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The term men's rights refers to freedoms and entitlements of the male of the human species. This term describes rights specifically related to men and boys, and should not be confused with general human rights applicable to all. Men's rights relates to the role of the male in contemporary society. Traditionally, this role has been largely influenced by the physical and mental attributes of the man in his ability to provide protection and sustenance to his partner and offspring. This role, and the rights relating to it, has changed over time due to social, legal and religious influences. In the last several decades, with the arrival of feminism, changes in technology, and the reduced need for violent and aggressive physical protection, the role, and subsequently the rights, of men have become vague. Various groups and movements have emerged in an effort to clearly define this role. The Men's Rights Movement is concerned with the diminishing legal and societal rights of men, primarily in Western cultures. This includes disparity in conviction, sentencing, custody, matrimonial and alimony laws, as well as the perceived discrimination of males in society at large, including in the work place and in the media.

Related areas of men's rights include:

Protest in New Delhi for men's rights organised by Save Indian Family

Contents

History

Very little has been done to formalize what men's rights are, or to protect these rights. With the increased focus on the rights of women and children, some of the rights of men have been devalued and overturned. An example of this is the limitations that have been placed on the parental rights of men over their offspring as a result of the rights awarded to women. The American Coalition for Fathers and Children was founded in 1995 by Stuart A. Miller and Dianna Thompson in an effort to provide a forum for discussion of male rights. ACFC founded the shared parenting movement and organized the largest protests in the history of men's rights movements, held in over 225 cities around the world on Father's Day, 2001 in the "Bridges for Children" campaign.[citation needed] The Coalition of Free Men, commonly known as the National Coalition of Free Men (NCFM), was founded in 1977 and is the oldest active men's rights organization in existence. NCFM has chapters and members throughout the United States and in several other countries. In 2008 the NCFM started doing business as the National Coalition for Men since people often struggled in understanding the significance of the word "Free".[1]

In the 2000s men and concerned women began to share their concerns on the Internet. Its supporters are considered part of the Men's Movement, and often call themselves Men's Rights Activists, or MRAs. Father's rights and misuse of Domestic violence laws are areas central to the men's rights movement. Its concerns include health, education, employment, civil rights, legal equality and representation and Constitutional rights.[2][3] Many supporters are particularly concerned with the effect of Sexual Harassment,[4] Divorce,[5] Custody, Rape,[6] and Violence Against Women Act-type laws,[7] on men's rights and freedoms. It is argued that these laws cause violation of Constitutional rights such as the right to a fair trial and the right to due process.[8]

Affirmative Action programmes, and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 are also areas of prime concern. One group, S.P.A.R.C., argues that these policies have a far more discriminatory effect than is widely reported or acknowledged.[9]

Some activists in Men's Rights Advocacy and Masculism also promote the concept of "defending male identity". Typically this would be defined as strength, honor and honesty.[10]

Structure

Like most social movements, those concerned with men's rights comprise a wide variety of individuals and organisations, both united and divided in various ways on specific issues including the mistreatment of men in the media, the abortion debate, family law, and false rape allegations.[11] Some groups are formally organised or incorporated, while others are casual alliances or the work of a few individuals.[8]

Although the vast majority of men's rights leaders and activists are men, there are many women, including those in significant positions within the movement. For example, Sue Price in the Australian Men's Rights Agency has been at the forefront of activism there. Naomi Penner was a women's rights activist in the 1960s who later helped to create the National Coalition of Free Men in America in 1981. B.N. Saraswati founded one of the earliest Men's rights groups in India. Significant books have highlighted a disparity in the feminist movement's active support for equality when seeking redress for women, but their lack of support for equality when men are disadvantaged.[9][10]

Although most men's rights advocates live in western countries, from 2003 onwards men's rights groups began to emerge in countries such as Japan and India. It includes a heterogeneous mix of atheistic to highly religious individuals as well as individuals from across the left, right, and center of the political spectrum.

