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Mental disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F.
MeSH D001523
.A mental disorder or mental illness is a psychological or behavioral pattern that occurs in an individual and is thought to cause distress or disability that is not expected as part of normal development or culture.^ Abnormal Behavior Not Regarded as Psychiatric Disorder To make this last point even more clear, this section will deal with various kinds of conditions and behavior patterns which although recognized as not strictly average kinds of conduct are not thought to indicate mental illness nor even to be similar kinds of afflictions.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
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^ Although it may at first appear illogical to apply etic standards of behavior 3 as a measure to the emic standards of society in an area as contextually relative as mental illness is usually thought to be, it can be justified.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The recognition and understanding of mental health conditions has changed over time and across cultures, and there are still variations in the definition, assessment, and classification of mental disorders, although standard guideline criteria are widely accepted.^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
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^ Partially a s a result of these surveys, there has been an increasing recognition on the part of these and other researchers that the nosological designations, behavioral definitions, clinical categories, etc.
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^ Culturally Defined Illnesses There are certain conditions in British Honduras which are characterized by mental disturbances and bizarre behavior but they are not thought to be cases of mental illness.
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.Over a third of people in most countries report meeting criteria for the major categories at some point in their life.^ Most rum is about 20% alcohol although some people drink 'strong' which is probably 40% to 50%.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They mingle with some of the wealthiest people in the country and frequently enjoy trips abroad.
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^ Belize City is the most developed and Westernized area of the country, the major port, and the quintessential expression of Creole culture.
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The causes are often explained in terms of a diathesis-stress model and biopsychosocial model. .Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, and mental health professionals diagnose individuals by various methods, often relying on observation and questioning in interview.^ The reality of psychiatric disorder has certainly been questioned although most frequently under its alias of "mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
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Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options as are social interventions, peer support and self-help. .In some cases there may be involuntary detention and involuntary treatment where legislation allows.^ The situation there indicates that it is at least feasible to restrict institutionalization to only the severest cases of psychiatric disorder and that there may be some positive effects in tolerating the slightly to moderately disturbed in the community.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Men may be there only for the duration of a job somewhere in the vicinity and usually one of the women and some of the children are only long-term visitors.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Stigma and discrimination add to the suffering associated with the disorders, and various social movements campaign for change.^ Although they are referred to as 'bad women, ' they are still socially accepted by most of their relatives and neighbors, and even their children do not suffer from a grave stigma.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Classifications

.The definition and classification of mental disorders is a key issue for mental health and for users and providers of mental health services.^ The more exacting standards a society sets, the more likely it will be to have a high rate of mental illness simply because its definition of mental health will allow for little deviation.
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.Most international clinical documents use the term "mental disorder". There are currently two widely established systems that classify mental disorders—ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, part of the International Classification of Diseases produced by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) produced by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).^ I believe this is essentially a misclassification if one believes that there is a physical basis to psychiatric disorder.
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^ "Crazy" is used in British Honduras to describe persons who are perceived to have severe mental disturbances.
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^ Although there are expressions which make it possible to describe the degree of a person's mental disturbance which run roughly from 'not so righted' to 'fucking crazy, ' the milder terms are usually used to describe persons of low intelligence or congenital peculiarness.
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Both list categories of disorder and provide standardized criteria for diagnosis. .They have deliberately converged their codes in recent revisions so that the manuals are often broadly comparable, although significant differences remain.^ For although most primary teachers in British Honduras are local men and women who are locally trained, they are frequently of different ethnic affiliations than their students and often speak a different language.
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.Other classification schemes may be used in non-western cultures (see, for example, the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders), and other manuals may be used by those of alternative theoretical persuasions, for example the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual.^ Others will be used as examples of an ordinary situation.
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^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The policy in British Honduras is to use Seaview only as a place for the treatment and confinement of those with perceived psychiatric disorder.
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In general, mental disorders are classified separately to neurological disorders, learning disabilities or mental retardation.
.Unlike most of the above systems, some approaches to classification do not employ distinct categories of disorder or dichotomous cut-offs intended to separate the abnormal from the normal.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
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^ As he is outwardly perfectly normal in appearance and general demeanor, his eventual commitment is most unlikely.
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There is significant scientific debate about the different kinds of categorization and the relative merits of categorical versus non-categorical (or hybrid) schemes, with the latter including spectrum, continuum or dimensional systems. .There is also a significant wider debate about the role of science versus values in classification schemes, and about the professional, legal and social uses to which they are put.^ Although there is widespread professional medical care, many people will exhaust traditional remedies before they utilize it or will tolerate much bodily malfunction thinking that there is nothing that can be done about it.
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^ As any person becomes noted for political, professional, or commercial achievement, there will be a great deal of discussion about his past and present wrong-doings.
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^ This entailed an examination of many aspects of the social system, beliefs and values, patterns of interaction, as well as a great deal about disease in general.
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Disorders

