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.A meme (pronounced /ˈmiːm/, rhyming with "cream"[1]) is a postulated unit of cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena.^ It's one thing to write ABOUT this kind of crazy-making; it is another thing entirely to write FOR it.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ But little did Phoenix know that he’d be thinking about this one conversation, running it through his mind on repeat for years to come.
  • teagueful: Phoenix Wright Kink Meme [Part One] 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC teagueful.livejournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(The etymology of the term relates to the Greek word μιμητισμός ([mɪmetɪsmos]) for "something imitated".)[2] Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes, in that they self-replicate and respond to selective pressures.[3]
.The British scientist Richard Dawkins used the word "meme" in The Selfish Gene (1976) as a basis for discussion of evolutionary principles in explaining the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena.^ It used to be the case that a "meme" was a "thought/idea."
  • Digital Digressions v2.0: Meme Watch Archives 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC reparent.blog.uvm.edu [Source type: General]

Examples of memes given in the book included melodies, catch-phrases, beliefs (notably religious beliefs), clothing fashion, and the technology of building arches.[4]
.Meme-theorists contend that memes evolve by natural selection (in a manner analogous to that of biological evolution) through the processes of variation, mutation, competition, and inheritance influencing an individual meme's reproductive success.^ It is definitely true that we need to put "Web 2.0" through the rigorous process that I describe (both for "open source" and "P2P") in my article " Remaking the P2P Meme ".
  • Not 2.0? - O'Reilly Radar 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

Memes spread through the behaviors that they generate in their hosts. Memes that propagate less prolifically may become extinct, while others may survive, spread, and (for better or for worse) mutate. Theorists point out that memes which replicate the most effectively spread best, and some memes may replicate effectively even when they prove detrimental to the welfare of their hosts.[5]
A field of study called memetics[6] arose in the 1990s to explore the concepts and transmission of memes in terms of an evolutionary model. Criticism from a variety of fronts has challenged the notion that scholarship can examine memes empirically. .Some commentators question the idea that one can meaningfully categorize culture in terms of discrete units.^ Attention: I went through part one and made some more space by deleting comments that had no replies, including requests.
  • teagueful: Phoenix Wright Kink Meme [Part One] 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC teagueful.livejournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply to comment Some one should post some links to the original flicks.
  • Internet People! -The Meth Minute 39 | Meth Minute 39 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC www.channelfrederator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

Origins

Historically, the notion of a unit of social evolution, and a similar term (from Greek mneme, “memory”), first appeared in 1904 in a work by the German Lamarckist biologist Richard Semon titled Die Mnemischen Empfindungen in ihren Beziehungen zu den Originalempfindungen (loosely translatable as “Memory-feelings in relation to original feelings”). According to the OED, the word mneme appears in English in 1921 in L. Simon's translation of Semon's book: The Mneme.[7]
Laurent noted the use of the term mneme in Maurice Maeterlinck's The Life of the White Ant (1926), and has highlighted similarities to Dawkins' concept.[8]
The word meme originated with Dawkins' 1976 book The Selfish Gene. To emphasize commonality with genes, Dawkins coined the term "meme" by shortening "mimeme", which derives from the Greek word mimema ("something imitated").[1]
.Dawkins states that he did not know of the "mneme"[citation needed], and said that he wanted "a monosyllable that sounds a bit like 'gene'".[1] Dawkins wrote that evolution depended not on the particular chemical basis of genetics, but only on the existence of a self-replicating unit of transmission – in the case of biological evolution, the gene.^ I know she thought she she she said he go to the Venetian -- remotely did check our show us that there.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As -- become closer and closer to Internet superstar and you don't want to do and they showed -- want him nod to mix things up a little bit you know do the dance.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever.” Phoenix couldn’t be bothered to engage in verbal sparring after a day like he’d just had, even if that sparring did involve Edgeworth in a rare state of half-undress.
  • teagueful: Phoenix Wright Kink Meme [Part One] 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC teagueful.livejournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For Dawkins, the meme exemplified another self-replicating unit with potential significance in explaining human behavior and cultural evolution.

Development

For the subsequent history of the usage of the term "meme", see Memetics. Note the work of (for example) Susan Blackmore.[9] and Kevin Kelly[10]

The meme as a concept

.Dawkins used the term to refer to any cultural entity that an observer might consider a replicator.^ Web 2.0 might be great as an inside industry term, but I have heard it used with visitors at a tradeshow booth - and there were a lot of confused looks.
  • Not 2.0? - O'Reilly Radar 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ It might be useful though to consider that the term Web 2.0 has echoes of "release version" about it.
  • Not 2.0? - O'Reilly Radar 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

He hypothesised that one could view many cultural entities as replicators, and pointed to melodies, fashions and learned skills as examples. Memes generally replicate through exposure to humans, who have evolved as efficient copiers of information and behaviour. .Because humans do not always copy memes perfectly, and because they may refine, combine or otherwise modify them with other memes to create new memes, they can change over time.^ Memes are almost always "marketing hype" -- bumper stickers is a better way to say it -- but they tend to catch on only if they capture some bit of the zeitgeist.
  • Not 2.0? - O'Reilly Radar 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to ALL of you who took time to write about your machines, I am truly amazed at some and have been given new insight from others.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