Men's rights in social context

All rights, including men's rights, can not be viewed outside the larger context of all human rights. As such there are certain issues that have a direct influence on the rights of men and the power men have to exercise their rights. Here are some of these issues:

Marriage and divorce

The right to marry or not has historically been that of men more so than women. The rights that each partner in marriage enjoy has mostly been determined by other rights such as the right to safety and health. However, due to legal and religious dogma, the right to make decisions and take actions that influence both partners have been with the male partner. Religion has promulgated the man as the leader and head in marriage, and as such has given the rights of final decision to the male. This was compounded by the fact that men held the right to own property and in later society earned the income by which the family unit survived, giving the male the power to enforce his rights by withholding benefit from his partner or offspring. Together with the right to marry comes the right to divorce. This is a right available to either of the sexes and is not only available to the man. With the right to divorce, parental rights come into play. As such the rights of the male to retain custody of children and have access to his offspring, have been minimal. The reasoning for this has mainly been rooted in the ability of the female to provide adequate nurturing and support to offspring, especially during their early development. However, withholding the rights of the male to have an influence of their offspring has arguably had effects on the identity and social structure of those offspring. Members of the fathers' rights movement state that the outcome of divorce is overly one-sided, divorce is initiated by mothers in more than two-thirds of cases - especially when children are involved, and that divorce provides advantages for women, such as preferred custody of the children and financial assistance from their fathers in the form of child support payments.[12]

Marriage strike

Marriage strike is the name given to the phenomenon of males refusing to marry for fear of unfair legislations [13][14] and financial ramifications of divorce for the male. Men's rights writer Matthew Weeks has described divorces as 'slavery for men'.[15] The Rutgers report — though based on a small sample — found ten prevalent reasons for declining preference for marriage among males. The first three are that they can get sex without marriage; they can enjoy a pseudo-wife through cohabitation; and they want to avoid divorce and its financial risks.[16]

Alimony

The origins of alimony (a legal term that dates to the mid-17th century)[17] can be traced back to the ecclesiastical courts in England[18] Alimony laws vary by country and may not be applied in every divorce case. In some countries alimony is also available to men.

One legal precedent for male alimony in the United States was made in Orr v Orr,[19] where the Supreme Court invalidated Alabama's statutes by which husbands, but not wives, were required to pay alimony upon divorce. This statute was considered a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.

In the United States, the percentage of alimony recipients who were male rose from 2.4% in (1996-2001) to 3.6% in (2002-2006) and is expected to increase as more marriages feature a female primary earner.[20] In 2005, wives earned more than their husbands in 25.5% of dual-income families, and 33% of all families where the woman worked.[20] Members of the fathers' rights movement state that the outcome of divorce is overly one-sided, divorce is initiated by mothers in more than two-thirds of cases - especially when children are involved, and that divorce provides advantages for women, such as automatic custody of the children and financial benefits in the form of child support payments.[12]

Education

In recent years, girls in the United States have performed much better than boys in the same age group, in most schools and colleges.[21] In the United States, 57% of college students are women, and the number is growing.[22] A significant majority of primary school teachers in the United Kingdom are female.[23] Medical schools in the UK currently admit two females for each male. The trend is similar in other industrialized countries. Male rights authors (like the ones in Significant writers) argue that no meaningful action has yet been taken to address this in the U.S., but that the U.K. has both recognized and addressed it since the early 1990s.[9]

Employment

Employment law is another area of concern, with such problems as unequal treatment around parental leave, retirement age, and pension entitlements. They also assert sexual harassment policies are de facto directed against the male style of inappropriate sexual behavior in the workplace, while ignoring the female style of inappropriate behavior in the workplace.[24] They express anguish towards the fact that a man telling a joke or simply referring to a co-worker by a nickname is grounds for dismissal or lawsuits.[25] Spain's recent requirement that 40% of boardroom members be female has come under harsh criticism from the movement, while a company with 100% female board members would be acceptable under Zapatero's new law.[citation needed]