.There are many different categories of mental disorder, and many different facets of human behavior and personality that can become disordered.^ Unless there is a logical reason in the person's life for going away from a town or village to live alone, this is viewed as very odd behavior.
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^ It will be assumed that whatever wrong behavior caused the trouble is directly linked to the person's mental condition.
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^ There is a relationship between deviant behavior and psychiatric disorder but I do not believe that it is simply that the latter is a type of the former.
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[1][2][3][4][5]
.Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder.^ The requirements for survival may be so rigid that only the normally functioning can survive, and in this instance the problem takes care of itself.
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[6] Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. .Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia or despair is known as Major depression or Clinical depression (milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia).^ Perhaps the major assumption involved is that there exists such an entity as "psychiatric disorder" and that it has "sociocultural aspects.
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Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) involves abnormally "high" or pressured mood states, known as mania or hypomania, alternating with normal or depressed mood. .Whether unipolar and bipolar mood phenomena represent distinct categories of disorder, or whether they usually mix and merge together along a dimension or spectrum of mood, is under debate in the scientific literature.^ Also, even though many men smoke together, they do not usually do it in the atmosphere of bars and clubs with all their attendant temptations.
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[7]
Patterns of belief, language use and perception can become disordered (e.g. delusions, thought disorder, hallucinations). Psychotic disorders in this domain include schizophrenia, and delusional disorder. .Schizoaffective disorder is a category used for individuals showing aspects of both schizophrenia and affective disorders.^ In this investigation of the attitudes which British Hondurans have toward psychiatric disorder, both the cognitive and affective components of attitude will be described.
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Schizotypy is a category used for individuals showing some of the characteristics associated with schizophrenia but without meeting cut-off criteria.
.Personality—the fundamental characteristics of a person that influence his or her thoughts and behaviors across situations and time—may be considered disordered if judged to be abnormally rigid and maladaptive.^ When situations such as this prevail, and there are very many similar ones, it has a significant effect on the perception and recognition of psychiatric disorder because persons who are afflicted with a disorder which produces anti-social behavior will have to be extremely deviant to be thought of as sufficiently abnormal to warrant suspicion of craziness.
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^ Rather it appears that a high level of etically abnormal behavior which is not viewed by the community as deviant tends to make the recognition of psychiatric disorder less immediate.
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^ Therefore their abnormal behavior, no matter how heinous, does not have the same moral implications as that of a sane person.
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.Categorical schemes list a number of different such personality disorders, including those sometimes classed as eccentric (e.g.^ That such an entity as psychiatric disorder has socio-cultural aspects is fairly certain in all cases except perhaps those in which a person declares or decides himself to be disturbed based solely on introspection and contemplation of his mental state.
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^ As mentioned in the last chapter, there are large numbers of mentally ill persons who are recognized as such that are not in Seaview Hospital.
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^ Usually there will be some kind of serious obstacle to the match, such as a close kinship tie, differences in social class or race, problems between the two families, or there may be simply no way to get to know the person.
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.paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders), to those sometimes classed as dramatic or emotional (antisocial, borderline, histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders) or those seen as fear-related (avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders).^ Neuroses Examples of obsessive-compulsive behavior are not related as evidence of a person's insanity either.
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^ Thus if a person had been sent to Seaview for treatment of a disorder characterized by withdrawal and regression, he or she would not be feared as a potential axe-murderer.
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^ The only related kind of behavior discovered was an exaggerated fear of obeah which some persons exhibited.
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.If an inability to sufficiently adjust to life circumstances begins within three months of a particular event or situation, and ends within six months after the stressor stops or is eliminated, it may instead be classed as an adjustment disorder.^ And so the yearly economic cycle evens out and there are about six months of relative normalcy before the Christmas extravaganza begins again.
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^ Usually the child ' unde r stand s' the situation at about three to four years of age and will begin to use acceptable procedures for evacuation.
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.There is an emerging consensus that so-called "personality disorders", like personality traits in general, actually incorporate a mixture of acute dysfunctional behaviors that resolve in short periods, and maladaptive temperamental traits that are more stable.^ Unless there is a logical reason in the person's life for going away from a town or village to live alone, this is viewed as very odd behavior.
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^ There is a dry season from February through April and occasionally a short dry period in August.
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^ Most likely this is more an effect of the absence of qualified persons to administer the treatments rather than a professional decision not to use them.
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[8] .Furthermore, there are also non-categorical schemes that rate all individuals via a profile of different dimensions of personality rather than using a cut-off from normal personality variation, for example through schemes based on the Big Five personality traits.^ Rather they usually know them individually well enough to be able to sort out the harmless ones from the persons with a history of violent or offensive behavior.
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^ Rather when the person is discharged he is a more formidable force than ever.
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^ Thieves generally steal for a livelihood rather than to possess the objects which they steal, consequently they all steal about the same things--items which have a ready market.
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[9]
Eating disorders involve disproportionate concern in matters of food and weight.[6] Categories of disorder in this area include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, exercise bulimia or binge eating disorder.
.Sleep disorders such as insomnia involve disruption to normal sleep patterns, or a feeling of tiredness despite sleep appearing normal.^ Too much sleep allegedly produces 'dropsy, ' a vague disorder involving retention of water and a progressive inability to do anything but sleep.
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^ Perhaps the major assumption involved is that there exists such an entity as "psychiatric disorder" and that it has "sociocultural aspects.
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Sexual and gender identity disorders may be diagnosed, including dyspareunia, gender identity disorder and ego-dystonic homosexuality. .Various kinds of paraphilia are considered mental disorders (sexual arousal to objects, situations, or individuals that are considered abnormal or harmful to the person or others).^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
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^ CHAPTER EIGHT ABNORMAL PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY At this point it would be useful to introduce information about other kinds of abnormal persons who remain in the community.
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^ Other people cooperate in this aspect of the situation, seldom nursing a grievance against a person for 'out of the way' behavior related to liquor consumption.
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.People who are abnormally unable to resist certain urges or impulses that could be harmful to themselves or others, may be classed as having an impulse control disorder, including various kinds of tic disorders such as Tourette's syndrome, and disorders such as kleptomania (stealing) or pyromania (fire-setting).^ They will criticize the child and perhaps beat it occasionally for its failings, but they will not think that they themselves could influence its development in any other way than that direction which it seems to be taking.
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^ The institution can be used only as a mental hospital without having to house other classes of deviates.
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^ CHAPTER EIGHT ABNORMAL PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY At this point it would be useful to introduce information about other kinds of abnormal persons who remain in the community.
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Various behavioral addictions, such as gambling addiction, may be classed as a disorder. .Obsessive-compulsive disorder can sometimes involve an inability to resist certain acts but is classed separately as being primarily an anxiety disorder.^ Too much sleep allegedly produces 'dropsy, ' a vague disorder involving retention of water and a progressive inability to do anything but sleep.
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^ Children do not usually have a well-formed idea of why they have been punished, or understand why they are sometimes beaten for a certain act and not at other times.
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^ What are the factors which contribute toward certain kinds of behavior being called psychiatric disorder, and why is it these and not others?
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.The use of drugs (legal or illegal), when it persists despite significant problems related to the use, may be defined as a mental disorder termed substance dependence or substance abuse (a broader category than drug abuse).^ Anyone who sells the illegal drug will sell it to anyone who wants to buy, regardless of his mental condition.
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^ A characteristic of British Honduran interpersonal relations is the avoidance of violent confrontation, and this trait may well persist in even the severely disturbed.
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^ For this reason, I have chosen to use the term "psychiatric disorder" which, although it is certainly not theory-free, at least addresses itself to the usual mode of correction rather than postulating a cause or locus of involvement.
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.The DSM does not currently use the common term drug addiction and the ICD simply talks about "harmful use". Disordered substance use may be due to a pattern of compulsive and repetitive use of the drug that results in tolerance to its effects and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped.^ Drug and Alcohol Use Overuse of alcohol and marijuana is not normal, although certainly the occasional use of both is common for men.
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^ Admission to Seaview may be "voluntary" or "involuntary" although the use of these traditional terms distorts the situation.
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^ If a person is observed to partake of drugs and/or alcohol this frequently, any irregular behavior indicative of mental illness may be blamed on his steady use of intoxicants.
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.People who suffer severe disturbances of their self-identity, memory and general awareness of themselves and their surroundings may be classed as having a dissociative identity disorder, such as depersonalization disorder or Dissociative Identity Disorder itself (which has also been called multiple personality disorder, or "split personality").^ "Crazy" is used in British Honduras to describe persons who are perceived to have severe mental disturbances.
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^ In the female ward where so few patients are interested in their surroundings, most of the interaction is among the staff members themselves and between them and the more aware patients.
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^ The word is also used to describe the actions of persons who are not themselves believed to be crazy.
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.Other memory or cognitive disorders include amnesia or various kinds of old age dementia.^ What are the factors which contribute toward certain kinds of behavior being called psychiatric disorder, and why is it these and not others?
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A range of developmental disorders that initially occur in childhood may be diagnosed, for example autism spectrum disorders, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which may continue into adulthood.
.Conduct disorder, if continuing into adulthood, may be diagnosed as antisocial personality disorder (dissocial personality disorder in the ICD).^ Girls may realize the personal consequences of their conduct but they are not future- oriented and can easily be fooled by older men about the possible repercussions of their behavior.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They may be treated as sick persons and put into hospitals.
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^ Abnormal persons may be summarily taken into custody and forever isolated from society.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Popularist labels such as psychopath (or sociopath) do not appear in the DSM or ICD but are linked by some to these diagnoses.
.Disorders appearing to originate in the body, but thought to be mental, are known as somatoform disorders, including somatization disorder and conversion disorder.^ So there are two aspects of this toleration of clinically defined psychiatric disorders--the absolute tolerance of perceived craziness and the relative tolerance of it in forms which are not locally thought to be indicative of mental disturbance.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

There are also disorders of the perception of the body, including body dysmorphic disorder. Neurasthenia is an old diagnosis involving somatic complaints as well as fatigue and low spirits/depression, which is officially recognized by the ICD-10 but no longer by the DSM-IV.[10]
.Factitious disorders, such as Munchausen syndrome, are diagnosed where symptoms are thought to be experienced (deliberately produced) and/or reported (feigned) for personal gain.^ When situations such as this prevail, and there are very many similar ones, it has a significant effect on the perception and recognition of psychiatric disorder because persons who are afflicted with a disorder which produces anti-social behavior will have to be extremely deviant to be thought of as sufficiently abnormal to warrant suspicion of craziness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are attempts to introduce a category of relational disorder, where the diagnosis is of a relationship rather than on any one individual in that relationship.^ Heredity is not usually thought to be a factor when there is more than one case of insanity in a family.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather they usually know them individually well enough to be able to sort out the harmless ones from the persons with a history of violent or offensive behavior.
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^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

The relationship may be between children and their parents, between couples, or others. .There already exists, under the category of psychosis, a diagnosis of shared psychotic disorder where two or more individuals share a particular delusion because of their close relationship with each other.^ The physical arrangement was similar to the women's section except there was room for many more patients and there were more individually lockable rooms.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This attitude could also partly explain their low expectations with regard to each other's behavior but more likely the two are mutually reinforcing.
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^ Adhering to a particular style is not too important; in fact, nothing pleases a Belizean more than a unique garment of which there is no duplicate in the city.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Various new types of mental disorder diagnosis are occasionally proposed.^ Attitudes toward them are mixed, varying with any one person's experience with mentally ill people and his estimation of how severe the disorder is.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Among those controversially considered by the official committees of the diagnostic manuals include self-defeating personality disorder, sadistic personality disorder, passive-aggressive personality disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Two recent unique isolated proposals are solastalgia by Glenn Albrecht and hubris syndrome by David Owen. .The application of the concept of mental illness to the phenomena described by these authors has in turn been critiqued by Seamus Mac Suibhne.^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also there are only a very few assumed causes of mental illness posited by the population, and these are mainly non-psychological.
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^ All of these methods of religious treatment will be much more likely to be used if there is physical involvement as well as mental illness.
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[11]

Causes

Mental disorders can arise from a combination of sources. .In many cases there is no single accepted or consistent cause currently established.^ There are no 'home remedies' or herbal preparations for cases of insanity.
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^ True, there are many low-income families in Belize but the condition of a house is by no means an accurate reflection of the economic situation of its occupants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hours are spent daily in the preparation of corn-based comestibles; and, where there are many young children and no older girls, child care is a continuous task.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

A common view is that disorders result from genetic vulnerabilities exposed by environmental stressors. (see Diathesis-stress model)
.An eclectic or pluralistic mix of models may be used to explain particular disorders, and the primary paradigm of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry is said to be the biopsychosocial (BPS) model, incorporating biological, psychological and social factors, although this may not always be applied in practice.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
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^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Admission to Seaview may be "voluntary" or "involuntary" although the use of these traditional terms distorts the situation.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Biopsychiatry has tended to follow a biomedical model, focusing on "organic" or "hardware" pathology of the brain. Psychoanalytic theories have been popular but are now less so. .Evolutionary psychology may be used as an overall explanatory theory, and attachment theory is another kind of evolutionary-psychological approach sometimes applied in the context of mental disorders.^ If a person is observed to partake of drugs and/or alcohol this frequently, any irregular behavior indicative of mental illness may be blamed on his steady use of intoxicants.
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^ If a cure does not result, the whole procedure may be repeated until there is improvement or another doctor, or perhaps another kind of doctor, is sought.
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^ Revealing lodge secrets is sometimes cited as a cause of mental illness with people generally believing that the 'lodge masters' cause the illness through the use of black magic.
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A distinction is sometimes made between a "medical model" or a "social model" of disorder and disability.
.Studies have indicated that genes often play an important role in the development of mental disorders, although the reliable identification of connections between specific genes and specific categories of disorder has proven more difficult.^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reality of psychiatric disorder has certainly been questioned although most frequently under its alias of "mental illness.
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^ Abnormal Behavior Not Regarded as Psychiatric Disorder To make this last point even more clear, this section will deal with various kinds of conditions and behavior patterns which although recognized as not strictly average kinds of conduct are not thought to indicate mental illness nor even to be similar kinds of afflictions.
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Environmental events surrounding pregnancy and birth have also been implicated. Traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of developing certain mental disorders. .There have been some tentative inconsistent links found to certain viral infections,[12] to substance misuse, and to general physical health.^ They mature physically and learn that there are some things which they should never do, but many of them become sexual deviants and general problems in their neighborhoods.
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^ With the exception of some devout Catholics and recent converts to Protestant sects, there is not generally an excess of religious fervor in British Honduras.
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^ CHAPTER FIVE SOME FACTORS RELATED TO HEALTH There are certain aspects of life in British Honduras that impinge directly on a medically oriented study.
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Abnormal functioning of neurotransmitter systems has been implicated, including serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate systems. Differences have also been found in the size or activity of certain brain regions in some cases. Psychological mechanisms have also been implicated, such as cognitive (e.g. reason), emotional processes, personality, temperament and coping style.
.Social influences have been found to be important, including abuse, bullying and other negative or stressful life experiences.^ The points which have been stressed in this chapter are that British Hondurans, practically from birth, are not given clear guidelines to behavior and that neither their own life experiences nor what they observe around them serves to reinforce what moral and social training they do receive.
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The specific risks and pathways to particular disorders are less clear, however. .Aspects of the wider community have also been implicated, including employment problems, socioeconomic inequality, lack of social cohesion, problems linked to migration, and features of particular societies and cultures.^ The Community Our society, including all the social institutions, seems to have accustomed to the widespread practice of common law unions and to their many consequences.
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^ Information about life in Belize, sanitation, housing, clothing, employment, family economics, social organization, and a section on rural life are included.
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^ In short, deviant behavior is socially defined as a "problem" by society as a whole or by those segments of a society that confront it (27-28).
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Society, culture and ethnicity

