Menstrual cycle: Wikis

  
  

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Menstrual cycle
.The menstrual cycle is a cycle of physiological changes that can occur in fertile females.^ Hormonal changes and the female reproductive cycles.
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^ The menstrual cycle is not an actual body organ but it is a significant biological process of the female body.
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^ MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS PHYSIOLOGY OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE The menstrual cycle involves the monthly preparation of the female genital tract for fertilization of an ovum and for implantation of the embryo into the lining of the uterus.
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.Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the uterus through the vagina) occurs primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees.^ Menstrual blood flows from the uterus through the small opening in the cervix and passes out of the body through the vagina.

^ Sex or masturbation stimulates blood flow to the vaginal area reducing dryness whilst muscle contractions during orgasm help keep the vagina elastic.
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^ Thirty minutes after ejaculation, sperm are present in the oviduct, having traveled from the vagina through the uterus and into the oviduct.
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[1] .Females of other species of placental mammal undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the animal (covert menstruation) at the end of its reproductive cycle.^ Hormonal changes and the female reproductive cycles.
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^ Any symptoms related to menstruation and the female reproductive cycle.
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^ The menstrual cycle is not an actual body organ but it is a significant biological process of the female body.
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.This article focuses on the human menstrual cycle.^ Olfactory influences on the human menstrual cycle.
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^ Mathematical studies of the human menstrual cycle.
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^ Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.The menstrual cycle, under the control of the endocrine system, is necessary for reproduction.^ Your hormones control your menstrual cycle.
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^ What controls the menstrual cycle?
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^ The menstrual cycle and its neuroendocrine control.
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.It is commonly divided into three phases: the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase; although some sources use a different set of phases: menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase.^ The menstrual cycle is divided into four phases.
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^ Three phases of the menstrual cycle .
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^ Each adjusted odds ratio was computed in comparison with a referent: 25–35 days for cycle length, 13–23 days for follicular phase, and 11–15 days for luteal phase.
  • Factors Affecting Menstrual Cycle Characteristics -- Liu et al. 160 (2): 131 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .The length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle, though the average menstrual cycle is 28 days.^ (This pregnancy is dated from Day 1 of this menstrual cycle.
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^ Marshall J. Predicting length of menstrual cycle.
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^ While it is true that the average menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days, that is not necessarily the normal menstrual cycle for everyone.

[3] .Menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding.^ (This pregnancy is dated from Day 1 of this menstrual cycle.
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^ Why are the first 13 days of the menstrual...
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^ The menstrual cycle is measured from the first day of menstrual bleeding, Day 1, up to Day 1 of your next menstrual bleeding.
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.Hormonal contraception interferes with the normal hormonal changes with the aim of preventing reproduction.^ Hormonal changes and the female reproductive cycles.
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^ Birth Control Often contraceptives such as birth control pills or hormonal injections can interfere with the menstrual cycle.
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^ Oral contraceptives address some of these symptoms, but also suppress normal ovarian hormone production, replacing it with the oral contraceptive hormones.
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.Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, menses slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens.^ Estrogen builds up the lining of the uterus.
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^ Estrogen also makes the lining of the uterus (womb) grow and thicken.

^ On Day 1 of your cycle, the thickened lining ( endometrium ) of the uterus begins to shed.
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.Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die).^ Premenopausal steroid hormone levels may have an important influence on subsequent development of chronic diseases in women ( 1 – 5 ).
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^ Occasionally although rarely more than one follicle is released and fertilized, and twins, triplets, quadruplets, or even quintuplets may be born as a result.
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^ The severity of these negative symptoms varies from one woman to the next; some barely notice a change while others become suicidal or homicidal.
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.Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation.^ When the egg leaves the ovary, this is called ovulation.
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^ The release of the egg from the ovary is called ovulation.
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^ This phase starts on ovulation day, the day the egg is released from the egg follicle on the ovary.
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.After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone.^ LH stimulates the remaining follicle cells to form the corpus luteum, which produces both estrogen and progesterone.
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^ Only one sperm will fertilize the egg.
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^ The follicle secretes estrogen before ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes both estrogen and progesterone after ovulation.
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.Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy.^ Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development of the endometrium and preparation of the uterine inner lining for implantation of a zygote.
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^ Hormone levels rise and help prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy.

^ The uterine lining becomes enlarged and prepared for implantation of the embryo in the trophoblast layer.
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.If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen.^ If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum involutes after about 2 weeks.
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^ The follicle secretes estrogen before ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes both estrogen and progesterone after ovulation.

^ A drop in progesterone (along with estrogen) causes the lining to break down.
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.These hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining in a process termed menstruation.^ Estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken.
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^ Menstruation is the shedding of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) accompanied by bleeding.
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^ Abnormalities in the organs forming these hormones can also cause abnormal menstruations.

.In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as other systems (which lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example).^ Other things can change your cycle.
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^ Hormonal changes and the female reproductive cycles.
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^ What causes mood to change with the menstrual cycle in some women?
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A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12. The end of a woman's reproductive phase is called the menopause, which commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55.

Contents

Terminology

.The menarche is one of the later stages of puberty in girls.^ The menstrual cycle varies from one woman to another, it first begins when a girl becomes sexually mature at puberty .
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^ Booklets , menarche education, puberty, menstruation, facts of life, for parents, women and girls: see here for a detailed list.
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^ In girls with early onset of breast development, the interval to menarche is longer (3 years or more) than in girls with later onset.
  • Menstruation in Girls and Adolescents: Using the Menstrual Cycle as a Vital Sign -- American Academy of Pediatrics et al. 118 (5): 2245 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.The average age of menarche in humans is 12 years, but is normal anywhere between ages 8 and 16. Factors such as heredity, diet and overall health can accelerate or delay menarche.^ Menarche: average age of onset 12-13 years old; average range or 9-17 years old.
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^ The average age of menarche in humans is 12 years, but is normal anywhere between ages 8 and 16.
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^ In the United States, the average age is 12.
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[4] .The cessation of menstrual cycles at the end of a woman's reproductive period is termed menopause.^ The most notable attribute of the reproductive cycle is the menstrual discharge.
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^ Days 27/28 This is the end of the menstrual cycle, and your hormone levels have gone way down.

^ The menstrual cycle is one of the most intricate cycles of the human body and, for many women, one of the most important in terms of their everyday physical and mental health.
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.The average age of menopause in women is 52 years in industrialised countries such as the UK, with anywhere between 45 and 55 being common.^ Menopause occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, usually around age 50.

^ In contrast, follicular phase length was not significantly influenced by smoking for women less than age 35 years.
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^ This rate represented a substantial reduction from rates reported in similar studies in 1980 (6.2 per 100,000 women 12-49 years of age in Wisconsin (8), 9.0 per 100,000 women 12-45 years of age in Minnesota (9), and 12.3 per 100,000 women 12-49 years of age in Utah (10)).
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.Menopause before age 45 is considered premature in industrialised countries[5].^ Premature Menopause Menopause that occurs before age 40 is considered premature menopause.
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^ Menopause occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, usually around age 50.