Dawkins likened the process by which memes survive and change through the evolution of culture to the natural selection of genes in biological evolution.[4]
Dawkins defined the meme as a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation, but later definitions would vary. .The lack of a consistent, rigorous, and precise understanding of what typically makes up one unit of cultural transmission remains a problem in debates about memetics.^ Everything that people talk about which makes up web 2.0 are products or services that just work.
  • Not 2.0? - O'Reilly Radar 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ It's one thing to write ABOUT this kind of crazy-making; it is another thing entirely to write FOR it.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ I have been thinking of making one just to post information about projects that I’m working on.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

[11] In contrast, the concept of genetics gained concrete evidence with the discovery of the biological functions of DNA. In the context of the exact sciences, memetics suffers in comparison because, unlike the idea of genes, memes do not necessarily have or need a concrete medium in order to transfer.

Transmission

.Life-forms can transmit information both vertically (from parent to child, via replication of genes) and horizontally (through viruses and other means).^ As a parent, I should have the right to send my child to school and not have other adults offering them food.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

Memes can replicate vertically or horizontally within a single biological generation. They may also lie dormant for long periods of time. Memes spread by the behaviors that they generate in their hosts. Imitation counts as an important characteristic in the propagation of memes. Imitation often involves the copying of an observed behaviour of another individual, but memes may transmit from one individual to another through a copy recorded in an inanimate source, such as a book or a musical score. Researchers have observed memetic copying in just a few species on Earth, including hominids, dolphins and birds (which learn how to sing by imitating their parents or neighbors).[12]
Some commentators have likened the transmission of memes to the spread of contagions.[13] Social contagions such as fads, hysterias and copycat suicides exemplify memes seen as the contagious imitation of ideas. Observers distinguish the contagious imitation of memes from instinctively contagious phenomena such as yawning and laughing, which they consider innate (rather than socially learned) behaviors.[12]
Aaron Lynch described seven general patterns of meme transmission, or "thought contagion":[14]
  1. Quantity of parenthood: an idea which influences the number of children one has. Children respond particularly receptively to the ideas of their parents, and thus ideas which directly or indirectly encourage a higher birthrate will replicate themselves at a higher rate than those that discourage higher birthrates.
  2. Efficiency of parenthood: an idea which increases the proportion of children who will adopt ideas of their parents. .Cultural separatism exemplifies one practice in which one can expect a higher rate of meme-replication — because the meme for separation creates a barrier from exposure to competing ideas.
  3. Proselytic: ideas generally passed to others beyond one's own children.^ I love the idea of a sewing machine meme — a great way to learn about other machines beside my own!
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is nothing super exciting to tell about it…other than I got it because I wanted to make my own veil for my wedding.
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    .Ideas that encourage the proselytism of a meme, as seen in many religious or political movements, can replicate memes horizontally through a given generation, spreading more rapidly than parent-to-child meme-transmissions do.
  4. Preservational: ideas which influence those that hold them to continue to hold them for a long time.^ Damn..it's me Ryohazuki2k3, been a LONG time since I posted anything here, how is everyone holding up?
    • ..(.| Russell Savage |:). . . . . . 16 September 2009 11:57 UTC russellsavage.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I’ve seen him pitch and his stuff looked a lot more impressive than Matt Palmer’s did last year.
    • Ryan Sadowski: Fluke or Fixture? - McCovey Chronicles 16 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have all heard of the emerging health crisis, and from more reputable and relevant sources than Meme Roth.
    • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

    .Ideas which encourage longevity in their hosts, or leave their hosts particularly resistant to abandoning or replacing these ideas, enhance the preservability of memes and afford protection from the competition or proselytism of other memes.
  5. Adversative: ideas which influence those that hold them to attack or sabotage competing ideas and/or those that hold them.^ I love the idea of a sewing machine meme — a great way to learn about other machines beside my own!
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    .Adversative replication can give an advantage in meme transmission when the meme itself encourages aggression against other memes.
  6. Cognitive: ideas perceived as cogent by most in the population who encounter them.^ I love the idea of a sewing machine meme — a great way to learn about other machines beside my own!
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    .Cognitively transmitted memes depend heavily on a cluster of other ideas and cognitive traits already widely held in the population, and thus usually spread more passively than other forms of meme transmission.^ I love the idea of a sewing machine meme — a great way to learn about other machines beside my own!
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Also, if a pairing and/or kink inspires you, but it's already filled out, don't back off - more than one submission per kink is acceptable!
    • teagueful: Phoenix Wright Kink Meme [Part One] 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC teagueful.livejournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have all heard of the emerging health crisis, and from more reputable and relevant sources than Meme Roth.
    • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

    .Memes spread in cognitive transmission do not count as self-replicating.
  7. Motivational: ideas that people adopt because they perceive some self-interest in adopting them.^ And so I believe they were really funny and I thought it would be a good idea to make a website where anybody can go like read some of these things.
    • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And I expect I will add some more vintage machines because they actually sew better in my opinion and I can work on them myself.
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Negative reinforcement might make people temporarily healthier in their bodies, but the damage to their perspectives and self-esteem will keep them as unhealthy as they ever were.
    • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

    Strictly speaking, motivationally transmitted memes do not self-propagate, but this mode of transmission often occurs in association with memes self-replicated in the efficiency parental, proselytic and preservational modes.
In their book Made to Stick, Chip and Dan Heath describe characteristics of an idea that make it "sticky" (i.e. memorable or interesting).

