Medieval Works 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www-sul.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CENOBITISM: The monastic life lived in a community as opposed to the solitary life.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.Monastic ideals spread from Egypt to western Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries through hagiographical literature such as the Life of Saint Anthony.^ In reality, life in the Middle Ages, a period that extended from approximately the fifth century to the fifteenth century in Western Europe, was sometimes all these things, as well as harsh, uncertain, and often dangerous.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boethius 5th-6th century (not really Middle Age) Boccaccio, early Renaissance Petrarch, early Renaissance Machiavelli clearly Renaissance.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (AHA Guide 20.981) Lawrence, C. H. Medieval monasticism: forms of religious life in western Europe in the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.Saint Benedict wrote the definitive Rule for western monasticism during the 6th century, detailing the administrative and spiritual responsibilities of a community of monks led by an abbot.^ The Rule of Saint Benedict really does account for every hour of a monk's life, with prayer and work.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benedictine monks took vows of personal poverty, chastity and obedience to their abbot and the Benedictine Rule.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jews of Rousillon during the Spanish rule (fifteenth century) were governed by two syndics and a scribe, elected by the community.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[7] .The style of monasticism based upon the Benedictine Rule spread widely rapidly across Europe, replacing small clusters of cenobites.^ The styling of medieval women's clothes was based heavily upon the status of the person.
  • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The leading institutions of medieval Europe included monasticism and other forms of religious life based on a vow of poverty and communal living.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Monks and monasteries had a deep effect upon the religious and political life of the Early Middle Ages, in various cases acting as land trusts for powerful families, centres of propaganda and royal support in newly conquered regions, bases for mission, and proselytization.^ A history of political thought; the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Early Middle Ages, 500-1000 .
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information on life in Britain in the Middle Ages.

They were the main outposts of education and literacy.

Carolingians

The coronation of Charlemagne depicted in the 14th-century Grandes Chroniques de France
.A nucleus of power developed in a region of northern Gaul and developed into kingdoms called Austrasia and Neustria.^ He was born into a family with an excellent old Roman pedigree, and rose to a position of immense power and influence in the Ostrogothic kingdom under Theodoric.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wished to dispose of his kingdom, and calling the three into his presence, spoke thus: “The laziest of you shall reign after my death.” .
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.These kingdoms were ruled for three centuries by a dynasty of kings called the Merovingians, after their mythical founder Merovech.^ He became the founder of the dynasty that ruled for two centuries.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1206, when Muhammad was assassinated, Aibak crowned himself Sultan of Delhi, thus laying the foundation for the so-called Slave dynasty of Delhi (the founder having once been a slave), or the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Medieval Indian History,Medieval History of India,Medieval India,Indian Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC voice.indiasite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a period that has come to be so strongly associated with the Islamic influence and rule in India was Medieval period, thus giving rise to the great Medieval Indian history, that went for almost three whole centuries under so-called indigenous rulers.
  • Medieval Indian History,Medieval History of India,Medieval India,Indian Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC voice.indiasite.com [Source type: Original source]

.The history of the Merovingian kingdoms is one of family politics that frequently erupted into civil warfare between the branches of the family.^ Politically Middle Kingdom monarchs extended their influence southward into Nubia as far as the fortress of Semnah.
  • http://www.bu.edu/anep/MB.html 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Merovingian nobles were therefore determined hunters, and it frequently happened that hunting occupied whole weeks, and took them far from their homes and families.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The failure of every Crusade after the First, the frequent degenerations into debauchery and drinking by members of the armies, emphasizes the abyss between the ideal and the reality of the Crusading movement.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The legitimacy of the Merovingian throne was granted by a reverence for the bloodline, and, even after powerful members of the Austrasian court, the mayors of the palace, took de facto power during the 7th century, the Merovingians were kept as ceremonial figureheads.^ Merovingian kings were kept as figureheads at the court.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the middle of VIIIth century Frankish kingdom was reunited by Carolingians , the family of powerful royal officials (they controlled the function of majordomo - mayor of the palace and chancellor in one).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the time of Clotaire, the prelates sat as members of the supreme council, which was strictly speaking the highest court of the land, having the power of reversing the decisions of the judges of the lower courts.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Merovingians engaged in trade with northern Europe through Baltic trade routes known to historians as the Northern Arc trade, and they are known to have minted small-denomination silver pennies called sceattae for circulation.^ They achieved this through a "cubist" stylisation not known before that time, with broken lines and their choice of a warm colour scheme.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks Rurik Dynasty Map of Europe 1000 AD .
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were called such because they applied a judicial technique known as inquisitio, which could be translated as 'inquiry' or 'inquest.'
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aspects of Merovingian culture could be described as "Romanized", such as the high value placed on Roman coinage as a symbol of rulership and the patronage of monasteries and bishoprics.^ A symbol of the economic value of these communities was the high wergild placed upon Jewish individuals, the equivalent in many cases of a noble's.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparative kinship study also makes clear that certain values, such as honor and aggressivity, generally (although erroneously) thought to inhere in a culture, are in fact related to specific aspects of the kinship and family structure, and to the way in which children are socialized.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During the reign of the Roman emperor Otto, there was, in the bishopric of Girona, in Catalonia, a very high moun­tain, whose ascent was extremely arduous, and, except in one place, inaccessible.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

Some have hypothesized that the Merovingians were in contact with Byzantium.[8] .However, the Merovingians also buried the dead of their elite families in grave mounds and traced their lineage to a mythical sea beast called the Quinotaur.^ The Rajputs traced their lineage from a mythical fire atop Mount Abu, a mountain in Rajasthan, (Agni Kula or the Fire Family), the sun (Suryavanshi or the Sun Family) and the moon (Chandravanshi or the Moon Family).
  • Medieval Indian History,Medieval History of India,Medieval India,Indian Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC voice.indiasite.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.The 7th century was a tumultuous period of civil wars between Austrasia and Neustria.^ The Barbarians are Coming - From the History Channel Movie "The period of history between <> the decline of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance known as the Dark Ages are an era of superstition, war, and death.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There most certainly was corruption, civil war, famine and poverty but on the other hand the 13th and 14th centuries brought innovation and progress.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A research center to promote the study of natural philosophy and science in its formative period between the late Middle Ages and the seventeenth century.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such warfare was exploited by the patriarch of a family line, Pippin of Herstal, who curried favour with the Merovingians and had himself installed in the office of Mayor of the Palace at the service of the King.^ He insisted that coining should be exclusively carried on in his palace, as in the times of the Carlovingian kings, and he required every coin to be made of a definite standard of weight, which he himself fixed.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other houses, of less imposing appearance, were occupied by a great number of families, who worked at all sorts of trades, such as jewellery, the making of arms, weaving, currying, the embroidering of silk and gold, cotton, &c.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To the comites , who, according to Tacitus, attached themselves to the fortunes of the Germanic chiefs, succeeded the Merovingian leudes , whose assembly formed the King's Council.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

From this position of great influence, Pippin accrued wealth and supporters. Later members of his family line inherited the office, acting as advisors and regents. .The dynasty took a new direction in 732, when Charles Martel won the Battle of Tours, halting the advance of Muslim armies across the Pyrenees.^ Muslims began making raids across the Pyrenees.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pépin le Bref, son of Charles Martel and founder of the second dynasty, was the first of the French kings who was consecrated by the religions rite of anointing.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clovis won the battle and was baptized together with his whole army.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Charlemagne's cathedral at Aachen
.The Carolingian dynasty, as the successors to Charles Martel are known, officially took the reins of the kingdoms of Austrasia and Neustria in a coup of 753 led by Pippin III.^ Pépin le Bref, son of Charles Martel and founder of the second dynasty, was the first of the French kings who was consecrated by the religions rite of anointing.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army invading France ( battle of Poitiers 732) which strengthen his political position and reunited the kingdom.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

A contemporary chronicle claims that Pippin sought, and gained, authority for this coup from the Pope.[9] .Pippin's successful coup was reinforced with propaganda that portrayed the Merovingians as inept or cruel rulers and exalted the accomplishments of Charles Martel and circulated stories of the family's great piety.^ Charlemagne (742-814), or Charles the Great, was the most famous ruler of the Middle Ages and a key figure in European history.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the time of his death in 783, Pippin left his kingdoms in the hands of his two sons, Charles and Carloman.^ The weapon on the right hand is the devil; and that on the left, is the worms which after death shall gnaw my body.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Carloman died of natural causes, Charles blocked the succession of Carloman's minor son and installed himself as the king of the united Austrasia and Neustria.^ Having the strong and united country, son of the king Peppin, Charlemagne (Charles the Great, ruling 771-814, more or less the same time as Caliph Harun al-Rashid) could start the external expansion.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.This Charles, known to his contemporaries as Charles the Great or Charlemagne, embarked in 774 upon a program of systematic expansion that would unify a large portion of Europe.^ Charlemagne (Charles the Great) was born on April 2, 742 in Northern Europe.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legislation under Charles the Great (Charlemagne) .
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The variety of civic and popular ceremonies is so great, that it would require a large volume, illustrated with numerous engravings, to explain fully their characteristic features.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the wars that lasted just beyond 800, he rewarded loyal allies with war booty and command over parcels of land.^ For a war to be just, it must be commanded by someone in authority, there must be a just cause, and it must be carried on without disproportionate violence.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Much of the nobility of the High Middle Ages was to claim its roots in the Carolingian nobility that was generated during this period of expansion.^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ What were weddings like during the Middle Ages?
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval, "belonging to the Middle Ages," is used here to refer to...from the period following upon the fall of Rome in 476...to the end of the 15th century .
  • Medieval 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.plu.edu [Source type: News]