.The age of menopause is largely a result of genetics; however, illnesses, certain surgeries, or medical treatments may cause menopause to occur earlier.^ Sometimes there is a medical reason for delayed puberty, such as poor nutrition, but there is no cause for most women and no treatment is needed.

^ Introduction: Menstrual conditions Basic Summary for Menstrual conditions Types of Menstrual conditions Treatments for Menstrual irregularities Videos for Menstrual irregularities Drug Causes of Menstrual conditions Symptoms of Menstrual conditions More Ways To Research Medical Signs and Symptoms: .
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^ Like menstruation, menopause can vary from woman to woman and these changes may occur over several years.

[6]
.The length of a woman's menstrual cycle will typically vary, with some shorter cycles and some longer cycles.^ The length of a woman's menstrual cycle will typically vary, with some shorter cycles and some longer cycles.
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^ The menstrual cycle is not the same for every woman.
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^ A woman's menstrual cycle begins with her period.
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.A woman who experiences variations of less than eight days between her longest cycles and shortest cycles is considered to have regular menstrual cycles.^ The menstrual cycle is not the same for every woman.
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^ If we take for example a woman with a regular 35 day cycle.
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^ In most women, menstrual cycle varies between 27 and 32 days.
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.It is unusual for a woman to experience cycle length variations of less than four days.^ Menstrual cycle length, in days.
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^ Counted from the first day of menstrual flow, the length of each phase varies from woman to woman and cycle to cycle.
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^ But the number of days in each cycle can vary from woman to woman, from every 21 to every 35 days.
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.Length variation between eight and 20 days is considered as moderately irregular cycles.^ Menstrual cycles vary from between 15 and 31 days.
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^ Length of menstruation also varies among women, from 2 to 8 days.
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^ The majority of women will have a cycle that lasts between 25-35 days, with the average being 28 days, but this can be longer or shorter.
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.Variation of 21 days or more between a woman's shortest and longest cycle lengths is considered very irregular (see cycle abnormalities).^ Menstrual cycles vary from between 15 and 31 days.
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^ The majority of women will have a cycle that lasts between 25-35 days, with the average being 28 days, but this can be longer or shorter.
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^ The 'average' Western woman who has regular periods between the ages of 13 and 50, interrupted by two pregnancies, will menstruate more than 400 times.
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[7]

Phases

.The menstrual cycle can be divided into several different phases.^ Three phases of the menstrual cycle .
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^ Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans.
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^ Taken together, these studies suggest that the acute effects of cocaine on the stimulation of LH appear to be dependent on both cocaine dose and the phase of the menstrual cycle.
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The average length of each phase is shown below, the first three are related to changes in the lining of the uterus whereas the final three are related to processes occuing in the ovary:
Name of phase Average start day
assuming a 28-day cycle
Average end day
menstrual phase (menstruation) 1 4
proliferative phase (some sources include menstruation in this phase) 5 13
ischemic phase 27 28
follicular phase 1 13
ovulatory phase (ovulation) 13 16
luteal phase (also known as secretory phase) 16 28

Menstruation

.Menstruation is also called menstrual bleeding, menses, catamenia or a period.^ Bleeding between menstrual periods.
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^ This bleeding is called a period.
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^ Spotting, missed periods, abnormal menstrual bleeding, irregular periods, irregular periods, change in premenstrual symptoms, amenorrhea, heavier periods, lighter periods, Menstrual changes Peritoneum cancer ...
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.The flow of menses normally serves as a sign that a woman has not become pregnant.^ If a woman has sexual intercourse with a man at this time and his sperm fertilizes the egg, the woman becomes pregnant.
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^ A woman becomes pregnant if the egg is fertilized by a mans sperm cell and attaches to the uterine wall.

^ The few days before, during and after ovulation are a woman's "fertile period"-the time when she can become pregnant.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(However, this cannot be taken as certainty, as a number of factors can cause bleeding during pregnancy; some factors are specific to early pregnancy, and some can cause heavy flow.^ It is clear, however, that there are different patterns in different women, with some experiencing symptoms that extend well into the days of menstrual bleeding (Mortola, 1992).
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some women also have very light bleeding, or spotting, during ovulation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cause of heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding is usually unknown; however, some women have diseases that can be associated with bleeding abnormalities.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

)[8][9][10] .During the reproductive years, failure to menstruate may provide the first indication to a woman that she may have become pregnant.^ Much to the researchers' amazement, they discovered that only 13 of the women had died during the first half of their cycles; the other 89 died between ovulation and menstruation.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinicians should convey that the menstrual cycle is from the first day of a period to the first day of the next period and may vary in length.
  • Menstruation in Girls and Adolescents: Using the Menstrual Cycle as a Vital Sign -- American Academy of Pediatrics et al. 118 (5): 2245 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The menstrual cycle varies from one woman to another, it first begins when a girl becomes sexually mature at puberty .
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eumenorrhea denotes normal, regular menstruation that lasts for a few days (usually 3 to 5 days, but anywhere from 2 to 7 days is considered normal).^ Why are the last 13 days of the menstrual...
  • Menstrual Cycle & Hormones / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menstruation (bleeding) usually lasts 3-5 days.
  • McKinley Health Center - Irregular Menses - University of Illinois 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mckinley.illinois.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, anywhere from 2 to 7 days is normal.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]
  • The Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC themenstrualcycle.com [Source type: General]

[11][12] .The average blood loss during menstruation is 35 milliliters with 10–80 ml considered normal.^ There is always a varying degree of apprehension when the pattern of menstruation deviates from what is generally considered to be normal, even if that definition includes a wide range of variations.

^ Certainly, if a woman has anemia attributable to menstrual blood loss, it can be argued that she deserves treatment for heavy bleeding whether or not it bothers her.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NSAIDs can also be useful for excessively heavy menstrual periods and have been shown to reduce menstrual blood loss by 30% (Anderson et al, 1976).
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] .(Because of this blood loss, women are more susceptible to iron deficiency than men are.^ Moreover, to assess this effect, we used data on a subset of women who provided more than one cycle (239 women, 634 cycles).
  • Factors Affecting Menstrual Cycle Characteristics -- Liu et al. 160 (2): 131 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People need to know that women's bodies are part of history, if not more so because of the subservient role women traditionally play in most societies.
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, women do not measure their menstrual blood loss, so the clinical definition of this problem is more subjective.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

)[14] .An enzyme called plasmin inhibits clotting in the menstrual fluid.^ Also, typical menstrual discharge contains tissue fluid and endometrium as well as blood, and these nonblood components do not clot.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Cramping in the abdomen, back, or upper thighs is common during the first few days of menstruation.^ Why are the first 13 days of the menstrual...
  • Menstrual Cycle & Hormones / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For the first few years after menstruation begins, longer cycles are common.

