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.Menopause is the permanent cessation of reproductive fertility occurring some time before the end of the natural lifespan.^ Menopause: End of female reproductive years.

^ This is defined as the cessation of menstruation that occurs at the end of a woman's reproductive life.
  • menopause Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Induced menopause can occur at any time during a woman's reproductive years.
  • menopause@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term was originally coined to describe this reproductive change in human females, where the end of fertility is traditionally indicated by the permanent stopping of monthly menstruation or "menses." The word "menopause" literally means the "end of monthly cycles" from the Greek words pausis (cessation) and the word root men from mensis meaning (month).
.In humans, the ending of the reproductive cycles is a biological process that most women first notice in their mid-forties.^ Most women notice cycle irregularity before the periods stop.

^ For most women this process begins silently somewhere around age 40...
  • Information and updates on early menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.patientlinx.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the late forties, the process accelerates and hormones fluctuate more, causing irregular menstrual cycles and unpredictable episodes of heavy bleeding.
  • http://www.seniorhealthweek.org/menopause.htm 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.seniorhealthweek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this transition, the ovaries start producing lower levels of natural sex hormones—estrogen and progesterone.^ When women are younger, the ovary produces estrogen and progesterone.
  • Women's Health Forum Menopause Mayhem 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.wildcelt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lower hormone levels may decrease the sex drive.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progesterone: A female hormone produced by the ovaries.

.Estrogen promotes the normal development of a woman’s breasts and uterus, controls the cycle of ovulation (when an ovary releases an egg into a fallopian tube), and affects many aspects of a woman’s physical and emotional health.^ Ovulation occurs when the egg is released from its follicle -- leaving the ovary, entering the fallopian tube, and journeying toward the uterus.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During each monthly menstrual cycle, an egg is released from one ovary.
  • Menopause Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The egg travels from the ovary through a Fallopian tube to the uterus.
  • Menopause Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment on MedicineNet.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Progesterone controls menstruation and prepares the lining of the uterus to receive the fertilized egg.^ If the egg is not fertilized, the egg and the lining of the uterus is shed during a woman’s monthly menstrual period.

^ It prepares the uterus for pregnancy or menstruation, and protects its lining against cancer.

^ This enriched lining is prepared to receive and nourish a fertilized egg following conception.
  • Menopause Herbal Supplements - Menopaus Products 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.herbsmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.seniorhealthweek.org/menopause.htm 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.seniorhealthweek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.The meaning of the word menopause has in more recent times been expanded to indicate the permanent but naturally occurring discontinuation of female fertility in many other species, even if the females of those species do not have menstrual cycles.^ Menstrual conditions more types...» Types of Menopause .
  • Menopause Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Stages of Menopause Medically, Menopause means the cessation of the menstrual cycle.
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Menopause Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Menopause in humans

.In adult human females who still have a uterus, and who are not pregnant or lactating, postmenopause is identified by a permanent (at least one year's) absence of monthly periods or menstruation.^ If you have had no menstrual periods for 1 year, you have reached menopause and are in postmenopause .
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who have not had a menstrual period for a year are considered postmenopausal.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clearest indication of menopause is the absence of a period for one year.
  • Menopause | Encyclopedia of Medicine | Find Articles at BNET 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

.In women without a uterus, menopause or postmenopause is identified by a very high FSH level.^ Menopause can be a very difficult time for women.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.herbs2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FSH levels increase during perimenopause and are high after menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FSH levels are normally high in menopause, so high FSH levels can help to confirm that a woman is in menopause.

.In human females, menopause usually happens more or less in midlife, signaling the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life.^ Menopause — is a natural transition in a woman's life.
  • Menopause - Medpedia 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause: End of female reproductive years.

^ Menopause signals the end of fertility and the beginning of a new and potentially rewarding time in a woman's life.
  • Menopause Symptoms, What is menopause? When does menopause happen? Power Surge 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.power-surge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Menopause is perhaps most easily understood as the opposite process to menarche, the start of the monthly periods.^ Menopause is frequently best understood as the process opposite to "menarche", which is the start of the monthly periods.
  • menopause-Order Menopause Tests�Menopause Supplements�Menopause Symptoms�Menopause Tests¦Natural Menopause Treatments 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthremedies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause comes from the Latin words meno, meaning...women often believe they will go through menopause later because they started having periods...
  • menopause Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Living Through Menopause when you start the menopause do your periods lessen?

.However, menopause in women cannot satisfactorily be defined simply as the permanent "stopping of the monthly periods", because in reality what is happening to the uterus is quite secondary to the process; it is what is happening to the ovaries that is the crucial factor.^ However, because their uterus is removed, they no longer have their periods and cannot get pregnant.

^ Menopause happens because the woman’s ovary stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

^ Every woman’s period will stop at menopause.

.As an illustration of this point: for medical reasons, the uterus must sometimes be surgically removed (hysterectomy) in a younger woman; her periods will cease permanently, and the woman will technically be infertile, but as long as at least one of her ovaries is still functioning, the woman will not have reached menopause.^ Menopause also can occur when a woman's ovaries are surgically removed.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause is the point in a woman's life when she has not had a menstrual period for 1 year.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman’s uterus .
  • Menopause and Menopause Treatments << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even without the presence of the uterus, ovulation and the release of the sequence of reproductive hormones will continue to cycle on, until menopause is reached.^ Technically speaking menopause is a medical term that means the normal and complete cessation of the menstrual cycle, including both ovulation (the release of an unfertilized egg from the ovaries) and menstrual periods.
  • MACA extract and Menopause Findings, A natural safe natural therapy DHEA 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.peruherbals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) Progestin/Estrogen Replacement Therapy (PERT) Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) - no longer widely used due to side effects; can be used in women without a uterus.
  • Menopause Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The normal reproductive life of a woman before she reaches this stage is known as 'premenopause', and the years following the menopause, after the initial year, which is encompassed by the term perimenopause, are known as postmenopause.
  • Menopause - 50+ Health Club 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.50plushealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But in circumstances where a woman's ovaries are removed (oophorectomy), even if the uterus were to be left intact, the woman will immediately be in "surgical menopause".
.Thus menopause is based on the natural or surgical cessation of hormone production by the ovaries, which are a part of the body's endocrine system of hormone production, in this case the hormones which make reproduction possible and can influence sexual behavior.^ Menopause is not a disease —it’s a natural part of life.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause is a natural part of growing older.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hormones are part of what makes us individual.

.The resultant decreased levels of circulating estrogen impacts the entire cascade of a woman's reproductive functioning, from brain to skin.^ This causes the levels of estrogen and progesterone to decrease.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hot flashes appear to be a direct result of decreasing estrogen levels.
  • http://www.seniorhealthweek.org/menopause.htm 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.seniorhealthweek.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As estrogen levels decline during menopause, a woman's risk of developing the following medical conditions may increase: .
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The menopause transition, and post-menopause itself, is a natural life change, not a disease state or a disorder.^ Menopause is a natural transition that may be treated naturally.
  • Tag: Menopause - Explore content tagged Menopause on eHow.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Menopause is a natural part of life, not a disease or a health crisis.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Womens HealthCare Forum: Your Health: Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.womenshealthcareforum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause is not a disease —it’s a natural part of life.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.The transition itself can be challenging for a number of women, but for others it is not difficult.^ There may also be other factors, currently unknown, that create coping challenges for women in the years immediately surrounding menopause.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Symptoms The major symptomology dealt with in this section comprise the most common challenges posed to menopausal women in their journey through the Change.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women face many challenges physically and emotionally as they begin to experience the transition known as menopause.

Age

.In the Western world, the most typical age range for menopause (last period) is between the ages of 40 and 60[2] and the average age for last period is 51 years.^ Rarely, menopause occurs after age 60.

^ In the United States, the average age of menopause is 51 years, though around the world the average is 60 years.
  • WHFoods: Menopausal Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perimenopause lasts for 1 year after your last period .
  • Age Page: Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.nia.nih.gov [Source type: General]

[3] .In some developing countries however, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, the median age of natural menopause is considerably earlier, at 44 years.^ What to Expect Menopause is a natural part of aging.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause is the permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 6 to 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.
  • Menopause - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]
  • Menopause Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The menopause is not an illness but a natural biological event that can play a major part in some serious health problems, many of which are more common in middle age, such as osteoporosis, heart disease and stroke.
  • Menopause - 50+ Health Club 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.50plushealth.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.In the Western world, a woman's last period occurring between the ages of 55 to 60 is known as "late menopause."^ Menopause actually occurs at the end of a woman's last menstrual period.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rarely, menopause occurs after age 60.

^ Most women reach menopause between the ages of 45 and 55.

"Early menopause" is defined as having the final period somewhere between the age of 40 to 45.
.Rarely, a woman's ovaries stop working at a very early age, ranging anywhere from the age of puberty to age 40, and this is known as premature ovarian failure (POF).^ Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure ...

^ This is called premature menopause or premature ovarian failure.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause, when a woman's ovaries stop working, occurs on average at about age 50.
  • Menopause & Epilepsy | epilepsy.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

.POF is not considered to be due to the normal effects of aging.^ For years I suffered with many of the side effects of hypothyroidism but was not treated because my TSH levels were considered within the normal range at 5.

^ The average age when menstruation stops is supposedly 52 but any age after forty is considered normal and for a few women menopause occurs in their late thirties.

.Some known causes of premature ovarian failure include autoimmune disorders, thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.^ Causes of premature menopause include autoimmune disorders, thyroid disease, and diabetes mellitus.

^ Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure ...

^ This is called premature menopause or premature ovarian failure.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in the majority of spontaneous cases of premature ovarian failure, the cause is unknown.^ Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure ...