[9]
.The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne on Christmas Day of 800 is frequently regarded as a turning-point in medieval history, because it filled a power vacancy that had existed since 476. It also marks a change in Charlemagne's leadership, which assumed a more imperial character and tackled difficult aspects of controlling a medieval empire.^ Christmas Day, 800.
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Dark Ages refer to the early medieval period of European history that began with the fall of the Roman Empire .
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequences of Charlemagne's coronation became one of most important forces in Medieval Europe .
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He established a system of diplomats who possessed imperial authority, the missi, who in theory provided access to imperial justice in the farthest corners of the empire.^ Charles V., who was celebrated for his justice and for his economical and provident habits, was alone capable of establishing order in the midst of such general confusion.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A former statute provided for this probable difficulty, but there seems to be no proof that previous to the twelfth century any fixed courts of justice had been established.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These reforms usually had reference to the connection of imperial authority with the members of the secret jurisdiction, and were generally suggested by the emperors, who were jealous of the increasing power of the association.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] He also sought to reform the Church in his domains, pushing for uniformity in liturgy and material culture.

Carolingian Renaissance

.Charlemagne's court in Aachen was the centre of a cultural revival that is sometimes referred to as the "Carolingian Renaissance". This period witnessed an increase of literacy, developments in the arts, architecture, and jurisprudence, as well as liturgical and scriptural studies.^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ This kind of sport, which had become a most learned and complicated art, was the delight of the nobles of the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance period.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To study the visual culture of the medieval Islamic world at present involves straddling findings and approaches from art and architectural histories, archaeology, cultural studies and area studies.
  • Medieval Conferences 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.efn.org [Source type: Academic]

.The English monk Alcuin was invited to Aachen, and brought with him the precise classical Latin education that was available in the monasteries of Northumbria.^ William was an English monk at the Benedictine monastery of Malmsbury and the most distinguished English historian of his time.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Tridentine Rite Mass in Latin and English - [making use of HTML tables for better presentation] A Parallel text readable by all browsers is also available Tridentine Rite Mass in Latin and English [no tables] .
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Full Text Sources 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Latin text of the Vita Karoli Magni is also available [At Latin Library]; See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Einhard and Catholic Encyclopedia: Charlemagne The Monk of Saint Gall (Notker the Stammerer): The Life of Charlemagne , c.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Full Text Sources 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The return of this Latin proficiency to the kingdom of the Franks is regarded as an important step in the development of medieval Latin.^ For details on some important developments in medieval ethics, see the articles medieval theories of conscience , medieval theories of practical reason , and the natural law tradition in ethics .
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, while it important to emphasize this absence of primary texts of Greek philosophy in the Latin Middle Ages, it is also important to recognize that the medievals knew a good deal about Greek philosophy anyway.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charlemagne's chancery made use of a type of script currently known as Carolingian minuscule, providing a common writing style that allowed for communication across most of Europe.^ Consequences of Charlemagne's coronation became one of most important forces in Medieval Europe .
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marginality and Community in Medieval Europe - One of THE Most Important Essays and ESSENTIAL From the Introduction: "From a scientific perspective marginality is understood as deviance from the norm.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grnbaum's article: The author discusses the common misconceptions that the Egyptians and the artists of the Alhambra had used all 17 types of plane patterns.
  • The Middle Ages - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC math.truman.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the decline of the Carolingian dynasty, the rise of the Saxon Dynasty in Germany was accompanied by the Ottonian Renaissance.^ After its brief “renaissance” during the Carolingian period, education and culture declined once again for roughly another 200 years.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B765 .A6 A31 1974 Alcuin was one of the key figures in the Carolingian renaissance Anglo-Saxon Charters / J. Robertson (ed.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Carolingians and After Rise of Carolingian Dynasty and Papal support.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Breakup of the Carolingian empire

Breakup of the Carolingian empire
.While Charlemagne continued the Frankish tradition of dividing the regnum (kingdom) between all his heirs (at least those of age), the assumption of the imperium (imperial title) supplied a unifying force not available previously.^ Those who are well armed and mounted he sends off with a good almanac, on which are marked all the fairs, and they continually change their dress and their horses.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church was already a powerful institution at the end of the Roman Empire and it continued to be the unifying force between the many small kingdoms that would become Europe.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Merowing kings thinks about the kingdom as their private property, and divided the country between their sons.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charlemagne was succeeded by his only legitimate son of adult age at his death, Louis the Pious.^ PN4103 .A5 1965 Son of Charlemagne: a contemporary life of Louis the Pious / Astronomous, fl.814-840, translated, with introduction and notes, by Allen Cabaniss.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Louis's long reign of 26 years was marked by numerous divisions of the empire among his sons and, after 829, numerous civil wars between various alliances of father and sons against other sons to determine a just division by battle.^ Examined at closer range, however, firstly the geographical content of the empire resolves itself into various local and national divisions, and secondly the growth of the people in civilization reveals several clearly distinguishable periods.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When he died, after a most active and glorious reign of forty-five years, he left an immense empire in the most perfect state of peace ( Fig.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There were various wars, and the Church had a campagein against the Cathars and any other herectical group out there at the time.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The final division was made at Crémieux in 838. The Emperor Louis recognized his eldest son Lothair I as emperor and confirmed him in the Regnum Italicum (Italy).^ Then said the emperor, “Call to me my second son.” Anon the eldest son, greatly joying of his father’s gift, called in his brother.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IN Rome some time dwelt a mighty emperor named Martin, which for entire affection kept with him his brother’s son, whom men called Fulgentius.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The porter introduced him, and he very humbly made obeisance to the emperor.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.He divided the rest of the empire between Lothair and Charles the Bald, his youngest son, giving Lothair the opportunity to choose his half.^ Merowing kings thinks about the kingdom as their private property, and divided the country between their sons.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He then had to pay a duty or fee, which was divided between the sovereign or lord and the brotherhood, from which fee the sons of masters always obtained a considerable abatement.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The sons of Clovis contested these privileges; but the Church resisted for a time, though she was eventually obliged to give way to the iron hand of Charles Martel.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

He chose East Francia, which comprised the empire on both banks of the Rhine and eastwards, leaving Charles West Francia, which comprised the empire to the west of the Rhineland and the Alps. .Louis the German, the middle child, who had been rebellious to the last, was allowed to keep his subregnum of Bavaria under the suzerainty of his elder brother.^ Of what I was while a child,” said the elder of the brothers, “I remembers nothing, except that my beloved father was a leader of a company of soldiers; and that my mother, who was very beautiful, had two sons, of whom I was the elder.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle Ages, we must remember how the upper class, who assumed to itself the privilege of oppression on lands and persons under the feudal System, was constituted.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ceremony was also of a jovial character in the case of the millwrights, who only admitted the candidate after he had received a caning on the shoulders from the last-elected brother.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The division was not undisputed. Pepin II of Aquitaine, the emperor's grandson, rebelled in a contest for Aquitaine, while Louis the German tried to annex all of East Francia. In two final campaigns, the emperor defeated both his rebellious descendants and vindicated the division of Crémieux before dying in 840.
Magyar campaigns in the 10th century. Most European nations were praying for mercy: "Sagittis hungarorum libera nos Domine" - "Lord save us from the arrows of Hungarians"
A three-year civil war followed his death. At the end of the conflict, Louis the German was in control of East Francia and Lothair was confined to Italy. .By the Treaty of Verdun (843), a kingdom of Middle Francia was created for Lothair in the Low Countries and Burgundy, and his imperial title was recognized.^ Lothair's middle kingdom .
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.East Francia would eventually morph into the Kingdom of Germany and West Francia into the Kingdom of France, around both of which the history of Western Europe can largely be described as a contest for control of the middle kingdom.^ Burgundy) and large part of Western Germany.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This page describes the medieval history of Europe and Middle East till the end of XIth century AD - it means till Crusades and appearance of populistic city-states in Italy .
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ North Sea world in the Middle Ages : studies in the cultural history of north-western Europe / Thomas R. Liszka and Lorna E.M. Walker, eds.