^ Approximately 50% of all women admitted to one hospital between 1922 and 1940 with a diagnosis of DKA were admitted within 2 days before menstruation or during the menstrual period.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.When menstruation begins, symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) such as breast tenderness and irritability generally decrease.^ Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of symptoms related to the menstrual cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breast tenderness and bloating are the most common menstrual symptoms.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PMS (Premenstrual syndrome), current ideas .
  • Directory of information at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Many sanitary products are marketed to women for use during their menstruation.^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

^ Approximately 50% of all women admitted to one hospital between 1922 and 1940 with a diagnosis of DKA were admitted within 2 days before menstruation or during the menstrual period.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Much to the researchers' amazement, they discovered that only 13 of the women had died during the first half of their cycles; the other 89 died between ovulation and menstruation.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Follicular phase

.
Reference ranges for estradiol and progesterone in the menstrual cycle, expressed in mass and molar concentration.
^ LH plasma levels, expressed as percent change from baseline, following acute intravenous doses of cocaine as a function of cocaine dose and menstrual cycle.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, the differences between the monkey menstrual cycle and the rat estrous cycle make comparisons difficult, but taken together the data suggest that the ratio of estradiol and progesterone levels may account for the differences in cocaine metabolite levels.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LH plasma levels, expressed as percent change from baseline, following acute intravenous doses of cocaine as a function of cocaine dose, menstrual cycle phase, and time.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.The relative concentrations of estradiol and progesterone differ somewhat between the mass and molar scales because of slightly different molar mass.^ Relationship of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations to the excretion profiles of their major urinary metabolites as measured by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay.
  • Factors Affecting Menstrual Cycle Characteristics -- Liu et al. 160 (2): 131 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

The scale is logarithmic.
.This phase is also called the proliferative phase because a hormone causes the lining of the uterus to grow, or proliferate, during this time.^ This hormone causes the lining of the uterus to secrete protein-rich substances to help nourish the egg, if it is fertilized.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Days 21/22 A drop in hormone levels can cause you to feel tired and you may feel like you need more time alone.

^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, by binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, cause an initial increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the so-called flare effect.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Through the influence of a rise in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the first days of the cycle, a few ovarian follicles are stimulated.^ F.S.H. also stimulates the production of the ovarian hormone oestrogen.
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bertoli A, De Pirro R, Fusco A, Greco AV, Magnatta R, Lauro R. Differences in insulin receptors between men and menstruating women and influence of sex hormones on insulin binding during the menstrual cycle.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Much to the researchers' amazement, they discovered that only 13 of the women had died during the first half of their cycles; the other 89 died between ovulation and menstruation.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .These follicles, which were present at birth[3] and have been developing for the better part of a year in a process known as folliculogenesis, compete with each other for dominance.^ A woman has hundreds of thousands of these follicles, but each month only one grows and develops to the point where it releases its egg.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A first period usually happens after several years of pubic hair growth, breast development, and rapid growth known as a "growth spurt."
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly 2/3rds of the book is given over to advice about exercise, emotional health, etc-- good stuff, but also stuff that's covered better in several other well known books.
  • Books about Ovulation | Bloodays 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.bloodays.com [Source type: General]

.Under the influence of several hormones, all but one of these follicles will stop growing, while one dominant follicle in the ovary will continue to maturity.^ The follicle bursts and the egg leaves the ovary and travels through one of the fallopian tubes to the uterus.
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The severity of these negative symptoms varies from one woman to the next; some barely notice a change while others become suicidal or homicidal.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under these conditions, the endometrium proliferates without the countervailing influence of progesterone.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The follicle that reaches maturity is called a tertiary, or Graafian, follicle, and it forms the ovum.^ Typically, only one dominant antral follicle matures to a Graafian follicle, a structure with a large antrum that bulges from the surface of the ovary.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The empty follicle (called a corpus luteum) stops secreting estrogen and begins to secrete progesterone, which reaches its highest levels around day twenty-two.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The secondary follicles that continue to develop become antral follicles, having formed a fluid-filled space called an antrum.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.As they mature, the follicles secrete increasing amounts of estradiol, an estrogen.^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, by binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, cause an initial increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the so-called flare effect.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The empty follicle (called a corpus luteum) stops secreting estrogen and begins to secrete progesterone, which reaches its highest levels around day twenty-two.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This estrogen is similar to naturally occurring estradiol produced by the follicle, but the ethinyl group protects the molecule from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

.The estrogens initiate the formation of a new layer of endometrium in the uterus, histologically identified as the proliferative endometrium.^ About once a month, the uterus grows a new, thickened lining (endometrium) that can hold a fertilized egg .
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, the uterus starts growing a new endometrium to prepare for pregnancy.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About once a month, the uterus grows a new lining (endometrium) to get ready for a fertilized egg .
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The estrogen also stimulates crypts in the cervix to produce fertile cervical mucus, which may be noticed by women practicing fertility awareness.^ The canalization of cervical mucus in the human fertility.
  • USCCB - (NFP) - Ovulation And The Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cervical mucus: The biological marker of fertility and infertility.
  • USCCB - (NFP) - Ovulation And The Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most women need to be aware that simply wiping their vulva with a washcloth or their hand may not be enough to keep it clean.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]

Ovulation

An ovary about to release an egg.
.During the follicular phase, estradiol suppresses production of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland.^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCLUSION The menstrual cycle is a physiologic process controlled by hormones produced by the pituitary gland and ovary.
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MANAGING MENSTRUAL CYCLE PROBLEMS 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC www.healthcoachmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the follicular phase, an egg follicle on an ovary gets ready to release an egg.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the egg has nearly matured, levels of estradiol reach a threshold above which they stimulate production of LH. These opposite responses of LH to estradiol may be enabled by the presence of two different estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus: estrogen receptor alpha, which is responsible for the negative feedback estradiol-LH loop, and estrogen receptor beta, which is responsible for the positive estradiol-LH relationship.^ In menstrual migraine, estrogen withdrawal is likely responsible for initiating some or all these vascular effects on intracranial vessels.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Testing at these two phases of the cycle may also capture preference differences attributable to testosterone levels [see 37] .
  • PLoS ONE: Preferences across the Menstrual Cycle for Masculinity and Symmetry in Photographs of Male Faces and Bodies 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is because birth control pills prevent ovulation, usually by providing a steady dose of estrogen that is too high to allow an egg to mature.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .In the average cycle this LH surge starts around cycle day 12 and may last 48 hours.^ In the average cycle this LH surge starts around cycle day 12 and may last 48 hours.