^ This is called premature menopause or premature ovarian failure.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prevalence of early menopause, also known as premature ovarian failure, among identical and fraternal twins is triple that of women in the general population.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Premature ovarian failure is diagnosed or confirmed by measuring the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH); the levels of these hormones will be abnormally high if menopause has occurred.^ Menopause is not just about hormone levels.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): A hormone produced by the pituitary gland.

^ Osteosclerosis with ichthyosis and premature ovarian failure ...

.Rates of premature menopause have been found to be significantly higher in fraternal and identical twins; approximately 5% of twins reach menopause before the age of 40. The reasons for this are not completely understood.^ Menopause before the age of 40 is termed 'early menopause'.

^ Menopause is called "premature" if it happens at or before the age of 40.
  • Menopause and Menopause Treatments << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Premature menopause: Menopause occurring before the age of 40, which affects 1% of women.

.Transplants of ovarian tissue between identical twins have been successful in restoring fertility.^ Transplants of ovarian tissue between identical twins have been successful in restoring fertility.
  • Zoft Menopause Gum 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC zoftmenopausegum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prevalence of early menopause, also known as premature ovarian failure, among identical and fraternal twins is triple that of women in the general population.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Among girls or young women, various approaches are also developed to preserve ovarian tissue after treatment in order to maintain fertility and allow a pregnancy.

.On average, women who smoke cigarettes experience menopause significantly earlier than non-smokers.^ However, women who smoke do tend to reach menopause a year or two earlier than nonsmokers.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And women who smoke cigarettes experience menopause two years earlier, on average, than nonsmoking women.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, women who smoke reach menopause 1½ years earlier than those who don't.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Menopause in human evolution

In contrast to males, females invest more in their gametes making them a highly valuable resource.[6] Selection should therefore favour a quantity of ova sufficient for the female lifespan. Over-investment is resourcefully wasteful and under-investment leads to reduced fitness. .Human females, however, spend over one third of their lifespan in a post-reproductive phase.^ Most women will spend at least one-third of their lives in or beyond menopause.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many women will spend one third of their lifetime after menopause.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Post-menopause phase - This phase starts from the time of the last menses, and lasts for up to one year.
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Explanations of survival beyond reproductive maturation range from the non-adaptive to the adaptive.

Non-Adaptive Hypotheses

The high cost of female investment in offspring may lead to physiological deteriorations that amplify susceptibility to becoming infertile. .This hypothesis suggests the reproductive lifespan in humans has been optimised, but it has proven more difficult in females and thus their reproductive span is shorter.^ The findings suggest that factors other than the dwindling of a woman's egg supply influence when she enters menopause, the researchers note in the journal Human Reproduction.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.If this hypothesis were true however, age at menopause should be negatively correlated with reproductive effort[7] and the available data does not support this.^ Does epilepsy affect the age of menopause?
  • Menopause & Epilepsy | epilepsy.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.epilepsy.com [Source type: General]

^ Other professionals object to the "medicalization" of menopause, believing that it perpetuates negative cultural perceptions of aging as a time of decay that should be feared, rather than as a normal developmental stage in a woman's life.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinical and scientific data does not support taking calcium carbonate.
  • Osteoporosis is prevented with vitamin/mineral suppplementation 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.ultrapms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
A recent increase in female longevity due to improvements in the standard of living and social care has also been suggested.[9] It is difficult for selection, however, to favour aid from offspring to parents and grandparents[10] Irrespective of living standards, adaptive responses are limited by physiological mechanisms. In other words senescence is programmed and regulated by specific genes.[11]

Adaptive Hypotheses

The mother hypothesis
.The mother hypothesis suggests that menopause was selected for in humans because of the extended development period of human offspring and high costs of reproduction so that mothers gain an advantage in reproductive fitness by redirecting their effort from new offspring with a low survival chance to existing children with a higher survival chance.^ Menopause comes from the Latin words meno, meaning...women often believe they will go through menopause later because they started having periods...
  • menopause Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DuoFertility : The intelligent fertility solution * Maximises your chances of getting pregnant * NEW, natural and more convenient method * Monitors and predicts your ovulation * A cost effective alternative to assisted reproductive treatments * No...
  • Early Menopause | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ When going through the transition period of menopause you may be at an increased risk of developing depression .

[12]
The Grandmother hypothesis
.The Grandmother hypothesis suggests that menopause was selected for in humans because it promotes the survival of grandchildren.^ The findings suggest that factors other than the dwindling of a woman's egg supply influence when she enters menopause, the researchers note in the journal Human Reproduction.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.According to this hypothesis, post reproductive women feed and care for children, adult nursing daughters, and grandchildren whose mothers have weaned them.^ More often, women find themselves part of the "sandwich generation," becoming caregivers for their children, grandchildren, and their aging parents.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Schoenfeld et al, the mean ovarian volume (calculated as [length x width x height] / 2) in normal post-menopausal women is 1.3 +/- 0.7 cm 3 .
  • Ultrasound and the Menopause Web Booklet -- Frames Version 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.drapplebaum.com [Source type: Academic]

Human babies require large and steady supplies of glucose to feed the growing brain. .In infants in the first year of life, the brain consumes 60% of all calories, so both babies and their mothers require a dependable food supply.^ Cerebral Palsy Despite the last 60 years of medical researches, Cerebral Palsy (CP) is claiming thousands of lives all over the world.
  • Early Menopause Treatment 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After giving birth to two children, the 31-year old mother decided to use contraceptive pills for the first time.
  • MACA extract and Menopause Findings, A natural safe natural therapy DHEA 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.peruherbals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, studies suggest that because HRT does have health benefits, on average it increases womens life spans by about a year.

.Some evidence suggests that hunters contribute less than half the total food budget of most hunter-gatherer societies, and often much less than half, so that foraging grandmothers can contribute substantially to the survival of grandchildren at times when mothers and fathers are unable to gather enough food for all of their children.^ It affects up to 5 percent of U.S. adults, women seven times more often than men.

^ Not all women experience hot flashes, but more than half do.

^ I don't have the same overheads and costs because I don't have to pay half my fees to the gym - so I can charge you much less.
  • Health Thru Fitness - Weight loss for women over 40 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC menopause-weight-gain.com [Source type: General]

.In general, selection operates most powerfully during times of famine or other privation.^ During this time, your ovaries are sometimes producing too much estrogen and/or progesterone and at other times too little.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have irregular periods or other symptoms during this time.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression during perimenopause and menopause is treated in much the same way as depression that strikes at any other time life.

.So although grandmothers might not be necessary during good times, many grandchildren cannot survive without them during times of famine.^ Although bleeding may occur only for a short time, many women find this bleeding bothersome.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SURVIVING AND THRIVING DURING MENOPAUSE Despite the problems menopause brings, the years afterwards are the most productive and satisfying for many women.

^ These are significant benefits and are the reason millions of women do choose to go on HRT. If you cannot enjoy your life without HRT that is a good reason to take it.

.Arguably, however, there is no firm consensus on the supposed evolutionary advantages (or simply neutrality) of menopause to the survival of the species in the evolutionary past.^ You've arrived at this page just in time to take advantage of my special limited offer of $29.97 for "Menopause Simplified"!
  • Menopause And Perimenopause Symptoms: What EVERY Woman Will Experience! 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menopause-simplified.com [Source type: General]

^ However, there is no correlation between the time of a woman's first period and her age at menopause.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there is no conclusive scientific data to support their effectiveness.

Indeed, analysis of historical data found that the length of a female’s post-reproductive lifespan was reflected in the reproductive success of her offspring and the survival of her grandchildren.[13] .Interestingly, another study found comparative effects but only in the maternal grandmother – paternal grandmothers had a detrimental effect on infant mortality (probably due to paternity uncertainty).^ The Million Women study showed combined HRT had a higher risk of breast cancer than oestrogen-only HRT. The study found that: .
  • The menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Previous smaller studies have found improvements not only in hot flashes but also in other symptoms of menopause.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, in a state of nature, infant and maternal mortality is high.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] Differing assistance strategies for maternal and paternal grandmothers have also been demonstrated. Maternal grandmothers concentrate on offspring survival, whereas paternal grandmothers increase birth rates.[15]
A problem concerning the grandmother hypothesis is that it requires a history of female philopatry and yet present day evidence shows that the majority of hunter-gatherer societies are patriarchal.[16] .In addition, all variations on the mother, or grandmother effect fail to explain longevity with continued spermatogenesis in males (oldest verified paternity is 94 years, 35 years beyond the oldest documented birth attributed to females).^ After giving birth to two children, the 31-year old mother decided to use contraceptive pills for the first time.
  • MACA extract and Menopause Findings, A natural safe natural therapy DHEA 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.peruherbals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Her grandmother, her mother, and her older sister all had early menopause.
  • MACA extract and Menopause Findings, A natural safe natural therapy DHEA 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.peruherbals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As already noted, the length of time over which the climacteric occurs is widely variable; symptoms may begin during perimenopause and continue for 5-10 years after menopause.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .It also fails to explain the detrimental effects of losing ovarian follicular activity, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer’s disease and coronary artery disease.^ CAD = coronary artery disease.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers noted that the reduced LDL cholesterol seen in the carotid arteries with soy was due to decreased delivery of LDL to the arteries, which could partly explain the soy's cardioprotective effects.
  • WHFoods: Menopausal Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isoflavones are proposed to have health benefits in a variety of human conditions, including coronary heart disease, menopause, osteoporosis, and endocrine-responsive cancers.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]
The Patriarch Hypothesis
See main article: patriarch hypothesis
.If women survive beyond an age at which they can reproduce and men continue spermatogenesis, then old males stand to benefit greatly if they can copulate with younger females.^ Both men and women may find themselves taking longer to become sexually aroused as they age.