Self.svg
Different societies or cultures and even different individuals in a culture can disagree as to what constitutes optimal versus pathological biological and psychological functioning. .Research has demonstrated that cultures vary in the relative importance placed on, for example, happiness, autonomy, or social relationships for pleasure.^ Of these characteristics, with regard to social control of deviant behavior, well-placed relatives is the most significant.
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^ The Relationship of the Hospital to the Community 5eaview Hospital is not used as a collection place for various "undesirable" or troublesome elements of society.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic premise upon which this research is based is: Social and cultural factors greatly influence the definition, perception, and treatment of psychiatric disorder, and these factors will vary in importance and effect among peoples with different cultural heritages.
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.Likewise, the fact that a behavior pattern is valued, accepted, encouraged, or even statistically normative in a culture does not necessarily mean that it is conducive to optimal psychological functioning.^ When people try to harm others by secret and supposedly undetectable means, paranoid behavior does not seem pathological.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word for "child" in the Trukese language in fact means "does not comprehend.
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^ They believe that these patterns of behavior will become permanent and the person will have become crazy by acting crazy, even though under the influence of intoxicants, too much of the time.
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.People in all cultures find some behaviors bizarre or even incomprehensible.^ Some people are opposed to boledo and lottery on these grounds, saying that it only takes the poor man's money, and even if he wins, it leaves him a poor man still.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people live in tiny dilapidated dwellings when they could afford better because they cannot find a better house.
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^ Even some types of deviant behavior such as theft and prostitution which are well integrated into ordinary life are still fundamentally thought to be wrong.
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But just what they feel is bizarre or incomprehensible is ambiguous and subjective.[13] These differences in determination can become highly contentious.
.The process by which conditions and difficulties come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals, is known as medicalization or pathologization.^ When a person has been treated by both medical doctors and local specialists, the specialists are usually given credit for any improvement or cure; and this is always the case with culturally-defined illnesses.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is related to a realization on the part of British Hondurans that there are some medical problems which cannot be treated in British Honduras because there are no resident specialists.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The Nature of the Problem It has become obvious that definitions of health and illness incorporate cultural and social values as well as objective conditions.
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.In the scientific and academic literature on the definition or classification of mental disorder, one extreme argues that it is entirely a matter of value judgements (including of what is normal) while another proposes that it is or could be entirely objective and scientific (including by reference to statistical norms).^ Third, in any area such as psychiatric disorder, etics--which are the nosological definitions of psychiatrists and psychologists--are no more than the emics of the scientific community.
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^ This is a valuable skill as one cannot always count on the presence of police to take matters into hand.
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^ For anti-social behavior is not thought to be a sign of mental illness no matter how extreme or persistent.
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[14] .Common hybrid views argue that the concept of mental disorder is objective but a "fuzzy prototype" that can never be precisely defined, or alternatively that it inevitably involves a mix of scientific facts and subjective value judgments.^ So there are two aspects of this toleration of clinically defined psychiatric disorders--the absolute tolerance of perceived craziness and the relative tolerance of it in forms which are not locally thought to be indicative of mental disturbance.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was never thought to be mentally disturbed, his accomplishments were viewed as laudable, and he was considered a 'smart' man.
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^ Attitudes toward them are mixed, varying with any one person's experience with mentally ill people and his estimation of how severe the disorder is.
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[15]

Intangible experiences

Religious, spiritual, or transpersonal experiences and beliefs are typically not defined as disordered, especially if widely shared, despite meeting many criteria of delusional or psychotic disorders.[16][17] .Even when a belief or experience can be shown to produce distress or disability—the ordinary standard for judging mental disorders—the presence of a strong cultural basis for that belief, experience, or interpretation of experience, generally disqualifies it from counting as evidence of mental disorder.^ British Honduras is definitely not an area of homogeneous culture, and life experiences, attitudes, and beliefs there differ in the extreme.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the populace generally does not distinguish between an excited outburst and an epileptic seizure, neither is considered evidence or a cause of mental illness.
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^ The principal aim of the research is to describe the folk model of psychiatric disorder in the context of British Honduran society, and to interpret the local attitudes and beliefs which influence it.
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Western bias

Current diagnostic guidelines have been criticized as having a fundamentally Euro-American outlook. .They have been widely implemented, but opponents argue that even when diagnostic criteria are accepted across different cultures, it does not mean that the underlying constructs have any validity within those cultures; even reliable application can prove only consistency, not legitimacy.^ Although they are referred to as 'bad women, ' they are still socially accepted by most of their relatives and neighbors, and even their children do not suffer from a grave stigma.
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^ Importantly this rarely occurs in British Honduras as only those persons who consistently display the symptoms of a severely disassociated psychotic are judged insane.
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^ So even though our economic structures may be greatly improved, that does not mean that our attitudes will be enhanced as a result ...
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[18]
.Advocating a more culturally sensitive approach, critics such as Carl Bell and Marcello Maviglia contend that the cultural and ethnic diversity of individuals is often discounted by researchers and service providers.^ Local practitioners such as these perform a valuable service in the community for they provide care and attention for those with diseases which medical doctors do not treat.
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[19]
.Cross-cultural psychiatrist Arthur Kleinman contends that the Western bias is ironically illustrated in the introduction of cultural factors to the DSM-IV: that disorders or concepts from non-Western or non-mainstream cultures are described as "culture-bound", whereas standard psychiatric diagnoses are given no cultural qualification whatsoever, reveals to Kleinman an underlying assumption that Western cultural phenomena are universal.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder .
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^ The sudden ability to speak and converse in Standard English as opposed to Creole is also regarded as a sign of psychiatric disorder especially if the person is not very well educated and has not done this before.
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^ The findings of the study are that British Hondurans perceive psychiatric disorder in a significantly different way than does much of Western society.
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[20] .Kleinman's negative view towards the culture-bound syndrome is largely shared by other cross-cultural critics, common responses included both disappointment over the large number of documented non-Western mental disorders still left out and frustration that even those included were often misinterpreted or misrepresented.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That such an entity as psychiatric disorder has socio-cultural aspects is fairly certain in all cases except perhaps those in which a person declares or decides himself to be disturbed based solely on introspection and contemplation of his mental state.
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^ As mentioned in the last chapter, there are large numbers of mentally ill persons who are recognized as such that are not in Seaview Hospital.
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[21]
Many mainstream psychiatrists are dissatisfied with the new culture-bound diagnoses, although for different reasons. Robert Spitzer, a lead architect of the DSM-III, has hypothesized that adding cultural formulations was an attempt to appease cultural critics and stated that the formulations lack any scientific motivation or support. Spitzer also posits that the new culture-bound diagnoses are rarely used, maintaining that the standard diagnoses apply regardless of the culture involved. .In general, mainstream psychiatric opinion remains that if a diagnostic category is valid, cross-cultural factors are either irrelevant or are significant only to specific symptom presentations.^ In summary, it can be seen that only very specific kinds of misconduct and deviant behavior are regarded as indicators of psychiatric disorder in British Honduras.
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^ DEVIANT BEHAVIOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER, PART I: GENERATING FACTORS .
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[18]

Relationships and morality

.Clinical conceptions of mental illness also overlap with personal and cultural values in the domain of morality, so much so that it is sometimes argued that separating the two is impossible without fundamentally redefining the essence of being a particular person in a society.^ The answer must, as in our own society, be sought in childhood, the period when a person learns from the preceding generation the multiple facets of the cultural heritage to which he is born.
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^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
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^ When a person has been treated by both medical doctors and local specialists, the specialists are usually given credit for any improvement or cure; and this is always the case with culturally-defined illnesses.
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[22] .In clinical psychiatry, persistent distress and disability indicate an internal disorder requiring treatment; but in another context, that same distress and disability can be seen as an indicator of emotional struggle and the need to address social and structural problems.^ In summary, it can be seen that only very specific kinds of misconduct and deviant behavior are regarded as indicators of psychiatric disorder in British Honduras.
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^ Organization of the Study The study consists of an examination of causes, recognition, and treatment of psychiatric disorder in the context of the culture and society of British Honduras.
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^ If people tolerate physical and verbal abuse from one another, then excessive hostility is only that, not an indication of psychiatric disorder.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[23][24] This dichotomy has lead some academics and clinicians to advocate a postmodernist conceptualization of mental distress and well-being.[25][26]
.Such approaches, along with cross-cultural and "heretical" psychologies centered on alternative cultural and ethnic and race-based identities and experiences, stand in contrast to the mainstream psychiatric community's active avoidance of any involvement with either morality or culture.^ Third, in any area such as psychiatric disorder, etics--which are the nosological definitions of psychiatrists and psychologists--are no more than the emics of the scientific community.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That such an entity as psychiatric disorder has socio-cultural aspects is fairly certain in all cases except perhaps those in which a person declares or decides himself to be disturbed based solely on introspection and contemplation of his mental state.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[27] .In many countries there are attempts to challenge perceived prejudice against minority groups, including alleged institutional racism within psychiatric services.^ The facility has always been the only place for treatment of psychiatric disorders and the patients there come from all over the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People are well aware that socially established persons 'get away' with infractions against the rules of society and a double-standard of justice is perceived by many.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Community Our society, including all the social institutions, seems to have accustomed to the widespread practice of common law unions and to their many consequences.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[28]

