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Menno Simons

"Menno Simons from Friesland"
1608 engraving by Christoffel van Sichem
Church Mennonites
Personal details
Born 1496
Witmarsum, Friesland, Low Countries
Died 31 January 1561
Wüsterfelde, Holstein, Germany
Buried Bad Oldesloe, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
Nationality Dutch
Denomination Roman Catholic (until 1536), Anabaptist Protestant Christian (from 1536)
Spouse Geertruydt Jansdochter
Children Two daughters, one son
Profession Catholic priest

Menno Simons (1496 – 31 January 1561) was a Dutch Anabaptist religious leader from the Friesland region of the Low Countries. Simons was a contemporary of the Protestant Reformers and his followers became known as Mennonites.

Contents

Biography

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Early life

Menno Simons (/ˈmɛnoː ˈsimɔns/) was born in 1496[1] in Witmarsum, Friesland, Holy Roman Empire. He grew up in a poor peasant environment, but very little is known concerning his childhood and family. His father's name must have been Simon, Simons being a patronym, while he had a brother named Pieter.[2]

Simons grew up in a disillusioned and war torn country. Friesland was ravaged by war in the late 15th and early 16th century. Landsknecht soldiers haunted the Frisian lands in the 1490s to force the 'Free' Frisians to accept the duke of Saxony-Meissen as their head-of-state. The duke was the governor of the Netherlands for the Habsburg family. One of the archenemies of the Habsburgs, the Duke of Guelders, invaded Friesland in 1515 and conquered half of it. The other half was ceded by Saxony to the Habsburgs. The Frisians tried to regain their freedom but they were too weak and eventually accepted the imperial authority of the Habsburg emperor Charles V.[citation needed]

Simons learned Latin and some Greek and he was taught about the Latin Church Fathers during his training to become a priest.[2] Before or during this training, he had never read the Bible, out of fear that he would be seduced, once he would do this. When he later reflected about this period, he called himself stupid.[3]

Roman Catholic Church

He was ordained as a Roman Catholic priest in 1515 or 1516[4] at Utrecht, he was then made a chaplain in his father's village Pingjum (1524).

Around 1526 or 1527, questions surrounding the doctrine of transubstantiation caused Menno Simons to begin a serious and in-depth search of the scriptures, which he confessed he had not previously studied, even being a priest. At this time he arrived at what some have termed an "evangelical humanist" position.

Menno's first knowledge of the concept of "rebaptism", which he said "sounded very strange to me", came in 1531. This came through the means of hearing of the beheading of Sicke Freerks Snijder at Leeuwarden for being "rebaptized". A renewed search of the scriptures left Menno Simons believing that infant baptism is not in the Bible. He discussed the issue with his pastor, searched the Church Fathers, and read the works of Martin Luther and Heinrich Bullinger. While still pondering the issue, he was transferred to Witmarsum. Here he came into direct contact with Anabaptists, preaching and practicing believer's baptism. Later, some of the Münsterite disciples came there as well. While he regarded them as misled and fanatical, he was drawn to their zeal and their view on the Bible, the Church, and discipleship. When his brother Pieter was among a group of Anabaptists killed near Bolsward in 1535, Menno experienced a spiritual and mental crisis. He said he "prayed to God with sighs and tears that He would give to me, a sorrowing sinner, the gift of His grace, create within me a clean heart, and graciously through the merits of the crimson blood of Christ, he would graciously forgive my unclean walk and unprofitable life..."[5]

Anabaptists

The house near Bad Oldesloe that Menno Simons is believed to have worked in

Menno Simons rejected the Catholic church and the priesthood on 12 January 1536,[4] casting his lot with the Anabaptists. His date of baptism is unknown, but by October of 1536 his connection with Anabaptism was well-known. In that month Herman and Gerrit Jans were arrested and charged with having lodged Simons. He was probably baptized not long after leaving Witmarsum in early 1536. He was ordained around 1537 by Obbe Philips. Obbe and his brother, Dirk Philips, were among the peaceful disciples of Melchior Hoffman (the more radical having set up the kingdom in Münster). It was Hoffman who introduced the first self-sustaining Anabaptism to the Netherlands, when he taught and practiced believers' baptism in Emden in East Frisia. Menno Simons rejected the violence advocated by the Münster movement, believing it was not Scriptural.[6] His theology was focused on separation from this world, and baptism by repentance symbolized this.[6]

For true evangelical faith...cannot lay dormant; but manifests itself in all righteousness and works of love; it...clothes the naked; feeds the hungry; consoles the afflicted; shelters the miserable; aids and consoles all the oppressed; returns good for evil; serves those that injure it; prays for those that persecute it."