^ The average menstrual cycle is around 28 days long.
  • Menstrual Cycle 28 Days Menes Monthly period Information about menstruation follicular luteal phase ovulation 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.baby2see.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each cycle lasts about 5-7 days.
  • Infertility and the menstrual cycle | savannahnow.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC savannahnow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The release of LH matures the egg and weakens the wall of the follicle in the ovary, causing the fully developed follicle to release its secondary oocyte.^ The mature follicle causes a spike in what...
  • Menstrual Cycle & Hormones / Flashcards - Create Free Flashcards 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.proprofs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The release of the egg from the ovary is called ovulation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phase starts on ovulation day, the day the egg is released from the egg follicle on the ovary.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] The secondary oocyte promptly matures into an ootid and then becomes a mature ovum. The mature ovum has a diameter of about 0.2 mm.[18]
.Which of the two ovaries—left or right—ovulates appears essentially random; no known left and right co-ordination exists.^ Normally, the ovaries alternate each month, releasing an egg from the left ovary one month and then releasing an egg from the right ovary the next month.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pituitary gland then sends out a high level of the hormone L.H. (this is commonly known as ‘the L.H. surge’) and this signals the ovary to release the egg (ovulation).
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the illustration below, an egg has left an ovary after ovulation and is on its way through a fallopian tube to the uterus.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .Occasionally, both ovaries will release an egg;[19] if both eggs are fertilized, the result is fraternal twins.^ The release of the egg from the ovary is called ovulation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ovulation is the release of a mature egg from the ovary .
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occasionally although rarely more than one follicle is released and fertilized, and twins, triplets, quadruplets, or even quintuplets may be born as a result.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.After being released from the ovary, the egg is swept into the fallopian tube by the fimbria, which is a fringe of tissue at the end of each fallopian tube.^ The egg then passes down into the fallopian tubes.
  • Natural Remedy to Support Normal Ovulation Cycles & Conception 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The release of the egg from the ovary is called ovulation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fertile XX also supports a healthy uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and reproductive functioning .
  • Natural Remedy to Support Normal Ovulation Cycles & Conception 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After about a day, an unfertilized egg will disintegrate or dissolve in the fallopian tube.^ The follicle bursts and the egg leaves the ovary and travels through one of the fallopian tubes to the uterus.
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the egg travels in the fallopian tube, a soft spongy lining forms in the uterus.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the egg breaks from the ovary (ovulation), it is drawn into a nearby fallopian tube and then makes the three-day journey to the uterus, a distance of about four inches.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Fertilization by a spermatozoon, when it occurs, usually takes place in the ampulla, the widest section of the fallopian tubes.^ The release of an egg was considered a sudden, explosive event, but [the] pictures, to be published in Fertility and Sterility , show it taking place over a period of at least 15 minutes.
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A fertilized egg immediately begins the process of embryogenesis, or development.^ If the egg is fertilized by sperm and then implants in (attaches to) the endometrium, a pregnancy begins.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the egg is not fertilized or does not implant, the endometrium begins to break down.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the lining of the uterus (endometrium) begins to thicken immediately after ovulation in preparation for receiving and nourishing the fertilized egg.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The developing embryo takes about three days to reach the uterus and another three days to implant into the endometrium.^ On Day 1 of your cycle, the thickened lining ( endometrium ) of the uterus begins to shed.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the egg breaks from the ovary (ovulation), it is drawn into a nearby fallopian tube and then makes the three-day journey to the uterus, a distance of about four inches.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At another point she was reminiscing about the early days of feminine hygiene products.
  • Menstrual humor at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: General]

[3] .It has usually reached the blastocyst stage at the time of implantation.^ Usually, however, the egg is not fertilized by the time it reaches the uterus.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than one follicle may start to develop at a time, but usually only one reaches maturity each month.
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some women, ovulation features a characteristic pain called mittelschmerz (German term meaning middle pain).^ The medical word for this is mittelschmerz, from the German, meaning middle pain.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women know when they're ovulating, because at mid-cycle they have some pain--typically a dull ache on either side of the lower abdomen lasting a few hours.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, for some women, normal means a cycle length that changes every month.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .The sudden change in hormones at the time of ovulation sometimes also causes light mid-cycle blood flow.^ When you believe your tampon has absorbed as much menstrual blood as it can hold, it's time to change your tampon.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another indicator that it's time to change your tampon is that your vagina is leaking menstrual blood onto your panties.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cramps The Effect of Hormones During the Menstrual Cycle Ever wonder why you feel the way you do at certain times of your menstrual cycle?

[21]

Luteal phase

.
Reference ranges for luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone in the menstrual cycle, expressed in international units.
^ Your hormones control your menstrual cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endo-Ex ™ supports endometrial tissue health, hormonal balance and regular healthy menstrual cycle.
  • Natural Remedy to Support Normal Ovulation Cycles & Conception 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most studies seem to indicate that a woman's intellectual skills are not significantly affected by the hormonal fluctuations of her menstrual cycle.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The scale is logarithmic.
The luteal phase is also called the secretory phase. .An important role is played by the corpus luteum, the solid body formed in an ovary after the egg has been released from the ovary into the fallopian tube.^ The egg then passes down into the fallopian tubes.
  • Natural Remedy to Support Normal Ovulation Cycles & Conception 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The release of the egg from the ovary is called ovulation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fertile XX also supports a healthy uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and reproductive functioning .
  • Natural Remedy to Support Normal Ovulation Cycles & Conception 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This body continues to grow for some time after ovulation and produces significant amounts of hormones, particularly progesterone.^ Intense exercise over a long period of time appears to alter the balance of hormones within the body in such a way that ovulation seldom or never occurs.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menstrual periods are controlled by hormones, chemicals produced by the body to regulate itself.

^ Thus, assays of prospectively collected daily urine samples for metabolites of estrogen and progesterone have been used in epidemiologic studies to assess ovulatory status and timing of ovulation.
  • Factors Affecting Menstrual Cycle Characteristics -- Liu et al. 160 (2): 131 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Progesterone plays a vital role in making the endometrium receptive to implantation of the blastocyst and supportive of the early pregnancy; it also has the side effect of raising the woman's basal body temperature.^ People need to know that women's bodies are part of history, if not more so because of the subservient role women traditionally play in most societies.
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This ability to smell these odors only during ovulation may play a role in triggering a woman's increased sex drive.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .There is a noted secretion of prolactin towards the end of the secretory phase.^ Toward the end of this phase, estrogen levels begin to rise.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.After ovulation, the pituitary hormones FSH and LH cause the remaining parts of the dominant follicle to transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.^ It also causes the broken follicle to grow new cells that produce another hormone, progesterone.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Produced in the pituitary gland, this hormone triggers the egg to break from the follicle.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, by binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, cause an initial increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the so-called flare effect.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.The increased progesterone in the adrenals starts to induce the production of estrogen.^ A decrease in the progesterone level, or in the progesterone-estrogen ratio, correlates with increased seizure activity.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seizure threshold is increased by progesterone and decreased by estrogen, an effect presumably caused by alterations in brain excitability.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The decrease in estrogen and progesterone at menstruation is believed to stimulate the release of hepatic monoxygenase enzymes, which accelerates anticonvulsant metabolism, and increases the risk for breakthrough seizures.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.The hormones produced by the corpus luteum also suppress production of the FSH and LH that the corpus luteum needs to maintain itself.^ If an egg is not fertilized that month and the woman doesn't get pregnant, the corpus luteum stops making hormones and gets reabsorbed in the ovary.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the egg is expelled, the sac--now called a corpus luteum--remains in the ovary, where it starts producing mainly progesterone.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, the level of FSH and LH fall quickly over time, and the corpus luteum subsequently atrophies.^ The empty follicle (called a corpus luteum) stops secreting estrogen and begins to secrete progesterone, which reaches its highest levels around day twenty-two.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The abrupt decline of ovarian steroidogenesis resulting from involution of the corpus luteum is thought to be responsible for "menstrual arthritis," a rare condition in which arthritis occurs exclusively at the time of menses.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If fertilization of the ovum does not occur, the corpus luteum involutes, levels of estrogen and progesterone fall dramatically, and menstruation occurs.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Falling levels of progesterone trigger menstruation and the beginning of the next cycle.^ Estrogen and progesterone levels are very low at the beginning of the cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next the minister asked simply, "Which of you has the menstrual cycle?"
  • Menstrual humor at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: General]