Memes as discrete units

Richard Dawkins initially defined meme as a noun which "conveys the idea of a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation".[4] John S. Wilkins retained the notion of meme as a kernel of cultural imitation while emphasizing the meme's evolutionary aspect, defining the meme as "the least unit of sociocultural information relative to a selection process that has favourable or unfavourable selection bias that exceeds its endogenous tendency to change."[15] The meme as a unit provides a convenient means of discussing "a piece of thought copied from person to person", regardless if that thought contains others inside it, or forms part of a larger meme. A meme could consist of a single word, or a meme could consist of the entire speech in which that word first occurred. This forms an analogy to the idea of a gene as a single unit of self-replicating information found on the self-replicating chromosome.
While the identification of memes as "units" conveys their nature to replicate as discrete, indivisible entities, it does not imply that thoughts somehow become quantized or that "atomic" ideas exist which cannot be dissected into smaller pieces. A meme has no given size. Susan Blackmore writes that melodies from Beethoven's symphonies are commonly used to illustrate the difficulty involved in delimiting memes as discrete units. .She notes that while the first four notes of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (About this sound listen ) form a meme widely replicated as an independent unit, one can regard the entire symphony as a single meme as well.^ But I do need to find a drag around machine so I can pamper this one, so this meme will be helpful!
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

[11]
Some critics have seen the inability to pin an idea or cultural feature to its key units as an insurmountable problem for memetics. Blackmore meets such criticism by stating that memes compare with genes in this respect: that while a gene has no particular size, nor can we ascribe every phenotypic feature directly to a particular gene, it has value because it encapsulates that key unit of inherited expression subject to evolutionary pressures. To illustrate, she notes evolution selects for the gene for features such as eye color; it does not select for the individual nucleotide in a strand of DNA. Memes play a comparable role in understanding the evolution of imitated behaviors.[11]
The 1981 book Genes, Mind, and Culture: The Coevolutionary Process by Charles J. Lumsden and E. O. Wilson proposed the theory that genes and culture co-evolve, and that the fundamental biological units of culture must correspond to neuronal networks that function as nodes of semantic memory. They coined their own term, "culturgen", which did not catch on. Coauthor Wilson later acknowledged the term meme as the best label for the fundamental unit of cultural inheritance in his 1998 book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, which elaborates upon the fundamental role of memes in unifying the natural and social sciences.[16]

Evolutionary influences on memes

Richard Dawkins noted the three conditions which must exist for evolution to occur:[17]
  1. variation, or the introduction of new change to existing elements
  2. heredity or replication, or the capacity to create copies of elements
  3. differential "fitness", or the opportunity for one element to be more or less suited to the environment than another
Dawkins emphasized that the process of evolution naturally occurs whenever these conditions co-exist, and that evolution does not apply only to organic elements such as genes. Memes too, he writes, have the properties necessary for evolution, and thus meme evolution is not simply analogous to genetic evolution, but as a real phenomenon subject to the laws of natural selection. .Dawkins noted that as various ideas pass from one generation to the next, they may either enhance or detract from the survival of the people who obtain those ideas, or influence the survival of the ideas themselves.^ I'm pretty sure most people are aware there are healthier options of their eating habits, and they always have those options open to them.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by: Robert Su, M.D. 7/27/2009 Roth is nothing but an Ann Coulter wannabe who's latched onto fat people as the ones she's decided to hate.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ She is just one of those incredibly healthy people who almost never gets sick or has accidents, so I’m thinking that I wont be inheriting anything from her.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

For example, a certain culture may develop unique designs and methods of tool-making that give it a competitive advantage over another culture. Each tool-design thus acts somewhat similarly to a biological gene in that some populations have it and others do not, and the meme's function directly affects the presence of the design in future generations. .In keeping with the thesis that in evolution one can regard organisms simply as suitable "hosts" for reproducing genes, Dawkins argues that one can view people as "hosts" for replicating memes.^ Thank you MeMe, keep up the good work and don't listen to the haters (mostly fat people) of the world!
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

Consequently, a successful meme may or may not need to provide any benefit to its host.[17]
.Unlike genetic evolution, memetic evolution can show both Darwinian and Lamarckian traits.^ Again people the opportunity to appear a lot of both popular unlike television shows out there and about how that tree yet -- yet.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cultural memes will have the characteristic of Lamarckian inheritance when a host aspires to replicate the given meme through inference rather than by exactly copying it. Take for example the case of the transmission of a simple skill such as hammering a nail, a skill which a learner imitates from watching a demonstration without necessarily imitating every discrete movement modeled by the teacher in the demonstration, stroke for stroke.[18] Susan Blackmore distinguishes the difference between the two modes of inheritance in the evolution of memes, characterizing the Darwinian mode as "copying the instructions" and the Lamarckian as "copying the product."[11]
.Clusters of memes, or memeplexes (also known as meme complexes or as memecomplexes), such as cultural or political doctrines and systems, may also play a part in the acceptance of new memes.^ Genetics do play a part, however the magnitude is not conclusively known yet.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ Explore LJ Life Entertainment Music Culture News & Politics Technology Post to Journal All .
  • teagueful: Phoenix Wright Kink Meme [Part One] 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC teagueful.livejournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Memeplexes comprise groups of memes that replicate together and coadapt.[11] Memes that fit within a successful memeplex may gain acceptance by "piggybacking" on the success of the memeplex. Meme theory commonly cites memes grouped in memeplexes of religion as examples.[19]