^ Some women will continue to have abnormal, irregular periods for years before they actually hit 'menopause'.

^ Calcium and Magnesium About age 30, men and women begin to slowly lose bone mass.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Increased use of tools and weapons compensates for the decline in natural fighting ability with age.^ While estrogen does not, in itself, increase libido, it is often used with a testosterone cream because it relieves painful intercourse and restores natural vaginal lubrication.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far the research has not been conclusive and for women over the age of 60 some research suggests that use of certain hormone therapy may actually increase the risk.

^ HRT at age 50 and use it for 10 years, the figure increases to 51 in every 1000.
  • The menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This serves to produce a more stable male hierarchy, where attainment of high social status and reproductive access is less reliant on physical strength.^ As menopause nears, the ovaries produce less estrogen, causing changes in the menstrual cycle and other physical changes.
  • Menopause and Chemotherapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
With such a scenario older males are able to retain a competitive ability with younger males, thereby asserting a selection pressure on extending longevity in males that could retain social status. Higher ranking males may also be a more attractive mate choice.
One mechanism that could extend the lifespan is delaying the age at maturity. Offspring with a slower life history would exhibit a protracted period of dependence. .If depletion of oocytes occurs at age 50, females should selectively counter this as it reduces their fecundity.^ Cessation of menstruation in the human female, usually occurring around the age of 50.

^ Your doctor should check your bone density starting at age 50.
  • Menopause | 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC drkathymaupin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 50.
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recruitment of help from kin and husbands may compensate by enabling females to reduce birth intervals by weaning offspring at an earlier age.^ Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may help to promote cardiovascular health; but reducing the risk factors that are within your control can be equally important.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your cholesterol is high, a low-cholesterol diet will help reduce your risk of heart disease or medication may be required.
  • Menopause and Chemotherapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Omega-3 Fatty Acids have been found to reduce risk of heart disease and may help regulate hormone levels.
  • WHFoods: Menopausal Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] In addition, by passing on longevity to her sons, a female would stand to gain inclusive fitness.

Social and psychological significance: the three ages

.The end of fertility in midlife ushers in the third part of a woman's life, also known as the "third age". Generally speaking, women raised or living in Western countries live long enough so that half of their adult life is spent in post-menopause.^ Menopause is not a disease —it’s a natural part of life.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you are like most of today's women, you will live a third of your life after menopause.
  • Menopause-TCM Treatment Guides Cure [TCM Discovery Net] 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.tcmadvisory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause: The end of female menstruation and fertility.
  • Menopause Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.For some women, the menopausal transition represents a major life change, similar to menarche in the magnitude of its social and psychological significance.^ The change: women, ageing and the menopause .
  • menopause Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We know that menopause marks the end of the time in life when you can become pregnant, but it can also represent a new beginning - a time to focus on yourself and your needs.
  • Menopause - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]
  • Menopause Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Things like teenage children, children moving out, aging parents and spouse’s mid-life crisis can also influence in the state of mind of menopausal women.
  • Home Remedies for Menopause - Treating Menopause with Natural Home Remedies 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.homemademedicine.com [Source type: General]

.In the ancient past, menarche and menopause were considered to mark the transitions from "maiden" to "matron", and from "matron" to "crone", (in other words, from little girl to reproductive woman and then to older woman.^ Menopause is not a disease, but a new phase in an older woman’s life, it usually causes ovulation to cease and consequently menstruation stops.
  • Home Remedies for Menopause - Treating Menopause with Natural Home Remedies 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.homemademedicine.com [Source type: General]

^ The study results suggest that the increased risk of health problems from hormone therapy may vary from woman to woman depending on how far a woman is past menopause.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP047 -- The Menopause Years 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause is only one of several stages in the reproductive life of a woman.

) .Although the significance of the changes that surround menarche is still fairly well recognized, in countries such as the USA, the social and psychological ramifications of the menopause transition are frequently ignored or underestimated.^ With the commencement of menopause and a loss of functioning follicles, the most significant change in the hormonal profile is the dramatic decrease in circulating estrogen levels.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause can bring about a host of emotions regarding this significant change of life.

^ Menopause is frequently best understood as the process opposite to "menarche", which is the start of the monthly periods.
  • menopause-Order Menopause Tests�Menopause Supplements�Menopause Symptoms�Menopause Tests¦Natural Menopause Treatments 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthremedies.com [Source type: Academic]

Menopause in other species

Life histories show a varying degree of senescence; rapid senescing organisms (e.g. .Pacific salmon and annual plants) do not have a post-reproductive life-stage.^ Menopause is only one of several stages in the reproductive life of a woman.

Gradual senescence is exhibited by all placental mammalian life histories. Menopause in the animal kingdom, however, appears perhaps to be somewhat uncommon. .Although the incidence in different species has not been thoroughly researched, it has been observed in rhesus monkeys,[21] chimpanzees,[22] elephants,[23] short-finned pilot whales[24] and other cetaceans,[25] as well as in a variety of other vertebrate species including the guppy,[26] the platyfish, the budgerigar, the laboratory rat and mouse, and the opossum, as well as some whales.^ This is why doctors most frequently will advise Premarin or some other kind of oral HRT; but, as we will see, this has its dangers as well.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, while some women have mild symptoms, others find that their sleep, daily life, and sense of well-being are severely affected.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this article we will look at some of the symptoms that occur in many menopausal and peri-menopausal women, as well as a variety of strategies for dealing with these problems .
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .However, with the exception of the short-finned pilot whale, such examples tend to be from captive individuals and are not necessarily representative of natural populations.^ There is inadequate research to substantiate the safety and benefit of these preparations, however, they are popular with women as they have been marketed as natural and tailored to the individual's needs.

Terminology, definitions, and commentary

Menopause

.Clinically speaking, menopause is a date.^ Last date updated: Wed, 2009-07-22 References "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of menopause."
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For those women who still have a uterus, menopause is defined as the day after a woman's final period finishes.^ Typically, OCs are recommended to women who are still having periods.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every woman’s period will stop at menopause.

^ About two thirds of women who still have a uterus will have a period on the days when they are not taking estrogen.

.This date is fixed retrospectively, once 12 months have gone by with no menstrual flow at all.^ Postmenopause is the time following the last period, and is usually defined as more than 12 months with no periods in someone with intact ovaries, or immediately following surgery if the ovaries have been removed.
  • Home Remedies for Menopause - Treating Menopause with Natural Home Remedies 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.homemademedicine.com [Source type: General]

^ Since it can take from 12-24 months for a book to go from research to the shelves, many medical facts and research are already out of date.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ The decline of the menstrual flow occurs gradually as the months progress.

.At this point a woman is considered to be a year into postmenopause, is considered to be infertile, and no longer needs to take into consideration the possibility of pregnancy.^ This is no longer considered to be the case.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause is considered complete when a woman has been without her period for 1 year.
  • For Relief of Menopause Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC fonoils.com [Source type: General]

^ Take into account severity of symptoms, prognosis, and medical history versus possible benefits minus adverse effects or danger of future medical problems.

.In common everyday parlance however, the word "menopause" is usually not used to refer to one day, but to the whole of the menopause transition years.^ During menopause, the affected area is usually the whole endocrine glands is affected, mostly pituitary glands, the thyroid, and gonads.
  • Menopausal problems Home Remedies - Menopausal problems Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Menopausal problems 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause occurs during the later years of a women’s life, usually after forty, but before seventy.

^ Menopause is the permanent cessation of menses, usually defined by 6 to 12 months of amenorrhea in a woman over 45 years of age.

.This span of time is also referred to as the change of life, the change, or the climacteric and more recently is known as "perimenopause", (literally meaning "around menopause").^ What does perimenopause and post menopause mean?
  • Menopause And Perimenopause Symptoms: What EVERY Woman Will Experience! 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menopause-simplified.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet the meaning of menopause has changed.

^ This time of unpredictable change is called perimenopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word menopause is also often used in popular parlance to mean all the years of postmenopause.^ Checking the ingredient list reveals they are using Wild Mexican Yam, or Mexican Wild Yam Root Extract These are all code words for the same product, Diosgenin.
  • Osteoporosis is prevented with vitamin/mineral suppplementation 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.ultrapms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often a woman is relieved simply to discover that her particular problem is not "all in her head," or worse yet, portends a more serious illness, but is instead caused by her menopause.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Perimenopause

.In biomedicine, perimenopause is the term describing the menopause transition years.^ Menopause and the perimenopausal transition.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "menopause transition" is a term used to describe this time, as is perimenopause.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perimenopause can start 5-10 years or more before menopause.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In women who have a uterus, perimenopause describes the years both before and after the final period (although it is only possible to determine in retrospect which episode of flow was indeed the final period).^ Women who have not had a menstrual period for a year are considered postmenopausal.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause occurs during the later years of a women’s life, usually after forty, but before seventy.

^ Talk to your friends who are in perimenopause or menopause or go to a support group for women who are going through the same thing as you.

.During perimenopause, the production of most of the reproductive hormones, including the estrogens, progesterone and testosterone, diminishes and becomes more irregular, often with wide and unpredictable fluctuations in levels.^ This affects ovulation and levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Characterization of reproductive hormonal dynamics in the perimenopause.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These symptoms are caused by irregular estrogen and progesterone levels.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this period, fertility diminishes, but is not considered to reach zero until the official date of menopause.^ Menopause or cessation is the indication of the conclusion of the female reproductive life period which normally starts during their early teens.
  • Menopausal problems Home Remedies - Menopausal problems Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Menopausal problems 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it possible for a woman to get pregnant until she reaches menopause, no matter her age?

^ During menopause, the ovaries that had been producing eggs every month - for possible reproduction - begin to slow their production until they eventually stop altogether.

