Mephedrone: Wikis

  
  

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Mephedrone
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-2-methylaminopropan-1-one
Identifiers
CAS number 1189805-46-6
1189726-22-4 (HCl)
ATC code none
PubChem 29982893
ChemSpider 21485694
Chemical data
Formula C11H15NO 
Mol. mass 177.242 g/mol
Synonyms 4-methyl-N-methylcathinone
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status Illegal in Australia, Germany, Israel, Norway, Estonia and Sweden[1]
Routes Oral, insufflated, intravenous[2]
.Mephedrone (2-methylamino-1-p-tolylpropan-1-one),[3] also known as 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), 4-methylephedrone, meow meow, [4] Miaow,[5] or MMCAT[6], is a stimulant and entactogen drug of the phenethylamine, amphetamine, and cathinone chemical classes.^ Mescaline Methylone Mephedrone Amphetamines Future Opioids Designer Drugs Rhodium archive Superhappiness?

^ Phentermine , a contraction for " phen yl - ter tiary-butyl a mine ", is an appetite suppressant of the amphetamine and phenethylamine class.
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^ India mephedrone (4-mmc 4-methylmethcathinone) wanted 1000g kilo kg 1kg + wanted .
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.It is reported to be contained in some legal highs and is sometimes sold mixed with methylone, also known as bubbles.^ But with recent headlines showing that some legal highs are far from harmless, most in Britain are likely to support the new ban.
  • The War on Designer Drugs: Britain Bans Legal Highs - TIME 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]
  • The War on Designer Drugs: Britain Bans Legal Highs - TIME 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]

^ Mephedrone, which can be used as plant food, is sold on legal-high sites as an alternative to cocaine.
  • The War on Designer Drugs: Britain Bans Legal Highs - TIME 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]
  • The War on Designer Drugs: Britain Bans Legal Highs - TIME 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]

[7]

Contents

Appearance

Mephedrone is a white substance. .It most commonly sold as crystals or a powder, but also in the form of capsules or pills.^ You ca nbuy Caffeine in powder or pills form.
  • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][9]

Synthesis

Mephedrone can be synthesised by adding 4-methylpropiophenone dissolved in glacial acetic acid to bromine to create an oil fraction of 4′-methyl-2-bromopropiophenone. This is then dissolved in CH2Cl2 and drops of the solution are added to another solution of CH2Cl2 containing methylamine hydrochloride and triethylamine. Hydrochloric acid is then added and the aqueous layer is removed and turned alkaline using sodium hydroxide before the amine is extracted using CH2Cl2. The CH2Cl2 is then evaporated using a vacuum creating an oil which is then dissolved in a non-aqueous ether. HCl gas is then bubbled through the mixture to produce 4-methylmethcathinone hydrochloride.[10]

History

.The Psychonaut Research Project, an EU organisation that searches the internet for information regarding new drugs, first identified mephedrone in 2008. Their research suggests that the drug first became available in 2007.[6] Mephedrone was first seized in France in May 2007 after police sent a tablet that they assumed to be ecstasy to be analysed.^ "But we have no information on their toxicity because they have never been used as drugs until recently, so there have not been any formal studies.
  • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legal alternatives to cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamines that are sold online are the latest in a new wave of stimulants that could change the way drugs are bought and sold.
  • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first, users may not remember their own names, or even know that they are human, or what that means.

[8] .The drug was used in early products, such as Neodoves pills, by the legal high company Neorganics,[10] but the range was discontinued in January 2008 after the government of Israel, where the company is based, made mephedrone illegal.^ Ayahuasca: Strong psychedelic drink that contains DMT. The plants that ayahuasca is made from are legal in the USA and most other countries, but in the USA ingesting ayahuasca is illegal because of the DMT content.
  • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The popularity of legal highs grew sharply when BZP substances were introduced to the market in the late 1990s and it has taken governments across Europe a decade to classify it as illegal.
  • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Perhaps due in part to the long history of opiate products, one of the first derivatives of a natural drug to be used pharmaceutically was heroin.