False rape accusations

Wendy McElroy says "According to much-cited feminist statistics, two percent of all reports are false.... According to a study conducted by Eugene Kanin of Purdue University, the correct figure may rise to the 40 percent range. Kanin examined 109 rape complaints registered in a Midwestern city from 1978 to 1987. Of these, 45 were ultimately classified by the police as 'false.' Also based on police records, Kanin determined that 50 percent of the rapes reported at two major universities were 'false.'" [26]

Criticism of Dr. Kanin's report include Dr. David Lisak, an associate professor of psychology and director of the Men’s Sexual Trauma Research Project at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. Lasik notes the police department "used or threatened to use the polygraph in every case" and cites page 13 of Investigating Sexual Assaults from the International Association of Chiefs of Police which says polygraph tests for sexual assault victims are contraindicated in the investigation process and that their use is “based on the misperception that a significant percentage of sexual assault reports are false,”. He claims “[ Dr. Kanin] simply reiterates the opinions of the police officers who concluded that the cases in question were ‘false allegations.’”. He states “Kanin’s 1994 article on false allegations is a provocative opinion piece, but it is not a scientific study of the issue of false reporting of rape. It certainly should never be used to assert a scientific foundation for the frequency of false allegations.” (Sexual Assault Report sep/Oct '07).

A recent notable case of a false rape accusation in the media was the 2006 Duke University lacrosse case, which ultimately led to the clearing of the accused (male) students and the disbarment of the prosecutor who pursued the case. However, as often if not always the case in false rape cases, the accuser was not charged with any crime. The Kobe Bryant sexual assault case from 2003 is an example of a rape accusation whose truth or falsity was widely debated in the media but was ultimately never answered with any certainty. The primary reason the charges were dropped was because the prosecutrix admitted that she lied during a mock trial cross-examination conducted by the prosecution team. In that case, the alleged victim refused to testify at trial and settled her potential civil claims against Bryant out of court.

Family

Family law is an area of deep concern among men's rights groups. Members of the fathers' rights movement state that the legal system discriminates against fathers regarding issues related to child custody.[27] These issues vary from state to state and country to country.

Health

Health disparity concerns of men's rights movements include:

  • Male circumcision, considered by the National Center for Men and other critics a euphemism for male genital mutilation, is the removal of the foreskin of the penis. In the United States and Israel, circumcision has been traditionally performed at or shortly after birth; in the case of Israel, it is most often performed when the boy is eight days old in accordance with Jewish religious law. Some advocates believe that men have a right to make their own decisions regarding such procedures.[28] Some also believe that circumcision, like conscription, is an example of the way in which many cultures accept violence against males.[29]
  • The disparity in the spending on men and women in the healthcare system. In the United Kingdom significantly more money is spent on breast cancer research than prostate cancer research.[30] 40,000 cases of breast cancer were detected in the UK in 2000 and claimed the lives of 13,000 women in 2002. In 2000, about 27,200 cases of prostate cancer were detected and claimed nearly 10,000 lives in 2002 in the UK. Funding for prostate cancer, however, is only about a fourth of breast cancer. Awareness for breast cancer is very prevalent in society today, with October being Breast Cancer Awareness Month in the United States. There is no proportionate funding for male cancer awareness or treatment.
  • Research showing workplace deaths and injuries occur at a higher rate for men in the United Kingdom.[31][32]

Suicide

The incidence of successful suicide is vastly higher among males than females among all age groups in most of the world. In the United States, the ratio varies between 3:1 to 10:1.[33] Excess male mortality from suicide is also evident from data from non-Western countries. In 1979-81, out of 74 countries with a non-zero suicide rate, two reported equal rates for the sexes (Seychelles and Kenya), three reported female rates exceeding male rates (Papua-New Guinea, Macau, and French Guiana), while the remaining 69 countries had male suicide rates greater than female suicide rates.[34]

Conscription

Male-only military conscription : The risks to life and limb in male-only military conscription is not compensated and hence is alleged to be gender biased against males.[35]