.The official date is determined retroactively, 12 months after the last appearance of menstrual blood.^ Postmenopause is the time following the last period, and is usually defined as more than 12 months with no periods in someone with intact ovaries, or immediately following surgery if the ovaries have been removed.
  • Home Remedies for Menopause - Treating Menopause with Natural Home Remedies 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.homemademedicine.com [Source type: General]

^ Since it can take from 12-24 months for a book to go from research to the shelves, many medical facts and research are already out of date.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms can be noticed for several months to years before the last menstrual period and can continue for several years after.

.Signs and effects of the menopause transition can begin as early as age 35, although most women become aware of the transition in their mid to late 40s, often many years after the actual beginning of the perimenopausal window.^ The perimenopausal period, which occurs 1-5 years before actual menopause, may also be a period of uncomfortable side effects for many women.
  • WHFoods: Menopausal Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.whfoods.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worst, this sign often shows up early in menopause.

^ Most women will live many vital, useful, and enjoyable years after menopause.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The duration of perimenopause with noticeable bodily effects can be as brief as a few years, but it is not unusual for the duration to last ten or more years.^ It can last for a few months or for several years.

^ Vaginal Changes are the first sign of approaching menopause for some women, while many do not notice changes until five to ten years after menopause.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perimenopause can start 5-10 years or more before menopause.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The actual duration and severity of perimenopause in any individual woman cannot currently be predicted in advance, and even during the process the course of an individual woman's perimenopause can be difficult if not impossible to chart.^ The duration of perimenopause cannot be predicted in advance.

^ Since the woman may become moody and even lose her sleep during menopause, there is a strong indication of the vata dosha at play also.

^ Approaching menopause involves a process of change - and every woman experiences this transition in unique and individual ways.
  • Menopause-TCM Treatment Guides Cure [TCM Discovery Net] 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.tcmadvisory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the perimenopause years, many women undergo noticeable and clinically observable physical changes resulting from hormonal fluctuations.^ The bottom line is that fluctuating blood levels of hormones during the transitional years can create a number of physiological changes.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vaginal Changes are the first sign of approaching menopause for some women, while many do not notice changes until five to ten years after menopause.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many women associate these symptoms with the changes that menopause brings, but they may be a sign of depression that needs to be understood and dealt with.

.The most well-known effect of these is the "hot flash" or "hot flush", a sudden temporary increase in body temperature.^ The temperature connection between hot flashes and your body.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ Hot flashes are the most common complaint.
  • MENOPAUSE: Understanding the Change 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthsquare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a hot flash episode, your body temperature will fall a little.

.The "flash" sensation in a "hot flash" occurs as the body temperature soars upward at a rapid rate and reaches a peak mere fractions of a second after the onset of the temperature increase is first noticed.^ The temperature connection between hot flashes and your body.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ After a hot flash episode, your body temperature will fall a little.

^ While they may alleviate hot flashes and prevent osteoporosis, they will also increase the risk of breast, ovarian and uterine cancer, and have a number of significant side-effects.
  • Acupuncture and Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acufinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "hot" sensation in a "hot flash" is not the initial temperature rise; instead, it is a reaction to the perceived slowness of the body's return to a more normal temperature range when compared to the speed of the run-up to the spike.^ The temperature connection between hot flashes and your body.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ After a hot flash episode, your body temperature will fall a little.

^ A few of the more normal symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, disturbance in sleep, vaginal dryness, failure to have sexual longing, and mood swings.
  • Menopausal problems Home Remedies - Menopausal problems Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Menopausal problems 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hot flashes can become so strong that they can raise the body temperature multiple degrees in a very short period of time; this extreme temperature differential can cause the sufferer to feel weak and break out in heavy sweating.^ The temperature connection between hot flashes and your body.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ After a hot flash episode, your body temperature will fall a little.

^ A few of the more normal symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, disturbance in sleep, vaginal dryness, failure to have sexual longing, and mood swings.
  • Menopausal problems Home Remedies - Menopausal problems Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Menopausal problems 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the discomfort to the woman, hot flashes are not considered harmful by physicians.^ Hot flashes – whenever younger women hear this word, the image of a middle-aged, nervous wreck woman sweating profusely comes to their minds.

^ Hot flashes often cause embarrassment and discomfort, as well as sleep disturbances and emotional lability, especially if they are intense and occur frequently.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Look at what one woman had to say about our eBook: "If I'd only had this before I suffered for two years with hot flashes and anxiety attacks.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

.In most cases, flashes can be treated to ease extreme discomfort, using prescription medications such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or SSRI medications, as well as by using over-the-counter plant estrogens and herbal remedies.^ I am concerned about Hormone Replacement Therapy .
  • Menopause And Perimenopause Symptoms: What EVERY Woman Will Experience! 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menopause-simplified.com [Source type: General]

^ The flower head is the part of the plant used in herbal remedies.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Should I use hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many women choose not to treat hot flashes through pharmacology and instead rely on dressing in ways to dissipate heat quickly (natural fibers, loose clothing, easily removable layers of lightweight garments) as well as mechanical means to aid the body in removing excess heat (fans, cold beverages, etc).^ Hot flashes affect women in different ways, and often affects our mates as well.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Practical ways to manage hot flashes include keeping your environment cool, dressing in layers, and managing stress, especially with slow, rhythmic breathing (paced respiration) or relaxation exercises.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hot flashes and night sweats both start as a feeling of heat in the face, neck or body that spreads.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other common effects encountered during the perimenopausal period include mood changes, insomnia, fatigue, and memory problems.^ Other strategies for coping with memory problems and lack of concentration include: .
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lifestyle changes for coping with insomnia include: .
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some notice little difference in their bodies or moods, while others find the change extremely bothersome and disruptive.
  • For Relief of Menopause Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC fonoils.com [Source type: General]

.The non-specific nature of these effects indicates to researchers that they may not be related to the actual hormonal fluctuations involved in menopause.^ It may involve taking hormones but it may not.

^ Do be advised that if you have bleeding after menopause, call your doctor, as it may an indication of a more serious problem.
  • menopause-Order Menopause Tests�Menopause Supplements�Menopause Symptoms�Menopause Tests¦Natural Menopause Treatments 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthremedies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Himalaya Menosan Benefits of Menosan: Herbally treats menopausal symptoms, alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy without any side effects .
  • menopause home remedies | menopause home remedies| natural remedy for menopause| natural treatment for menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.herbalcureindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed] One hypothesis as to why these effects are reported as either originating during or increasing in frequency or strength within perimenopause argues that these more general effects may be related to societal perceptions and economic realities about aging:
  • Changes in economic conditions affecting plans for retirement for someone who works outside the home
  • Having to deal with care for and/or the death of elderly parents
  • The so-called "empty-nest syndrome" when older children leave home
  • The birth of grandchildren which places people of "middle age" into a new category of "older people"
  • A sense of loss related to the end of fertility
.Even women who are free of any troublesome physical effects of perimenopause may still experience psychological issues related to aging as they approach the end of their childbearing years.^ Menopause marks the end of the childbearing years.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A case study involving the effects of topical application of Vitex in treating 23 women in the perimenopausal to postmenopausal transition was recently concluded.
  • For Relief of Menopause Symptoms 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC fonoils.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though we are the primary consumer of medical care and the person who directs the family to specific care, menopausal women rate much lower than young, fertile women, (and all ages of men), in the world of health care.
  • Menopause | 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC drkathymaupin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Medical treatment for these issues has improved greatly with the development of geriatric medicine as a specialized health field, as well as the dramatic increase in pharmaceutical treatments available for mental disorders like depression and anxiety.^ Of the wide range of medication available for the treatment of high blood pressure, in these cases diuretics have shown to be extremely effective as many women have reported that incidences of general fluid retention tend to rise with the onset of the menopause.

^ The stages of menopause Understanding estrogen and proesterone Health changes after menopause Sex, pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Menopause and mental health Diagnosis and Treatment .

^ Medical treatment which is designed to make up for the loss of oestrogen is available for women who are troubled by symptoms of the menopause.

.Recent research shows that melatonin supplementation in perimenopausal women can produce a significant improvement in thyroid function and gonadotropin levels, as well as restoring fertility and menstruation and preventing the depression associated with the menopause.^ Melatonin can cause depression in some women.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the majority of women continue to function well during the menopause.

^ Research into the menopause is relatively recent.
  • The menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]

Premenopause

.Premenopause is a word used to describe the years leading up to the last period, when the levels of reproductive hormones are already becoming lower and more erratic, and the effects of hormone withdrawal may be present.^ If the patient is on hormone replacement therapy, the above-described findings may not be present.
  • Ultrasound and the Menopause Web Booklet -- Frames Version 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.drapplebaum.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It offers a highly effective way to rebalance hormone levels and relieve symptoms, without unwanted side effects.
  • Menopause-TCM Treatment Guides Cure [TCM Discovery Net] 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.tcmadvisory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number and quality of your eggs decline, hormone levels fluctuate, and your menstrual cycle becomes less predictable.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Postmenopause

.Postmenopause is all of the time in a woman's life that take place after her last period, or more accurately, all of the time that follows the point when her ovaries become inactive.^ Menopause is the point in a woman's life when she has not had a menstrual period for 1 year.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time of life when a woman's menstrual periods stop.

^ At that point, a woman will be postmenopausal for the rest of her life, and should never have a menstrual period again.

.A woman who still has her uterus (and who is neither pregnant nor lactating) can be declared to be in postmenopause once she has gone 12 full months with no flow at all, not even any spotting.^ Pregnant in 12 Months or Your Money Back .
  • Early Menopause | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Even without the uterus, a woman's ovulation and the systematic release of reproductive hormones will continue until menopause actually begins.
  • menopause-Order Menopause Tests�Menopause Supplements�Menopause Symptoms�Menopause Tests¦Natural Menopause Treatments 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthremedies.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, because their uterus is removed, they no longer have their periods and cannot get pregnant.