—Menno Simons, Why I Do Not Cease Teaching and Writing, 1539

Menno evidently rose quickly to become a man of influence. Before 1540, David Joris, an Anabaptist of the "inspirationist" variety, had been the most influential leader in the Netherlands. By 1544, the term Mennonite or Mennist was used in a letter to refer to the Dutch Anabaptists.[citation needed]

Twenty-five years after his renunciation of Catholicism, Menno died on 31 January 1561 at Wüstenfelde, Holstein, and was buried in his garden.[2] He was married to a woman named Gertrude, and they had at least three children, two daughters and a son.[citation needed]

Theology

Menno Simons (1854)

Menno Simons influence on Anabaptism in the Low Countries was so great that Baptist historian William Estep suggested that their history be divided into three periods: "before Menno, under Menno, and after Menno". He is especially significant in coming to the Anabaptist movement in the north in its most troublesome days, and helping not only to sustain it, but also to establish it as a viable Radical Reformation movement.[citation needed]

Excommunication

Girolimon (1995) compares the teachings of Menno Simons with those of Protestant reformer John Calvin (1509-64), focusing on the issue of excommunication. This theological analysis stresses sharp contrasts between the two leaders on four basic principles: on procedures leading to excommunication; on the severity of sanctions on the excommunicant; on the restoration of a repentant individual; and on civil punishment. Calvin and Menno, each a leader in distinct wings of the Reformation, both believed this extreme form of discipline essential to the function of church in society, agreeing on the basic grounds for excommunication as expressed in the New Testament. Menno, however, envisioned the application of reprimand as a process administered by the entire church body against any sin; Calvin reserved excommunication for especially severe transgressions as identified by the Company of Pastors and the Consistory. Among other disagreements, Calvin approved civil punishment for certain forms of unorthodoxy while Menno advocated strict church/state separation. They differed most profoundly in their views on why church discipline was necessary. Simons saw human perfectibility as attainable after conversion, while Calvin stressed an Augustinian theology of human depravity.[7][8]

Bride of Christ

Menno Simons drew heavily from biblical images of the bride of Christ when envisioning a new church during the early 17th century. He found in the Biblical Song of Songs a description of the relationship between a purified church and Christ that not only applied to a reformed church but also to the earthly marriage between man and woman. Like the bride in the songs the woman must come in total love and devotion and will be cleansed of her natural evil by contact with her husband. He did not alter the conventional view of relations between men and women but idealized the woman's subordinate and asexual status. [9]

Infant baptism

the Anabaptists insisted on adult baptism. By contrast martin Luther defended infant baptism; it stemmed from his view of the church as ideally an inclusive reality in a Christian society. Menno Simons based his rejection of infant baptism on the concept of the church as a disciplined group of individuals who have voluntarily committed their lives to Christ. He viewed sanctification as a lifelong process that does not completely rid the presence of sin from life.[10]

Peace

Although some Anabaptists in Amsterdam and Münster in the 16th century engaged in excesses, Dutch Mennonites generally became pious and peaceful. An explanation of this transformation is needed, and the answer may lie in Menno's transformation from Catholic priest and apologist to pacifist Anabaptist reformer - a transformation linked to his relationships to the radical Münsterites and peaceful Melchiorites. In his 1539 Christian Baptism Menno Simons stated his reluctance to engage in disputes, which may have stemmed from his reluctance for years to announce his true convictions.[11]

Asceticism

Menno Simons rejected asceticism in terms of its traditional practices of social withdrawal, mortification, and self-denial. Historical theologian Richard Valantasis, however, has suggested that asceticism should not be defined as these physical practices but as a group of activities designed to reestablish social relations between the individual and the dominant social environment through a new subjectivity, different social relations, and an alternative symbolic universe. Simons's theology is ascetic by Valantasis's definition since it used these methods to restructure Anabaptists' relationship with 'worldly' society.[12]

Works

  • Dat Fundament des Christelycken leers (1539-40; Foundation of Christian Doctrine)[13]
  • Van de Geestlijke Verrijsenisse (ca. 1536; The Spiritual Resurrection)
  • De nieuwe Creatuere (ca. 1537; The New Birth)
  • Christelycke leringhen op den 25. Psalm (ca. 1538; Meditation on the Twenty-Fifth Psalm)