As Betty Friedan has argued, there have been attempts to put the draft on equal footing with regard to requiring the registration of both men and women[36]. The Equal Right Amendment in the USA was not universally supported by either men or women, and was eventually defeated after Phyllis Schafly secured bi-partisan support for a campaign against the change on the basis that women would not be drafted into the army.[37]

In 1981 in the United States, the case Rostker v. Goldberg alleged that the Military Selective Service Act violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment by requiring that men only and not also women register with the SSS. The Supreme Court eventually upheld the Act, stating that "the argument for registering women was based on considerations of equity, but Congress was entitled, in the exercise of its constitutional powers, to focus on the question of military need, rather than 'equity.'[6]"

A male-only draft is considered by many to be unequal. In much feminist dialogue, a draft that requires only male registrants is considered to be rooted in benevolent or ambivalent sexism[7].

Current attitudes toward a draft show a change in women's ability to participate in the military. The most recent attempt to have the draft reinstated inside the United States, the Universal National Service Act, states that “young men and women ages 18-26 could be called to service."

While it might be considered by some a positive that women are kept from the front lines by not being required to register for the draft nor being allowed in front line combat, it can be argued as to whether or not that is a privilege.

Media portrayal

Many believe idealized portrayals of the masculine physique set an unrealistic standard for male beauty. Here, the Carlson Twins model clothing.

Another issue of concern is that there may exist anti-male bias in the media. Men's rights activists argue that men are portrayed unfairly on television, radio, and in newspapers and magazines. They argue that not only does the media not pay serious attention to men's rights issues but that men are portrayed in a negative light, particularly in advertising.[38] The lack of concern over men's issues[39] such as higher rates of suicide by men, decline in academic achievement among boys, and a willingness of the press to print feminist statistics distorting the size of the "wage gap"[10][40] has led to the term "Lace Curtain" to describe feminist control over publishing and media representation of gender issues.[41]

According to Arran Stibbe (2004), men's health problems and behaviors can be linked to the socialized gender role of men in our culture. In exploring magazines, he found that they promote traditional masculinity and claims that, among other things, men's magazines tend to celebrate "male" activities and behavior such as admiring guns, fast cars, sexually libertine women, and reading or viewing pornography regularly. In men's magazines, several "ideal" images of men are promoted, and that these images may even entail certain health risks.

Refugees

In Australian immigration policy a distinction is regularly made between women and children (often treated erroneously as equivalent to "family groups") and single men. The details are subject to current debate and recently failed legislation (August 2006) in the Australian Parliament. But for example in one recent case, former Minister for Immigration, Senator Amanda Vanstone, determined as follows concerning Papuan asylum seekers: "The single men on the boat would be sent to an immigration detention centre, but families would not be split up and would be housed in facilities in the community".[42] The discriminatory treatment of single women (routinely assumed to be members of some family) and single men evident in such a practice is rarely examined in the Australian media.[citation needed]

Reproductive rights

The term Male abortion was coined by Melanie McCulley, a South Carolina attorney, in her 1998 article, "The Male Abortion: The Putative Father's Right to Terminate His Interests in and Obligations to the Unborn Child," which was published in The Journal of Law and Policy.[43] The theory is that when an unwed female becomes pregnant she has the option of abortion, adoption, or parenthood; and argues, in the context of legally recognized gender equality, that in the earliest stages of pregnancy the father should have the right to relinquish all future parental rights and financial responsibility – leaving the informed mother with the same three options.