Memetics

The discipline of memetics, which dates from the mid 1980s, provides an approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer based on the concept of the meme. Memeticists have proposed that just as memes function analogously to genes, memetics functions analogously to genetics. Memetics attempts to apply conventional scientific methods (such as those used in population genetics and epidemiology) to explain existing patterns and transmission of cultural ideas.
Principal criticisms of memetics include the claim that memetics ignores established advances in other fields of cultural study, such as sociology, cultural anthropology, cognitive psychology, and social psychology. Questions remain whether or not the meme concept counts as a validly disprovable scientific theory. In this view memetics is a theory in its infancy, a protoscience to proponents, or a pseudoscience to some detractors.

Criticism of meme theory

An objection to the study of the evolution of memes in genetic terms (although not to the existence of memes) involves a perceived lacuna in the gene/meme analogy: the cumulative evolution of genes depends on biological selection-pressures neither too great nor too small in relation to mutation-rates. .There seems no reason to think that the same balance will exist in the selection pressures on memes.^ He had assured her that there was no reason to cry.
  • teagueful: Phoenix Wright Kink Meme [Part One] 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC teagueful.livejournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I had -- still think homes -- are out enjoying over 90000 I don't delivered -- home with no -- please don't make the same mistake I didn't get Netflix.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Luis Benitez-Bribiesca M.D., a critic of memetics, calls the theory a " pseudoscientific dogma" and "a dangerous idea that poses a threat to the serious study of consciousness and cultural evolution". As a factual criticism, Benitez-Bribiesca points to the lack of a "code script" for memes (analogous the DNA of genes), and to the excessive instability of the meme mutation mechanism (that of an idea going from one brain to another), which would lead to a low replication accuracy and a high mutation rate, rendering the evolutionary process chaotic.^ And so I believe they were really funny and I thought it would be a good idea to make a website where anybody can go like read some of these things.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a big step going from a beginner’s mechanical machine to a high-tech computerized machine, but it has been a wonderful transition.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ But this little -- my assistant coach Jim let's go hardware practices is one bullet backgrounds code division to ball outside time -- Parkinson.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
Another critique comes from semiotic theorists such as Deacon[22] and Kull[23]. This view regards the concept of "meme" as a primitivized concept of "sign". The meme is thus described in memetics as a sign lacking a triadic nature. .In semiotics, a meme is a "degenerate" sign, which includes only its ability of being copied.^ A healthy weight doesn't always mean you're skinny, and being skinny is never the only sign of being healthy.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

Accordingly, in the broadest sense, the objects of copying are memes, whereas the objects of translation and interpretation are signs.

Lack of philosophical appeal

In his chapter titled "Truth" published in the Encyclopedia of Phenomenology, Dieter Lohmar questions the memeticists' reduction of the highly complex body of ideas (such as religion, politics, war, justice, and science itself) to a putatively one-dimensional series of memes. He sees memes as an abstraction and such a reduction as failing to produce greater understanding of those ideas. .The highly interconnected, multi-layering of ideas resists memetic simplification to an atomic or molecular form; as does the fact that each of our lives remains fully enmeshed and involved in such "memes". Lohmar argues that one cannot view memes through a microscope in the way one can detect genes.^ I love the idea of a sewing machine meme — a great way to learn about other machines beside my own!
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

.The leveling-off of all such interesting "memes" down to some neutralized molecular "substance" such as "meme-substance" introduces a bias toward scientism and abandons the very essence of what makes ideas interesting, richly available, and worth studying.^ And so I believe they were really funny and I thought it would be a good idea to make a website where anybody can go like read some of these things.
  • Revision3 > Internet Superstar > Episode 14: Ian Spector, the man behind the Chuck Norris' meme 11 January 2010 11:19 UTC revision3.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

Applications

Opinions differ as to how best to apply the concept of memes within a "proper" disciplinary framework. .One view sees memes as providing a useful philosophical perspective with which to examine cultural evolution.^ If anyone has one I would love to see what you use if for!
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

.Proponents of this view (such as Susan Blackmore and Daniel Dennett) argue that considering cultural developments from a meme's-eye view—as if memes themselves respond to pressure to maximise their own replication and survival—can lead to useful insights and yield valuable predictions into how culture develops over time.^ Nancy responds: Posted: June 6th, 2009 at 3:31 pm → How timely!
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ You must take the time to learn how to use it and all it accessorie feet.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ It has a lot of features (such as embroidery) that I have no idea how to use, but I’ll get there (when I have more time:) I mostly sew clothes for my little girl but am currently working on my first quilt.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