.When she reaches that point, she is one year into postmenopause.^ After 1 year with no menstrual bleeding, you reach menopause and begin postmenopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It afflicts almost 19 million Americans each year, and up to one in five American women will suffer from clinical depression at some point in her life.

^ If you have had no menstrual periods for 1 year, you have reached menopause and are in postmenopause .
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reason for this delay in declaring a woman postmenopausal is because periods are usually extremely erratic at this time of life, and therefore a reasonably long stretch of time is necessary to be sure that the cycling has actually ceased completely.^ The physical problems associated with the menopause are usually no more or less than those endured during our normal periods though more erratic.
  • Menopause Symptoms - Herbs for Menopause - Menopause Natural Treatment - Menopause Natural Remedies 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC herbal-supplements-for-you.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Postmenopause: Postmenopause refers to a women’s time of life after menopause has occurred.

^ Menopause actually occurs at the end of a woman's last menstrual period.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.At this point a woman is considered infertile, and no longer needs to factor in the possibility of becoming pregnant.^ This is no longer considered to be the case.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it possible for a woman to get pregnant until she reaches menopause, no matter her age?

^ However, because their uterus is removed, they no longer have their periods and cannot get pregnant.

.However the possibility of becoming pregnant has usually been very low (but not zero) for a number of years before this point is reached.^ Is it possible for a woman to get pregnant until she reaches menopause, no matter her age?

^ After your hormone levels reach a stable low point, these symptoms are likely to subside.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remember, it is still possible to become pregnant until you reach menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In women who have no uterus, and therefore have no periods, post-menopause can be determined by a blood test which can reveal the very high levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) that are typical of post-menopausal women.^ Menopause is not just about hormone levels.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically, OCs are recommended to women who are still having periods.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): A hormone produced by the pituitary gland.

.A woman's reproductive hormone levels continue to drop and fluctuate for some time into post-menopause, so any hormone withdrawal symptoms that a woman may be experiencing do not necessarily stop right away, but may take quite some time, even several years, to disappear completely.^ It may involve taking hormones but it may not.

^ And when symptoms are experienced, the length of time, frequency, and severity with which they are experienced varies woman to woman.

^ Hot flushes may persist for several years around the time of menopause.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Any period-like flow that might occur during postmenopause, even just spotting, must be reported to a doctor.^ Flashes, or flushes, which are unpredictable in onset and sometimes occur over many years, are reported in about 75% of women who are perimenopausal or postmenopausal.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pain, soreness, or tenderness in one or both breasts often precedes or accompanies menstrual periods but can also occur during pregnancy, breast-feeding, and menopause.

^ You and your doctor will most likely be able to tell based on irregular periods and other symptoms.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cause may in fact be minor, but the possibility of endometrial cancer must be checked for and eliminated.^ If you are taking estrogen (and have an intact uterus), you also need to have enough progesterone to prevent the estrogen from causing uterine (endometrial) cancer .
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endometrial biopsy to see whether the uterine lining ( endometrium ) is acting normally during the menstrual cycle and to check for signs of cancer.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To completely eliminate all the underlying causes of menopause and its many symptoms, Renaissance may be used as an adjunct to, but cannot replace the need for GynoFem.
  • Osteoporosis is prevented with vitamin/mineral suppplementation 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.ultrapms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The causes of menopause

The causes of menopause can be considered from complementary proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (adaptive evolutionary) perspectives.

Proximate perspective

.Natural or physiological menopause occurs as a part of a woman's normal aging process.^ Related Pages Menopause is a natural part of aging.

^ Menopause is not a disease —it’s a natural part of life.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause is a natural part of growing older.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the result of the eventual atresia of almost all oocytes in the ovaries, causing an increase in circulating follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels as there are a decreased number of oocytes responding to these hormones and producing estrogen.^ Elevated FSH and LH levels lead to stromal stimulation of the ovary, with a resultant increase in estrone levels and a decrease in estradiol levels.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): A hormone produced by the pituitary gland.

^ The ovaries stop producing ova, menstrual cycles decrease in frequency and eventually stop, and there is a decreased production of the female hormones -- estrogen and progesterone .
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This decrease in the production of estrogen leads to the perimenopausal symptoms of hot flashes, insomnia and mood changes.^ In some, estrogen production decreases gradually, producing few hot flashes.

^ Many hormonal changes occur during menopause, including a severe decrease in estrogen.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.suzannes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms include hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, fatigue, mood swings, memory loss, vaginal dryness, headaches, joint pain, and weight gain.
  • Acupuncture and Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acufinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Long term effects may include osteoporosis and vaginal atrophy.^ Are there any long term effects?

^ While they may alleviate hot flashes and prevent osteoporosis, they will also increase the risk of breast, ovarian and uterine cancer, and have a number of significant side-effects.
  • Acupuncture and Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.acufinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most experts recommend that long-term HRT only be considered for women with a high osteoporosis risk.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Menopause can be surgically induced by bilateral oophorectomy (removal of ovaries), which is often, but not always, done in conjunction with removal of the Fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy) and uterus (hysterectomy).^ Removal of both ovaries (oophorectomy), which causes sudden menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However menopause does hit suddenly when the ovaries are removed surgically.

^ The patient experiences premature menopause after removal of both of the ovaries, -and this is called a bilateral oophorectomy- or removal of the uterus, both fallopian tubes, and both ovaries, operation called total hysterectomy.

.Cessation of menses as a result of removal of the ovaries is called "surgical menopause". The sudden and complete drop in hormone levels usually produces extreme withdrawal symptoms such as hot flashes, etc.^ Typical menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes or night sweats, are caused by changing hormonal levels in the female reproductive system.

^ Menopause is not just about hormone levels.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the reduced levels of these hormones, which produce the symptoms of the menopause.

.Removal of the uterus, hysterectomy, does not cause menopause, although pelvic surgery can often precipitate a somewhat earlier menopause, perhaps because of a compromised blood supply to the ovaries.^ Removal of both ovaries (oophorectomy), which causes sudden menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However menopause does hit suddenly when the ovaries are removed surgically.

^ What causes the menopause and why does it happen?

.Cigarette smoking has been found to decrease the age of physiological menopause by as much as one year, and women who have undergone hysterectomy with ovary conservation go through menopause 3.7 years earlier than average.^ On average, women who smoke reach menopause 1½ years earlier than those who don't.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause and hysterectomy Menopause arrives nearly four years earlier on average for women who have had a hysterectomy compared with those who have not.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I am going through menopause… .

.However, premature menopause (before the age of 40) is generally idiopathic.^ Premature menopause: Menopause occurring before the age of 40, which affects 1% of women.

^ When menopause occurs before the age of 40, it is called 'Premature Menopause'.
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prevalence of early menopause, also known as premature ovarian failure, among identical and fraternal twins is triple that of women in the general population.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

Possible effects of perimenopause, the menopause transition time

.During the menopause transition years, as the body responds to the rapidly fluctuating and dropping levels of natural hormones, a number of effects may appear.^ Menopause is not just about hormone levels.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any womans hormone levels fluctuate by the hour.
  • Osteoporosis is prevented with vitamin/mineral suppplementation 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.ultrapms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the menopause your estrogen levels drop.

.Not every woman experiences bothersome levels of these effects; the range of effects and the degree to which they appear is very variable from person to person.^ And when they do experience a symptom, the severity of it varies from woman to woman.

^ These plant estrogens are thousands of times weaker than natural estrogen, but they also circulate in the blood at levels thousands of times higher than estrogen.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.suzannes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are also usually more severe in women that do not sweat easily, who are very thin, or who experience surgical menopause.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Effects that are due to low estrogen levels (for example vaginal atrophy and skin drying) will continue after the menopause transition years are over; however, many effects that are caused by the extreme fluctuations in hormone levels (for example hot flashes and mood changes) usually disappear or improve significantly once the perimenopause transition time has been completed.^ Postmenopause changes are normal signs of low estrogen and typically continue over time.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changes in estrogen levels may be part of the cause, but so is getting older.

^ The "menopause transition" is a term used to describe this time, as is perimenopause.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All the various possible perimenopause effects are caused by an overall drop, as well as dramatic but erratic fluctuations, in the absolute levels and relative levels of estrogens and progesterone.^ He or she will consider all possible causes.

^ These symptoms are caused by irregular estrogen and progesterone levels.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms The symptoms of menopause are caused by changes in estrogen and progesterone levels.
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the effects, such as formication (crawling, itching, or tingling skin sensations), may be associated directly with hormone withdrawal.^ These endorphins are involved in sensations of pleasure and pain ; improving their response may explain why DHEA has an effect on mood symptoms associated with menopause.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some cremes may be applied directly to the genital or vaginal area.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although few side effects have been associated with topical progesterone creams, skin reactions may occur in some users.
  • Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both users and non-users of hormone replacement therapy identify lack of energy as the most frequent and distressing effect.^ Barrett-Conner E. Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HRT is hormone replacement therapy.

^ What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Other effects can include vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and palpitations, psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings, memory problems and lack of concentration, and atrophic effects such as vaginal dryness and urgency of urination.^ Depression, mood-swings and anxiety are very common symptoms during menopause.
  • Natural Menopause Treatment, Menopause Symptoms Relief | Herbal Remedies, HRT Alternative Remedy / Therapy 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hormonal changes of menopause can produce a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from hot flashes and vaginal dryness to anxiety, depression, and insomnia.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ May decrease vaginal dryness, may improve depressive symptoms .
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.The average woman also has increasingly erratic menstrual periods, due to skipped ovulations.^ Menopause actually occurs at the end of a woman's last menstrual period.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menopause is the point in a woman's life when she has not had a menstrual period for 1 year.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time of life when a woman's menstrual periods stop.