In 2006, the National Center for Men brought a case in the US, Dubay v. Wells (dubbed by some Roe v. Wade for men), that argued that in the event of an unplanned pregnancy, when an unmarried woman informs a man that she is pregnant by him, he should have an opportunity to give up all paternity rights and responsibilities. Supporters argue that this would allow the woman time to make an informed decision and give men the same reproductive rights as women.[44][45] In its dismissal of the case, the U.S. Court of Appeals (Sixth Circuit) stated that "the Fourteenth Amendment does not deny to [the] State the power to treat different classes of persons in different ways."[46]

There are also those that include the father's reproductive right to protect a pregnancy from abortion. They argue that fathers should be given equal power over an abortion decision to protect their offspring.[47]

Critics argue that the concept of a "financial abortion" presents a problem in and of itself. Some men and women argue the availability of abortion should not relieve men of equal financial responsibility to a child they helped conceive. Additionally, opponents say, in a country such as the U.S. where government assistance is often railed against—see welfare state--the question remains: how does a society take care to ensure children do not descend into poverty? And who should be on the line for the financial support of these children?[48]

However, "after a woman has a baby, in Michigan and elsewhere, she has the right to give up that baby for adoption. If she exercises that right, she cuts off her own financial responsibility to the child, along with other parental rights and responsibilities. A man, by contrast, may not relinquish his financial responsibility for an unwanted child unless the biological mother shares his wish to give up the child for adoption."[48]

Political representation

In the United Kingdom, where there is a Minister for Women, there have been calls for an analogous "Minister for Men." Lord Northbourne, who made the first Parliamentary call for such in 2004,[49] told the BBC that "[i]f the government feels they need a minister to address women's issues, it should be the same for men."[50] Northbourne's proposal was put to the Prime Minister during PMQs the same year.[51] Northbourne's proposal was rejected by the Government. Northbourne and others argue that such a minister is needed, pointing to a relatively poor standard of health for men, Fathers' rights, male suicide rates, and males underperforming in education compared to females.[50] In 2009 Mark Brooks, Chairman of the Mankind Initiative showed his support for the appointment of a Minister for Men and put suggestions forward for which areas a Minister for Men is most needed. Also in 2009, Reece Wilkes a 16 year old student from Northallerton, North Yorkshire called on the Minister for Women Harriet Harman to support the idea.[52] Later Reece was to criticise the response, stating it was a "cop-out" and that he is "furious".[53] Reece then decided to Lobby the Shadow Justice Minister, Lord Henley and sent a letter to him, arguing that a Minister for Men and a Men's National Commission are needed to address the inequalities which affect men in "today's modern society."[54]

Sentencing

A University of Georgia study found substantial disparity in criminal sentencing men and women received "after controlling for extensive criminological, demographic, and socioeconomic variables". The study found that "blacks and males are ... less likely to get no prison term when that option is available; less likely to receive downward departures [from the guidelines]; and more likely to receive upward adjustments and, conditioned on having a downward departure, receive smaller reductions than whites and females." [55]

Social security and retirement

In some societies there is legislated discrimination against men in provision of social security. In Australia, for example, a woman over fifty years of age may obtain a Widow Allowance[56] approximately equal to a pension if, after turning forty, she becomes widowed, divorced, or merely separated from a spouse (who may be a de facto spouse). She must have "no recent workforce experience" but she can easily qualify for this well after the loss of her partner by going through a period of underemployment. There is no similar allowance for men. In Australia and the UK,[57] some of these arrangements (including also women's earlier qualification for Age Pension, etc.) are being legally phased out. In Israel, [58] Social Security is available for low income earners at the age of 64 for women, and 67 for men. The policy of "age 65 for men, age 60 for women" remains in place in most Western countries, however.

Violence

Members of the fathers' rights movement state that feminist organizations invoke the specter of domestic violence as propaganda directed against fathers and fathers' rights groups.[59]

They point to domestic violence studies based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS), which show that men and women act violently toward their partners in about equal percentages.[60][61] They argue that men comprise a "significant portion" of the victims of domestic violence,[62] and they call for more services to be provided for male victims of domestic violence.[61]