Diagnosis

.Many mental health professionals, particularly psychiatrists, seek to diagnose individuals by ascertaining their particular mental disorder.^ This will be true even if the person has visited many professional physicians and been pronounced to be in good health by all.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1964, with the arrival of a psychiatrist who was also Chief Medical Officer and hence in a better bureaucratic position to implement his policies, many changes occurred in national policy about mental health.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some professionals, for example some clinical psychologists, may avoid diagnosis in favor of other assessment methods such as formulation of a client's difficulties and circumstances.^ Some of these methods are only possible in large and complex societies, others would be workable in small-scale groups.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their relationships with other people are always colored by their histories of mental illness, and some people would avoid their company.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of them may be seen on the streets quietly performing strange activities such as continuous and odd gesturing, or talking in low tones to no one in particular.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] .The majority of mental health problems are actually assessed and treated by family physicians during consultations, who may refer on for more specialist diagnosis in acute or chronic cases.^ Conversely, they may count sizable numbers of people who are not, by common definition, mentally ill at all.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several major epidemiological studies of mental illness have established, if not the extent and gravity of the problem, at least the enigmatic aspects of it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is related to a realization on the part of British Hondurans that there are some medical problems which cannot be treated in British Honduras because there are no resident specialists.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Routine diagnostic practice in mental health services typically involves an interview (which may be referred to as a mental status examination), where judgments are made of the interviewee's appearance and behavior, self-reported symptoms, mental health history, and current life circumstances.^ In contemporary social usage, the finding of mental illness is made by establishing a deviance in behavior from certain psychosocial, ethical, or legal norms.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there are any physical symptoms involved these may be treated specifically.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a person is observed to partake of drugs and/or alcohol this frequently, any irregular behavior indicative of mental illness may be blamed on his steady use of intoxicants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The views of relatives or other third parties may be taken into account.^ These prospective patients will be taken by spouses, parents, brothers or sisters, or other relatives to see a doctor.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If she is lucky she may be taken in by a relative or perhaps even a stranger who will treat her and the child decently and give her a small wage.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abnormal persons may be summarily taken into custody and forever isolated from society.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

A physical examination to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conducted. .Psychological testing is sometimes used via paper-and-pen or computerized questionnaires, which may include algorithms based on ticking off standardized diagnostic criteria, and in rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be requested, but these methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice.^ These thieves provide for a sort of redistribution of wealth which may serve a more positive function than it first appears.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though the administrators of this clinic were much more receptive to my plans of observation and study than their governmental counterparts, I eventually decided that it would be at best misleading to base my study on this unusual situation..
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A man used to practice running backwards until he had mastered the skill to the point where he could run backwards faster than many people could run forwards.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[30][31] Time and budgetary constraints often limit practicing psychiatrists from conducting more thorough diagnostic evaluations.[32] .It has been found that most clinicians evaluate patients using an unstructured, open-ended approach, with limited training in evidence-based assessment methods, and that inaccurate diagnosis may be common in routine practice.^ Most have had little training in dealing with psychiatric patients and no other medical or psychological background.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .Mental illness involving hallucinations or delusions (especially schizophrenia) are prone to misdiagnosis in developing countries due to the presence of psychotic symptoms instigated by nutritional deficiencies.^ Can some forms of deviant behavior, especially those called mental illness, contribute to the stability and cohesion of a society?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And it is possible that making mental illness a visibly undesirable state acts as a deterrent to its development.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus though continual drinking to excess is thought to be a cause of mental illness, it is not regarded as a symptom of it or a first step in that direction.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Comorbidity is very common in psychiatric diagnoses, i.e. the same person given a diagnosis in more than one category of disorder.

Services and treatments

.Treatment and support for mental disorders is provided in psychiatric hospitals, clinics or any of a diverse range of community mental health services.^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather it appears that a high level of etically abnormal behavior which is not viewed by the community as deviant tends to make the recognition of psychiatric disorder less immediate.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The facility has always been the only place for treatment of psychiatric disorders and the patients there come from all over the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.In many countries services are increasingly based on a recovery model that is meant to support each individual's independence, choice and personal journey to regain a meaningful life, although individuals may be treated against their will in a minority of cases.^ When a person has been treated by both medical doctors and local specialists, the specialists are usually given credit for any improvement or cure; and this is always the case with culturally-defined illnesses.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The particularistic nature of the society insures that people will be treated and judged as individuals with specific family connections, racial affiliations, and unique personal histories.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most cases heard in Low Court are matters such as these, and this is really the only recourse which people have against acts of personal aggression and harassment.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are a range of different types of treatment and what is most suitable depends on the disorder and on the individual.^ There is a relationship between deviant behavior and psychiatric disorder but I do not believe that it is simply that the latter is a type of the former.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER TEN TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER As far as most of the people in British Honduras are concerned, the 'treatment' for severe psychiatric disorder is to take the person to Seaview Hospital or to call the police.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were several with convulsive disorders but this was not the sole reason for their confinement as most epileptics live normal lives in Belize.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many things have been found to help at least some people, and a placebo effect may play a role in any intervention or medication.^ Some are cultivated but many grow wild in the bush and are gathered and brought to market by rural people.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ British Hondurans speak of many people as being very religious and indeed some of them are that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They mature physically and learn that there are some things which they should never do, but many of them become sexual deviants and general problems in their neighborhoods.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Psychotherapy

A major option for many mental disorders is psychotherapy. .There are several main types.^ There will also be a discussion of several types of abnormal behavior, which although they are recognized as deviant and undesirable, or at least peculiar, are not believed to be an indication of craziness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely used and is based on modifying the patterns of thought and behavior associated with a particular disorder.^ Marijuana smoking rarely seems to lead to the same kinds of violent and anti-social behavior associated with alcohol use although it does occasionally.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Psychoanalysis, addressing underlying psychic conflicts and defenses, has been a dominant school of psychotherapy and is still in use. .Systemic therapy or family therapy is sometimes used, addressing a network of significant others as well as an individual.^ Children do not usually have a well-formed idea of why they have been punished, or understand why they are sometimes beaten for a certain act and not at other times.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. .There are a number of specific therapies used for particular disorders, which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types.^ If there are any physical symptoms involved these may be treated specifically.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Mental health professionals often employ an eclectic or integrative approach. .Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship, and there may be problems with trust, confidentiality and engagement.^ Or the person may have suffered an important personal loss, such as the death of a relative or the loss of a spouse; there may be terrible financial problems or the fear of obeah.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Medication

.A major option for many mental disorders is psychiatric medication and there are several main groups.^ I believe this is essentially a misclassification if one believes that there is a physical basis to psychiatric disorder.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The situation in British Honduras indicates that there it is feasible to institutionalize only the severest cases of psychiatric disorder, whether this severity is expressed in anti-social behavior or merely the very inappropriate.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The facility has always been the only place for treatment of psychiatric disorders and the patients there come from all over the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Antidepressants are used for the treatment of clinical depression as well as often for anxiety and other disorders.^ The policy in British Honduras is to use Seaview only as a place for the treatment and confinement of those with perceived psychiatric disorder.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these methods of religious treatment will be much more likely to be used if there is physical involvement as well as mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Anxiolytics are used for anxiety disorders and related problems such as insomnia.^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Mood stabilizers are used primarily in bipolar disorder. Antipsychotics are mainly used for psychotic disorders, notably for positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Stimulants are commonly used, notably for ADHD.
.Despite the different conventional names of the drug groups, there may be considerable overlap in the disorders for which they are actually indicated, and there may also be off-label use of medications.^ There will also be a discussion of several types of abnormal behavior, which although they are recognized as deviant and undesirable, or at least peculiar, are not believed to be an indication of craziness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although there may be certain negative comments made in this section, they are not an implied or direct criticism of the ways in which British Hondurans order their affairs.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a person is observed to partake of drugs and/or alcohol this frequently, any irregular behavior indicative of mental illness may be blamed on his steady use of intoxicants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.There can be problems with adverse effects of medication and adherence to them, and there is also criticism of pharmaceutical marketing and professional conflicts of interest.^ This is related to a realization on the part of British Hondurans that there are some medical problems which cannot be treated in British Honduras because there are no resident specialists.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is professional medical care available at reasonable prices, and the populace avail themselves of it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise there are everywhere in the country persons with physical handicaps, low intelligence, severe medical problems, etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Other

.Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is sometimes used in severe cases when other interventions for severe intractable depression have failed.^ This is frequently used by women to try to attract a man when other means have failed.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Surely the patients were tranquilized but electroconvulsive therapy and insulin shock did not seem to have been used.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Psychosurgery is considered experimental but is advocated by certain neurologists in certain rare cases.^ Primarily he is not considered to be too severe a case, as sexual deviation is not rare in British Honduras.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[34][35]
Counseling (professional) and co-counseling (between peers) may be used. .Psychoeducation programs may provide people with the information to understand and manage their problems.^ Some of the characteristics of the city and its people will be discussed here to provide ethnographic background for the more specific information on psychiatric disorder to follow.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Creative therapies are sometimes used, including music therapy, art therapy or drama therapy. .Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help groups for mental health and supported housing or supported employment (including social firms).^ A female who will assist with household chores and child-care is a welcome guest as long as she is useful; and, she will be fed and housed in return for her services, often for as long as she wants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The institution can be used only as a mental hospital without having to house other classes of deviates.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Information about life in Belize, sanitation, housing, clothing, employment, family economics, social organization, and a section on rural life are included.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Some advocate dietary supplements.[36]

Prognosis

.Prognosis depends on the disorder, the individual and numerous related factors.^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Some disorders are transient, while others may last a lifetime. .Some disorders may be very limited in their functional effects, while others may involve substantial disability and support needs.^ Here it is to be stressed that there appear to be some very positive effects.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The situation there indicates that it is at least feasible to restrict institutionalization to only the severest cases of psychiatric disorder and that there may be some positive effects in tolerating the slightly to moderately disturbed in the community.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of the plants occurring in British Honduras have very real effects on mental and physical functions.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

The degree of ability or disability may vary across different life domains. Continued disability has been linked to institutionalization, discrimination and social exclusion as well as to the inherent properties of disorders.
.Even those disorders often considered the most serious and intractable have varied courses.^ Most of the non-institutionalized cases of psychiatric disorder in British Honduras are of two broad types: those with a physical handicap which removes them from the category of "person" to begin with and those with intractably erroneous ideation.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As with most anthropological material, the ways of British Hondurans which are at variance with American or English middle-class procedures will be those emphasized.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Long-term international studies of schizophrenia have found that over a half of individuals recover in terms of symptoms, and around a fifth to a third in terms of symptoms and functioning, with some requiring no medication.^ This is related to a realization on the part of British Hondurans that there are some medical problems which cannot be treated in British Honduras because there are no resident specialists.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Men may be there only for the duration of a job somewhere in the vicinity and usually one of the women and some of the children are only long-term visitors.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER FIVE SOME FACTORS RELATED TO HEALTH There are certain aspects of life in British Honduras that impinge directly on a medically oriented study.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, many have serious difficulties and support needs for many years, although "late" recovery is still possible.^ Cooking is most frequently done on a kerosene stove although many people now own bottle-gas ranges and a surprising number of people still cook on a fire hearth.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is possible to argue that the lack of social control in many areas of potentially disruptive behavior is an institutional expression of concern with other more serious areas of deviancy.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Admission by -Pretence Although very few persons would feel the personal need for institutionalization, there are many who actively campaign to get themselves committed.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

The World Health Organization concluded that the long-term studies' findings converged with others in "relieving patients, carers and clinicians of the chronicity paradigm which dominated thinking throughout much of the 20th century."[37][38] Around half of people initially diagnosed with bipolar disorder achieve syndromal recovery (no longer meeting criteria for the diagnosis) within six weeks, and nearly all achieve it within two years, with nearly half regaining their prior occupational and residential status in that period. However, nearly half go on to experience a new episode of mania or major depression within the next two years.[39] Functioning has been found to vary, being poor during periods of major depression or mania but otherwise fair to good, and possibly superior during periods of hypomania in Bipolar II.[40]
.Some mental disorders are linked, on average, to increased rates of attempted and/or completed suicide or self-harm.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite often being characterized in purely negative terms, some mental states labeled as disorders can also involve above-average creativity, non-conformity, goal-striving, meticulousness, or empathy.^ For in any discussion of mental illness, it must be remembered that the imputation of mental illness is equivalent to a negative definition of the proper human state.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the new capital was being built in 1968-1970 there was a relative amount of short-term prosperity and there are some newly constructed buildings to attest to this.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[41] .In addition, the public perception of the level of disability associated with mental disorders can change.^ One of the main contentions of this study is that high levels of deviant behavior affect the perception of psychiatric disorder and information relating to this is presented in Chapters Eleven and Twelve .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[42]

Prevalence

.Mental disorders have been found to be common, with more than one in three people in most countries reporting sufficient criteria for at least one diagnosis at some point in their life up to the time they were assessed.^ It should be kept in mind that this density is achieved with no "high rise" buildings, and that most multi-family dwellings have no more than three or four units.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are seeking to provide themselves and/or their dependents with a larger and more secure income than would be generated by the majority of regular jobs in the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However there do seem to be more obviously high men about in the northern districts than in some others parts of the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[43] .A new WHO global survey currently underway [1] indicates that anxiety disorders are the most common in all but 1 country, followed by mood disorders in all but 2 countries, while substance disorders and impulse-control disorders were consistently less prevalent.^ The facility has always been the only place for treatment of psychiatric disorders and the patients there come from all over the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are only a few of the most visible cases in the country and others who could be described do not differ substantially from these.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important factor they all had in common was their naivete; they had no previous experience as informants and did not really understand the purpose of many of my questions.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Rates varied by region.[44] .Such statistics are widely believed to be underestimates, due to poor diagnosis (especially in countries without affordable access to mental health services) and low reporting rates, in part because of the predominant use of self-report data rather than semi-structured instruments.^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The forces of social control are brought to bear on many individuals because their actions are believed to be morally wrong as well as abnormal in a statistical sense.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most likely this is more an effect of the absence of qualified persons to administer the treatments rather than a professional decision not to use them.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.July 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Actual lifetime prevalence rates for mental disorders are estimated to be between 65% and 85%.^ Attitudes toward them are mixed, varying with any one person's experience with mentally ill people and his estimation of how severe the disorder is.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
A review of anxiety disorder surveys in different countries found average lifetime prevalence estimates of 16.6%, with women having higher rates on average.[45] .A review of mood disorder surveys in different countries found lifetime rates of 6.7% for major depressive disorder (higher in some studies, and in women) and 0.8% for Bipolar I disorder.^ The findings of the study are that British Hondurans perceive psychiatric disorder in a significantly different way than does much of Western society.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the survey and document were commissioned by a Protestant church group, there is some editorializing, but the findings are interesting and will be quoted at some length as the study is generally unobtainable in any library.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[46]
The updated US National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) reported that nearly half of Americans (46.4%) meet criteria at some point in their life for either an anxiety disorder (28.8%), mood disorder (20.8%), impulse-control disorder (24.8%) or substance use disorder (14.6%).[47][48][49]
.A 2004 cross-Europe study found that approximately one in four people reported meeting criteria at some point in their life for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders assessed, which included mood disorders (13.9%), anxiety disorders (13.6%) or alcohol disorder (5.2%).^ Many facets of life will be mentioned throughout this study and some will be chosen for discussion because of their unusualness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the many effects which this kind of name-calling and scandal-mongering has is to convince people that serious misconduct is not an obstacle to success in life.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But some people order them from abroad and study each one carefully looking for appropriate techniques of magic.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Approximately one in ten met criteria within a 12-month period. .Women and younger people of either gender showed more cases of disorder.^ Some of the characteristics of the city and its people will be discussed here to provide ethnographic background for the more specific information on psychiatric disorder to follow.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[50] .A 2005 review of surveys in 16 European countries found that 27% of adult Europeans are affected by at least one mental disorder in a 12 month period.^ No one else saw anything that evening, but her story is widely believed and she is not regarded in the least as a mental case.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the main contentions of this study is that high levels of deviant behavior affect the perception of psychiatric disorder and information relating to this is presented in Chapters Eleven and Twelve .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Attitudes toward them are mixed, varying with any one person's experience with mentally ill people and his estimation of how severe the disorder is.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[51]
An international review of studies on the prevalence of schizophrenia found an average (median) figure of 0.4% for lifetime prevalence; it was consistently lower in poorer countries.[52]
.Studies of the prevalence of personality disorders (PDs) have been fewer and smaller-scale, but one broad Norwegian survey found a five-year prevalence of almost 1 in 7 (13.4%).^ People are beginning to say that five or six years for murder is not too much time to spend in jail for ridding one's self of an enemy or malefactor.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The figures gleaned from the Medical Reports are found in Table Five which provides a tabular record of the number of patients per year for available years.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the main contentions of this study is that high levels of deviant behavior affect the perception of psychiatric disorder and information relating to this is presented in Chapters Eleven and Twelve .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rates for specific disorders ranged from 0.8% to 2.8%, differing across countries, and by gender, educational level and other factors.^ It is West Indian in appearance and character and quite different in size and atmosphere from other areas of the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are only a few of the most visible cases in the country and others who could be described do not differ substantially from these.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the factors which contribute toward certain kinds of behavior being called psychiatric disorder, and why is it these and not others?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[53] A US survey that incidentally screened for personality disorder found a rate of 14.79%.[54]
.Approximately 7% of a preschool pediatric sample were given a psychiatric diagnosis in one clinical study, and approximately 10% of 1- and 2-year-olds receiving developmental screening have been assessed as having significant emotional/behavioral problems based on parent and pediatrician reports.^ Given this, one would expect recognized and labelled cases of psychiatric disorder in British Honduras to be rather severe, and this is very much the case.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At home children wear odd assortments of old clothing and often when very young (about one to three years) will wear little more than cloth pants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the main contentions of this study is that high levels of deviant behavior affect the perception of psychiatric disorder and information relating to this is presented in Chapters Eleven and Twelve .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[55]

History

Early color illustration of psychiatric treatment methods

Ancient civilizations

Ancient civilizations described and treated a number of mental disorders. The Greeks coined terms for melancholy, hysteria and phobia and developed the humorism theory. .Psychiatric theories and treatments developed in Persia, Arabia and the Muslim Empire, particularly in the medieval Islamic world from the 8th century, where the first psychiatric hospitals were built.^ CHAPTER TEN TREATMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER As far as most of the people in British Honduras are concerned, the 'treatment' for severe psychiatric disorder is to take the person to Seaview Hospital or to call the police.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Europe