.It has been reported to be sold as a designer drug,[11] but little is known about its pharmacology or toxicology as of yet.^ Because the substances are legal, little is known about their side-effects or circulation.
  • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Aesop Rock also has a song called 11:35/Ketamine U.S.A. Interlude about drug use and trouble with the law.

.Mephedrone has recently been reported as having been sold as "ecstasy" in the Australian city of Cairns, along with ethylcathinone,[12][13][14] and has also been reported in Europe and the United States.^ Country The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is a sovereign state located off the northwestern coast of continental Europe.
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^ Thread Mephedrone allormuffin wrote: Monday, 25 May 2009 at 12:13 pm (UTC) I expect it to be banned in a few months.
  • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

[15][16] It is reportedly currently manufactured in China.[17] The Daily Telegraph reported that manufacturers are making "huge amounts of money" from selling the drug.[18] Druglink magazine reported that dealers in Britain spend £2,500 to ship one kilogram from China but can sell it on for £10 a gram making a profit of £7,500.[19]

Effects

Intended effects

.According to the company Crew2000, intended effects include increased alertness, euphoria, excitement, feeling of stimulation, urge to talk and openness.^ Felt slight euphoria, feelings of inner peace, talkative but no rolling sensation.
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^ Effects: Physical stimulating, feeling of well-being, slight reduction of thought processes.
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^ More causes deeper relaxation and longer-lasting Effects: Relaxation is deepest during 2 hours and is followed by mental alertness and increased awareness of color without hallucinations.
  • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Side effects

.According to the Darlington Drug and Alcohol Action Team, mephedrone can cause nose bleeds, nose burns, hallucinations, nausea, vomiting, blood circulation problems, rashes, anxiety, paranoia, fits, and delusions.^ I've avoided mephedrone 'cause of reports of vasoconstriction at relatively moderate doses, given that I have lousy circulation and a slow metabolism anyway, but I've been told that the mix is great.
  • Legal Highs : Life, the Universe and Everything - Page 3 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.ravetalk.co.uk [Source type: General]

[1] .According to Crew2000, other side effects may include poor concentration, poor short-term memory, increased heart rate, abnormal heart beats, anxiety, depression, increased sweating, dilated pupils, the inability to normally open the mouth, and teeth grinding.^ Long-term side effects .

^ Includes side effects, interactions, indications.
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[7]
.A survey conducted by the National Addiction Centre, UK found that 51% of mephedrone users said they suffered from headaches, 43% from heart palpitations, 27% from nausea and 15% from cold or blue fingers.^ "Most of them are drug-addicts themselves and they don’t really care about the end-users," Sen-Sgt Dowie said.
  • Killer pills hit Cairns - Local News - Cairns, QLD, Australia 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.cairns.com.au [Source type: General]

[20]

Long-term effects

.BBC News reported that one person who used the drug for 18 months, in the end using it twice a week, had to be admitted to a psychiatric unit after he started experiencing hallucinations, agitation, excitability and mania.^ The psychiatric side effects of ketamine were successfully managed with the concomitant use of midazolam and resolved within 1 month of treatment.

^ Perhaps due in part to the long history of opiate products, one of the first derivatives of a natural drug to be used pharmaceutically was heroin.

^ Ramsey says the use of the new drugs is a public health concern.
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[21] .Almost nothing is known about the long term effects of the drug due to the short history of its use.^ Long-term side effects .

^ Effects: Harmine and related alkaloids are serotonin antagonists, hallucinogen, CNS stimulants, and short-term MAO inhibitors.
  • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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[20]

Typical use and consumption

.The Guardian reported that some users compulsively redose, consuming their whole supply when they only meant to use a small dose.^ One effect of mephedrone can be that it causes compulsive redosing, known as "fiending", where users intend to take only a small amount, but end up consuming their entire supply.
  • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .A survey conducted by the National Addiction Centre (UK) found that one in three readers of Mixmag had used mephedrone in the last month, making it the fourth most popular drug amongst clubbers.^ In the ensuing years much knowledge has been gained regarding biologically useful derivatives of the naturally occurring drugs but, most importantly, the structures of the alkaloids and the protoalkaloids have, one by one, been elucidated.