Advocates cite government statistics that show that in 15% to 38% of the cases of intimate partner violence the victim is male.[citation needed] Furthermore, according to a 2000 CDC/Justice study, "Approximately 23% of the men who had lived with a man as a couple reported being raped, physically assaulted, and/or stalked by a male cohabitant, while 7.4% of the men who had married or lived with a woman as a couple reported such violence by a wife or female cohabitant."[63] Researchers argue that the real numbers for violence against men are likely to be higher, since male victims may be less likely to report abuse than female victims due to social stigmatization.[64] They also assert that the percentage of shelters for battered men should make up a respective percentage of all shelters. The National Coalition of Free Men has sued several women's shelters with the goal of allowing battered men and their children to be admitted and to receive assistance from shelters (see Violence against men). Many women's shelters will assist male victims of domestic abuse but do not house men, instead offering hotel vouchers, counseling, case management, legal services and other support services.

Critics such as Michael Flood accuse men's right enthusiasts of misrepresenting male violence or statistics about domestic violence. Michael Flood and Michael Kimmel criticize the methodology of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) arguing it excludes information about "intensity, context, consequences or meaning" noting that women are more likely to sustain injuries, fear for their lives, and experience sexual abuse and that the study omits data on intimate homicide, sexual abuse, and violence as self-defense. He concludes "[CTS] relies on only one partner’s reports despite poor interspousal reliability" and agrees that while studies do show men are likely to under-report subjection to domestic violence, there is no evidence men are "more likely to under-report than female victims". He further notes that men under report their own violence committed against women and women do the reverse (Kimmel 2001, 10-11).[65] He states "crime victimization studies based on large-scale aggregate data, household and crime surveys, police statistics, and hospital data all show that men assault their partners and ex-partners at rates several times the rate at which women assault theirs and that female victims greatly outnumber male victims (Tjaden & Thoennes 2000, pp. 25-26)".

In response to criticism about the influence of former (rather than current) partners - further studies based on the CTS 2 scale continue to show that women initiate violence at least as often as men, and perpetrate serious violence as often as men.[66][67] In a study specifically examining the behaviour of former partners, Dutton & Winstead (2006) found that women initiate revenge behaviours more frequently than men.[68] Furthermore, studies show women in the United States commit domestic violence against men 33% more often than men do against women, and women commit severe domestic violence twice as often as men.[69]

The Violence Against Women Act in America is being vehemently opposed by rights groups for discriminating against men. Similarly, laws such as 498a in India, outlawing cruelty to women by their husband or his relatives, are being fought by groups such as Save Indian Family Foundation.

Wages

Women and men often make different choices: in college major, in hours and years worked, and in what jobs to take.

Critics of the discrimination theory, including men's rights activists, argue that these "free choice" elements are the source of virtually all of the gender earnings gap. According to these critics, women often choose to prioritize social and family life before their careers, and will therefore avoid jobs that require long or inflexible hours.

Warren Farrell found that U.S. Census data from 2001 shows that childless women who have never married earn 117 percent of their childless male counterparts, when the comparison controls for education, hours worked, and age are accounted for. Furthermore, 2004 Census Bureau data shows that "a part-time working woman makes $1.10 for every dollar made by her male counterpart."[70] In contrast, economists' research conducted in the 1990s found that, even after accounting for parenthood status, education, job title, and other factors, there was still a significant income disparity in men's favor (Blau and Kahn 1997, Wood et al. 1993).

More recently, a report titled Women's Earnings in 2008, published by the US Labor Department in July 2009, found that in aggregate (without controlling for preferences for higher or lower earning fields), women who have never married earn 94.2 percent of their unmarried male counterparts' earnings[71] a figure that is within less than 6% of parity despite the fact that "women, still..are more likely to choose jobs in education and healthcare, where earnings will tend to be lower."[72]

Wages are not the only factor in determining spending power. 1984 U.S. Census Bureau data indicates "women who are heads of households have a net worth that is 141 percent of the net worth of men who are heads of households."[73]