Middle Ages

.Conceptions of madness in the Middle Ages in Christian Europe were a mixture of the divine, diabolical, magical and humoral, as well as more down to earth considerations.^ A middle-aged man with mongolism or Downe's syndrome used to live in Belize with his family.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the early modern period, some people with mental disorders may have been victims of the witch-hunts but were increasingly admitted to local workhouses and jails or sometimes to private madhouses.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So there are two aspects of this toleration of clinically defined psychiatric disorders--the absolute tolerance of perceived craziness and the relative tolerance of it in forms which are not locally thought to be indicative of mental disturbance.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Visiting medical doctors is viewed by some as a form of conspicuous consumption in British Honduras, and people may be criticized for spending too much money on medical care.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many terms for mental disorder that found their way into everyday use first became popular the 16th and 17th centuries.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus instead of punishing and isolating cases of psychiatric disorder, the British Honduran system makes them useful examples of ways not to be.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout this study such terms as "psychiatric disorder, " "mental illness, " "disturbed, " etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Eighteenth century

By the end of the 17th century and into the Enlightenment, madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon with no connection to the soul or moral responsibility. .Asylum care was often harsh and treated people like wild animals, but towards the end of the 18th century a moral treatment movement gradually developed.^ This is a straight-forward moral judgment and one more likely to have a reinforcing and deterrent effect than the kinds which are indirectly made and treat every human failing as a "sickness" of some sort which needs medical care.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Clear descriptions of some syndromes may be rare prior to the 1800s.
Eight women representing prominent mental diagnoses in the nineteenth century. (Armand Gautier)

Nineteenth century

.Industrialization and population growth led to a massive expansion of the number and size of insane asylums in every Western country in the 19th century.^ Although the city is the population center of the country, there is no large source of industrial employment anywhere near it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Numerous different classification schemes and diagnostic terms were developed by different authorities, and the term psychiatry was coined, though medical superintendents were still known as alienists.

Twentieth century

The turn of the 20th century saw the development of psychoanalysis, which would later come to the fore, along with Kraepelin's classification scheme. .Asylum "inmates" were increasingly referred to as "patients" and asylums renamed as hospitals.^ Security was dramatically reduced at the then renamed 5eaview Hospital, and many patients were freed from restraints and their rooms unlocked.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Europe and the U.S.

.In the twentieth century in the United States, a mental hygiene movement developed, aiming to prevent mental disorders.^ And it is possible that making mental illness a visibly undesirable state acts as a deterrent to its development.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is much the opposite of the pattern found in the United States where there is a tendency to view great malevolence as psychosis, assuming that any person to be "that bad" must be mentally disturbed.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Clinical psychology and social work developed as professions. World War I saw a massive increase of conditions that came to be termed "shell shock".
.World War II saw the development in the U.S. of a new psychiatric manual for categorizing mental disorders, which along with existing systems for collecting census and hospital statistics led to the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reality of psychiatric disorder has certainly been questioned although most frequently under its alias of "mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the major assumption involved is that there exists such an entity as "psychiatric disorder" and that it has "sociocultural aspects.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) followed suit with a section on mental disorders. .The term stress, having emerged out of endocrinology work in the 1930s, was increasingly applied to mental disorders.^ Throughout this study such terms as "psychiatric disorder, " "mental illness, " "disturbed, " etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Insulin Shock Therapy
.Electroconvulsive therapy, insulin shock therapy, lobotomies and the "neuroleptic" chlorpromazine came to be used by mid-century.^ Surely the patients were tranquilized but electroconvulsive therapy and insulin shock did not seem to have been used.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

An antipsychiatry movement came to the fore in the 1960s. .Deinstitutionalization gradually occurred in the West, with isolated psychiatric hospitals being closed down in favor of community mental health services.^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once it becomes known that they have accepted gifts as payments for their favors, they are sought out by other men and gradually become established as known prostitutes in the community.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

A consumer/survivor movement gained momentum. .Other kinds of psychiatric medication gradually came into use, such as "psychic energizers" and lithium.^ None of the above three men is considered a psychiatric case although the backwards-runner and the kleptomaniac would surely be viewed as such in many other areas of the world.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHAPTER EIGHT ABNORMAL PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY At this point it would be useful to introduce information about other kinds of abnormal persons who remain in the community.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the factors which contribute toward certain kinds of behavior being called psychiatric disorder, and why is it these and not others?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Benzodiazepines gained widespread use in the 1970s for anxiety and depression, until dependency problems curtailed their popularity.
Advances in neuroscience and genetics led to new research agendas. Cognitive behavioral therapy was developed. The DSM and then ICD adopted new criteria-based classifications, and the number of "official" diagnoses saw a large expansion. Through the 1990s, new SSRI antidepressants became some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. Also during the 1990s, a recovery model developed.

Professions and fields

.A number of professions have developed that specialize in the treatment of mental disorders, including the medical speciality of psychiatry (including psychiatric nursing),[56][57][58] a subset of psychology known as clinical psychology,[59] social work,[60] as well as mental health counselors, marriage and family therapists, psychotherapists, counselors and public health professionals.^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The facility has always been the only place for treatment of psychiatric disorders and the patients there come from all over the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Those with personal experience of using mental health services are also increasingly involved in researching and delivering mental health services and working as mental health professionals.^ "Crazy" is used in British Honduras to describe persons who are perceived to have severe mental disturbances.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My research indicates that it may be due to the increasingly universalistic nature of American society and the large number of roles each person occupies simultaneously.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most likely this is more an effect of the absence of qualified persons to administer the treatments rather than a professional decision not to use them.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[61][62][63][64] The different clinical and scientific perspectives draw on diverse fields of research and theory, and different disciplines may favor differing models, explanations and goals.[41]

Movements

.The consumer/survivor movement (also known as user/survivor movement) is made up of individuals (and organizations representing them) who are clients of mental health services or who consider themselves "survivors" of mental health services.^ One of the main tenets of the "mental health movement" is that persons with apparently severe mental problems probably have some chemical, metabolic, chromosomal, etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The movement campaigns for improved mental health services and for more involvement and empowerment within mental health services, policies and wider society.^ One of the main tenets of the "mental health movement" is that persons with apparently severe mental problems probably have some chemical, metabolic, chromosomal, etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these methods of religious treatment will be much more likely to be used if there is physical involvement as well as mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more exacting standards a society sets, the more likely it will be to have a high rate of mental illness simply because its definition of mental health will allow for little deviation.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[65][66][67] Patient advocacy organizations have expanded with increasing deinstitutionalization in developed countries, working to challenge the stereotypes, stigma and exclusion associated with psychiatric conditions. .An antipsychiatry movement fundamentally challenges mainstream psychiatric theory and practice, including asserting that psychiatric diagnoses of mental illnesses are neither real nor useful.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reality of psychiatric disorder has certainly been questioned although most frequently under its alias of "mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While the populace generally does not distinguish between an excited outburst and an epileptic seizure, neither is considered evidence or a cause of mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[68][69][70]