Notes

  1. ^ Menno's life. Menno Simons.net. Retrieved on 2009-04-15.
  2. ^ a b c Menno Simons (1496-1561). Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved on 2009-04-20.
  3. ^ (Dutch) Menno Simons' uitgang uit het Pausdom.. Digital library for Dutch literature. Retrieved on 2009-04-20.
  4. ^ a b  "Mennonites". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Mennonites. 
  5. ^ "Menno Simon's Renunciation of the Church of Rome". http://e-menno.org/ren.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  6. ^ a b Gonzalez, J. (1975). A History of Christian Thought. Abingdon Press. pp. 96. 
  7. ^ Michael Thomas Girolimon, "John Calvin and Menno Simons on Religious Discipline: A Difference in Degree and Kind," Fides et Historia 1995 27(1): 5-29
  8. ^ Charles Wiley, "'Hand this Man over to Satan': A Comparison of John Calvin and Menno Simons on Excommunication," Fides et Historia 1993 25(3): 16-32
  9. ^ Beth Kreitzer, "Menno Simons and the Bride of Christ," Mennonite Quarterly Review 1996 70(3): 299-318
  10. ^ Egil Grislis, "Martin Luther and Menno Simons on Infant Baptism," Journal of Mennonite Studies 1994 12: 7-25
  11. ^ Abraham Friesen, "Present at the Inception: Menno Simons and the Beginnings of Dutch Anabaptism," Mennonite Quarterly Review 1998 72(3): 351-388
  12. ^ Lawrence J. Altepeter, "The Asceticism of Menno Simons," Mennonite Quarterly Review 1998 72(1): 69-83
  13. ^ Menno's Foundation-Book. Menno Simons.net. Retrieved on 2009-04-15.

References

  • Dutch Anabaptism: Origin, Spread, Life and Thought (1450–1600), by Cornelius Krahn
  • The Anabaptist Story: An Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Anabaptism, by William Roscoe Estep ISBN 0-8028-0886-7
  • The Complete Writings of Menno Simons..., translated by Leonard Verduin and edited by John C. Wenger, with a biography by Harold S. Bender ISBN 0-8361-1353-5

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Menno Simons (1608 engraving)

Menno Simons (1496–1561) was a Protestant Reformer from Friesland. His followers became known as Mennonites.

Sourced

  • For true evangelical faith...cannot lay dormant; but manifests itself in all righteousness and works of love; it...clothes the naked; feeds the hungry; consoles the afflicted; shelters the miserable; aids and consoles all the oppressed; returns good for evil; serves those that injure it; prays for those that persecute it.
    • Why I Do Not Cease Teaching and Writing, 1539

Unsourced

  • The regenerated do not go to war, nor engage in strife. They are children of peace who have 'beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning forks, and know no war' (Isaiah 2:4, Micah 4:3). ... Our weapons are not weapons with which cities and countries may be destroyed, walls and gates broken down, and human blood shed in torrents like water. But they are weapons with which the spiritual kingdom of the devil is destroyed. ... Christ is our fortress; patience our weapon of defense; the Word of God our sword. ... Iron and metal spears and swords we leave to those who, alas, regard human blood and swine’s blood of well-nigh equal value.
  • We who were formerly no people at all, and who knew of no peace, are now called to be ... a church ... of peace. True Christians do not know vengeance. They are the children of peace. Their hearts overflow with peace. Their mouths speak peace, and they walk in the way of peace.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