.Typically, the timing of the flow becomes unpredictable.^ At this time your periods will probably become irregular and unpredictable (until they stop altogether).

.In addition the duration of the flow may be considerably shorter or longer than normal, and the flow itself may be significantly heavier or lighter than was previously the case, including sometimes long episodes of spotting.^ They may get shorter or last longer.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Changes in Hormone Levels: Levels of hormones vary erratically and may be higher or lower than normal during any cycle.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mounting evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be more prevalent than previously believed.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Early in the process it is not uncommon to have some 2-week cycles.^ One of the common signs of early menopause is an erratic menstrual cycle with some periods being heavier, some being lighter.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Further into the process it is common to skip periods for months at a time, and these skipped periods may be followed by a heavier period.^ Small amounts of estrogen hormone are released into the vagina over a 3-month period, and very little, if any, is absorbed into the blood stream.

^ You may have irregular periods or other symptoms during this time.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have a light period that lasts only a few days, then the next month have very heavy bleeding.

.The number of skipped periods in a row often increases as the time of last period approaches.^ You may skip a month, then go back to normal for several months, then skip two periods in a row.

^ Your period may last a shorter amount of time, or go on and on for what feels like an eternity.

^ Too many calcium withdrawals over a long period of time can lead to a weakening of the bone and an increased risk of fractures.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the point when a woman of menopausal age has had no periods or spotting for 12 months she is considered to be one year into post-menopause.^ Menopause is the point in a woman's life when she has not had a menstrual period for 1 year.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menopause is one of the major turning points in a woman's life.
  • Menopause-TCM Treatment Guides Cure [TCM Discovery Net] 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.tcmadvisory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every woman’s period will stop at menopause.

Vascular instability
Urogenital atrophy, also known as vaginal atrophy, (main article: Atrophic vaginitis)
Skeletal
Skin, soft tissue
  • Breast atrophy
breast tenderness +/- swelling
  • Decreased elasticity of the skin
  • Formication (itching, tingling, burning, pins and needles, or sensation of ants crawling on or under the skin)
  • Skin thinning and becoming drier
Psychological
Sexual
.Cohort studies have reached mixed conclusions about medical conditions associated with the menopause.^ Studies on the benefits of soy for relieving menopausal symptoms have produced mixed results.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many women wonder and worry about what will happen when they reach menopause, but in fact it can be a liberating experience!

.For example, a 2007 study found that menopause was associated with hot flashes; joint pain and muscle pain; and depressed mood.^ Does menopause come with joint pain?
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ Menopause: Managing hot flashes .
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No longer do women accept as merely part of life the decrease in libido, pain during intercourse, years of hot flashes, and other uncomfortable problems that may accompany menopause.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[31] .In the same study, it appeared that menopause was not associated with poor sleep, decreased libido, and vaginal dryness.^ A smaller study using a combination of the same two herbs found improvements in overall menopausal symptoms as well as cholesterol profile.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other studies indicate that libido problems are much higher, especially when coupled with problems of vaginal dryness.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hormonal changes of menopause can produce a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from hot flashes and vaginal dryness to anxiety, depression, and insomnia.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

[31] However, in contrast to this, a 2008 study did find an association with poor sleep quality.[32]

Influence of cultural context

.The cultural context within which a woman lives can have a significant impact on the way she experiences the menopausal transition.^ The symptoms of menopause usually last for the whole menopause transition (until the mid 50s), but some women may experience them for the rest of their lives.

^ While menopause produces the same end results, the menopause symptoms that each woman experiences may be different.

^ During and after the menopause transition, many women are troubled to find they have difficulty remembering things, experience mental blocks or have trouble concentrating.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the United States, social location affects the way women perceive menopause and its related biological effects.^ Osteoporosis In the United States, 4 to 6 million women have osteoporosis.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of the effects of estrogen alone and estrogen plus androgen on biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption in menopausal women.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of human placental extract on menopausal symptoms, fatigue, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Korean women.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.Research indicates that whether a woman views menopause as a medical issue or an expected life change is correlated with her socio-economic status.^ Menopause is a normal change in a woman’s life when her period stops.

^ And research also indicates that women begin to experience restless sleep as many as five to seven years before entering menopause.

^ However, there is no correlation between the time of a woman's first period and her age at menopause.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .The paradigm within which a woman considers menopause also influences the way she views it: women who understand menopause as a medical condition rate it significantly more negatively than those who view it as a life transition or a symbol of aging.^ The age of menopause is influenced by the season in which a woman is born.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You're graduating to a Mature Woman who is healthy, strong, intelligent and finally free of those responsibilities of being fertile.
  • Menozac Menopause Symptom Releif - Official Website 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menozac.com [Source type: General]

^ What menopausal symptoms they have How severe those menopausal symptoms How they are able to cope with their symptoms and the menopausal transition What their perspectives are on different treatments, including medications Side effects and other experiences with different treatments Other medical conditions they may have, which influence treatment options and choices Insurance and cost issues Your healthcare professional will work together with you to design individual treatment goals, that may change over time.

[34]
.Ethnicity and geographical location also play a role in the experience of menopause.^ Here I go with the thyroid again but it does play a major role in menopause.

^ The key role your ears play in being able to weather the menopause storm.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

^ The role a support system plays in conquering menopause.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

.U.S. women of different ethnicities report significantly different types of menopausal effects.^ More than half of women report a decrease in sex drive and in the amount of sex they are having since entering menopause.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of the effects of estrogen alone and estrogen plus androgen on biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption in menopausal women.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The difference is often described as women fall off a cliff at menopause while men just slowly roll downhill.
  • Menopause Symptoms | Bioidentical Hormones | Conquer Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC howtoconquermenopause.com [Source type: General]

.One major study found Caucasian women most likely to report what are sometimes described as psychosomatic symptoms, while African-American women were more likely to report vasomotor symptoms.^ More than half of women report a decrease in sex drive and in the amount of sex they are having since entering menopause.
  • Menopause supplements, herbs, vitamins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., menopause natural therapies menopause herbs 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A smaller study using a combination of the same two herbs found improvements in overall menopausal symptoms as well as cholesterol profile.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One woman I knew reported that she was horrified to discover a bloody bowl when urinating, since she had been without a period for more than two years.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Additionally, while most women in the United States have a negative view of menopause as a time of deterioration or decline, some studies seem to indicate that Asian women have an understanding of menopause that focuses on a sense of liberation, and celebrates the freedom from the risk of pregnancy.^ Menopause is actually a time of life to celebrate.
  • Menozac Menopause Symptom Releif - Official Website 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menozac.com [Source type: General]

^ For most women, menopause symptoms last for a relatively short time.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Osteoporosis In the United States, 4 to 6 million women have osteoporosis.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .Diverging from these conclusions however, one study appeared to show that many U.S. women "experience this time as one of liberation and self-actualization."^ You may be one of these women if you have: .

^ One large study done by the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) has shown that HRT does not protect against heart disease.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many women associate these symptoms with the changes that menopause brings, but they may be a sign of depression that needs to be understood and dealt with.

[37]

Need for more education about menopause

.Many women arrive at their menopause years without knowing anything about what they might expect, or when or how the process might happen, and how long it might take.^ Your needs may change, and so might what we know about menopause.

^ Yet, women still worry about what will happen and what they should do when menopause arrives.

^ This will let you know about where you are in the process.

.Very often a woman has not been informed in any way about this stage of life; at least in the US, it may often be the case that she has received no information from her physician, or from her older female family members, or from her social group.^ I have been receiving your newsletter for quite some time now and find them very informative...
  • Health Thru Fitness - Weight loss for women over 40 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC menopause-weight-gain.com [Source type: General]

^ Menopause is only one of several stages in the reproductive life of a woman.

^ AHA can provide brochures and information about support groups and community programs, including Mended Hearts, a nationwide organization whose members visit people with heart problems and provide information and support.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the US, there appears to be a lingering taboo which hangs over this subject.
.As a result, a woman who happens to undergo a strong perimenopause with a large number of different effects, may become confused and anxious, fearing that something abnormal is happening to her.^ You're graduating to a Mature Woman who is healthy, strong, intelligent and finally free of those responsibilities of being fertile.
  • Menozac Menopause Symptom Releif - Official Website 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menozac.com [Source type: General]

^ This pounding can mean something other than perimenopause, so it's very important for a woman who is experiencing this symptom to report it to her doctor.

^ While menopause produces the same end results, the menopause symptoms that each woman experiences may be different.

There is a strong need for more information and more education on this subject.[29]

Palliative therapies

Perimenopause is a natural stage of life. It is not a disease or a disorder, and therefore it does not automatically require any kind of medical treatment. .However, in cases where the physical, mental, and emotional effects of perimenopause are severe, and disrupt the everyday life of the woman experiencing them, palliative medical therapy may sometimes be appropriate and helpful.^ Sometimes, an oral irrigator may be of help.
  • All you need to know about Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menopauseportal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are approaching or experiencing menopause then avoid the temptation to blame all mental, emotional and physical ills on menopause.
  • Menopause Information, Menopause Questions and Answers 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.hwize.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cyclical changes, however, may be evident if the patient is on hormone replacement therapy.
  • Ultrasound and the Menopause Web Booklet -- Frames Version 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.drapplebaum.com [Source type: Academic]

Hormone replacement therapy

See also Hormone replacement therapy (menopause).
.There are several types of hormone therapies, with various possible side effects.^ Hormone therapy can be taken in various forms .

^ Here are some of the common side effects of hormone therapy .