^ Pharmacological information for baeocystin (4-hydroxy-N-methyltryptamine) was not found; however, one would expect hallucinogenic activity to parallel that of the N-alkyl-tryptamines and thereby would expect the drug to be weakly hallucinogenic.

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[20]

Harm reduction

.The charity, Lifeline, recommends that to reduce the potential harm caused by using mephedrone, users should only use mephedrone occassionally (less than weekly), use less than 0.5g per session, swallow rather than snort the drug and avoid mixing it with alcohol and other drugs.^ One effect of mephedrone can be that it causes compulsive redosing, known as "fiending", where users intend to take only a small amount, but end up consuming their entire supply.
  • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I graduated from pharmacy school in 1979 more people were still dying from the adverse effects of aspirin worldwide than all other drugs COMBINED. When it comes to using ANY drug you are literally in a risk versus benefits situation.
  • Vasodilatation - online discussion summary | BoardReader 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC boardreader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also you should avoid incriminating yourselves legally here since drugs laws are always taken seriously.
  • Methylone/Mephedrone - Drugs 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.partyvibe.com [Source type: General]

[23]

Toxicity

.At present, very little is known about the toxicity of 4-methylmethcathinone.^ And what is known by simply looking at it's structure and the metabolic pathways your body would take to eliminate it does not bode very well on its potential toxicity.
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.In 2009, one case of sympathomimetic toxicity was reported in the UK after a person took 0.2g of mephedrone orally and 3.8g intravenously.^ One site in the UK reports that it has just imported 2kg of mephedrone, according to tomorrow's edition of Druglink, the DrugScope journal.
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They were treated with 1mg of lorazepam and the sympathomimetic features decreased within 6 hours of treatment.[24] .Reported side effects suggest it may cause pronounced peripheral vasoconstriction, which has been speculated to result from formation of the potent vasoconstrictor 4-methylephedrine as a metabolite,[3] a compound known to have significantly more cardiovascular toxicity than ephedrine itself.^ I've avoided mephedrone 'cause of reports of vasoconstriction at relatively moderate doses, given that I have lousy circulation and a slow metabolism anyway, but I've been told that the mix is great.
  • Legal Highs : Life, the Universe and Everything - Page 3 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.ravetalk.co.uk [Source type: General]

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  • The truth about Spice Diamond, etc... - Page 3 - Grasscity.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: General]

^ Ketamine is a co-analgesic, and so is most effective when used alongside a low-dose opioid ; while it does have analgesic effects by itself, the higher doses required can cause disorienting side effects.

[25] .The Swedish medical journal, Läkartidningen reported that mephedrone could theoretically cause the cardiovascular problems associated with the use of cocaine and amphetamines and serotonin syndrome associated with the use of ecstasy and LSD.[2] Reports of addiction and problematic use have also emerged.^ I've avoided mephedrone 'cause of reports of vasoconstriction at relatively moderate doses, given that I have lousy circulation and a slow metabolism anyway, but I've been told that the mix is great.
  • Legal Highs : Life, the Universe and Everything - Page 3 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.ravetalk.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Legal alternatives to cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamines that are sold online are the latest in a new wave of stimulants that could change the way drugs are bought and sold.
  • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rave parties are often associated with the use of "club drugs" such as ecstasy, LSD, and, more recently, ketamine.
  • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Professor David Nutt, former chair of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) in the UK has said "people are better off taking ecstasy or amphetamines than those [drugs] we know nothing about" and "Who knows what's in [mephedrone] when you buy it?^ When I graduated from pharmacy school in 1979 more people were still dying from the adverse effects of aspirin worldwide than all other drugs COMBINED. When it comes to using ANY drug you are literally in a risk versus benefits situation.
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  • Legal Highs : Life, the Universe and Everything - Page 3 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.ravetalk.co.uk [Source type: General]

We don't have a testing system. It could be very dangerous, we just don't know. These chemicals have never been put into animals, let alone humans."[26] .Les King, a former member of the ACMD, has stated that it appears to be less potent than amphetamine and ecstasy but that any benefit associated with this could be negated by users taking larger amounts.^ Legal alternatives to cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamines that are sold online are the latest in a new wave of stimulants that could change the way drugs are bought and sold.
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^ However, adrenomimetic activity of 4-methylaminorex was determined to be less than that of amphetamine and similar to phenmetrazine (Patil and Yamauchi 1970).