Others such as Bruce Edmonds and Robert Aunger have focused on the need to provide an empirical grounding for memetics to become a useful and respected scientific discipline.[25][26] A third approach, described as "radical memetics", seeks to place memes at the centre of a materialistic theory of mind and of personal identity.[27]
Some prominent researchers in evolutionary psychology and anthropology, including Scott Atran, Dan Sperber, Pascal Boyer, John Tooby and others, argue the possibility of incompatibility between modularity of mind and memetics. .In their view, minds structure certain communicable aspects of the ideas produced, and these communicable aspects generally trigger or elicit ideas in other minds through inference (to relatively rich structures generated from often low-fidelity input) and not high-fidelity replication or imitation.^ I searched high and low for all my machines – I was lucky to find most of them through Craigslist.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

Atran discusses communication involving religious beliefs as a case in point. .In one set of experiments he asked religious people to write down on a piece of paper the meanings of the Ten Commandments.^ She's not asking the Y to stop shoving ice cream down people's thoughts, she's demanding them to stop OFFERING ice cream.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

Despite the subjects' own expectations of consensus, interpretations of the commandments showed wide ranges of variation, with little evidence of consensus. In another experiment, normal subjects and autistic subjects interpreted ideological and religious sayings (for example, "Let a thousand flowers bloom" or "To everything there is a season"). Autistics showed a significant tendency to closely paraphrase and repeat content from the original statement (for example: "Don't cut flowers before they bloom"). Controls tended to infer a wider range of cultural meanings with little replicated content (for example: "Go with the flow" or "Everyone should have equal opportunity"). Only the autistic subjects—who lack the degree of inferential capacity normally associated with aspects of theory of mind—came close to functioning as "meme machines".[28]

Religion

.Although evolutionists had previously sought to understand and explain religion in terms of a cultural attribute which might conceivably confer biological advantages to its adherents, Richard Dawkins called for a re-analysis of religion in terms of the evolution of self-replicating ideas apart from any resulting biological advantages they might bestow.^ Looking like I might make it down to that beautiful state they call Maine this weekend which would rock the Cazba(spelling?
  • ..(.| Russell Savage |:). . . . . . 16 September 2009 11:57 UTC russellsavage.com [Source type: General]

^ Negative reinforcement might make people temporarily healthier in their bodies, but the damage to their perspectives and self-esteem will keep them as unhealthy as they ever were.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ They’re calling up Frandsen , not Guzman .
  • Ryan Sadowski: Fluke or Fixture? - McCovey Chronicles 16 September 2009 11:57 UTC www.mccoveychronicles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He argued that the role of key replicator in cultural evolution belongs not to genes, but to memes replicating thought from person to person by means of imitation.^ Meme, you are such a mean person.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ Does that mean a person's genes "make" him sit on the couch and eat pizza?
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

These replicators respond to selective pressures that may or may not affect biological reproduction or survival.[4]
In her book The Meme Machine, Susan Blackmore regards religions as particularly tenacious memes. Many of the features common to the most widely practiced religions provide built-in advantages in an evolutionary context, she writes. .For example, religions that preach of the value of faith-based belief over evidence from everyday experience or reason inoculate societies against many of the most basic tools people commonly use to evaluate their ideas.^ Too many people buy a machine with dozens of bells and whistles that they never use.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ I love it that SO many people are offended that one person is speaking out against obesity.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ Many teachers view using food rewards as an effective tool, as do many parents.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

.By linking altruism with religious affiliation, religious memes can proliferate more quickly because people perceive that they can reap societal as well as personal rewards.^ And I expect I will add some more vintage machines because they actually sew better in my opinion and I can work on them myself.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ It is NOT caused by or linked to eating habits or obesity; in fact, most people with Type 1 are very thin at diagnosis because their bodies are not able to properly metabolize food.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

^ People of all ages use handicap tags because they are too fat to walk very far.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

The longevity of religious memes improves with their documentation in revered religious texts.[11]
Aaron Lynch attributed the robustness of religious memes in human culture to the fact that such memes incorporate multiple modes of meme transmission. Religious memes pass down the generations from parent to child and across a single generation through the meme-exchange of proselytism. .Most people will hold the religion taught them by their parents throughout their life.^ People should be taught to enjoy life in a way that helps them enjoy it for as long as possible.
  • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

Many religions feature adversarial elements, punishing apostasy, for instance, or demonizing infidels. In Thought Contagion Lynch identifies the memes of transmission in Christianity as especially powerful in scope. Believers view the conversion of non-believers both as a religious duty and as an act of altruism. Some denominations' promise of heaven to believers and threat of hell to non-believers provide a strong incentive for members to retain their belief (though not for nonbelievers to adopt it, as that promise and threat are among the tenets that they do not find credible in the first place[citation needed]). Lynch asserts that belief in the crucifixion in Christianity amplifies each of its other replication advantages through the indebtedness believers have to their Savior for sacrifice on the cross. The image of the crucifixion recurs in religious sacraments, and the proliferation of symbols of the cross (itself a meme) in homes and churches potently reinforces the wide array of Christian memes.[14]

Memetic explanations of racism

In Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology, Jack Balkin argued that memetic processes can explain many of the most familiar features of ideological thought. His theory of "cultural software" maintained that memes form narratives, networks of cultural associations, metaphoric and metonymic models, and a variety of different mental structures. .Balkin maintains that the same structures used to generate ideas about free speech or free markets also serve to generate racist beliefs.^ Can’t wait to learn about some of the technical stuff I am lacking – no idea how to pick a presser foot, no idea what kind if needles I need for what, no idea to how use a buttonholer.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ I would love to meet others with my same machine and learn a little more about how I can use it more effectivly.
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