Laws and policies

Three quarters of countries around the world have mental health legislation. Compulsory admission to mental health facilities (also known as involuntary commitment or sectioning), is a controversial topic. .From some points of view it can impinge on personal liberty and the right to choose, and carry the risk of abuse for political, social and other reasons; from other points of view, it can potentially prevent harm to self and others, and assist some people in attaining their right to healthcare when unable to decide in their own interests.^ The populace reasons that if one indulges 'too much' in these pastimes, one will soon be unable to act any other way, even when abstaining.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless there is a logical reason in the person's life for going away from a town or village to live alone, this is viewed as very odd behavior.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People enjoy listening to Joe and George talk to each other and as the two are good friends, they exchange views often.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[71]
.All human-rights oriented mental health laws require proof of the presence of a mental disorder as defined by internationally accepted standards, but the type and severity of disorder that counts can vary in different jurisdictions.^ Workable standards for determining what is deviant behavior are difficult to establish in any situation and in British Honduras the problem is amplified by the existence of several different socio-cultural groups which have varying normative expectations about the behavior of others.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the main tenets of the "mental health movement" is that persons with apparently severe mental problems probably have some chemical, metabolic, chromosomal, etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is assumed that, in the same way medical problems are differently perceived or perceived not at all in various human groups, the phenomenon usually referred to as "mental illness" would exhibit certain characteristics closely related to the nature of the society in question.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The two most often utilized grounds for involuntary admission are said to be serious likelihood of immediate or imminent danger to self or others, and the need for treatment.^ Often they will invite one or two of the 'waitresses' to sit with them and they will buy these women liquor or other beverages and often a meal.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People enjoy listening to Joe and George talk to each other and as the two are good friends, they exchange views often.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As in most other areas of the country, the kinds of clothing and shelter are dictated more by personal preference, social convention, and economic status rather than any real need to protect one's self from extremes of climate.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Applications for someone to be involuntarily admitted may usually come from a mental health practitioner, a family member, a close relative, or a guardian.^ Although it may at first appear illogical to apply etic standards of behavior 3 as a measure to the emic standards of society in an area as contextually relative as mental illness is usually thought to be, it can be justified.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Importantly, his family is willing to provide sustenance in the forms of employment and housing for him so that, while living on the farm with relatives, he is not likely to come to the attention of the authorities.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People who build on someone else's land usually cannot afford property of their own, or occasionally a woman will need help with child care and thus seek the aid of a close relative.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Human-rights-oriented laws usually stipulate that independent medical practitioners or other accredited mental health practitioners must examine the patient separately and that there should be regular, time-bound review by an independent review body.^ In these circumstances there is usually the belief that an 'evil spirit' is inside the patient and the cure will be oriented toward removing the spirit.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most have had little training in dealing with psychiatric patients and no other medical or psychological background.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] An individual must be shown to lack the capacity to give or withhold informed consent (i.e. to understand treatment information and its implications). Legal challenges in some areas have resulted in supreme court decisions that a person does not have to agree with a psychiatrist's characterization of their issues as an "illness", nor with a psychiatrist's conviction in medication, but only recognize the issues and the information about treatment options.[72]
.Proxy consent (also known as substituted decision-making) may be given to a personal representative, a family member or a legally appointed guardian, or patients may have been able to enact an advance directive as to how they wish to be treated.^ They may be treated as sick persons and put into hospitals.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They usually appear to be offering this information in a spirit of goodwill but they always make it plain that if their services are retained for a fee, the person can be protected from the effects of the obeah.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a person has a psychotic episode and none of the above mentioned causes appear to be present, then obeah may be considered to have been used to make the person crazy.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] The right to supported decision-making may also be included in legislation.[73] .Involuntary treatment laws are increasingly extended to those living in the community, for example outpatient commitment laws (known by different names) are used in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and most of the United States.^ Institutionalization generally works quite differently in British Honduras than it does in the United States.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His wife left him when he became disturbed and he allegedly receives a monthly sum of money from his mother who lives in the United States.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By standards in the United States, the cost of government medical treatment in British Honduras is nominal.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The World Health Organization reports that in many instances national mental health legislation takes away the rights of persons with mental disorders rather than protecting rights, and is often outdated.^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seaview Hospital does not realistically protect the society from mentally ill persons.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] .In 1991, the United Nations adopted the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care, which established minimum human rights standards of practice in the mental health field.^ In contemporary social usage, the finding of mental illness is made by establishing a deviance in behavior from certain psychosocial, ethical, or legal norms.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a person has been treated by both medical doctors and local specialists, the specialists are usually given credit for any improvement or cure; and this is always the case with culturally-defined illnesses.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both will be discussed here as well as a special sort of voluntary admission in which the person feigns mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2006, the UN formally agreed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of disabled people, including those with psychosocial disabilities.[74]
.The term insanity, sometimes used colloquially as a synonym for mental illness, is often used technically as a legal term.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In contemporary social usage, the finding of mental illness is made by establishing a deviance in behavior from certain psychosocial, ethical, or legal norms.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a person is observed to partake of drugs and/or alcohol this frequently, any irregular behavior indicative of mental illness may be blamed on his steady use of intoxicants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The insanity defense may be used in a legal trial (known as the mental disorder defence in some countries).^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He, because he goes so many places and says so much, is probably the best known mental case in the country, and he has become almost an archetypal example of craziness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If a person is observed to partake of drugs and/or alcohol this frequently, any irregular behavior indicative of mental illness may be blamed on his steady use of intoxicants.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

Perception and discrimination

Stigma

.The social stigma associated with mental disorders is a widespread problem.^ The Social Epidemiology of Mental Disorders .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some people believe those with serious mental illnesses cannot recover, or are to blame for problems.^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several major epidemiological studies of mental illness have established, if not the extent and gravity of the problem, at least the enigmatic aspects of it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People also believe that too much of some common foods has bad consequences.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[75] .The US Surgeon General stated in 1999 that: "Powerful and pervasive, stigma prevents people from acknowledging their own mental health problems, much less disclosing them to others."^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the main tenets of the "mental health movement" is that persons with apparently severe mental problems probably have some chemical, metabolic, chromosomal, etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is much the opposite of the pattern found in the United States where there is a tendency to view great malevolence as psychosis, assuming that any person to be "that bad" must be mentally disturbed.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[76] .Employment discrimination is reported to play a significant part in the high rate of unemployment among those with a diagnosis of mental illness.^ The problem of what Belizeans do is a perplexing one when the unemployment rate seems to be so high.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Can some forms of deviant behavior, especially those called mental illness, contribute to the stability and cohesion of a society?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The more exacting standards a society sets, the more likely it will be to have a high rate of mental illness simply because its definition of mental health will allow for little deviation.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[77]
.Efforts are being undertaken worldwide to eliminate the stigma of mental illness,[78] although their methods and outcomes have sometimes been criticized.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reality of psychiatric disorder has certainly been questioned although most frequently under its alias of "mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although this condition is not believed to be related to mental illness in any way, it does occasionally occur in mentally ill persons.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[79]
.A 2008 study by Baylor University researchers found that clergy in the US often deny or dismiss the existence of a mental illness.^ Several major epidemiological studies of mental illness have established, if not the extent and gravity of the problem, at least the enigmatic aspects of it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout this study such terms as "psychiatric disorder, " "mental illness, " "disturbed, " etc.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of 293 Christian church members, more than 32 percent were told by their church pastor that they or their loved one did not really have a mental illness, and that the cause of their problem was solely spiritual in nature, such as a personal sin, lack of faith or demonic involvement.^ Her mental illness was thus a 'natural'?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For one reason, it is not such a financial drain on a family budget, as one person can get high every night for less than a dollar a week.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The researchers also found that women were more likely than men to get this response.^ Most likely this is more an effect of the absence of qualified persons to administer the treatments rather than a professional decision not to use them.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of them seem to function more like administrative bureaucrats than agents of social control.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They, in effect, can do no wrong and, like the girl sleeping under the bar, are more to be pitied than censured.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.All participants in both studies were previously diagnosed by a licensed mental health provider as having a serious mental illness.^ Several major epidemiological studies of mental illness have established, if not the extent and gravity of the problem, at least the enigmatic aspects of it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both will be discussed here as well as a special sort of voluntary admission in which the person feigns mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of these methods of religious treatment will be much more likely to be used if there is physical involvement as well as mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[80] .However, there is also research suggesting that people are often helped by extended families and supportive religious leaders who listen with kindness and respect, which can often contrast with usual practice in psychiatric diagnosis and medication.^ The number of people occupying any one dwelling unit varies from small nuclear families to large extended groups of kin.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People enjoy listening to Joe and George talk to each other and as the two are good friends, they exchange views often.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People who consult bush doctors and obeah practitioners usually have some faith in their powers and often have very little confidence in professional doctors.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[81]

Media and general public

.Media coverage of mental illness comprises predominantly negative depictions, for example, of incompetence, violence or criminality, with far less coverage of positive issues such as accomplishments or human rights issues.^ For in any discussion of mental illness, it must be remembered that the imputation of mental illness is equivalent to a negative definition of the proper human state.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also there are only a very few assumed causes of mental illness posited by the population, and these are mainly non-psychological.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Szasz, in his widely reprinted essay, "The Myth of Mental Illness, " makes a strong case for just such a situation.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[82][83][84] .Such negative depictions, including in children's cartoons, are thought to contribute to stigma and negative attitudes in the public and in those with mental health problems themselves, although more sensitive or serious cinematic portrayals have increased in prevalence.^ Problems of vandalism and unprovoked hostility are usually not serious in the districts although they are not unknown there.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Can some forms of deviant behavior, especially those called mental illness, contribute to the stability and cohesion of a society?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bad-minded or wicked persons, such as those mentioned in Chapter Nine , are far from rare in British Honduras and if they are found to be a serious threat to society, they will be jailed for their crimes and not placed in the mental hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[85][86]
.In the United States, the Carter Center has created fellowships for journalists in South Africa, the U.S., and Romania, to enable reporters to research and write stories on mental health topics.^ This is much the opposite of the pattern found in the United States where there is a tendency to view great malevolence as psychosis, assuming that any person to be "that bad" must be mentally disturbed.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .Former US First Lady Rosalynn Carter began the fellowships not only to train reporters in how to sensitively and accurately discuss mental health and mental illness, but also to increase the number of stories on these topics in the news media.^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For in any discussion of mental illness, it must be remembered that the imputation of mental illness is equivalent to a negative definition of the proper human state.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both will be discussed here as well as a special sort of voluntary admission in which the person feigns mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[88][89] .There is a World Mental Health Day, which the US and Canada subsume under a Mental Illness Awareness Week.^ Aside from gross 'foolishness,' there are kinds of integrated behavior patterns which indicate mental illness to British Hondurans.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Culturally Defined Illnesses There are certain conditions in British Honduras which are characterized by mental disturbances and bizarre behavior but they are not thought to be cases of mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reality of psychiatric disorder has certainly been questioned although most frequently under its alias of "mental illness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The general public have been found to hold a strong stereotype of dangerousness and desire for social distance from individuals described as mentally ill.^ While the public primary schools could provide an alternative mode of socialization and enculturation, they generally do not.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another already described as hostile and a general nuisance is characterized by many persons as extremely 'bad-minded' 9 rather than mentally ill.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Primarily it creates an atmosphere of tolerance which encourages the general public to deal with the recognized mentally ill much as they would with a non-stigmatized person whenever conditions permit.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] A US national survey found that a higher percentage of people rate individuals described as displaying the characteristics of a mental disorder as "likely to do something violent to others", compared to the percentage of people who are rating individuals described as being "troubled".[91]