^ There is still controversy and much research needed concerning hormone therapy and dementia .

.Hormone replacement therapy or HRT, known in Britain as Hormone Therapy or HT, and the SSRIs appear to provide the most reliable pharmaceutical relief.^ Barrett-Conner E. Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should I use hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, adverse effects of one kind of HRT (equine estrogen combined with a synthetic progestin) are now well documented.^ Estrogen-progestin HRT is approved for: .
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hormone therapy comes in several forms: synthetic or bioidentical estrogen, either alone or combined with progesterone or with a synthetic progestin.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See the section below on "Adverse effects of conjugated equine estrogens".
.In addition to relief from hot flashes, hormone therapy remains an effective treatment for osteoporosis.^ Cooling off those hot flashes without hormone therapy .
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Treatment of menopausal symptoms with hormone therapy."
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The antidepressants venlafaxine (Effexor), fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Paxil) may offer some relief for hot flashes.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A woman and her doctor should carefully review her situation, her complaints and her relative risk before determining whether the benefits of HT/HRT or other therapies outweigh the risks.^ Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that the risks of HT, which include heart attack, stroke and breast cancer, may outweigh the benefits.

^ Discuss the individual risks and benefits of hormone therapy with your health care professional.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will summarize here for you the main results of these studies which will include both the risks and benefits of hormone therapy.

.Until more becomes understood about the possible risks, women who elect to use hormone replacement therapy are generally well advised to take the lowest effective dose of hormones for the shortest period possible, and to question their doctors as to whether certain forms might pose fewer dangers of clots or cancer than others.^ Prognostic characteristics in breast cancers after hormone replacement therapy.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Barrett-Conner E. Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among all women, average hormone therapy risks are very low.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In HT or HRT, one or more estrogens, usually in combination with progesterone, (and sometimes testosterone) are administered, not only to partially compensate for the body's loss of these hormones, but also in an attempt to keep the levels of these hormones in the body much more consistent than they are naturally in perimenopause.^ We will discuss more about testosterone supplementation, a hormone which women's bodies also naturally produce.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When combined with progesterone, it is called hormone therapy (HT).
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HT combines the female hormones estrogen and progestrogen and is usually given in pill form.

.In those women who have no uterus (usually due to a previous hysterectomy), estrogen alone is a suitable hormone therapy and is in fact preferable to continuing to use progesterone when its function as a moderating influence on growth of the endometrium (uterine lining) is no longer required.^ Women using estrogen alone did so because they previously had a hysterectomy (progesterone protects against endometrial cancer and women with an intact uterus should never use estrogen therapy alone).

^ Progesterone therapy alone may help women who choose not to take estrogen.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For women who have a uterus (who haven't had a hysterectomy) always use combined hormone therapy (estrogen + progestin), as estrogen therapy alone puts you at risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the womb).

.Women who still have a uterus need to take progesterone in addition to estrogen in order to ensure that the endometrium does not continue to build between the increasingly fewer periods of the perimenopausal year, which would raise the risk for cancer of the endometrium.^ Typically, OCs are recommended to women who are still having periods.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Progesterone therapy alone may help women who choose not to take estrogen.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Conjugated equine estrogens

See also Types of Hormone Replacement Therapy
.Conjugated equine estrogens contain estrogen molecules conjugated to hydrophilic side groups (e.g.^ Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Effects of soy isoflavones and conjugated equine estrogens on inflammatory markers in atherosclerotic, ovariectomized monkeys.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monkey studies have shown that coronary vasculature has a favorable response to conjugate equine estrogens.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

sulfate) and are produced from the urine of pregnant Equidae (horses) mares. .Premarin is the prime example of this, either alone or in Prempro, where it is combined with a synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate.^ Hormone therapy comes in several forms: synthetic or bioidentical estrogen, either alone or combined with progesterone or with a synthetic progestin.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continuous combined hormone therapy means estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) that is used in one regime.

^ In the study, some women were given estrogen alone and others used combined estrogen and progestin because they had an intact uterus.

Adverse effects of conjugated equine estrogens

See also Types of Hormone Replacement Therapy
.Women had been advised for many years by numerous doctors and drug company marketing efforts (at least in the USA) that hormone therapy with conjugated equine estrogens after menopause might reduce their risk of heart disease and prevent various aspects of aging.^ Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among all women, average hormone therapy risks are very low.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a large, randomized, controlled trial (the Women's Health Initiative) found that women undergoing HT or HRT with conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), whether or not used in combination with a synthetic progestin (Premarin plus Provera, known as Prempro), had an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease.^ Conjugated estrogen cream (Premarin) .
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although this increase in risk was small overall, it passed the thresholds that had been established by the researchers in advance as sufficient to ethically require stopping the study.^ The benefit of these supplements is not proven with research and, furthermore, they may have harmful side effects such as an adverse effect on breast tissue increasing the risk for breast cancer .

^ The overall effect of menopausal bone loss is reduction of bone strength, leading to an increased risk of fracture.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies show an increased risk of breast cancer with postmenopausal estrogen use, whereas others show a decrease.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.When these results were first reported in 2002, the popular media sensationalized the story and exaggerated the risk, while the manufacturer continued to attempt to minimize the degree of risk.^ We will summarize here for you the main results of these studies which will include both the risks and benefits of hormone therapy.

^ The results in this area are mixed and experts are not sure whether taking hormone therapy increases or decreases the risk of these problems.

^ Part of the study was stopped prematurely in 2002 after it was noted that the risks of hormone therapy were far greater then the benefit and these results reached the media and popular press causing a wave of concern among users and prescribers of hormone therapy.

.However most news stories failed to mention that the average age of the women in WHI was 62 years old, significantly older than the time when most doctors start patients on HRT, and in fact many years into postmenopause.^ Menopause and Insomnia On average what age do women start menopause ?

^ The average age in Britain for the menopause to occur is 51 years old.

^ In the last 8 years we have helped thousands of men and women of all ages and fitness levels to look and feel their very best.
  • Menozac Menopause Symptom Releif - Official Website 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menozac.com [Source type: General]

.In order to enroll in the study, patients had to be asymptomatic of hot flashes, so they would not know whether they received the placebo.^ Should they be a first line for hot flash relief?

^ They can be used by women who cannot take estrogen and who suffer from hot flashes.

^ Many women have recurrent hot flashes when they stop hormone therapy, especially if they stop suddenly.

For these reasons WHI was not representative of generally accepted clinical practice.
.The 2002 and 2003 announcements of the Women's Health Initiative of the American National Institute of Health and The Million Women Study of the UK Cancer Research and National Health Service collaboration respectively, that HRT treatment coincides with a increased incidence of breast cancer, heart attacks and strokes, lead to a sharp decline in HRT prescription throughout the world,[38][39][40] which was followed by a decrease in breast cancer incidence.^ Ovarian cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Million Women Study Collaborators (2003).
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women's Health Initiative (WHI): A research initiative launched by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1991.

[41][42][43]
.On hearing the news about the WHI study, many women discontinued equine estrogens altogether, with or without their doctor's approval.^ Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That’s why women continue to have low levels of estrogen after menopause.

^ Because of concern about hormone replacement therapy (HRT) health risks, many women have turned to alternative medicine for menopause symptom relief.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The number of prescriptions written for Premarin and PremPro in the United States dropped within a year almost to half of their previous level.^ Symptoms related to menopause are caused by changing or dropping hormone levels and usually end 1 or 2 years after menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A high-soy diet has been linked to stronger bones, especially in the first 10 years after menopause, when estrogen levels drop and rapid bone loss happens.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 6,000 women in the United States reach menopause every day for a total of more than two million per year.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This sharp drop in usage was followed by large and successively larger drops in new breast cancer diagnoses, at six months, one year, and 18 months after the drop in Premarin and Prempro prescriptions, for a cumulative 15% drop by the end of 2003. However, the apparent meaning of this correlation is called into question by the fact that prescriptions of Prempro and Premarin fell dramatically in Canada as well, but no similarly dramatic drop in Canada's breast cancer rates was observed during the same time period.^ I have been period free for one year.
  • Health Thru Fitness - Weight loss for women over 40 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC menopause-weight-gain.com [Source type: General]

^ Testosterone-estrogen carries the same risks as estrogen treatment (blood clots, stroke, breast cancer) as well as testosterone risks and side effects.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One woman I knew reported that she was horrified to discover a bloody bowl when urinating, since she had been without a period for more than two years.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Studies designed to track the further progression of this trend after 2003 are under way, as well as studies designed to quantify how much of the drop was related to the reduced use of HT/HRT.

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)

.SERMs are a category of drugs, either synthetically produced or derived from a botanical source (Phytoserms), that act selectively as agonists or antagonists on the estrogen receptors throughout the body.^ Hormone therapy comes in several forms: synthetic or bioidentical estrogen, either alone or combined with progesterone or with a synthetic progestin.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (After menopause, body fat tissue continues to produce estrogen.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since estrogen and other reproductive hormones are still produced by the body during perimenopause, an egg may be released and pregnancy is possible.

.While most SERMs are known to increase hot flushes, Femarelle (DT56a) decreases them.^ Decreases osteoporosis risk, decreases risk of falls, may decrease hot flushes, may improve depressive symptoms, aids sleep, helps prevent weight gain .
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most severe hot flushes usually occur at night and may adversely affect sleep.
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ May decrease hot flushes, decreases osteoporosis risk .
  • Managing Menopause - March 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[44][45] .In addition to the relieving effects on menopausal symptoms, Femarelle also increases bone mass density (BMD),[46] making it protective against osteoporotic fractures.^ Bone mineral density (BMD) testing .

^ If you smoke you should now stop, smoking can make menopause symptoms worse and increase the loss of bone density.