To Balkin, whether memes become harmful or maladaptive depends on the environmental context in which they exist rather than in any special source or manner to their origination. Balkin describes racist beliefs as "fantasy" memes which become harmful or unjust "ideologies" when diverse peoples come together, as through trade or competition.[29]

Internet culture

.The term "Internet meme" refers to a catchphrase or concept that spreads rapidly from person to person via the Internet, largely through Internet-based email, blogs, forums, social networking sites and instant messaging.^ Edited to add : If you don’t have a blog, you can publish your answers in our Sewing Machine Meme thread in the forum !
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

^ I’m gonna try the meme either on my blog or the forums .
  • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

The term derives from the original concept of memes, although it has come to refer to a much more narrowly defined category of cultural information.

Meme maps

One technique of meme mapping represents the evolution and transmission of a meme across time and space[30]. Such a meme map uses a figure-8 diagram (an analemma) to map the gestation (in the lower loop), birth (at the choke point), and development (in the upper loop) of the selected meme. Such meme maps are non-scalar, with time mapped onto the y-axis and space onto the x-axis transect. One can read the temporal progress of the mapped meme from south to north on such a meme map. Paull has published a worked example using the "organics meme" (as in organic agriculture)[30].

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Dawkins, Richard (1989). The Selfish Gene (2 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 186. ISBN 0-19-286092-5. "We need a name for the new replicator, a noun that conveys the idea of a unit of cultural transmission, or a unit of imitation. 'Mimeme' comes from a suitable Greek root, but I want a monosyllable that sounds a bit like 'gene'. I hope my classicist friends will forgive me if I abbreviate mimeme to meme. If it is any consolation, it could alternatively be thought of as being related to 'memory', or to the French word meme. It should be pronounced to rhyme with 'cream'." 
  2. ^ "meme" at The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000
  3. ^ Graham 2002
  4. ^ a b c d Dawkins 1989, p. 352
  5. ^ Kelly & 1994 p.360:"But if we consider culture as its own self organizing system,— a system with its own agenda and pressure to survive— then the history of humanity gets even more interesting. As Richard Dawkins has shown, systems of self-replicating ideas or memes can quickly accumulate their own agenda and behaviours. I assign no higher motive to a cultural entity than the primitive drive to reproduce itself and modify its environment to aid its spread. One way the self organizing system can do this is by consuming human biological resources."
  6. ^ Heylighen & Chielens 2009
  7. ^ Semon, Richard Wolfgang (1921). The Mneme. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  8. ^ Laurent, John (1999), "A Note on the Origin of 'Memes'/'Mnemes'", Journal of Memetics 3 (1): 14–19, http://cfpm.org/jom-emit/1999/vol3/laurent_j.html, retrieved 2008-03-17 
  9. ^ Blackmore, Susan (1999). The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286212-X. 
  10. ^ Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World. United States: Addison-Wesley. pp. 360. ISBN 0-201-48340-8. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Blackmore 1999
  12. ^ a b Blackmore 1998
  13. ^ Blackmore 1998; "The term 'contagion' is often associated with memetics. We may say that certain memes are contagious, or more contagious than others."
  14. ^ a b Lynch 1996
  15. ^ Wilkins, John S. (1998), "What's in a Meme? Reflections from the perspective of the history and philosophy of evolutionary biology", Journal of Memetics 2, http://jom-emit.cfpm.org/ 
  16. ^ Wilson 1998
  17. ^ a b Dennett 1991
  18. ^ Dawkins 2004
  19. ^ See for example John D. Gottsch: "Mutation, Selection, And Vertical Transmission Of Theistic Memes In Religious Canons" in Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, Volume 5, Issue 1, 2001. Online version retrieved 2008-01-27.
  20. ^ Sterelny & Griffiths 1999; p.333
  21. ^ Benitez Bribiesca, Luis (January 2001). "Memetics: A dangerous idea" (PDF). Interciencia: Revista de Ciencia y Technologia de América (Venezuela: Asociación Interciencia) 26 (1): 29-31. ISSN 0378-1844. http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/339/33905206.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-11. "If the mutation rate is high and takes place over short periods, as memetics predict, instead of selection, adaptation and survival a chaotic disintegration occurs due to the accumulation of errors.". 
  22. ^ Terrence Deacon, The trouble with memes (and what to do about it). The Semiotic Review of Books 10(3).
  23. ^ Kalevi Kull (2000), "Copy versus translate, meme versus sign: development of biological textuality". European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1), 101–120.
  24. ^ Dieter Lohmar - "Truth", in Lester Embree, Encyclopedia of phenomenology, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997
  25. ^ See Edmonds, Bruce (2002-09), "Three Challenges for the Survival of Memetics", Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission 6 (2), http://cfpm.org/jom-emit/2002/vol6/edmonds_b_letter.html, retrieved 2009-02-03 
  26. ^ Aunger 2000
  27. ^ Poulshock 2002
  28. ^ Atran 2002
  29. ^ Balkin 1998
  30. ^ a b Paull, John (2009) "Meme Maps: A Tool for Configuring Memes in Time and Space", European Journal of Scientific Research, 31(1):11-18.