Charlemagne's grandsons and great-grandsons divided their kingdoms between their sons until all the various regna and the imperial title fell into the hands of Charles the Fat by 884. He was deposed in 887 and died in 888, to be replaced in all his kingdoms but two (Lotharingia and East Francia) by non-Carolingian "petty kings". The Carolingian Empire was destroyed, though the imperial tradition would eventually lead to the Holy Roman Empire in 962.
.The breakup of the Carolingian Empire was accompanied by the invasions, migrations, and raids of external foes as not seen since the Migration Period.^ T HE MONASTAIC REALM. The collapse of the Roman Empire led to a period of instability and invasions.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Atlantic and northern shores were harassed by the Vikings, who forced Charles the Bald to issue the Edict of Pistres against them and who besieged Paris in 885–886.^ On the death of Charles V., in 1380, his eldest son Charles, who was a minor, was put under the guardianship of his uncles, and one of these, the Duke d'Anjou, assumed the regency by force.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was nevertheless obliged to provide means to continue the war against the English, who continually harassed the French on their own territory.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This tax, which became heavier and heavier, eventually fell on the Parisians, who only succeeded in ridding themselves of it in 1374, when Charles V. made all the bourgeois of Paris noble.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The eastern frontiers, especially Germany and Italy, were under constant Magyar assault until their great defeat at the Battle of the Lechfeld in 955.[11] The Saracens also managed to establish bases at Garigliano and Fraxinetum, to sack Rome in 846 and to conquer the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily, and their pirates raided the Mediterranean coasts, as did the Vikings.^ King Otto I stopped Magyar raids in the Battle of Lechfeld (955).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AD 376: Visigoths sack Rome AD 408: Vandals sack Rome AD 410: Goths sack Rome AD 450: Huns under the control of Attila the Great sack Rome AD 476: Augustulus deposed by barbarians .
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Crusader States In the aftermath of the First Crusade (1095-1099), Europeans carved out four states in Palestine, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Christianization of the pagan Vikings provided an end to that threat.

Art and architecture

St Andrew's cathedral, Amalfi, Italy, completed in 1206
Few large stone buildings were attempted between the Constantinian basilicas of the 4th century, and the 8th century. .At this time, the establishment of churches and monasteries, and a comparative political stability, caused the development of a form of stone architecture loosely based upon Roman forms and hence later named Romanesque.^ Technology, exploitation and ideology Also note that human, social and political rights of poor people continually grow over time, because of technology development.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some time later they were in the small church of the village of Celopek near Tetovo.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since politics would mostly be about feuding barons with armies, and the Church was stable as a rock, nobody will be interested in me polling the peasants for their opinions.
  • Survival tips for the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC kottke.org [Source type: General]

Where available, Roman brick and stone buildings were recycled for their materials. .From the fairly tentative beginnings known as the First Romanesque, the style flourished and spread across Europe in a remarkably homogeneous form.^ This first flourished in the north-east of France, and spread slowly to Picardy, to Beauvois, and Brittany.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first known documented use of the expression (in the form 'media tempestas' ) is from 1469.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No doubt this new interest was prompted in part by Western Europe's exposure to the Greek and Islamic world during the First Crusade (beginning in 1095).
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The features are massive stone walls, openings topped by semi-circular arches, small windows, and, particularly in France, arched stone vaults and arrows.^ The keep, often some 12 to 15 m (some 40 to 50 ft) high, had thick walls and small windows.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A medieval page presumably from a Book of Hours dating from the early 1300s.
.In the decorative arts, Celtic and Germanic barbarian forms were absorbed into Christian art, although the central impulse remained Roman and Byzantine.^ The kinship systems of the indigenous peoples of Iberia absorbed not only the influence of the Roman gens but of the Germanic family, which, unlike that of both the Romans and the Arabs, was bilateral.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Societies of mutual defence, guilds, &c., had never disappeared from Germanic and Celtic countries; and, indeed, knighthood itself was but a brotherhood of Christian warriors.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Myth?: The Barbarians brought only chaos and ignorance, until the renaissance rekindled the fires of Roman learning and art."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.High quality jewellery and religious imagery were produced throughout Western Europe; Charlemagne and other monarchs provided patronage for religious artworks such as reliquaries and books.^ WEB indicates a link to one of small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable overview.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Full Text Sources 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AHA Guide 20.981) Lawrence, C. H. Medieval monasticism: forms of religious life in western Europe in the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages with the sense of caricature expresses himself in the illustrated papers and other public channels provided for the overflow of high spirits; .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the principal artworks of the age were the fabulous Illuminated manuscripts produced by monks on vellum, using gold, silver, and precious pigments to illustrate biblical narratives.^ The noble and the rich desired dukedoms, or counties, or knighthood; and some treasures of silver and gold.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They founded an organization, the monastery, which allowed them to live communally -- some monks worked the earth, some copied and illuminated manuscripts, while still others read and studied.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The foundation of cultural development was, above all, the wealth of Serbian metal mines, especially those producing gold and silver.
  • ART IN THE MIDDLE AGES 16 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.suc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Early examples include the Book of Kells and many Carolingian and Ottonian Frankish manuscripts.^ As Saint Jerome remarks in the late-fourth or early-fifth century, in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians , “How many people know Plato's books, or his name?
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Digital Humanities English History English History Medieval History Early Medieval History Literature Medieval Literature Anglo-Saxon Studies Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Medieval English Literature Middle English Old English Literature Medieval Studies Manuscript Studies Paleography ( More ) ( Collapse ) .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Medieval English Literature as a research interest (63) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Manuscripts and Early Printed Books Medieval English Literature Manuscript Studies Textual Criticism Textual Scholarship .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Medieval English Literature as a research interest (63) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

High Middle Ages

.The High Middle Ages were characterized by the urbanization of Europe, military expansion, and intellectual revival that historians identify between the 11th century and the end of the 13th century.^ Continue reading "Middle age or the end?"
  • Kat Wilder: My So-called Midlife: Middle age Archives 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.marinij.com [Source type: General]

^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

^ Middle age or the end?
  • Kat Wilder: My So-called Midlife: Middle age Archives 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.marinij.com [Source type: General]

This revival was aided by the conversion of the raiding Scandinavians and Magyars to Christianity, as well as the assertion of power by castellans to fill the power vacuum left by the Carolingian decline. .The High Middle Ages saw an explosion in population.^ Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages with the sense of caricature expresses himself in the illustrated papers and other public channels provided for the overflow of high spirits; .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a certain way this is true, but like all eras even the high middle ages had its ups and downs.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A webquest for junior/senior high students in which teams of students must create multimedia projects showing how the Middle Ages influenced modern life.

This population flowed into towns, sought conquests abroad, or cleared land for cultivation. The cities of antiquity had been clustered around the Mediterranean. By 1200, the growing urban centres were in the centre of the continent, connected by roads or rivers. By the end of this period, Paris might have had as many as 200,000 inhabitants.[12] .In central and northern Italy and in Flanders, the rise of towns that were self-governing to some degree within their territories stimulated the economy and created an environment for new types of religious and trade associations.^ The growth of towns was connected to the rise in trade.
  • Paul Halsall: The Experience of Homosexuality in the Middle Ages, 1988 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Christian communes offered some social security and self-help system for its members, very important for poorer people, when the economy of the Empire was in decline.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some trade associations all the members were bound to solemnize the day of the decease of a brother, to assist at his funeral, and to follow him to the grave.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Trading cities on the shores of the Baltic entered into agreements known as the Hanseatic League, and Italian city-states such as Venice, Genoa, and Pisa expanded their trade throughout the Mediterranean.^ Consulis = Magistrate of Italian city states.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imagine such a world to begin your journey into a land that was filled with real knights, castles, lords, and ladies and enter The Middle Ages ."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city or state exists not just for security and trade, but to foster the "good life", the life according to virtue.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This period marks a formative one in the history of the western state as we know it, for kings in France, England, and Spain consolidated their power during this period, setting up lasting institutions to help them govern.^ ISBN B000WVATTO. Still a useful one-volume introduction to an important though neglected period of church history.
  • Medieval History - Lund Books 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC lundbooks.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ During the reign of King Charles II of England, it became customary to turn this cake into an enjoyably edible palace, iced with white sugar.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it also illustrates another odd fact: the relative absence of Frenchmen as major players on the philosophical scene during this period, even at the premier university in France.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also new kingdoms like Hungary and Poland, after their sedentarization and conversion to Christianity, became Central-European powers.^ In case of states bordering Germany, like Poland or Hungary, this was also protection from German expansion.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hungary, especially, became the "Gate to Europe" from Asia, and bastion of Christianity against the invaders from the East for the next 600 years.^ Christian Europe had to fight for its life against these aggressive and .
  • Middle Ages, A History of the European 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For nearly a thousand years the rulers of various tribes across Europe and Asia arrive and decline as fast as a passing storm, but mold the structure of nations to come.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe with maps in intervals of 100-years (good maps of Central and East Europe).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] .The Papacy, which had long since created an ideology of independence from the secular kings, first asserted its claims to temporal authority over the entire Christian world.^ "Since the Reformation, Protestant Christians have often emphasized the third model of sexuality, although some Protestant authorities (notably the Puritans) stressed the impurity view."
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been asserted, but incorrectly, that this chessboard was the one preserved in the Musée de Cluny, after having long formed part of the treasures of the Kings of France.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise the Pope is not temporal lord of the world, and even in spiritual matters he has no jurisdiction over non-Christians—"For what have I to do to judge them that are without?"
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The entity that historians call the Papal Monarchy reached its apogee in the early 13th century under the pontificate of Innocent III.^ Pope and bishops : the papal monarchy in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries / Kenneth Pennington.