^ In the present study, peak cocaine levels increased as a function of cocaine dose, but there were no differences based on menstrual cycle phase.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.From the time of ovulation until progesterone withdrawal has caused menstruation to begin, the process typically takes about two weeks, with ten to sixteen days considered normal.^ All monkeys were acclimated to this procedure 4–5 days each week for 1–2 menstrual cycles before the study started.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ During the first .two days of your period, you should also take extra precautions to protect your skin from the sun, since at this time of your cycle, your skin is especially sensitive to the sun's ultraviolet rays and can burn more easily.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women normally menstruate until they are 45 to 55 years old, when menopause begins.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For an individual woman, the follicular phase often varies in length from cycle to cycle; by contrast, the length of her luteal phase will be fairly consistent from cycle to cycle.^ For the periovulatory and luteal sessions, sessions were scheduled based on the typical length of each individual monkey's menstrual cycle.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute effects of cocaine on prolactin and gonadotropins in female rhesus monkey during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menstrual cycle–related alterations in glycemic control during the luteal and premenstrual phases in some insulin-dependent individuals with diabetes have been reported.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.The loss of the corpus luteum can be prevented by fertilization of the egg; the resulting embryo produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is very similar to LH and which can preserve the corpus luteum.^ The fertilized egg attaches to the uterus, and the corpus luteum makes all the progesterone needed to keep it implanted and growing until a placenta (an organ connecting the fetus to the mother) develops.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If an egg is not fertilized that month and the woman doesn't get pregnant, the corpus luteum stops making hormones and gets reabsorbed in the ovary.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, metabolites of daily urinary human chorionic gonadotropin must also be assayed to detect early pregnancy loss ( 8 , 9 ).
  • Factors Affecting Menstrual Cycle Characteristics -- Liu et al. 160 (2): 131 -- American Journal of Epidemiology 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC aje.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Because the hormone is unique to the embryo, most pregnancy tests look for the presence of hCG.[3]

Fertile window

.The most fertile period (the time with the highest likelihood of pregnancy resulting from sexual intercourse) covers the time from some 5 days before until 1–2 days after ovulation.^ The few days before, during and after ovulation are a woman's "fertile period"-the time when she can become pregnant.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ovulation, and the days before and after, is the time when you are most likely to get pregnant.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 50% of all women admitted to one hospital between 1922 and 1940 with a diagnosis of DKA were admitted within 2 days before menstruation or during the menstrual period.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .In an average 28 day cycle with a 14-day luteal phase, this corresponds to the second and the beginning of the third week.^ An average cycle is 28 days, but anywhere from 23 to 35 days is normal.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Average interval is 28 days.
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All monkeys were acclimated to this procedure 4–5 days each week for 1–2 menstrual cycles before the study started.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

However, few cycles are exactly average. .A variety of methods have been developed to help individual women estimate the relatively fertile and the relatively infertile days in the cycle: these systems are called fertility awareness.^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

^ With the menstrual cycle completely eliminated, these women experience significant and progressive improvement in bowel symptoms.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study, 77 percent of women exposed to cold viruses during the middle of their cycles developed colds, compared to 29 percent of other women.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fertility awareness methods that rely on cycle length records alone are called calendar-based methods.[25] .Methods that require observation of one or more of the three primary fertility signs (basal body temperature, cervical mucus, and cervical position)[26] are known as symptoms-based methods.^ The symptoms of TSS include one or more of the following: Always begin AFTER a menstrual period starts.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occasionally although rarely more than one follicle is released and fertilized, and twins, triplets, quadruplets, or even quintuplets may be born as a result.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So a little more boldly he pressed the WA button and body temperature Warm Air blew across his wet bottom and dried it comfortably.
  • Menstrual humor at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: General]

[25] .Urine test kits are available that detect the LH surge that occurs 24 to 36 hours before ovulation; these are known as ovulation predictor kits (OPKs).^ While ovulation occurs shortly after a surge in LH and this is the primary indicator of when ovulation has occurred, determining LH levels on a daily basis was not possible.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Computerized devices that interpret basal body temperatures, urinary test results, or changes in saliva are called fertility monitors.^ Your vaginal discharge increases and you may have a slight rise in body temperature, you can read more about these changes in our section called ovulation prediction .
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This meant that Karen had to learn to read the monthly physical changes in her body so she and John could abstain from making love during the few days she was fertile.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A woman's fertility is also affected by her age.[28] .As a woman's total egg supply is formed in fetal life,[29] to be ovulated decades later, it has been suggested that this long lifetime may make the chromatin of eggs more vulnerable to division problems, breakage, and mutation than the chromatin of sperm, which are produced continuously during a man's reproductive life.^ Ovulation occurs in a woman when the ovary releases an egg about halfway through the menstrual cycle.
  • Natural Remedy to Support Normal Ovulation Cycles & Conception 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glands in the cervix create more mucus; during this phase, the mucus becomes thinner and more elastic to make it easier for sperm to enter the uterus.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the egg breaks from the ovary (ovulation), it is drawn into a nearby fallopian tube and then makes the three-day journey to the uterus, a distance of about four inches.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Effect on other systems

.Some women with neurological conditions experience increased activity of their conditions at about the same time during each menstrual cycle.^ The menstrual cycles of all the women were then followed.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occurs every 21 to 35 days Lasts four to five days Produces a total blood loss of about 2 to 3 tablespoons (30 to 44 milliliters) The menstrual cycle isn't the same for every woman.
  • Menorrhagia (heavy menstrual bleeding) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

.Many women with epilepsy have more seizures in a pattern linked to the menstrual cycle; this is called "catamenial epilepsy".[30] Different patterns seem to exist (such as seizures coinciding with the time of menstruation, or coinciding with the time of ovulation), and the frequency with which they occur has not been firmly established.^ What common symptoms are linked to the menstrual cycle?
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This whole cycle is called menstruation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The menstrual cycles of all the women were then followed.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using one particular definition, one group of scientists found that around one-third of women with intractable partial epilepsy have catamenial epilepsy.^ I immediately bought one, and had no trouble using it whatsoever (I use a cap for contraception so found a cup easy to insert and take out).
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to one study, women increase their sexual desire and activity by 25 percent during a three-day period around ovulation.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30][31][32] .An effect of hormones has been proposed, in which progesterone declines and estrogen increases would trigger seizures.^ Increased self-administration of cocaine following haloperidol: effect of ovariectomy, estrogen replacement, and estrous cycle.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even slight effects of estrogen and progesterone on glucose homeostasis are exaggerated in diabetics compared with women without diabetes.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[33] .Studies by medical journals have found that women experiencing menses are 1.68 times more likely to commit suicide.^ Migraine headaches are 2 to 3 times more common in women than men, 5 a sex difference that does not exist in prepubertal children.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One study revealed that women are two to six times more likely to have an orgasm at midcycle.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome appear in late adolescence and affect women 3 to 20 times more frequently than men.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.Mice have been used as an experimental system to investigate possible mechanisms by which levels of sex steroid hormones might regulate nervous system function.^ Mueller MN, Kappas A. Sex hormones in experimental and human arthritis.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of ovarian suppressive agents such as danazol and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with steroid add-back for control of seizure has not been described in the literature.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is likely that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists have direct effects on the enteric nervous system, in addition to their indirect effects on the gut, mediated through ovarian hormone suppression.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.During the part of the mouse estrous cycle when progesterone is highest, the level of nerve-cell GABA receptor subtype delta was high.^ It is believed that high levels of progesterone suppress female libido; when the levels fall, therefore, desire rises.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estrogen and progesterone levels are very low at the beginning of the cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hormones estrogen and progesterone play the biggest roles in how the uterus changes during each cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since these GABA receptors are inhibitory, nerve cells with more delta receptors are less likely to fire than cells with lower numbers of delta receptors.^ Since these GABA receptors are inhibitory, nerve cells with more delta receptors are less likely to fire than cells with lower numbers of delta receptors.

