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Lamedh               Mem               Nun
Phoenician Hebrew Aramaic Syriac Arabic
Mem מ,ם Mem ܡܡ م‍,م
Alphabetic
derivatives
Greek Latin Cyrillic
Μ M М
Phonemic representation: m
Position in alphabet: 13
Numerical (Gematria/Abjad) value: 40

Mem (also spelled Meem or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew מ and Arabic mīm م. Its value is IPA: [m].

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Mu (Μ), Etruscan M 𐌌, Latin M, and Cyrillic М.

Contents

Origins

Phoenician alphabet
(ca. 1050–200 BCE)
𐤀    𐤁    𐤂    𐤃    𐤄    𐤅
𐤆    𐤇    𐤈    𐤉    𐤊    𐤋
𐤌    𐤍    𐤎    𐤏    𐤐
𐤑    𐤒    𐤓    𐤔    𐤕
Semitic abjads · Genealogy
Hebrew alphabet
(400 BCE–present)
א    ב    ג    ד    ה    ו
ז    ח    ט    י    כך
ל    מם    נן    ס    ע    פף
צץ    ק    ר    ש    ת
History · Transliteration
Niqqud · Dagesh · Gematria
Cantillation · Numeration
Syriac alphabet
(200 BCE–present)
ܐ    ܒ    ܓ    ܕ    ܗ    ܘ
ܙ    ܚ    ܛ    ܝ    ܟܟ    ܠ
ܡܡ    ܢܢ    ܣ    ܥ    ܦ
ܨ    ܩ    ܪ    ܫ    ܬ
Arabic alphabet
(400 CE–present)
ا    ب    ت    ث    ج    ح
خ    د    ذ    ر    ز    س
ش    ص    ض    ط    ظ    ع
غ    ف    ق    ك    ل
م    ن    ه    و    ي
History · Transliteration
Diacritics · Hamza ء
Numerals · Numeration

Mem is usually assumed to come from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water (The hieroglyph n) which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, mem (Phoenician mem.pngPhoenician mem.png), ultimately coming from Proto-Semitic *maʾ-/*may-.

Hebrew Mem

Orthographic variants
Various Print Fonts Cursive
Hebrew
Rashi
Script
Serif Sans-serif Monospaced
מ מ מ Hebrew letter Mem handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Mem-nonfinal Rashi.png

Hebrew pronunciation

Mem represents a bilabial nasal, (IPA: [m]), like the English M.

Variations on written form/pronunciation

Orthographic variants
Various Print Fonts Cursive
Hebrew
Rashi
Script
Serif Sans-serif Monospaced
ם ם ם Hebrew letter Mem-final handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Mem-final Rashi.png

In Hebrew, Mem, like Kaph, Nun, Pe, and Tzadi, has a final form, used at the end of words. Its shape changes from מ to ם. The pronunciation is not changed.

Significance

In gematria, Mem represents the number 40. Its final form represents 600 but this is rarely used, Tav and Resh (400+200) being used instead.

In the Sefer Yetzirah, the letter Mem is King over Water, Formed Earth in the Universe, Cold in the Year, and the Belly in the Soul.

As an abbreviation, it stands for metre. In the Israeli army it can also stand for mefaked, commander. In Hebrew religious texts, it can stand for the name of God Makom, the Place.

Mem and Tarot

Mem is associated with The Hanged Man (Atu XII), the element of water and the path between Geburah and Hod on the Tree of Life.

Arabic mīm

The letter is named mīm, and is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Initial Medial Final
Form of letter: م مـ ـمـ ـم

Mīm is used in the creation of ism words (i.e. nouns and adjectives; they are treated fundamentally the same in Arabic grammar). Specifically, mīm is used in the creation of the masdar of Stem III verbs (the masdar of verbs on the pattern fā`ala is mufā`ala), of subject and object nouns for verbs of Stems II-X (using the example of Stem II, subject nouns — called fā`il words because of their form in Stem I — are mufa``il, and object nouns — called maf`ūl also because of their Stem I form — take the form mufa``al). Place-nouns are also created with mīm; the pattern maf`al is used to create maktab "office" from the triliteral k-t-b (to write) and maṣna` "factory" from ṣ-n-` (to make).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also mem

German

Noun

Mem n. (genitive Mems, plural Meme)

  1. meme

Related terms


Simple English

Mem is the thirteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet.









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