^ Its keeper came to be called the Secretary of State by the sixteenth century--in medieval times he was always a clerk, never a bishop, with 4-10 clerks under him.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the political writers of the 13th and 14th centuries were involved in controversy about the extent and limits (or absence of limits) of papal authority.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Northern Crusades and the advance of Christian kingdoms and military orders into previously pagan regions in the Baltic and Finnic northeast brought the forced assimilation of numerous native peoples to the European entity.^ Some people are clean some other people are naturaly dirthy.Northern europeans always washed themselves.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Siege of Jerusalem The western European Christian armies of the First Crusade surrounded the city of Jerusalem in June 1099.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nope, in fact, the crusades were actually where Christians went out and handed flowers to people and hugged everybody.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

With the brief exception of the Kipchak and Mongol invasions, major barbarian incursions ceased.[14]

Crusades

Medieval illustration of the capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099
.The Crusades were armed pilgrimages intended to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim control.^ Still others were villainous; in 1204 a group of Crusaders stopped well short of liberating Jerusalem (once again in Muslim hands), and turned instead on Christian Constantinople, which they pillaged.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jerusalem was part of the Muslim possessions won during a rapid military expansion in the 7th century through the Near East, Northern Africa, and Anatolia (in modern Turkey).^ BC) that sank off the coast of southern Turkey (near Cape Gelidonya, modern Finike).
  • The Middle Ages - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC math.truman.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historical atlas of modern Europe from the decline of the Roman empire, comprising also maps of parts of Asia, Africa, and the New world connected with European history .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Then the lands of Central Asia, Northern Africa and finally Spain (in VIIIth century, plus all large Mediterranean islands like Sicily).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first Crusade was preached by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095 in response to a request from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos for aid against further advancement.^ Imagine being called by Pope Urban II to take part in the Crusades and wondering why they were so important and what would happen because of them.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Story of the First Crusade "The First Crusade began on November 27, 1095, with a proclamation from Pope Urban II delivered to clergy and lay folk who had gathered in a field in Clermont, central France.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first of Ockham's "political" writings, the Work of Ninety Days , was a defence of Franciscan poverty against Pope John.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Urban promised indulgence to any Christian who took the Crusader vow and set off for Jerusalem.^ Similarly, Urban promised that all who joined a crusade to free the Holy Land would be forgiven their sins.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Siege of Jerusalem The western European Christian armies of the First Crusade surrounded the city of Jerusalem in June 1099.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting fervour that swept through Europe mobilized tens of thousands of people from all levels of society, and resulted in the capture of Jerusalem in 1099, as well as other regions.^ Louis drove from his kingdom all tumblers and players of sleight of hand, through whom many evil habits and tastes had become engendered in the people."
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So many people had died that there were serious labor shortages all over Europe.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the large apes are represented as well as other species from different parts of the world.
  • K-12...Science Sites 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC ginaotto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The movement found its primary support in the Franks; it is by no coincidence that the Arabs referred to Crusaders generically as "Franj".[15] Although they were minorities within this region, the Crusaders tried to consolidate their conquests as a number of Crusader states – the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as well as the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli (collectively Outremer).^ The first Crusade and the foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; v.2.
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Still others were villainous; in 1204 a group of Crusaders stopped well short of liberating Jerusalem (once again in Muslim hands), and turned instead on Christian Constantinople, which they pillaged.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So it would seem (although I’m no expert), that the Late Middle Ages is from where all these myths come from, but sadly, many of them are not myths, they were terrible realities back then.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the 12th century and 13th century, there were a series of conflicts between these states and surrounding Islamic ones.^ According to Hussain Mones, there was a serious cleavage among Andalusi fuqahâ' of the ninth century.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the important differences between economic processes today and in early medieval ages was that capital investments these times had to be protected with army.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IslamicConcern.com ~ Identify conflicts between eating meet and dairy products, and Islamic beliefs regarding kindness to animals.

Crusades were essentially resupply missions for these embattled kingdoms. .Military orders such as the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller were formed to play an integral role in this support.^ KNIGHT TEMPLAR: Similar to the Knights Hospitallers, but more likely to provide protection and currency exchange for travelers to the Holy Lands.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At such a time I promoted thee to a military command.” “Why, thou most audacious scoundrel,” said the knight, “darest thou call thyself the emperor?
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ KNIGHT HOSPITALLER: Holy order of knights pledged to administer to the sick and protect holy places during the Crusades.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

The Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries      Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632–661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
.By the end of the Middle Ages, the Christian Crusaders had captured all the Islamic territories in modern Spain, Portugal, and Southern Italy.^ Continue reading "Middle age or the end?"
  • Kat Wilder: My So-called Midlife: Middle age Archives 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.marinij.com [Source type: General]

^ But were the Middle Ages all that great, either?
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle age or the end?
  • Kat Wilder: My So-called Midlife: Middle age Archives 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.marinij.com [Source type: General]

.Meanwhile, Islamic counter-attacks had retaken all the Crusader possessions on the Asian mainland, leaving a de facto boundary between Islam and western Christianity that continued until modern times.^ Muhammad Islam Christianity ~ for all of humanity.

^ In Christian Spain the problems of analysis are reversed: the internal structure of the middle class is easily defined, but the boundaries between it and the nobility are often hazy.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Siege of Jerusalem The western European Christian armies of the First Crusade surrounded the city of Jerusalem in June 1099.
  • Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palacenet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Substantial areas of northern Europe also remained outside Christian influence until the 11th century or later; these areas also became crusading venues during the expansionist High Middle Ages.^ Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages these .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good areas of life in Middle Ages.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

.Throughout this period, the Byzantine Empire was in decline, having peaked in influence during the High Middle Ages.^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ What were weddings like during the Middle Ages?
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval, "belonging to the Middle Ages," is used here to refer to...from the period following upon the fall of Rome in 476...to the end of the 15th century .
  • Medieval 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.plu.edu [Source type: News]

.Beginning with the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the empire underwent a cycle of decline and renewal, including the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. After that, Andrew II of Hungary assembled the biggest army in the history of the Crusades, and moved his troops as a leading figure in the Fifth Crusade, reaching Cyprus and later Lebanon, coming back home in 1218.^ Fourth Crusade : the conquest of Constantinople, 1201-1204 / Donald E. Queller.

^ The sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade has been considered by many scholars the ultimate deviation from the original Crusading ideal.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English translations, with introductions and notes, of Latin sources for the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) Crusader Syria in the thirteenth century: the Rothelin continuation of the History of William of Tyre with part of the Eracles or Acre text .
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

[16]
.Despite another short upswing following the recapture of Constantinople in 1261, the empire continued to deteriorate.^ "The Christianized eastern part of the Roman Empire, or Byzantium, as it came to be called, continued for another 1100 years.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also Constantinople for short summary of Byzantine Empire history.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

Science and technology

Oxford University, Cambridge University, and many other universities were founded at this time.
.During the early Middle Ages and the Islamic Golden Age, Islamic philosophy, science, and technology were more advanced than in Western Europe.^ View of the state of Europe during the middle ages / by Henry Hallam ...

^ Popular religion in the Middle Ages: Western Europe 1000-1300 .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Face it–the Middle Ages were more civilized than we are.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Islamic scholars both preserved and built upon earlier Ancient Greek and Roman traditions and added their own inventions and innovations.^ Ancient Roman law is the bedrock upon which medieval law is built.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Book of pontiffs (liber pontificalis): the ancient biographies of the first ninety Roman Bishops to AD 715 / translated with an introduction by Raymond Davis.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Western Europeans, who had their own Roman Empire called them Orientals or Greeks...
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Islamic al-Andalus passed much of this on to Europe (see Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe).^ See comment by Guichard, Al-Andalus, p.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Much of the political history of al-Andalus, therefore, is occupied with accounts of tribal in-fighting, generally along lines of moiety division.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the clan, see Guichard, Al-Andalus, pp.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The replacement of Roman numerals with the decimal positional number system and the invention of algebra allowed more advanced mathematics.^ It began with the collapse of the Roman Empire and although Roman customs continued for a while, it was soon replaced by a system of running society called feudalism.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally with technology development more and more economic activities became a positive-sum games (and the number of zero-sum games or even negative-sum games gradually decrease).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chaperone system of supervised interaction between the sexes was already decaying when a number of inventions hastened its demise.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another consequence was that the Latin-speaking world regained access to lost classical literature and philosophy.^ While the influence of classical pagan philosophy was crucial for the development of medieval philosophy, it is likewise crucial that until the twelfth and thirteenth centuries almost all the original Greek texts were lost to the Latin West, so that they exerted their influence only indirectly.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ True they had access to the Bible, but most of them couldn’t read or even speak latin, the language it was written in back then.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attempts to provide coverage of all literatures excepting Classical Greek and Latin.
  • Medieval Studies, Reference Department, Davis Library 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.lib.unc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Latin translations of the 12th century fed a passion for Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic science that is frequently referred to as the Renaissance of the 12th century.^ Science philosophy Islam Muslim islam muslim renaissance European impact.