^ During the part of the mouse estrous cycle when estrogen levels are higher than progesterone levels, the number of delta receptors decrease, increasing nerve cell activity, in turn increasing anxiety and seizure susceptibility.

^ PCOS Menstrual cycles of women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) are likely to be irregular, very long (more than 35 days) and often anovulatory.

.During the part of the mouse estrous cycle when estrogen levels are higher than progesterone levels, the number of delta receptors decrease, increasing nerve cell activity, in turn increasing anxiety and seizure susceptibility.^ During the part of the mouse estrous cycle when estrogen levels are higher than progesterone levels, the number of delta receptors decrease, increasing nerve cell activity, in turn increasing anxiety and seizure susceptibility.

^ A decrease in the progesterone level, or in the progesterone-estrogen ratio, correlates with increased seizure activity.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When the level of progesterone decreases, menstruation occurs.
  • ACOG Education Pamphlet AP095 -- Abnormal Uterine Bleeding 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.acog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
.Estrogen levels may affect thyroid behavior.^ In addition to its antiepileptic properties, progesterone given in this fashion may also reduce frequency of seizure by suppressing gonadotropin release which, in turn, lowers estrogen levels.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These women may experience migraine attacks in the postpartum period, associated with falling estrogen levels.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .For example, during the luteal phase (when estrogen levels are lower), the velocity of blood flow in the thyroid is lower than during the follicular phase (when estrogen levels are higher).^ LH levels in both follicular and luteal phase women.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While Lukas et al (1996) found that men had higher cocaine plasma levels than women and women had higher cocaine plasma levels during the follicular phase compared to the luteal phase following a single dose of 0.9 mg/kg intranasal cocaine, other studies have not supported these findings.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LH plasma levels and decrease prolactin levels in female monkeys during the early follicular phase ( Mello et al , 1990a ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.Among women living closely together, the onsets of menstruation may tend to synchronize somewhat.^ Synchrony , menstrual (women living together menstruating together) .
  • Directory of information at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women in the ovulatory phase frequently report constipation in the progesterone-dominant luteal phase, with loose stool or diarrhea at, or immediately preceding, the onset of menstruation.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It also may be that, because these women tend to be in excellent health, their bodies are better able to handle the strain and occasional pain of menstruation.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This McClintock effect was first described in 1971, and possibly explained by the action of pheromones in 1998.[38] However, subsequent research has called this hypothesis into question.^ Part of the menstrual odor discussion - the article (from Nature) Menstrual synchrony and suppression " by Martha McClintock (1971) - Pheromones influence the menstrual cycle (K. Stern and Martha McClintock, 1998, a summary from Nature magazine) .
  • Directory of information at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has been called the "dormitory effect," because the first formal study of the phenomenon was conducted among a group of college students living in a dormitory.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]

Cycle abnormalities

.Infrequent or irregular ovulation is called oligoovulation.^ Infrequent or irregular ovulation is called oligoovulation .

[40] The absence of ovulation is called anovulation. .Normal menstrual flow can occur without ovulation preceding it: an anovulatory cycle.^ What is a normal teenage menstrual cycle?
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, of course, without ovulation, menstruation does not occur.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ovulation and the menstrual cycle .
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some cycles, follicular development may start but not be completed; nevertheless, estrogens will form and will stimulate the uterine lining.^ During menstruation, levels of estrogen, made by the ovaries, start to rise and make the lining of the uterus grow and thicken.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists are not sure what causes menstrual synchrony, but they believe it may be a female pheromone that in some unknown way triggers changes in the menstrual cycles of other women.
  • The Secrets Our Body Clocks Reveals � Your Sexual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estrogen, which can be administered in either oral or percutaneous form, is started 48 hours before the anticipated onset of headache at midcycle or at menstruation, and is continued for 3 and 6 days, respectively.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Anovulatory flow resulting from a very thick endometrium caused by prolonged, continued high estrogen levels is called estrogen breakthrough bleeding.^ It is encased in a sac called the Graafian follicle, which continues to produce estrogen as the egg grows.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estrogen and progesterone levels are very low at the beginning of the cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anovulatory bleeding triggered by a sudden drop in estrogen levels is called estrogen withdrawal bleeding.^ During ovulation, estrogen levels drop, and that''''s often enough to trigger some bleeding.
  • The Female Body: An Owner's Manual Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: General]

^ Anovulatory bleeding triggered by a sudden drop in estrogen levels is called estrogen withdrawal bleeding .
  • Menstrualcycle.eu 25 September 2009 7:11 UTC menstrualcycle.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progesterone withdrawal leads to menstrual shedding ( progesterone withdrawal bleeding ), and falling inhibin levels allow FSH levels to rise to raise a new crop of follicles.

[41] .Anovulatory cycles commonly occur before menopause (perimenopause) and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.^ Toxic Shock Syndrome also occurs in children, men, and non-menstruating women.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42]
.Very little flow (less than 10 ml) is called hypomenorrhea.^ With many of his million$ he not only built very nice residential conclaves specifically for his fellow dwarf/midget actors less fortunate than he, but he also allowed them to live, for life, in these little to-scale places at no cost to them.
  • Menstrual humor at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: General]

^ The assay sensitivity is 1 ng/ml and intra- and interassay coefficients of variation are less than 6% for all compounds.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1980, when tampon absorbency (in vitro) ranged from 10.3-20.5 g (4), very high absorbency products ( greater than 15.4 g) were used by 42% of tampon users (9).
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regular cycles with intervals of 21 days or fewer are polymenorrhea; frequent but irregular menstruation is known as metrorrhagia.^ (This pregnancy is dated from Day 1 of this menstrual cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

^ All monkeys were acclimated to this procedure 4–5 days each week for 1–2 menstrual cycles before the study started.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sudden heavy flows or amounts greater than 80 ml are termed menorrhagia.^ Vaginal dryness and ulcerations may occur when women use tampons more absorbent than needed for the amount of their menstrual flow.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amount of blood flow varies, too, but for most women, bleeding starts out light at first, followed by heavier flow for a day or two and then another light day or two.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] Heavy menstruation that occurs frequently and irregularly is menometrorrhagia. .The term for cycles with intervals exceeding 35 days is oligomenorrhea.^ Although the average cycle is 28 days, it is perfectly normal to have a cycle that is as short as 21 days or as long as 35 days.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An average cycle is 28 days, but anywhere from 23 to 35 days is normal.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between ages 25 and 35, most women's cycles are regular, generally lasting 21 to 35 days.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Amenorrhea refers to more than three[43] to six[44] months without menses (while not being pregnant) during a woman's reproductive years.^ "What does a poor woman do during menses every month?"
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One menstrual problem getting attention in recent years is the appearance of canker sores at certain times during a woman's cycle.