^ Birth control pills (estrogen and progestin) regulate menstrual bleeding and can relieve symptoms until menopause.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These effects are achieved by an agonistic interaction with estrogen receptors in the brain and bone.^ Tofupill/Femarelle (DT56a): a new phyto-selective estrogen receptor modulator-like substance for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These vitamins and minerals are essential for growing children so they can get the proper nourishment to make their organs grow properly as well as achieving healthy bones.
  • All you need to know about Menopause 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.menopauseportal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Osteoclasts have been shown to have estrogen receptors, and these are hypothesized to be the mechanism by which estrogen replacement protects against osteoporosis.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, an antagonist interaction with estrogen receptors in the breast[47] and uterus,[48][49] has no effect on these tissues.^ The benefit of these supplements is not proven with research and, furthermore, they may have harmful side effects such as an adverse effect on breast tissue increasing the risk for breast cancer .

^ Additionally, test tube studies suggest that estriol is just as likely to cause breast cancer as any other form of estrogen.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It does not appear to act like estrogen in the breast or the uterus, which is good news, as estrogen is carcinogenic in those tissues.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

Antidepressants

.Antidepressants such as paroxetine (Paxil), Fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac), and Venlafaxine hydrochloride (Effexor) have been used with some success in the treatment of hot flashes, improving sleep, mood, and quality of life.^ Antidepressants are not FDA-approved for the treatment of hot flashes, however.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The antidepressants venlafaxine (Effexor), fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Paxil) may offer some relief for hot flashes.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressants Venlafaxine (Effexor ® ) paroxetine (Paxil ® ) Fluoxetine (Prozac ® ) Antidepressants are typically used to treat depression and anxiety but they may also be beneficial in treating hot flashes.

.There is a theoretical reason why SSRI antidepressants might help with memory problems—they increase circulating levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain and restore hippocampal function[citation needed].^ Cognitive function: Brain functioning like memory, thinking, and problem solving .

^ High blood pressure: High blood pressure is a condition otherwise known as hypertension, meaning that there is increased pressure in the flow of blood through the circulation.

^ Increased levels of certain vitamins and minerals can help with UTI's and incontinence.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sarafem is prescribed for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a mood disorder often exacerbated during perimenopause and early menopause.^ In particular, premature or retarded ejaculation may result from the medications most often prescribed to men during this age period: antidepressants, tranquilizers and antihypertensive drugs.
  • Menopause Symptoms and Common Sense Solutions 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.shareguide.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perimenopausal and menopausal women are thus often exposed to unopposed estrogen for long periods, which can lead to endometrial hyperplasia, a precursor of endometrial cancer.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral contraceptives (OCs): Oral contraceptives can help ease symptoms associated with early menopause, including irregular periods and mood swings, among others.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

PMDD has been found by PET scans to be accompanied by a sharp drop in serotonin in the brain, and to respond quickly and powerfully to SSRIs[citation needed].

Gabapentin

Gabapentin and other GABA analogs are anti-seizure medications. .Several GABA analogs are prescribed off-label for a variety of other conditions (such as pregabalin being used to treat the symptoms of fibromyalgia under the brand name Lyrica); gabapentin itself has been shown to be as effective as estrogen at reducing hot flashes.^ Gabapentin (Neurontin), an antiseizure medicine, can reduce the number and severity of hot flashes.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These exercises may reduce hot flashes and emotional symptoms.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several nonhormonal prescription treatments that can relieve or reduce hot flashes and other menopause symptoms.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Blood pressure medicines

.Blood pressure medicines including clonidine (Catapres) are about as effective as antidepressants for hot flashes, but do not have the other mind and mood benefits of antidepressants.^ A medicine called clonidine (Catapres) that is usually used to treat high blood pressure.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clonidine , a high blood pressure medicine, can reduce the number and severity of hot flashes.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidepressant medicines can lower the number and severity of hot flashes.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However they may merit special consideration by women suffering both from high blood pressure and hot flashes.^ They can be used by women who cannot take estrogen and who suffer from hot flashes.

^ Clonidine , a high blood pressure medicine, can reduce the number and severity of hot flashes.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may take weeks for hot flashes to improve (if they improve at all).
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Complementary and alternative therapies

.It is important to examine the claim that herbal remedies help relieve menopausal symptoms.^ ERT also helps with menopausal symptoms.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Efficacy on menopausal neurovegetative symptoms and some plasma lipids blood levels of an herbal product containing isoflavones and other plant extracts.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This treatment is called Hormone Replacement Therapy ( H.R.T. ) and can help ease or prevent some of the symptoms of the menopause.

[51] .Some botanical sources, referred to as phytoestrogens, are known to have an estrogenic effect on the body and therefore create a moderated estrogenic effect[citation needed].^ For instance, phytoestrogens-naturally occurring compounds in certain plants, herbs and seeds-are similar in chemical structure to estrogen and produce estrogen-like effects.
  • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estrogen is known as a “female hormone” because it plays a key role in shaping the female body and preparing it for uniquely female functions such as pregnancy.

^ As well as being beneficial for strengthening bone, estrogen use has some known side effects and you should talk to your healthcare professional about these.

.Others, such as Femarelle, have Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) qualities,[52] thereby reducing the safety risks involved in estrogenic-like treatments[citation needed].^ Tofupill/Femarelle (DT56a): a new phyto-selective estrogen receptor modulator-like substance for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity of the Cimicifuga racemosa extract.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Your healthcare professional will be able to assess what may be contributing to your problem and suggest treatment options such as vaginal estrogen treatments (like creams, tablets, or rings) or testosterone.

.In the area of complementary and alternative therapies, acupuncture treatment is promising.^ Kirby RS. Menopacenutrient therapy: an alternative approach to pharmaceutical treatments for menopause.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are some studies indicating positive effects, especially on hot flashes[53][54] [55] but also others[56] showing no positive effects of acupuncture regarding menopause.^ A randomized, controlled pilot study of acupuncture treatment for menopausal hot flashes.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acupuncture for hot flashes: a randomized, sham-controlled clinical study.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies have shown that black cohosh can relieve hot flashes.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are regular claims that soy isoflavones are beneficial concerning menopause.^ I guess as far as Women and High Blood Pressure are concerned the debate falls pretty much into two topics: Menopause and High Blood Pressure and is there a connection and High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy.

.However, one study[57] indicated that soy isoflavones did not improve or appreciably affect cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women.^ One large study done by the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) has shown that HRT does not protect against heart disease.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women protects against smoking-induced changes in vascular structure and function.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prospective study of estrogen replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other remedies which work in some studies[citation needed] but in others[citation needed] appear to be no better than a placebo include red clover isoflavone extracts and black cohosh.^ Other remedies that can help include: .

^ This study appeared to find that black cohosh was more effective than placebo.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies have shown that black cohosh can relieve hot flashes.
  • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Black cohosh can cause the stimulation of pre-existing breast cancer and liver toxicity.^ Additionally, test tube studies suggest that estriol is just as likely to cause breast cancer as any other form of estrogen.
  • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Contraindications to estrogen therapy are undiagnosed vaginal bleeding, severe liver disease, pregnancy, venous thrombosis, and personal history of breast cancer.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Much controversy exists about the use of estrogen and breast cancer.
  • Menopause: eMedicine Obstetrics and Gynecology 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Other therapies

.
  • Lack of lubrication is a common problem during and after perimenopause.^ Preexisting conditions such as depression , anxiety , sleep problems, or irritability can get worse during perimenopause.
    • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Vaginal moisturizers can help women with overall dryness, and lubricants can help with lubrication difficulties that may be present during intercourse.^ A vaginal lubricant can help with dryness.
    • Menopause and Perimenopause - Yahoo! Health 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No longer do women accept as merely part of life the decrease in libido, pain during intercourse, years of hot flashes, and other uncomfortable problems that may accompany menopause.
    • Menopausal Symptoms (Other Than Osteoporosis) 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ During and after the menopause transition, many women are troubled to find they have difficulty remembering things, experience mental blocks or have trouble concentrating.
    • About Menopause | Early Menopause Signs | What Are the Symptoms of Menopause | HealthyWomen 17 January 2010 13:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is worth pointing out that moisturizers and lubricants are different products for different issues: some women feel unpleasantly dry all of the time apart from during sex, and they may do better with moisturizers all of the time.^ Some women may not have any other symptoms.

    ^ Many women associate these symptoms with the changes that menopause brings, but they may be a sign of depression that needs to be understood and dealt with.

    ^ Both men and women may find themselves taking longer to become sexually aroused as they age.

    Those who need only lubricants are fine just using the lubrication products during intercourse.
  • Low-dose prescription vaginal estrogen products such as estrogen creams are generally a safe way to use estrogen topically, in order to help vaginal thinning and dryness problems (see vaginal atrophy) while only minimally increasing the levels of estrogen in the bloodstream.
  • In terms of managing hot flashes, lifestyle measures, such as drinking cold liquids, staying in cool rooms, using fans, removing excess clothing layers when a hot flash strikes, and avoiding hot flash triggers such as hot drinks, spicy foods, etc, may partially supplement (or even obviate) the use of medications for some women.
  • Individual counseling or support groups can sometimes be helpful to handle sad, depressed, anxious or confused feelings women may be having as they pass through what can be for some a very challenging transition time.

See also

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External links


Simple English

Menopause means the natural and permanent stopping of menstruation. Female hormone levels drop, since they were produced by the ovaries which have now stopped working.

Cause

The menopause starts when the ovaries stop releasing eggs every month. This can occur during old age or because the eggs have had surgery.

Adaption

Due to the change in hormone levels, women get hot flushes and palpitations, depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings and lack of concentration.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Menopause, which are similar to those in the above article.








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