^ Medieval philosophy’ refers to philosophy in Western Europe during the “medieval” period, the so called “Middle Ages.” The notion of a “Middle Age” (or plural “Middle Ages”) was introduced in the fifteenth century for the period between the decline of classical pagan culture in Western Europe and what was taken to be its rediscovery during the Renaissance.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castilian, Leonese, and Portuguese documents of the eleventh century and later refer to persons called maulados (Latin, maullatus ).
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, trade grew throughout Europe as the dangers of travel were reduced, and steady economic growth resumed.^ When they cross, economy reach the” steady state” (income per capita Y), and further economic growth is impossible (without inventing a new technologies).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cathedral schools and monasteries ceased to be the sole sources of education in the 11th century when universities were established in major European cities.^ Frequently, universities grew out of cathedral schools.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the close of the nineteenth century, however, mass education was instituted, and it was possible for both boys and girls to continue education to high school and beyond.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These were schools that had been regularly associated with monasteries ever since the sixth century.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Literacy became available to a wider class of people, and there were major advances in art, sculpture, music, and architecture.^ This statement applies, of course, only to general principles of the art of sculpture; there is some flat basrelief in .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the most part, while there were some involved in philosophy/theology/mathematics &c, the vast majority of people were illiterate.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then you will begin researching the feudal system and learning about the art, music, literature, and architecture of Medieval Times.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.Large cathedrals were built across Europe, first in the Romanesque, and later in the more decorative Gothic style.^ The first guilds were merchant guilds, then later came craft guilds as manufacturing became more specialized.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the later theory of decoration is more sensible, for it is certain that neither a warrior nor his opponent could .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later, a more luxuriant foliage was attempted the leaves and stalks were twisted, and the style was .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the 12th and 13th century in Europe, there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth.^ When they cross, economy reach the” steady state” (income per capita Y), and further economic growth is impossible (without inventing a new technologies).
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sometime this century, the garter toss was added back in as a means of equalizing the tradition.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Advantage of middle-income and isoquant of production In economics there is a curve called isoquant of production , which shows what combinations of means of production (ex.
  • Early Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

.The period saw major technological advances, including the invention of cannon, spectacles, and artesian wells, and the cross-cultural introduction of gunpowder, silk, the compass, and the astrolabe from the east.^ The changes between the two periods are numerous; they include the introduction of gunpowder, increased importance of cities, economic and demographic crises, political dislocation and realignment, and powerful new currents in culture and religion.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There were also great improvements to ships and the clock. The latter advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Exploration. .At the same time, huge numbers of Greek and Arabic works on medicine and the sciences were translated and distributed throughout Europe.^ The Spanish translators worked from Arabic texts.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The urban schools got a great boost from the translation into Latin of the works of Aristotle, commentaries on Aristotle and related works in Greek or Arabic.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This accounts for the Greek type of work turned out at this time, and very likely for Italian influences in early British art.
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aristotle especially became very important, his rational and logical approach to knowledge influencing the scholars at the newly forming universities which were absorbing and disseminating the new knowledge during the 12th Century Renaissance.^ Many centuries later, a new interest in learning would mark the beginning of the Renaissance.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "wakes," or evening parties, which are still the custom in most of the French provinces, and which are of very ancient origin, formed important events in the private lives of the peasants.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A few Western scholars journeyed to Constantinople, notably one James of Venice in roughly the late 1120s, an important translator of Aristotle's logical and other writings.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Changes

.Monastic reform became an important issue during the 11th century, when elites began to worry that monks were not adhering to their Rules with the discipline that was required for a good religious life.^ What had been the exception during the sixteenth century became the rule two centuries later.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fifteenth Century Life "Many casual students of history today and most students of past generations thought of the fifteenth century in English history as a time when English folk had forgotten what was good for them politically, religiously, legally, and in most other ways.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In consequence of this an order was issued forbidding the monks to eat poultry, except during four days at Easter and four at Christmas.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.During this time, it was believed that monks were performing a very practical task by sending their prayers to God and inducing Him to make the world a better place for the virtuous.^ Nevertheless, he believes that Christian virtue makes for better government.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For a length of time he continued in tears, and prayers, and reproaches; until at last an angel of the Lord ‘appeared to him, and said, “Hast thou not read in the Psalms, ‘God is a just judge, strong and patient?’” .
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People are being tortured at this very moment in places all over the world.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The time invested in this activity would be wasted, however, if the monks were not virtuous.^ The Norman occupation however, was destined to last for centuries and would waste no time in introducing the English people to feudalism.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The monastery of Cluny, founded in the Mâcon in 909, was founded as part of a larger movement of monastic reform in response to this fear.[17] It was a reformed monastery that quickly established a reputation for austerity and rigour. .Cluny sought to maintain the high quality of spiritual life by electing its own abbot from within the cloister, and maintained an economic and political independence from local lords by placing itself under the protection of the Pope.^ From the earliest ages sportsmen placed themselves under the protection of some special deity.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ QALANSUWA: High, often conical cap worn by men, either under the turban or by itself.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Although their own behaviour inspired protests to the Pope, in 1484 the recently elected Pope Innocent VIII endorsed their activities.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Cluny provided a popular solution to the problem of bad monastic codes, and in the 11th century its abbots were frequently called to participate in imperial politics as well as reform monasteries in France and Italy.^ In the thirteenth century the towns of Italy had consular agents in France; and Marseilles had them in Savoy, in Arles, and in Genoa.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PRIOR/PRIORESS: (1) Head of a monastic house of lesser status than an abbey; (2) in an abbey, the second-in-command of the abbot or abbess; sometimes called the claustral prior or prioress.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ ASYLUM, Right of (also called Right of Sanctuary): The right of a Bishop or Abbot to protect a fugitive from justice or to intercede on his behalf, provided he has fled to the altar of a church and claimed sanctuary.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

St Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura in 1235, brought about reform in the church
.Monastic reform inspired change in the secular church, as well.^ These were schools associated with the official church of a bishop, and played a role similar to that of the monastic schools for monasteries: they trained young clerics and occasionally others as well.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ideals that it was based upon were brought to the papacy by Pope Leo IX on his election in 1049, providing the ideology of clerical independence that fuelled the Investiture Controversy in the late 11th century.^ Investiture controversy : church and monarchy from the ninth to the twelfth century / Uta-Renate Blumenthal ; translation by the author.

.The Investiture Controversy involved Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, who initially clashed over a specific bishop's appointment and turned into a battle over the ideas of investiture, clerical marriage, and simony.^ The Catholic Church didn't really consolidate into a major political power--capable of jurisprudence--really until Pope Gregory VII in 1073.
  • Survival tips for the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC kottke.org [Source type: General]