^ If an egg is not fertilized that month and the woman doesn't get pregnant, the corpus luteum stops making hormones and gets reabsorbed in the ovary.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ovulation suppression

Hormonal contraception

.
Half-used blister pack of a combined oral contraceptive.
^ For women using combined oral contraception can terbinafine reduce its contraceptive efficacy?
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vange N, Kloosterboer HJ, Haspels AA. Effect of seven low-dose combined oral contraceptive preparations on carbohydrate metabolism.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spector TD, Hochberg MC. The protective effect of the oral contraceptive pill on rheumatoid arthritis: an overview of the analytic epidemiological studies using meta-analysis.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

The white pills are placebos, mainly for the purpose of reminding the female to continue taking the pills.
.While some forms of birth control do not affect the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptives work by disrupting it.^ Your hormones control your menstrual cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What controls the menstrual cycle?
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The menstrual cycle and its neuroendocrine control.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Progestogen negative feedback decreases the pulse frequency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release by the hypothalamus, which decreases the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the anterior pituitary.^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, by binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors, cause an initial increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the so-called flare effect.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are analogues of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, the hypothalamic hormone that binds to specific receptors in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulating the release of gonadotropins.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

.Decreased levels of FSH inhibit follicular development, preventing an increase in estradiol levels.^ A decrease in the progesterone level, or in the progesterone-estrogen ratio, correlates with increased seizure activity.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Decreased serum levels of phenytoin demonstrated during menses in women with catamenial epilepsy correlate with increased seizure activity.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

Progestogen negative feedback and the lack of estrogen positive feedback on LH release prevent a mid-cycle LH surge. .Inhibition of follicular development and the absence of a LH surge prevent ovulation.^ While ovulation occurs shortly after a surge in LH and this is the primary indicator of when ovulation has occurred, determining LH levels on a daily basis was not possible.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[45][46][47]
The degree of ovulation suppression in progestogen-only contraceptives depends on the progestogen activity and dose. .Low dose progestogen-only contraceptives—traditional progestogen only pills, subdermal implants Norplant and Jadelle, and intrauterine system Mirena—inhibit ovulation in ~50% of cycles and rely mainly on other effects, such as thickening of cervical mucus, for their contraceptive effectiveness.^ Which progestogen-only pill?
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Why: usually indicate cervical "erosion", cervical polyp, presence of an IUCD and the oral contraceptive pill.
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the number of doses tested in the present study and the number of menstrual cycle phases tested, we did not collect samples beyond 90 min and did not also assay other hormones such as cortisol and prolactin.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[48] .Intermediate dose progestogen-only contraceptives—the progestogen-only pill Cerazette and the subdermal implant Implanon—allow some follicular development but more consistently inhibit ovulation in 97–99% of cycles.^ Which progestogen-only pill?
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the symptoms that many women experience in association with their menstrual cycle are cramping By Marlyn Lopes   |  Published 5/15/2007 More topics: Menstrual Period .

^ Some women may be more sensitive than others to changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The same cervical mucus changes occur as with very low dose progestogens. High dose progestogen-only contraceptives—the injectables Depo-Provera and Noristerat—completely inhibit follicular development and ovulation.[48]
Combined hormonal contraceptives include both an estrogen and a progestogen. .Estrogen negative feedback on the anterior pituitary greatly decreases the release of FSH, which makes combined hormonal contraceptives more effective at inhibiting follicular development and preventing ovulation.^ Murray SC, Muse KN. Effective treatment of severe menstrual migraine headaches with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and add-back therapy.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Baumann G. Estrogen and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in man: evidence for normal feedback regulation by corticosteroids.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pituitary gland makes hormones that impact other glands in the endocrine system (the body system that controls growth, sexual development, and metabolism).

Estrogen also reduces the incidence of irregular breakthrough bleeding.[45][46][47] .Several combined hormonal contraceptives—the pill, NuvaRing, and the contraceptive patch—are usually used in a way that causes regular withdrawal bleeding.^ Menstrual Period Dealing with Menstrual Cramps and Learning How to Minimize the Pain They Cause Menstrual cramps are very common in women who are about to start their period, but there are several useful ways to minimize the pain they are causing you.

^ Medical suppression of ovulation using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists can be useful for both diagnosis and treatment of any severe, recurrent menstrual cycle–related disease exacerbations.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The "Pill" : Oral hormonal contraceptives, technical article by Dr. Nelson Soucasaux .
  • Directory of information at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a normal cycle, menstruation occurs when estrogen and progesterone levels drop rapidly.^ Estrogen and progesterone levels are very low at the beginning of the cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is a normal teenage menstrual cycle?
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the present study, peak cocaine levels increased as a function of cocaine dose, but there were no differences based on menstrual cycle phase.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[22] .Temporarily discontinuing use of combined hormonal contraceptives (a placebo week, not using patch or ring for a week) has a similar effect of causing the uterine lining to shed.^ Uninterrupted use of hormonal contraceptives for menstrual suppression: why I do not recommend it , by Brazilian gynecologist Dr. Nelson Soucasaux .
  • Directory of information at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spector TD, Hochberg MC. The protective effect of the oral contraceptive pill on rheumatoid arthritis: an overview of the analytic epidemiological studies using meta-analysis.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Uninterrupted use of hormonal contraceptives for menstrual suppression: why I do not recommend it, by Brazilian gynecologist Dr. Nelson Soucasaux .
  • Directory of information at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If withdrawal bleeding is not desired for dods, combined hormonal contraceptives may be taken continuously, although this increases the risk of breakthrough bleeding.^ The increased risk associated with high absorbency tampons is also poorly understood; high absorbency may be a surrogate for another effect.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased variety in menstrual products and concern related to Toxic Shock Syndrome may have resulted in fewer women using tampons or fewer using tampons continuously.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain Oral Contraceptives May Pose Health Risks, Study Suggests .
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lactational amenorrhea

.Breastfeeding causes negative feedback to occur on pulse secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).^ Similarly, levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured before, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min after cocaine administration.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Letterie GS, Fredlund PN. Catamenial insulin reactions treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduced frequency of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the luteal phase of the rhesus monkey.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on the strength of the negative feedback, breastfeeding women may experience complete suppression of follicular development, follicular development but no ovulation, or normal menstrual cycles may resume.^ What is a normal teenage menstrual cycle?
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unpredictable or long menstrual cycles are normal for teenagers and women in their 40s.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ovulation and the menstrual cycle .
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Suppression of ovulation is more likely when suckling occurs more frequently.^ Diabetic ketoacidosis, severe insulin reactions, and hypoglycemic episodes also occur more frequently around menstruation.
  • Arch Intern Med -- Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Medical Disorders, July 13, 1998, Case and Reid 158 (13): 1405 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archinte.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Progesterone also blocks the release of more hormones (L.H. and F.S.H.) from the pituitary gland so that further ovulation does not occur during pregnancy .
  • Ovulation and the menstrual cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.homehealth-uk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] The production of prolactin in response to suckling is important to maintaining lactational amenorrhea.[50] .On average, women who are fully breastfeeding whose infants suckle frequently experience a return of menstruation at fourteen and a half months postpartum.^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