Violence

.Despite public or media opinion, national studies have indicated that severe mental illness does not independently predict future violent behavior, on average, and is not a leading cause of violence in society.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it may at first appear illogical to apply etic standards of behavior 3 as a measure to the emic standards of society in an area as contextually relative as mental illness is usually thought to be, it can be justified.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is a statistical association with various factors that do relate to violence (in anyone), such as substance abuse and various personal, social and economic factors.^ It is the thesis of my study that factors such as this are related, although not in a direct causal fashion, to the recognition of psychiatric disorder, and this relationship is explicated in Chapter Thirteen .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vast majority of the population feel that overt anti-social behavior is wrong, and this is related to their valuation of personal freedom as a vital part of life.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is one reason why it is possible to have such low security at Seaview and why there are no "snake pit" associations with the hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.In fact, findings consistently indicate that it is many times more likely that people diagnosed with a serious mental illness living in the community will be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violence.^ It can be seen that British Hondurans do not use psychological explanations for mental illness, although many of the causes mentioned here could be interpreted as that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also the patient population, and hence the number of officially designated "lunatics, " has always been determined by the number of beds available in the hospital rather than the general mental health of the populace.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[93][94] .In a study of individuals diagnosed with "severe mental illness" living in a US inner-city area, a quarter were found to have been victims of at least one violent crime over the course of a year, a proportion eleven times higher than the inner-city average, and higher in every category of crime including violent assaults and theft.^ Indeed, the concept of mental illness is one which appears to be absent from many tribally organized societies and nonliterate peoples.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather they usually know them individually well enough to be able to sort out the harmless ones from the persons with a history of violent or offensive behavior.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When every merchant in the city would be out of one inch nails, for example, he would sell his nails--at his price.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[95] .People with a diagnosis may find it more difficult to secure prosecutions, however, due in part to prejudice and being seen as less credible.^ However there do seem to be more obviously high men about in the northern districts than in some others parts of the country.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For more difficult cases, the patient may be taken to a well known obeah specialist, often as far away as Merida, Yucatan.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[96]
.However, there are some specific diagnoses, such as childhood conduct disorder or adult antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy, which are defined by or inherently associated with conduct problems and violence.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They mature physically and learn that there are some things which they should never do, but many of them become sexual deviants and general problems in their neighborhoods.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is related to a realization on the part of British Hondurans that there are some medical problems which cannot be treated in British Honduras because there are no resident specialists.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are conflicting findings about the extent to which certain specific symptoms, notably some kinds of psychosis (hallucinations or delusions) that can occur in disorders such as schizophrenia, delusional disorder or mood disorder, are linked to an increased risk of serious violence on average.^ An exception to this series of events occurs when the person is acting in such a manner as to make it seem likely that he is mentally ill at the time he is taken into custody.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Folk Symptomatology In British Honduras the most frequently given symptom of craziness is 'acting foolish,' but by this the populace means very specific kinds of behavior.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the major assumption involved is that there exists such an entity as "psychiatric disorder" and that it has "sociocultural aspects.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.The mediating factors of violent acts, however, are most consistently found to be mainly socio-demographic and socio-economic factors such as being young, male, of lower socioeconomic status and, in particular, substance abuse (including alcoholism) to which some people may be particularly vulnerable.^ British Hondurans speak of many people as being very religious and indeed some of them are that.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most cases heard in Low Court are matters such as these, and this is really the only recourse which people have against acts of personal aggression and harassment.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although their impact on the economic infra structure, particularly food production and marketing, has been great, the social effects of their presence are nil as they are geographically and culturally isolated from most local people.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[41][93][97][98]
.High-profile cases have led to fears that serious crimes, such as homicide, have increased due to deinstitutionalization, but the evidence does not support this conclusion.^ Primarily the person engaging in deviant acts does not fear the loss of support from and contact with kin.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[99][98] .Violence that does occur in relation to mental disorder (against the mentally ill or by the mentally ill) typically occurs in the context of complex social interactions, often in a family setting rather than between strangers.^ In a given societal context, how necessary is institutionalization of the mentally ill?
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus social forces which could bring the lost sheep back into the fold are dissipated rather than mobilized.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another already described as hostile and a general nuisance is characterized by many persons as extremely 'bad-minded' 9 rather than mentally ill.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] It is also an issue in health care settings[101] and the wider community.[102]

Non-human

Psychopathology in non-human primates has been studied since the mid 20th century. .Over 20 behavioral patterns in captive chimpanzees have been documented as (statistically) abnormal for their frequency, severity or oddness—some of which have also been observed in the wild.^ There will also be a discussion of several types of abnormal behavior, which although they are recognized as deviant and undesirable, or at least peculiar, are not believed to be an indication of craziness.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Captive great apes show gross behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypy of movements, self-mutilation, disturbed emotional reactions (mainly fear or aggression) towards companions, lack of species-typical communications, and generalized learned helplessness.^ Rather it appears that a high level of etically abnormal behavior which is not viewed by the community as deviant tends to make the recognition of psychiatric disorder less immediate.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet none of this behavior is regarded as very strange and in the case of sleeping alone, not to fear it is abnormal.
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^ Here it might be emphasized that the general feeling is not that one should not have to endure such types of behavior but rather that one must learn to adjust to them and be prepared if prevention fails.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.In some cases such behaviors are hypothesized to be equivalent to symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders in humans such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder .
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The situation there indicates that it is at least feasible to restrict institutionalization to only the severest cases of psychiatric disorder and that there may be some positive effects in tolerating the slightly to moderately disturbed in the community.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Concepts of antisocial, borderline and schizoid personality disorders have also been applied to non-human great apes.^ Non-institutionalized Cases of Psychiatric Disorder The above cases illustrate some of the aspects of a mentally ill person's situation which make it unlikely that he will be committed to Seaview Hospital.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[103]
The risk of anthropomorphism is often raised with regard to such comparisons, and assessment of non-human animals cannot incorporate evidence from linguistic communication. However, available evidence may range from nonverbal behaviors—including physiological responses and homologous facial displays and acoustic utterances—to neurochemical studies. It is pointed out that human psychiatric classification is often based on statistical description and judgement of behaviors (especially when speech or language is impaired) and that the use of verbal self-report is itself problematic and unreliable.[103][104]
.Psychopathology has generally been traced, at least in captivity, to adverse rearing conditions such as early separation of infants from mothers; early sensory deprivation; and extended periods of social isolation.^ Generalizations about Belizean social organization, at least those couched in the usual anthropological terms, would tend to be misleading and inaccurate.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over-crowding is an understatement for conditions such as these, and frequent quarrels between co-tenants and neighbors attest to the social strain produced by such close quarters.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their beliefs as to its causes, manifestations, and prognoses can be related to other aspects of the social milieu and some of their attitudes traced to a more general view of man and his place in the universe.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Studies have also indicated individual variation in temperament, such as sociability or impulsiveness.^ "Informal" social control refers to those sanctions which are initiated by an individual acting on his own behalf or on the behalf of a small segment of the society, such as a family group.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Particular causes of problems in captivity have included integration of strangers into existing groups and a lack of individual space, in which context some pathological behaviors have also been seen as coping mechanisms.^ Even some types of deviant behavior such as theft and prostitution which are well integrated into ordinary life are still fundamentally thought to be wrong.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is as though no matter how many times British Hondurans watch religious fanaticism turn into even stranger behavior they still consider it to be a cause rather than a result or a symptom.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their toleration of bizarre and anti-social behavior is so high that they consider it to be a cause of more severe forms of it rather than symptomatic of general psychosocial problems.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Remedial interventions have included careful individually-tailored re-socialization programs, behavior therapy, environment enrichment, and on rare occasions psychiatric drugs.^ Marijuana smoking rarely seems to lead to the same kinds of violent and anti-social behavior associated with alcohol use although it does occasionally.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The onus is on the individual to protect himself and not on others to desist from anti-social behavior.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

.Socialization has been found to work 90% of the time in disturbed chimpanzees, although restoration of functional sexuality and care-giving is often not achieved.^ When the chance came to rent part of a small house in their neighborhood, I transferred my belongings and, although I slept and worked in my house, I spent all the rest of my time with this family.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fathers are seen usually at those times when they can receive sexual gratification from the female heads, needless to say that they rarely give any support to their children.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

[103][105]
.Laboratory researchers sometimes try to develop animal models of human mental disorders, including by inducing or treating symptoms in animals through genetic, neurological, chemical or behavioral manipulation,[106][107] but this has been criticized on empirical grounds[108] and opposed on animal rights grounds.^ There are probably not any universally recognized outer limits of human behavior which would in any society classify a person as "mentally ill.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The principal aim of the research is to describe the folk model of psychiatric disorder in the context of British Honduran society, and to interpret the local attitudes and beliefs which influence it.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This method, slow but effective, has been much criticized by the Medical Department as providing breeding grounds for rats even before the land is inhabited by humans.
  • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

Notes

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Further reading

  • Atkinson, J. (2006) Private and Public Protection: Civil Mental Health Legislation, Edinburgh, Dunedin Academic Press ISBN 1903765617
  • Hockenbury, Don and Sandy (2004). Discovering Psychology. Worth Publishers. ISBN 0-7167-5704-4. 
  • Fried, Yehuda and Joseph Agassi, (1976). Paranoia: A Study in Diagnosis. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 50. ISBN 90-277-0704-9. 
  • Fried, Yehuda and Joseph Agassi, (1983). Psychiatry as Medicine. The HAgue, Nijhoff. ISBN 90-247-2837-1. 
  • Porter, Roy (2002). Madness: a brief history. .Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press.^ Oxford University Press, London.
    • THE RECOGNITION OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER IN BRITISH HONDURAS, Belize History 18 September 2009 15:38 UTC ambergriscaye.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-19-280266-6.
     
  • Weller M.P.I. and Eysenck M. The Scientific Basis of Psychiatry, W.B. Saunders, London, Philadelphia, Toronto etc. 1992
  • Wiencke, Markus (2006) Schizophrenie als Ergebnis von Wechselwirkungen: Georg Simmels Individualitätskonzept in der Klinischen Psychologie. In David Kim (ed.), Georg Simmel in Translation: Interdisciplinary Border-Crossings in Culture and Modernity (pp. 123–155). Cambridge Scholars Press, Cambridge, ISBN 1-84718-060-5

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