^ As Roman rule collapsed, often the local bishops either took control themselves in the face of anarchy, or were deputized to so govern by one of the Roman Emperors.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A mixture of fact and fiction The Correspondence of Pope Gregory VII: selected from the Registrum.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The Emperor, as a Christian ruler, saw the protection of the Church as one of his great rights and responsibilities.^ Augustine of Hippo "Saint Augustine was one of the foremost philosopher-theologians of early Christianity and the leading figure in the church of North Africa.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Inquisition was one of the great blights in the history of Christianity.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The right of claiming the two tithes, however, had a common origin, so that the sovereign defended his own rights in protecting those of the Church.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The Papacy, however, had begun insisting on its independence from secular lords. .The open warfare ended with Henry IV's occupation of Rome in 1085 and the death of the Pope several months later, but the issues themselves remained unresolved even after the compromise of 1122 known as the Concordat of Worms.^ The Middle Ages begin, we are told, with the death of Theodosius in 395, or with the settlement of Germanic tribes in the Roman Empire, or with the sack of Rome in 410, or with the fall of the Western Roman Empire (usually dated A.D. 476), or even as late as the Moslem occupation of the Mediterranean.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It had spread to Paris by June of 1348, and London was in the grips of plague several months later.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was not until the reign of Henry IV. that they again confined themselves to their occupations as merchants, when Sully published the political suggestions of his master for renewing commercial prosperity.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The conflict represents a significant stage in the creation of a papal monarchy separate from lay authorities. It also had the permanent consequence of empowering German princes at the expense of the German emperors.[12]
.The High Middle Ages was a period of great religious movements.^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ But were the Middle Ages all that great, either?
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (ISBN 0-688-02488-2) While including a number of pieces from the middle ages and renaissance, the woodworking on these pieces includes a number of non-period techniques and interpretations.
  • Medieval Bibliography 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.ravensgard.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Crusades, which have already been mentioned, have an undeniable religious aspect. Monastic reform was similarly a religious movement effected by monks and elites. .Other groups sought to participate in new forms of religious life.^ The leading institutions of medieval Europe included monasticism and other forms of religious life based on a vow of poverty and communal living.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This meant not only that religion influenced all aspects of life, but also, reciprocally, that the other departments of life influenced religious thinking.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in the century a new group, primarily interested in the emerging religious sciences (especially that of tradition -- hadîth), came to the fore.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Landed elites financed the construction of new parish churches in the European countryside, which increased the Church's impact upon the daily lives of peasants.^ In exchange for living and working on his land, known as the "demesne," the lord offered his peasants protection."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this lesson, students will learn about the lifestyle of the wealthy elite and then expand their view of medieval society by exploring the lives of the peasants, craftsmen, and monks."
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.Cathedral canons adopted monastic rules, groups of peasants and laypeople abandoned their possessions to live like the Apostles, and people formulated ideas about their religion that were deemed heretical.^ SECULAR CLERGY: A cleric admitted to one of the Major or Minor Orders, not living under a monastic rule, for example, the parish priest.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It left me suspect of motives to varnish a period of great superstition, poverty, disease, and control of peoples’ minds and lives, especially by one religion.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ REGULAR CANONS: Communities of Secular Clergy living under a monastic rule, especially the Rule of St. Augustine.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.Although the success of the 12th century papacy in fashioning a Church that progressively affected the daily lives of everyday people cannot be denied, there are still indicators that the tail could wag the dog.^ The church played an important role in the lives of the people of the 13th and 14th Centuries, and it was forced to intervene when Christians demanded help."
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DD145 .H481 1935 covers church history, political history for Saxony in the 12th century Chronicles / J. Froissart.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1963.
  • Medieval History 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The Situation During the Middle Ages (500-1500), the development of the feudal system of government resulted in war, famine, serfdom, and the strengthening role of the Papacy or Church in the lives of everyday citizens.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.The new religious groups called the Waldensians and the Humiliati were condemned for their refusal to accept a life of cloistered monasticism.^ The leading institutions of medieval Europe included monasticism and other forms of religious life based on a vow of poverty and communal living.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (AHA Guide 20.981) Lawrence, C. H. Medieval monasticism: forms of religious life in western Europe in the Middle Ages .
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Later in the century a new group, primarily interested in the emerging religious sciences (especially that of tradition -- hadîth), came to the fore.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In many aspects, however, they were not very different from the Franciscans and the Dominicans, who were approved by the papacy in the early 13th century (the Franciscan and the Dominican friars developed the popular sermon).^ They rang a bell when the priest got to the “good part.” Even many priests didn’t understand Latin very well but could obviously fake it.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Saint Jerome remarks in the late-fourth or early-fifth century, in his Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians , “How many people know Plato's books, or his name?
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Buridan was what is known as a “secular master.” That is, although he was a priest, he did not belong to any of the religious “orders.” [ 25 ] Beginning in the early-thirteenth century, several new orders were founded, notably the Franciscans (1209) and the Dominicans (1216), both of which became very prominent in late medieval universities.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The picture that modern historians of the religious life present is one of great religious zeal welling up from the peasantry during the High Middle Ages, with clerical elites striving, only sometimes successfully, to understand and channel this power into familiar paths.^ Life in a manor and the Lord of the Manor during the Middle Ages.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Information on life in Britain in the Middle Ages.

^ Good areas of life in Middle Ages.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Late Middle Ages

A bishop blesses victims of the Black Death
.The Late Middle Ages were a period initiated by calamities and upheavals.^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

^ Arts in the middle ages, and the period of the renaissance.

^ Medieval, "belonging to the Middle Ages," is used here to refer to...from the period following upon the fall of Rome in 476...to the end of the 15th century .
  • Medieval 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.plu.edu [Source type: News]

.During this time, agriculture was affected by a climate change that has been documented by climate historians, and was felt by contemporaries in the form of periodic famines, including the Great Famine of 1315-1317.^ The king and princes of his household only changed apparel three times during the year.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the first period of feudalism, that is to say from the middle of the ninth to the middle of the twelfth centuries, the inhabitants of castles had little time to devote to the pleasures of private life.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We know that many wars and plagues occured during this time period and life was not easy.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

[18] .Medieval Britain was afflicted by 95 famines,[19] and France suffered the effects of 75 or more in the same period.^ They more and more discarded Roman fashions, and assumed similar costumes to those made in France at the same period.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Britannia's Narrative History of Britain The Anglo-Saxon Period , The Arthurian Period , Medieval Britain , From Reformation to Restoration and - The Age of Empire - First Rate Terse Historical Summarys.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The Black Death, a disease that spread among the populace like wildfire, killed as much as a third of the population in the mid-14th century.^ "About 25% of the population of Europe was killed in the 14th century.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jewish History Sourcebook: The Black Plague and the Jews, 1348-1349 How and why the Christians blamed the Jews for occurrence and spread of the Black Death.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain individuals were persecuted because it was believed that they infected the population with the Black Death.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .In some regions, the toll was higher than one half of the population.^ Sheriffs, in their role as regional chief accountants, presented reports to the exchequer at Easter and Michaelmas, and received tally sticks as their receipt, one half of the stick to the sheriff, the other to the Exchequer.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But the plague exacerbated problems and added new ones, and the tone of crisis is graver in the second half than in the first half of the century.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The author suggests that left-handedness is distinctly higher among mathematicians than in a random population.
  • The Middle Ages - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC math.truman.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Towns were especially hard-hit because of the crowded conditions. .Large areas of land were left sparsely inhabited, and in some places fields were left unworked.^ As some other commentors have noted the Middle Ages spanned quite a large period of time, and Europe is a pretty big place.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Because of the sudden decline in available labourers, the price of wages rose as landlords sought to entice workers to their fields. .Workers also felt that they had a right to greater earnings, and popular uprisings broke out across Europe.^ "When they want to leave a place where they have been stopping, they set out in an opposite direction to that in which they are going, and after travelling about half a league they take their right course.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since marital sex is a favor, not a right, couples should avoid making love merely for enjoyment or because they felt like it.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Look at the period right before the Plague broke out and you will see a great deal of internationalism, trade and intellectual exchange starting to sprout up.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even the king Louis I of Hungary was forced to stop his long war against the Kingdom of Naples in 1347, because of the deaths in the Italian region.^ The long and terrible war which the King was forced to carry on against the English, and which ended in the treaty of Bretigny in 1361, gave rise to the introduction of taxation of extreme severity.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the accession of Louis X., in 1315, war against the Flemish was imminent, although the royal treasury was absolutely empty.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were first introduced after the expedition of Charles VIII. into Italy, and the conquest of the kingdom of Naples; that is, in the reign of Louis XII., or the first years of the sixteenth century.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Black Death soon took the life of Louis I's wife, Margaret, daughter of the German emperor Charles IV, and as well few Hungarians, although the negative consequences of this disease in the Kingdom of Hungary were relatively mild.^ Then came the king of Hungary to the emperor’s palace, and when he had seen his daughter, he liked marvellous well her beauty and her behaviour, so that the emperor and the king were accorded in all things as touching the marriage, upon the condition that the damsel would consent.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly after the emperor treated with the king of Hungary for the marriage of his daughter.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well,” thought the emperor, “this first maxim bath assuredly saved my life: in a good hour was it purchased.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Tales from the Gesta Romanorum 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.This period of stress, paradoxically, witnessed creative social, economic, and technological responses that laid the groundwork for further great changes in the Early Modern Period.^ Philosophical writing about politics during the middle ages (as during the early modern period) was often an attempt to influence public events.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Late scholasticism" overlaps with the early modern period in philosophy.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Social and Cultural Values in Early Modern Europe .
  • Palgrave Macmillan -- Featured Series 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.palgrave-usa.com [Source type: Academic]

It was also a period when the Catholic Church was increasingly divided against itself. .During the time of the Western Schism, the Church was led by as many as three popes at one time.^ Want to bet how many of our kids will still be logging time on the shrink's couch one day?
  • Kat Wilder: My So-called Midlife: Middle age Archives 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC blogs.marinij.com [Source type: General]

^ The king and princes of his household only changed apparel three times during the year.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first two or three hundred years of it is what is called the Dark Ages, and was in large part a very nast time to be a western European.
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The divisiveness of the Church undermined papal authority, and allowed the formation of national churches.^ Treats growth of papal authority, episcopal government, development of religious orders, and role of church in society."
  • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The establishment of a hierarchy and the division of the Church into bishoprics and other acts of Church government are also done by authority of the lay ruler.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The concept of papal "fullness of power" originally meant that the Pope had preeminently whatever power within the Church was possessed by any other authority within the Church, so that the Pope could intervene by full right in any Church affair.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

State resurgence

.The Late Middle Ages also witnessed the rise of strong, royalty-based nation-states, particularly the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of France, and the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula (Aragon, Castile, Navarre, and Portugal).^ Europe in the late Middle Ages.