^ They should check blood glucose levels frequently throughout the perimenstrual period to determine whether they are among the subgroup who experience altered glycemic control.
  • Gender-Based Differences: Menstrual Cycle-Related Alterations in Diabetes Control 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Currently Ellen Olshansky, whose work has been in the area of infertility and branching into the experience of menopause in women who were previously infertile, is working on the qualitative component.
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a wide range of response between individual breastfeeding women, however, with some experiencing return of menstruation at two months and others remaining amenorrheic for up to 42 months postpartum.^ There is a broad range of "normal" among menstruating women.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is always a varying degree of apprehension when the pattern of menstruation deviates from what is generally considered to be normal, even if that definition includes a wide range of variations.

^ Appendix Dong Quai for Irregular Menstrual Periods Do you wish there was something you could do to regulate your periods and make them less dreadful each month?

[51]

Etymological and biological associations

Nightlighting and the moon

.The word "menstruation" is etymologically related to "moon". The terms "menstruation" and "menses" are derived from the Latin mensis (month), which in turn relates to the Greek mene (moon) and to the roots of the English words month and moon—reflecting the fact that the moon also takes 27.32 days to revolve around the Earth.^ Start taking the recommended dose of pain reliever when symptoms begin or 1 day before your menstrual period starts.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

^ Patient Profile Survey Take Survey View Results Survey about diseases related to your Menstrual irregularities Take Survey View Results Organs affected by Menstrual irregularities: .
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.The synodical lunar month, the period between two new moons (or full moons), is 29.53 days long.^ Keep a calendar and mark the day you start your menstrual period each month.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looking out the window, his wife sees a full moon and says to herself, "Well, I guess it's that time of the month."
  • Menstrual humor at the Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: General]

^ Most menstrual periods last from three to five days, but anywhere from two to seven days is normal.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some authors believe women in traditional societies without nightlighting ovulated with the full moon and menstruated with the new moon.^ This puts the peak of ovulation at the full moon .
  • Letters to your MUM 16 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.mum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women also have very light bleeding, or spotting, during ovulation.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During ovulation, some women have less than a day of red spotting or lower pelvic pain or discomfort (mittelschmerz).
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .A few studies in both humans[53] and animals[54] have found that artificial light at night does influence the menstrual cycle in humans and the estrus cycle in mice (cycles are more regular in the absence of artificial light at night), though none have demonstrated the synchronization of women's menstrual cycles with the lunar cycle.^ Menstrual Pain Menstrual Migraine Headaches: A Royal Pain in the Head for Women Around the World Do you ever experience painful headaches about 1-2 days before or during your menstrual cycle?

^ Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taken together, these studies suggest that the acute effects of cocaine on the stimulation of LH appear to be dependent on both cocaine dose and the phase of the menstrual cycle.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

It has also been suggested that bright light exposure in the morning promotes more regular cycles.[55] .One author has suggested that sensitivity of women's cycles to nightlighting is caused by nutritional deficiencies of certain vitamins and minerals.^ Some women may be more sensitive than others to changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
.Other animals' menstrual cycles may be greatly different from lunar cycles: while the average cycle length in orangutans is the same as in humans—28 days[57]—the average for chimpanzees is 35 days.^ (This pregnancy is dated from Day 1 of this menstrual cycle.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it is true that the average menstrual cycle lasts for 28 days, that is not necessarily the normal menstrual cycle for everyone.

^ These days were later in monkeys who had menstrual cycles > 28 days.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[58] Some take this as evidence that the average length of humans' cycle is most likely a coincidence.[59][60][61][62][63]

Estrus and menstruation

Females of most mammal species advertise fertility to males with visual behavioral cues, pheromones, or both.[64] This period of advertised fertility is known as estrus or heat.[64] In species that experience estrus, females are generally only receptive to copulation while they are in heat[64] (dolphins are an exception).[65] .In the estrous cycles of most placental mammals, if no fertilization takes place, the uterus reabsorbs the endometrium.^ On Day 1 of your cycle, the thickened lining ( endometrium ) of the uterus begins to shed.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When there is no fertilized egg to start a pregnancy, the uterus sheds its lining.
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About once a month, the uterus grows a new, thickened lining (endometrium) that can hold a fertilized egg .
  • Health Information 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.mmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This breakdown of the endometrium without vaginal discharge is sometimes called covert menstruation.^ Ulcerations have also been reported in women using tampons between menstrual periods to try to control excessive vaginal discharge or abnormal bleeding.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .Overt menstruation (where there is blood flow from the vagina) occurs primarily in humans and close evolutionary relatives such as chimpanzees.^ Another indicator that it's time to change your tampon is that your vagina is leaking menstrual blood onto your panties.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The uterus doesn't have to contract as much to discharge the menstrual flow, so there is less cramping.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The menstrual clots are clumps of pooled blood in the vagina.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Some species, such as domestic dogs, experience small amounts of vaginal bleeding while in heat; this discharge has a different physiologic cause than menstruation.^ The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Menstrual irregularities.
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ulcerations have also been reported in women using tampons between menstrual periods to try to control excessive vaginal discharge or abnormal bleeding.
  • Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.femininehygiene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual abnormalities Ovarian carcinosarcoma ...
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[67]
A few mammals do not experience obvious, visible signs of fertility (concealed ovulation). .In humans, while women can be taught to recognize their own level of fertility (fertility awareness), whether men can detect fertility in women is debated; recent studies have given conflicting results.^ Menstrual Cycle New Research Indicates that Women Have a Sexier Walk During the Peak of Their Period Studies have long indicated that men find women sexier during their period of peak fertility.

[68][69] Orangutans also lack visible signs of impending ovulation.[57] .Also, it has been said that the extended estrus period of the bonobo (reproductive-age females are in heat for 75% of their menstrual cycle)[70] has a similar effect to the lack of a "heat" in human females.^ Any symptoms related to menstruation and the female reproductive cycle.
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Age of menarche (when first got menstrual period)?
  • Menstrual irregularities - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sex and menstrual cycle differences in the subjective effects from smoked cocaine in humans.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Cocaine Across the Menstrual Cycle in Rhesus Monkeys 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[71]

References

  1. ^ a b Strassmann BI (1996). "The evolution of endometrial cycles and menstruation". Q Rev Biol 71 (2): 181–220. doi:10.1086/419369. PMID 8693059. 
  2. ^ Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Clint E. Bruess, Sarah C. Conklin (2007). Exploring the dimensions of human sexuality (3rd ed.). Jones & Bartlett. pp. 136–137. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Losos, Jonathan B.; Raven, Peter H.; Johnson, George B.; Singer, Susan R. (2002). Biology. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1207–09. ISBN 0-07-303120-8. 
  4. ^ "At what age does a girl get her first period?," from Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle, National Women's Health Information Center (accessed June 11, 2005)
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