References

  • Atran, Scott (2002). In gods we trust: the evolutionary landscape of religion. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. .ISBN 0-19-514930-0. 
  • Atran, Scott (2001), "The Trouble with Memes", Human Nature 4 (12), http://jeannicod.ccsd.cnrs.fr/documents/disk0/00/00/01/23/ijn_00000123_00/ijn_00000123_00.doc 
  • Aunger, Robert (2000), Darwinizing culture: the status of memetics as a science, Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-263244-2 
  • Aunger, Robert (2002), The electric meme: a new theory of how we think, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-0150-7 
  • Balkin, J. M. (1998), Cultural software: a theory of ideology, New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-07288-0 
  • Bloom, Howard S. (1997), The Lucifer Principle: A Scientific Expedition into the Forces of History, Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press (published 1997-02), pp. 480, ISBN 0-87113-664-3 
  • Blackmore, Susan (1998), "Imitation and the definition of a meme" (PDF), Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, http://www.baillement.com/texte-blakemore.pdf 
  • Blackmore, Susan J. (1999), The meme machine, Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press (published 1999-04-08), pp. 288, ISBN 0-19-850365-2  [trade paperback ISBN 0-9658817-8-4 (1999), ISBN 0-19-286212-X (2000)]
  • Brodie, Richard (1996), Virus of the mind: the new science of the meme, Seattle, Wash: Integral Press, pp. 251, ISBN 0-9636001-1-7 
  • Dawkins, Richard (2004), A Devil's Chaplain : Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love, Boston: Mariner Books, pp. 263, ISBN 0-618-48539-2 
  • Dawkins, Richard (1989), "11. Memes:the new replicators", The Selfish Gene (2nd ed., new ed ed.^ Nikki responds: Posted: June 3rd, 2009 at 11:46 pm → I blogged my sewing machine survey here: http://www.onestraypea.com/sew-mama-sew-sewing-machine-meme .
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Brenda responds: Posted: June 2nd, 2009 at 3:22 pm → Here is my Meme on my sewing machine.I love reading about other people machines.
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Here is a link to my blog post: http://momknitter.wordpress.com/2009/06/01/sewing-machine-meme/ .
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 368, ISBN 0192177737 
  • Dennett, Daniel C. (2006), Breaking the Spell, Viking (Penguin), ISBN 0-670-03472-X 
  • Dennett, Daniel (1991), Consciousness Explained, Boston: Little, Brown and Co., ISBN 0316180653 
  • Distin, Kate (2005), The selfish meme: a critical reassessment, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 238, ISBN 0-521-60627-6 
  • Farnish, Keith, "Time's Up! An Uncivilized Solution To A Global Crisis", Totnes: Green Books, pp. 256, ISBN 190032248X 
  • Graham, Gordon (2002), Genes: a philosophical inquiry, New York: Routledge, pp. 196, ISBN 0-415-25257-1 
  • Henson, H. Keith: "Evolutionary Psychology, Memes and the Origin of War."
  • Henson, H. Keith: "Sex, Drugs, and Cults. .An evolutionary psychology perspective on why and how cult memes get a drug-like hold on people, and what might be done to mitigate the effects", The Human Nature Review 2002 Volume 2: 343-355
  • Heylighen, Francis; Chielens, K. (2009), "Evolution of Culture, Memetics", in Meyers, B., Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science, Springer, http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/Papers/Memetics-Springer.pdf 
  • Heylighen, Francis, (1992) : "Selfish Memes and the Evolution of Cooperation", Journal of Ideas vol.^ Posted by: Sal 1/21/2009 Being an activist is not a bad thing, I'm an activist, fighting mis-information like that spewed forth from people like MeMe.
    • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I am FURIOUS. People like Meme Roth are what drove me to eating disorders, self-hate and low self-esteem for the majority of my life.
    • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It's bad for your health and bad for YOU! Exactly like how it's not okay to be a crazed zealot that goes on about other peoples' businesses.
    • MeMe Roth's War 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC www.elle.com [Source type: General]

    2, no. .4, pp, 77–84.
  • Jan, Steven: The Memetics of Music: A Neo-Darwinian View of Musical Structure and Culture (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007)
  • Kelly, Kevin (1994), Out of control: the new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world, Boston: Addison-Wesley, pp. 360, ISBN 0-201-48340-8 
  • Lynch, Aaron (1996), Thought contagion: how belief spreads through society, New York: BasicBooks, pp. 208, ISBN 0-465-08467-2 
  • Post, Stephen Garrard; Underwood, Lynn G; Schloss, Jeffrey P Garrard (2002), Altruism & Altruistic Love: Science, Philosophy, & Religion in Dialogue, Oxford University Press US, pp. 500, ISBN 0195143582 
  • Moritz, Elan.^ Kenmore 19110 is my everyday machine mostly for quilting projects…love the needle down option and the speed control which I am using to learn free motion quilting with.
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Kara responds: Posted: June 4th, 2009 at 8:28 am → I have been looking for a new sewing machine.
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sara responds: Posted: June 18th, 2009 at 2:37 pm → I have posted my Sewing Machine information on my new blog that I have just started today!!!
    • Sewing Machine Meme « Sew,Mama,Sew! Blog 14 January 2010 14:12 UTC sewmamasew.com [Source type: General]