^ In the early Middle Ages the Germanic kingdoms compiled books of the customary law of the folk.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages was the author France it is .
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

.The long conflicts of this time, such as the Hundred Years' War fought between England and France, strengthened royal control over the kingdoms, even though they were extremely hard on the peasantry.^ Why is it that haters have such a hard time sticking by what they said?
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At times such iqta' became long-term or even hereditary.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ MJAA: Resources: Islam: "The Agenda of Islam" - Professor Moshe Sharon ~ home » Resources » Islam "The Agenda of Islam" - Professor Moshe Sharon A War Between Civilizations The war has started a long time ago between two civilizations - between the civilization based on ~ Found by: WiseNut ~ http://www.mjaa.org/resources/islam/agenda.html .

Kings profited from warfare by gaining land.
The Allegory of Good Government was painted for the town council in Siena by Ambrogio Lorenzetti
.France shows clear signs of a growth in royal power during the 14th century, from the active persecution of heretics and lepers, expulsion of the Jews, and the dissolution of the Knights Templar.^ It seems clear that the worsening situation of Jews is a reflection of the growth of a Christian middle class which came increasingly to resent Jewish economic competition and legal prerogatives.
  • Chapter 4: Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC libro.uca.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Jews of Rousillon during the Spanish rule (fifteenth century) were governed by two syndics and a scribe, elected by the community.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the 13th and 14th centuries Popes also claimed the right to intervene in affairs normally the province of secular rulers.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In all of these cases, undertaken by Philip IV, the king confiscated land and wealth from these minority groups.^ The war started in May 1337 when King Philip VI of France attempted to confiscate the English territories in the duchy of Aquitaine (located in Southwestern France).
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system had been used in France by the Normans from the time they first settled there in about 900AD. It was a simple, but effective system, where all land was owned by the King.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These were suppressed throughout Europe at the instigation of the King of France (who desired their wealth) in 1316.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

[12] .The conflict between Philip and Pope Boniface VIII, a conflict which began over Philip's unauthorized taxation of clergy, ended with the violent death of Boniface and the installation of Pope Clement V, a weak, French-controlled pope, in Avignon.^ The Avignon Papacy 1305-1378 How did the popes end up in Avignon and how did they finally get back to Rome?
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Task: "In 1309, a French arch-bishop became the new pope, Clement V, and moved to Avignon, located on the French borders away from Rome, where political violence imperiled his life.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ His conflict with Pope Boniface VIII, one of the most arrogant of medieval Popes, and with Pope Clement V, one of the most timid (who acquiesced in Philip's attack on the Templar Order and other outrages to evade the king's pressure to condemn his predecessor as a heretic), gave rise to a body of writings of great interest to the history of political thought.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

This action enhanced French prestige, at the expense of the papacy.
.England, too, began the 14th century with warfare and expansion.^ "Infantry Warfare in the Early 14th Century" Kelly Devries.
  • Medieval List 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.thearma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Edward I waged war against the Principality of Wales and the Kingdom of Scotland, with mixed success, to assert what he considered his right to the entire island of Great Britain.^ The old way in Great Britain for couples to pledge their betrothal was for them to join hands, his right to her right, his left to her left, so from above they looked like an infinity symbol.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But when the season or other circumstances prevented them from waging war against men or beasts, they only cared for feasting and gambling.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everywhere society was in ambuscade, and waged civil war--individual against individual--without peace or mercy.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both the Kings of France and the Kings of England of this period presided over effective states administered by literate bureaucrats, and sought baronial consent for their decisions through early versions of parliamentary systems, called the Estates General in France and the Parliament in England.^ It was on account of this that Edward III., King of England, facetiously called him the author of the Salic law.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As early as the first dynasty of Merovingian kings, temporary and periodical markets of this kind existed; but, except at St. Denis, articles of local consumption only were brought to them.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Semolina, vermicelli, macaroni, &c., which were called Italian because they originally came from that country, have been in use in France longer than is generally supposed.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Towns and merchants allied with kings during the 15th century, allowing the kings to distance themselves further from the territorial lords.^ MARKET: A place where goods may be bought or sold, established in a village or town with the authorization of a king, or secular or ecclesiastical lord.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ SIGNET-SEAL, OFFICE OF THE: After the Office of the Privy-Seal went "out of court" in the fourteenth century, the signet-seal was developed to allow the king to continue to send instructions.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Such ideas, and the practices to which they gave rise, were developed further during these centuries.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.As a result of the power gained during the 14th and 15th centuries, late medieval kings built truly sovereign states, which were able to impose taxes, declare war, and create and enforce laws, all by the will of the king.^ But this law had the fate of all such enactments, and was either easily evaded, or was only partially enforced, and that with great difficulty.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the sixth and seventh centuries, the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Burgundians, Franks, Frisians, Saxons, Lombards, and other tribes committed their unwritten law to written codes.
  • Roman and Secular Law in the Middle Ages 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This fitted in with the earlier medieval idea that the difference between a king and a tyrant is that the king observes the law (see §5).
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

[22] Kings encouraged cohesion in their administration by appointing ministers with broad ambitions and a loyalty to the state.[22] .By the last half of the 15th century, kings like Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France were able to rule without much baronial interference.^ The agreement entered into between Henry VII., and Abbot Islip, for the building of the chapel of that king It is bound in velvet and in Westminster, is extant.
  • Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.scribd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hundred Years War, lasting from 1337 until 1453, was a defining time for the history of both England and France.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amongst the charges in the households of the kings of France one item was that which concerned the poultry-house, and which, according to an edict of St. Louis in 1261, bears the name of poulaillier .
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Hundred Years' War

Joan of Arc in a 15th-century miniature
.The Hundred Years' War was a conflict between France and England lasting 116 years, from 1337 to 1453. It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne and was punctuated by several brief and two lengthy periods of peace before it finally ended in the expulsion of the English from France, except for the Calais Pale.^ The Hundred Years War, lasting from 1337 until 1453, was a defining time for the history of both England and France.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It ended in July 1453 when the French finally expelled the English from the continent (except for Calais).
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hundred Years’ War: 1337-1453 (conflict and famine reduced France’s population by two thirds) .
  • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, the war was a series of conflicts, and is commonly divided into three or four phases: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), the Lancastrian War (1415–1429), and the slow decline of English fortunes after the appearance of Joan of Arc (1429–1453).^ Generally the members of a corporation were divided into three distinct classes--the masters, the paid assistants or companions, and the apprentices.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Divided into four sections: Moving, Sensing, Thinking, and Being; each area allows users to manipulate various types of simulations.
  • K-12...Science Sites 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC ginaotto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Universities were divided into “faculties.” The four most common ones were the faculties of arts, law, medicine, and theology.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of both French and English nationality.^ Activities are available in both English and French.
  • K-12...Science Sites 20 November 2009 9:13 UTC ginaotto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was nevertheless obliged to provide means to continue the war against the English, who continually harassed the French on their own territory.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long and terrible war which the King was forced to carry on against the English, and which ended in the treaty of Bretigny in 1361, gave rise to the introduction of taxation of extreme severity.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Militarily, it saw the introduction of new weapons and tactics, which eroded the older system of feudal armies dominated by heavy cavalry.^ These missi dominici were too much hated by the great vassals to outlive the introduction of the feudal system.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A key instrument in the enforcement of the new feudal system was the castle.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The life of all the classes was dominated by the feudal system - feudalism.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry.^ "Charlemagne revived the political and cultural life of Europe, which had collapsed after the fall of the West Roman Empire in the A.D. 400's.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EAWC Essay: Literature and the Middle Time Helpful essay addressing the time between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance, when the French language was born.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since this is a very dangerous time to visit, you must research a role you can play while you visit."
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.For all this, as well as for its long duration, it is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare.^ The people who deviated from one religion, those that we know as heretics in general, have been most of the time in History the object of repression.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, it also makes many incorrect and even bizarre statements on weapons and fighting in general as well as medieval history and warfare.
  • Medieval List 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.thearma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequences of Charlemagne's coronation became one of most important forces in Medieval Europe .
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Controversy within the Church

.The troubled 14th century saw both the Avignon Papacy of 1305–1378, also called the Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy (a reference to the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews), and the so-called Western Schism that lasted from 1378–1418. The practice of granting papal indulgences, fairly commonplace since the 11th century, was reformulated and explicitly monetized in the 14th century.^ Most of the political writers of the 13th and 14th centuries were involved in controversy about the extent and limits (or absence of limits) of papal authority.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Medieval philosophy’ refers to philosophy in Western Europe during the “medieval” period, the so called “Middle Ages.” The notion of a “Middle Age” (or plural “Middle Ages”) was introduced in the fifteenth century for the period between the decline of classical pagan culture in Western Europe and what was taken to be its rediscovery during the Renaissance.
  • Medieval Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Avignon Papacy 1305-1378 How did the popes end up in Avignon and how did they finally get back to Rome?
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Indulgences became an important source of revenue for the Church, revenue that filtered through parish churches to bishops and then to the pope himself.^ Some chose St. Germain d'Auxerre, who had himself been a sportsman; others St. Martin, who had been a soldier before he became Bishop of Tours.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Church assumes many political responsibilities giving more power to Popes, Bishops, and church leaders.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He devoted himself to it with great keenness in his youth, before he became bishop, that is, when he was Duke of Auxerre and general of the troops of the provinces.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

This was viewed by many as a corruption of the Church. .In the early years of the 15th century, after a century of turmoil, ecclesiastical officials convened in Constance in 1417 to discuss a resolution to the Schism.^ It wasn't official church policy until the council of Trent in the 15th century that a third party [c.f.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Modal Assignments of Office Antiphons in Ten Sources of the Region of Lake Constance from the Tenth to the Early Fifteenth Centuries.