See also

Significant writers

References

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  47. ^ http://select.nytimes.com/2006/01/10/opinion/10tierney.html/partner/rssnyt?_r=1
  48. ^ a b [4]
  49. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1343276/Yesterday-in-Parliament.html
  50. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/bbc_parliament/3522631.stm
  51. ^ http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/2004/mar/08/minister-for-men#S6CV0418P2_20040308_CWA_745
  52. ^ http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/local/northyorks/4354928.Northallerton_student_s_equality_call/
  53. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-20297390.html
  54. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/18758413/Minister-for-Men
  55. ^ http://www.terry.uga.edu/~mustard/sentencing.pdf
  56. ^ Who can get Widow Allowance?
  57. ^ The Pension Service - A to Z - State Pension
  58. ^ [http://www.btl.gov.il/ENGLISH%20HOMEPAGE/BENEFITS/OLD%20AGE%20INSURANCE/CONDITIONS/Pages/Uponreaching.aspx#Israel's Social Security website
  59. ^ Baskerville, Stephen (2007). Taken Into Custody - The War Against Fathers, Marriage and the Family. Cumberland House. 
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  61. ^ a b "October’s Domestic Violence Awareness Month Ignores Many Victims". American Coalition of Fathers and Children also Omaha World Herald, Daytona. October 2006. http://www.acfc.org/site/PageServer?pagename=octobers_dv_awareness. Retrieved 2007-03-15. 
  62. ^ "Equal Rights Amendment Yes, ‘Women’s Equality Amendment’ No". GlennSacks.Com, also the Louisville Courier. October 2006. http://www.glennsacks.com/equal_rights_amendment.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-15. 
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  64. ^ http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/13076/20021019-0000/www.nuancejournal.com.au/documents/three/saran.pdf
  65. ^ Father's Rights and Violence Against Women
  66. ^ Farrell, W. (2000) Women Can't Here What Men Don't Say, New York: Tarcher/Putnam
  67. ^ Fiebert, M. (2005) References examining assaults by women on their spouses or male partners: An annotated bibliography, California State University, accessed 08 May 2006. Previously published in Sexuality and Culture, 1997, 1, 273-286 and also Sexuality and Culture, 2004, 8(3-4), 140-177.
  68. ^ Dutton, L. B., Winstead, B. A (2006) “Predicting unwanted pursuit: attachment, relationship satisfaction, relationship alternatives, and break-up distress”, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23(4): 565-586.
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Bibliography

  • Save the Males by Richard Doyle, 2006, ISBN 978-1411696334
  • The Myth of Male Power by Warren Farrell, 1993.
  • Women Can’t Hear what Men Don’t Say: The myths that divide couples and poison love by Warren Farrell, 1999.
  • The War against Boys: How misguided feminism is harming our young men by Christina Hoff-Sommers, 2000.
  • Who Stole Feminism: How women have betrayed women by Christina Hoff-Sommers, 1994.
  • Spreading Misandry: The teaching of contempt for men in popular culture by Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young, 2001.
  • The Hazards of Being Male: Surviving the Myth of Masculine Privilege by Herb Goldberg, 1987.
  • Refusing to be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice by John Stoltenberg, 1989.
  • Iron John: A Book About Men by Robert Bly, 1990.
  • Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man by Susan Faludi, 1999.
  • Men Freeing Men: Exploding the myth of the traditional male by Francis Baumli, 1985.
  • Flood, Michael: Backlash: Angry men's movements in: Rossi, Staceay E.: The Battle and Backlash rage on. 2004, XLibris Corp., ISBN 1-4134-5934-X, S. 261-287 [8]
  • Flood, Michael: Men's movements in: XY magazine, vol. 6. 1996 [9]
  • Stibbe, Arran. (2004). Health and the Social Construction of Masculinity in Men's Health Magazine. Men and Masculinities; 7 (1) July, pp. 31–51.

External links

Bibliographic

  • The Men's Bibliography, a comprehensive bibliography of writing on men, masculinities, gender and sexualities, listing over 16,700 works. (mainly from a constructionist perspective)
  • Boyhood Studies, features a 2200+ bibliography of young masculinities.

Other








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