MENNO SIMONS (1492-1559), religious leader, was born in 1492 at Witmarsum in Friesland. Of his parentage (apart from his patronymic) and education nothing is known. He was not a man of learning, nor had he many books; for his knowledge of early Christian writers he was partly indebted to the Chronica or compilations of Sebastian Franck. At the age of twenty-four he entered the priesthood, becoming one of two curates under the incumbent of Pingjum, a village near his birthplace. He accused himself, with the other clergy, of lax and self-indulgent living. Doubts about transubstantiation made him uneasy; some of Luther's tracts fell in his way, and he was comforted by Luther's dictum that salvation does not depend on human dogmata. Hence he began to study the New Testament. The question as to the right age for baptism came up; he found this an open matter in the early church. Then the execution, in March 1531, at Leeuwarden, of the tailor Sicke Freerks, who had been rebaptized in the previous December at Emden, introduced further questions. Menno was not satisfied with the inconsistent answers which he got from Luther, Bucer and Bullinger; he resolved to rely on Scripture alone, and from this time describes his preaching as evangelical, not sacramental. In 1532 he exchanged his curacy for a living at Witmarsum, in response to a popular call. Anabaptism of the Munster type repelled him. His first tractate (1535, first printed 1627) is directed against the "horrible and gross blasphemy of John of Leiden" - though the genuineness of this tract has been doubted. A brother of Menno joined the insurgent followers of John Matthyszoon, and was killed at Bolsward (April 1535). Blaming the leaders by whom these poor people had been misled, Menno blamed himself for not having shown them a straight course. Accordingly on the 12th of January 1536, he left the Roman communion. There were now among the so-called Anabaptists four parties, the favourers of the Munster faction, the Batenburgers, extremists, the Melchiorites and the Obbenites. For a time Menno remained aloof from both Melchior Hofman and Obbe Philipsz. Before the year was out, yielding to the prayer of six or eight persons who had freed themselves from the Munster spell, he agreed to become their minister, and was set apart (January 1537) to the eldership at Groningen, with imposition of hands by Obbe Philipsz, who is regarded as the actual founder of the Mennonite body. In fact, Obbe left the body and is stigmatized as its Demas. Menno repudiated the formation of a sect; those who had experienced the "new birth" were to him the true Christian church, which was limited by no decree of reprobation. His Christology was in the main orthodox, though he rejected terms (such as Trinity) which he could not find in Scripture, and held a Valentinian doctrine of the celestial origin of the flesh of Christ. His church discipline was drawn from the Swiss Baptists. Silent prayer was a feature of the worship; sermons were without texts. Neither baptism (by pouring on the head) nor the Lord's Supper (with the accompaniment of feet-washing) conferred grace; they were divine ordinances which reflected the believer's inward state. Marriage with outsiders was prohibited; women had no part in church government. Oaths and the taking of life were absolutely forbidden; hence the magistracy and the army were for the Mennonite unlawful callings; but magistrates were to be obeyed in all things not prohibited by Scripture. The subsequent career of Menno was that of an active missioner; his changes of place, often compulsory, are difficult to trace. He was apparently much in East Friesland till 1541; in North Holland, with Amsterdam as centre, from 1541 to 1543; again till '545 in East Friesland (where he held a disputation at Emden with John a Lasco in January 1 544); till 1547 in South Holland; next, about Lubeck; at Wismar in1553-1554(he held two disputations with Martin Micronius at Norden in February 1 554); lastly at Wustenfelde, a village near Oldesloo, between Hamburg and Lubeck, where he died on the 13th of January 1 559. He had married one Gertrude at Groningen, and left a daughter, by whom the dates of his birth and death were communicated to P. J. Twisch, for his Chronyk (1619).

Menno's writings in Plattdeutsch, printed at various places, are numerous, with much sameness, and what an unfriendly critic would call wool-gathering; through them shines a character attractive by the sincerity of its simple and warm spirituality, the secret of Menno's influence. The collection of his Opera Omnia Theologica (Amsterdam, 1681), folio, in a Dutch version, comprises twenty-three tractates, with reference to nine unprinted. His main principles will be found in his Dat Fundament des Christelycken Leers (1 539, 8vo). A selection (Gedenkblatter) from his writings, in a German version, in honour of the (supposed) tercentennial of his death was edited by J. Mannhardt (Danzig, 1861) with an appendix from the writings of Dirk Philipsz (1504-1570), brother of Obbe, and Menno's henchman. His writings are published in English at Elkhart, Indiana.

Since the publication of the Leven (1837) by A. M. Cramer, light has been thrown on the period by the researches of de Hoop Scheffer; see Van der Aa, Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden (1869) R. Barclay, Inner Life of Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876) for a good account of Mennonite anticipations of Quaker views and practices; F. C. Fleischer, Menno Simons, eene Levensschets (1892); V. M. Reimann, Mennonis Simonis qualis fuerit vita (1894) ,; S. Cramer, in Hauck's Realencyklopadie (1903); a separate article in the same, Mennoniten, by S. Cramer, gives a survey of the origin and ramifications of the movement in Europe and America. (A. Go.*)


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