    (1995): "Metasystems, Memes and Cybernetic Immortality," in: Heylighen F., Joslyn C. & Turchin V. (eds.), The Quantum of Evolution. Toward a theory of metasystem transitions, (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York) (special issue of World Futures: the journal of general evolution, vol. 45, p. 155-171).
  • Poulshock, Joseph (2002), "The Problem and Potential of Memetics", Journal of Psychology and Theology (Rosemead School of Psychology, Gale Group (2004)): 68+ 
  • Sterelny, Kim; Griffiths, Paul E. (1999). Sex and death: an introduction to philosophy of biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 456. ISBN 0-226-77304-3. 
  • Wilson, Edward O. (1998), Consilience: the unity of knowledge, New York: Knopf, pp. 352, ISBN 0-679-45077-7 

External links


Simple English

The English Wiktionary has a dictionary definition (meanings of a word) for:

A meme (pronunciation:miːm), is a word for a theoretical unit of cultural information.

The theory is that culture develops in the same way that a gene is spread from one organism to another as a unit of genetic information and of biological evolution[1] This means that to be a meme, something has to be changed and used by many people.

Biologist and evolutionary theorist Richard Dawkins made the word meme in 1976.[2] He said that tunes, catch-phrases, beliefs, clothing fashions, ways of making pots, and the technology of building arches were all examples of memes.

Contents

Examples of memes

  • Technology: cars, paper-clips, etc. The progress of technology is clearly like the progress of genetics, because it also has to spread and go through mutations or changes to progress. For example, many paper-clip designs have been made. Some last longer than others, and some look better than others. In the end the ones that are copied are a memetic success.
  • Jokes spread and change the more they are told.
  • Proverbs
  • Gossip
  • Nursery rhymes: passed on from parent to child over many generations (thus keeping old words such as "tuffet" and "chamber" popular when they are not used today).
  • Epic poems: once important memes for preserving oral history; writing has largely superseded their oral transmission.
  • Conspiracy theories
  • Recipes
  • Fashions
  • Religions: complex memes, including folk religious beliefs, such as The Prayer of Jabez.
  • Popular concepts: these include Freedom, Justice, Ownership, Open Source, Egoism, or Altruism
  • Group-based biases: everything from anti-semitism and racism to cargo cults.
  • Longstanding political memes such as "mob rule", national identity, Yes Minister and "republic, not a democracy".
  • Programming paradigms: from structured programming and object-oriented programming to extreme programming.
  • Internet phenomena: Internet slang. "Internet memes" propagate quickly among users using email, websites, blogs, discussion boards and other Internet communications as a medium.
  • Moore's Law: this meme has a particularly interesting form of self-replication. The conviction that "semiconductor complexity doubles every 18 months" became considerably more than a predictive observation; it became a performance-target for an entire industry once that industry extensively started to believe in the "law". Manufacturers now strive to make the next generation of semiconductor technology re-create the growth in performance of the previous generation, and so maintain belief in Moore's Law. Additionally, the evolution of this meme provides details of interest. The original law described growth in terms of the number of transistors on a chip, but people - more and more—have (wrongly) understood it as describing an increase in terms of performance. This could exemplify how a meme can mutate slowly under the pressure of its environment (partial technical understanding and simplification for use in the mainstream media).
  • Metameme: The concept of memes itself is a meme.
  • Anecdotes: Short jokes or other stories.
  • Phrases; an expression, like "Whasssssup!" or "Where's the beef?" or the Internet meme "all your base are belong to us!"
  • Viral marketing: A type of marketing based on memes and using "word of mouth" to advertise (see the recent example of Snakes on a Plane).
  • Chain-letters

Other pages

References

  1. *Lasn, Kalle (2000) Culture jam. New York: Quill. p.123
  2. Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene, 11. Memes:the new replicators, Oxford University, 1976, second edition, December 1989, ISBN 0-19-217773-7; April 1992, ISBN 0-19-857519-X; trade paperback, September 1990, ISBN 0-19-286092-5

Literature

  1. Aunger, Robert: The Electric Meme: A New Theory of How We Think. Free Press, 2002, hardcover ISBN 0-7432-0150-7
  2. Aunger, Robert: Darwinizing culture: the status of memetics as a science. Oxford University Press, 2000, New-York ISBN 0-19-263244-2
  3. Blackmore, Susan: The Meme Machine. Oxford University Press, 1999, hardcover ISBN 0-19-850365-2, trade paperback ISBN 0-9658817-8-4, May 2000, ISBN 0-19-286212-X
  4. Fog, Agner: Cultural Selection. Dordrecht: Kluwer 1999. ISBN 0-7923-5579-2.
  5. Henson, H. Keith: "Sex, Drugs, and Cults. An evolutionary psychology perspective on why and how cult memes get a drug-like hold on people, and what might be done to mitigate the effects", The Human Nature Review 2002 Volume 2: 343-355 [1]
  6. Henson, H. Keith: "Evolutionary Psychology, Memes and the Origin of War."
  7. Lanier, Jaron: "The Ideology of Cybernetic Totalist Intellectuals", an essay which criticises "meme totalists" who assert memes over bodies.
  8. "Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission" Journal of Memetics
  9. Principia Cybernetica holds a lexicon of memetics concepts, comprising a list of different types of memes.
  10. A list of memetics publications on the web

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Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Meme, which are similar to those in the above article.








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