^ However, it may be that N,N-dimethylamphetamine may not enjoy a long history in the clandestine market as at least one work states that it is considerably less potent than methamphetamine (Schaeffer et al.

.He also told the BBC "all we can say is [mephedrone] is probably as harmful as ecstasy and amphetamines and wait until we have some better scientific evidence to support that."^ It is better that people take drugs that are clinically controlled with warnings rather than some tablet bought from a criminal that contains bleach or any number of harmful substances.
  • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Supporting this premise, at least to some extent, is the fact that the appearance of the first known fentanyl, China White, did not occur until 1979 (Henderson, G. 1..

[9]

Deaths

.In 2008, an 18 year-old Swedish woman died in Stockholm after taking mephedrone in combination with cannabis.^ The Swedish ban came after mephedrone was linked to the death of an 18-year-old woman in Stockholm last December.
  • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

An ambulance was soon called to Bandhagen after the girl went into convulsions and turned blue in the face, Svenska Dagbladet reported.[27] Doctors reported that she was suffering from hyponatremia and an autopsy revealed the woman's brain had swollen.[2] .Mephedrone was scheduled to be classified as a "dangerous substance" in Sweden even before the girl's death at Karolinska University Hospital on Sunday, 14 December, but the death brought much more media attention to the drug.^ Meanwhile in Britain, GBL has joined GHB on the list of class C banned drugs and mephedrone and methylone seem to be becoming more popular.
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^ In Hong Kong , as of year 2000, ketamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance .

^ PCP first came to the attention of DEA, then the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, as a drug of abuse in the latter part of the 1960's.

The handling of mephedrone became classified as a criminal offence in Sweden on 15 December 2008.[28]
.In February 2010, a 46 year-old man in the UK suffered a heart attack after taking mephedrone.^ Earlier this year, BZP was linked to the death of a 22-year-old British man who had reportedly also taken ecstasy.
  • The War on Designer Drugs: Britain Bans Legal Highs - TIME 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]
  • The War on Designer Drugs: Britain Bans Legal Highs - TIME 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]

^ The Swedish ban came after mephedrone was linked to the death of an 18-year-old woman in Stockholm last December.
  • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

Toxicology reports revealed he died directly as a result of taking the drug.[29] There have been other unconfirmed reports speculating about the role mephedrone has played in the deaths of several young people in the UK.[30]

Legal status

4-MMC confiscated in Oregon
  • Australia: Mephedrone is not specifically listed as prohibited in Australia. Federal Police have stated that it is an analog to methcathinone and therefore illegal. In February 2010, 22 men were arrested in conjunction with importing mephedrone.[31] In March 2010 a youth was convicted of importing the drug and sentenced to six months alternate detention.[32]
  • .
  • Denmark: Denmark's Minister for Health and Prevention, Jakob Axel Nielsen, banned mephedrone,[20] flephedrone and ethylcathinone on December 18, 2008. This is from the Ministry of Health and Prevention press release.
  • Estonia: Classified as a "narcotic or psychotropic" substance and added to controlled substances list on November 27, 2009.[1][33]
  • Finland: Through the Medicines Act, 4-methylmethcathinone is classified as a "medicinal product", making it illegal to manufacture, import, possess, sell, or transfer without a prescription.^ It is already illegal in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Israel, but at present there are no plans to ban it in Britain.
    • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The increase in illicit use prompted ketamine's placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999.