[12] .Traditionally, councils needed to be called by the Pope, and none of the contenders were willing to call a council and risk being unseated.^ Imagine being called by Pope Urban II to take part in the Crusades and wondering why they were so important and what would happen because of them.
  • WEBSITES ON THE MIDDLE AGES 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ To this it was objected that only a Pope could call a Council and that its decisions needed papal confirmation.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The act of convening a council without papal approval was justified by the argument that the Church was represented by the whole population of the faithful.^ PROCTORS: Legal representatives of individuals or corporate bodies, usually in association with the Church Courts, but also to the king's council.
  • ORB: Medieval Terms 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

^ An unacknowledged influence was Marsilius, who had argued that the ultimate authority in the Church was the Christian people, that Councils should be convened by the secular ruler and that a Council could not err in matters of faith.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The council deposed the warring popes and elected Martin V.^ On either view, the Council could depose an unsatisfactory Pope, but on the second view the Council is the chief organ of Church authority even in normal circumstances.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council of Constance, 1414-1418, deposed two rival Popes (by then there were three, one of whom resigned) and elected a new Pope.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The turmoil of the Church, and the perception that it was a corrupted institution, sapped the legitimacy of the papacy within Europe and fostered greater loyalty to regional or national churches.^ The Catholic Church was already a powerful institution at the end of the Roman Empire and it continued to be the unifying force between the many small kingdoms that would become Europe.
  • Medieval, Renaissance, Reformation: Western Civilization, Act II 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.omnibusol.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Martin Luther published objections to the Church. .Although his disenchantment had long been forming, the denunciation of the Church was precipitated by the arrival of preachers raising money to rebuild the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome.^ Christ did not appoint Peter as head of the Church, Peter never went to Rome, the bishop of Rome is not Peter's successor as head of the Church (pp.
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then he visited the seven churches of Rome, that were St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Sebas­tian, St. John Lateran, St. Laurence, St. Mary Magdalen, and St. Mary Majora.
  • Mediaeval Tales: Faustus 11 September 2009 8:24 UTC www.kellscraft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Luther might have been silenced by the Church, but the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I brought the imperial succession to the forefront of concern.^ The condemned might also appeal to the lieutenant-general of the emperor, or to the grand master of the Holy Vehme, a title which, from the remotest times, was given to the Archbishop of Cologne.
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The symbols of his authority were handed to him by the Electors, and then he was proclaimed, " Cæsar, most sacred, ever august Majesty, Emperor, of the Holy Roman Empire of the nation of Germany ."
  • Manners, Customs, and Dress During the Middle Ages, and During the Renaissance Period, by Paul Lacroix 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lutherans' split with the Church in 1517, and the subsequent division of Catholicism into Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anabaptism, put a definitive end to the unified Church built during the Middle Ages.^ What were weddings like during the Middle Ages?
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Protestant reformers have persuaded many that the Bible was neglected during the middle ages—according to Luther the Bible "lay forgotten in the dust under the bench".
  • Medieval Political Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The wedding ceremony of today also includes a ring exchange, and the ring is put on the fourth finger, the same finger it was placed on during the middle ages.
  • m 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.dfwx.com [Source type: Original source]

Religion

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ John Burrow. A History of Histories. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7139-9337-0 — see p. 416 for Christoph (Keller) Cellarius.
  2. ^ The latter coined by Giovanni Andrea Bussi.
  3. ^ Robinson, F.C. (October 1984). "Medieval, the Middle Ages". Speculum 59 (4): 745–56. doi:10.2307/2846695.  
  4. ^ a b c d Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society (first edition ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804726302.  
  5. ^ Prudames, David. Lottery cash kicks off search for the real Bosworth battlefield, 24 Hour Museum 20 January 2005.
  6. ^ Henry Kamen. Spain 1469-1714. 2005. ISBN 0-582-78464-6 - p. 29.
  7. ^ a b c Lawrence, C.H (2001). Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages (third edition ed.). Longman. ISBN 0582404274.  
  8. ^ a b Wood, Ian (1995). The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751. Pearson Education. ISBN 0582493722.  
  9. ^ a b Riché, Pierre (1993). The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812213424.  
  10. ^ Although the missus dominicus makes appearances during the second half of the 8th century, it is after 800 that they were institutionalized. Riché, Pierre (1993). The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812213424.  
  11. ^ The Maygars of Hungary.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Rosenwein, Barbara H (2001). A Short History of the Middle Ages. Broadview Press. ISBN 1551112906.  
  13. ^ History of Hungary
  14. ^ The Destruction of Kiev.
  15. ^ Maalouf, Amin (1989). Crusades Through Arab Eyes. Schocken. ISBN 0805208984.  
  16. ^ Andrew II of Hungary and the fifth Crusade
  17. ^ Rosenwein, Barbara H (1982). Rhinoceros Bound: Cluny in the Tenth Century. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 0812278305.  
  18. ^ The Great Famine (1315-1317) and the Black Death (1346-1351). Lynn Harry Nelson. The University of Kansas.
  19. ^ Poor studies will always be with us. By James Bartholomew. Telegraph. 2004-08-07.
  20. ^ Famine. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  21. ^ Black Death (epidemic). Encyclopædia Britannica.
  22. ^ a b Kagan, Donald; Ozment, Steven, Turner, Frank M. (1993). The Western Heritage: Since 1300 (eighth edition ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131828835.  
  • Strayer, Joseph R. (1989). Joseph R. Strayer. ed. .Dictionary of the Middle Ages.^ Davis Reference BX130.5.C66 1991 Dictionary of the Middle Ages .
    • Medieval Studies, Reference Department, Davis Library 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.lib.unc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Dictionary of the Middle Ages .
    • Medieval Studies Research Guide 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.library.yale.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Byzantine Empire--Civilization-Dictionaries Civilization, Medieval-Dictionaries Coptic Church--Dictionaries Middle Ages--Dictionaries Middle Ages--History--Dictionaries .
    • Medieval Studies, Reference Department, Davis Library 10 January 2010 21:10 UTC www.lib.unc.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-684-19073-7.
     

External links

.

Redirecting to Middle Ages


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to medieval article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also médiéval

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

Latin, medium (middle) aevum (age)

Pronunciation

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Wikipedia has an article on:
  • (UK) IPA: /med.i.'i.vəl/, /mi.di.'i.vəl/, /mɪd.'i.vəl
  • (US) IPA: /mɪd.i.'i.vəl/, /mɪd.'i.vəl

Adjective

medieval (comparative more medieval, superlative most medieval)
.
Positive
medieval
Comparative
more medieval
Superlative
most medieval
  1. of or relating to the Middle Ages, perhaps AD 650 to 1550.
  2. having characteristics associated with the Middle Ages.
  3. archaic.
  4. brutal.^ These characteristics distinguished the Middle Ages: .
    • Introduction  The Middle Ages 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.nexuslearning.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Middle Ages lasted approximately from 400-1500 AD. .

    ^ Early Middle Ages: 500-1000 AD .
    • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    • 1969 Mar 24, New York Magazine, page 58:
      Brute force can get you into any apartment if you want to get medieval about it.
    • 2003, Robert Ludlum, The Janson Directive, page 579:
      ."Oh, what a nifty idea," Collins said dryly.^ Oh wow I had no idea what I said would’ve started a whole comment war.
      • Top 10 Myths About The Middle Ages - Listverse 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

      "Get a bunch of angry brothers with a blowtorch and some pliers and get medieval on his ass."

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

Singular
medieval
Plural
medievals
medieval (plural medievals)
.
  1. Someone living in the Middle Ages.
  2. A medieval one.^ I, for one, like being middle-aged.
    • Middle Age Are You Kidding Me? | Shout 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC www.shoutdaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One weapon from the Middle Ages was the longbow.
    • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Are the Medieval times the same as the Middle Ages?
    • WikiAnswers - Middle Ages Questions including "Why did William win the Battle of Hastings" 6 February 2010 12:30 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Thank God for modern remedies, the medievals were often useless or even harmful.

Translations


Spanish

Adjective

medieval m. and f. (plural medievales)
  1. medieval

Simple English

Redirecting to Middle Ages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Middle Ages, which are similar to those in the above article.








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