    ^ Meanwhile in Britain, GBL has joined GHB on the list of class C banned drugs and mephedrone and methylone seem to be becoming more popular.
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    (from ot.fi, date unknown and City.fi, September 5, 2008)[1]
  • Germany: Mephedrone became illegal in Germany on January 22, 2010.[34]
  • Guernsey: It is illegal to import mephedrone into Guernsey.[35]
  • Hungary: As of February 2010, mephedrone is legal in Hungary but legislators are considering whether to make it illegal.[36]
  • .
  • Republic of Ireland: Mephedrone is currently legal[37] but possession and supply of the drug will become illegal in June 2010.[38]
  • Isle of Man:The Medicines Act 2003 was changed in February 2010 in the Isle of Man so that the import and sale of mephedrone is now illegal.^ Meanwhile in Britain, GBL has joined GHB on the list of class C banned drugs and mephedrone and methylone seem to be becoming more popular.
    • Gay London clubs bars sex: map, calendar/diary, reviews, news from DISCODAMAGED: MEPHEDRONE 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.discodamaged.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mephedrone has become the partygoers' legal high of choice .
    • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ The possession, use, or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in most parts of the world in the early 20th century.
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    [39]
  • .
  • Israel: In December 2007, 4-methylmethcathinone was added to Israel's list of controlled substances, making it illegal to buy, sell, or possess.^ The same goes with alcohol, not everyone can make alcohol that you would want to drink, it is a controlled substance that the government makes money off of by taxing it.
    • 'Legal highs' crackdown is doomed to failure, say experts - Health News, Health & Families - The Independent 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ SCHEDULE II: Schedule II is a listing of those substances which are controlled under U. S. federal laws, are deemed to have a high potential for abuse, and for which there is a accepted medical use.

    ^ Buy Intoxicating Mint online Illicit drugs: Drugs whose use, possession, or sale is illegal.
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    [1]
  • .
  • Jersey: Classified as a Class C drug in 2009.[40]
  • Netherlands: In March, 2010, the Dutch Ministry of Health and the Medicines Authority IGZ informed the Ministry of Justice that they now consider Mephedrone an unregulated medicine and sales and distribution of it are now prohibited.^ Meanwhile in Britain, GBL has joined GHB on the list of class C banned drugs and mephedrone and methylone seem to be becoming more popular.
    • Gay London clubs bars sex: map, calendar/diary, reviews, news from DISCODAMAGED: MEPHEDRONE 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.discodamaged.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ketamine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization 's " Essential Drugs List ", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system.

    [1][38]
  • .
  • New Zealand: Classified as a Class C drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. [41]
  • Norway: The "Derivatbestemmelsen" is an Analog Act-type law in Norway that controls 4-methylmethcathinone, Bk-MBDB, Bromo-DragonFLY, 1,4-butanediol, GBL, and MBDB. See legemiddelverket.no.^ Meanwhile in Britain, GBL has joined GHB on the list of class C banned drugs and mephedrone and methylone seem to be becoming more popular.
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    ^ SCHEDULE I: Schedule I is a listing of those substances which are controlled under U. S. federal laws, are deemed to have a high potential for abuse, and for which there is no accepted medical use.

    ^ Club 'horse' drug to be outlawed ^ Controlled Drugs and Substances Act ^ Government to tighten control on Ketamine ^ Jansen, Karl (2001).

    .(last updated April 29, 2009)[1]
  • Poland: Mephedrone is still legal in Poland (27.02.2010), but it can be mistakenly regarded as amphetamine by police since it comes out as amphetamine in standard police tests.^ Last Updated: Sep 09, 2009 potassiumchloride 98-99% K2O 60% crystal or powder...
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    [42]
  • .
  • Romania On February 10, 2010 Romania revised its drug policy including 4-mmc and all cathinone related products to Table I considering it a high risk narcotic.^ Mephedrone: 4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone, 4-MMC) is a stimulant drug related to cathinone and methcathinone.
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    ^ Drugs Our drugs forum is a place for frank, honest and open discussion of all topics relating to drug use and misuse.
    • Methylone/Mephedrone - Drugs 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.partyvibe.com [Source type: General]

    .Possession, sale, manufacture or distribution are punishable by 10 to 20 years in prison.^ MDMA is illegal in most countries, and its possession, manufacture or sale may result in criminal prosecution.
    • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [43]
  • .
  • Singapore As of February 2010 mephedrone is legal in Singapore, CNN reported that it is ordered over the internet and exported from the UK.[44]
  • Sweden: Classified as a "health hazard" or "hazardous substance" ("hälsofarlig vara") pending further legislation, a ban on 4-methylmethcathinone went into effect on December 15, 2008, making its sale illegal.^ Effects are delayed for several days to several weeks because reserpine must be converted in the body into secondary substances.
    • Xneon- A- Z info Station 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC xneon.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    On June 15, 2009 it was classified as a narcotic.[1][45]
  • .
  • United Kingdom: Mephedrone/4MMC is currently not covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971; psychiatrists have lobbied for it to be banned.^ In the United Kingdom , it became outlawed and labeled a Class C drug on 1 January 2006.

    [17] .It is, however, an offence under the Medicines Act to sell it for human consumption, so it is often sold as "plant food".[20][1] The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs are investigating mephedrone as a priority along with other legal highs and will report their findings in 2010.[26] The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction are also reviewing the situation and will report their findings in July 2010.[46]
  • United States: 4-Methylmethcathinone is unscheduled in the United States[47] but has been made illegal in North Dakota.^ It is often sold on websites as "plant food".
    • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Home Office spokesperson said: "If a compelling case is made for any 'legal high' to be added to the list of controlled drugs under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 because they pose a significant health and social problem, we will not hesitate to seek parliament's agreement to do so following reference to, and advice from, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs."
    • hey supp misc! challenge my brute if u dare - Bodybuilding.com Forums 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The increase in illicit use prompted ketamine's placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999.

    [48]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Police warning over 'bubble' drug". BBC News. 20 November 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/tees/8370130.stm. Retrieved 27 November 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c Gustavsson, David; Cecilia Escher (20 October 2009). "Mefedron – Internetdrog som tycks ha kommit för att stanna" (in Swedish). Lakartidningen. http://www.lakartidningen.se/07engine.php?articleId=12986. 
  3. ^ a b Meyer MR, Peters FT, Maurer HH (2009). "Metabolism of the new designer drug mephedrone and toxicological detection of the beta keto designer drugs mephedrone, butylone and methylone in urine". Annales de Toxicologie Analytique 21: S1. 
  4. ^ Ozimek, John (2nd December 2009). "Meow madness really is a load of b*ll*cks". The Register. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2009/12/02/mephedrone_madness/. Retrieved 13 January 2010. 
  5. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/02/12/2818459.htm
  6. ^ a b "Psychonaut WEB MAPPING Project Newsletter". June - September 2009. http://www.p2002.sgul.ac.uk/newsletters/n2.php. Retrieved 19 December 2009. 
  7. ^ a b c "Crew 2000 - Drugs - Information, Advice and Support - Home". http://www.crew2000.org.uk/. Retrieved 2009-11-26.  Direct link to PDF file: [1]
  8. ^ a b Roussel O, Perrin M, Herard P, Chevance M, Arpino P (2009). "Is 4-methylephedrone, an “Ecstasy” of the twenty first century?" (in French). Annales de Toxicologie Analytique. doi:10.1051/ata/2009048. http://www.ata-journal.org/index.php?option=article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/ata/pdf/first/ata09028.pdf. 
  9. ^ a b Reed, Jim (13 January 2010). "What is legal high mephedrone?". BBC Newsbeat. http://news.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/hi/health/newsid_10000000/newsid_10004300/10004383.stm. Retrieved 13 February 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Camilleri A, Johnston MR, Brennan M, Davis S, Caldicott DG. Chemical analysis of four capsules containing the controlled substance analogues 4-methylmethcathinone, 2-fluoromethamphetamine, alpha-phthalimidopropiophenone and N-ethylcathinone. Forensic Science International. 2010 Jan 13. PMID 20074881
  11. ^ "Davies S. Drug Trends and New Designer Drugs. St George's University of London. 6th November 2008." (PDF). http://www.forensic-toxicology.org/Drug%20Trends%20&%20New%20Designer%20Drugs_Susie%20Davies.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  12. ^ "Killer pills hit Cairns". Cairns.com.au. 2008-06-18. http://www.cairns.com.au/article/2008/06/18/4685_local-news.html. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  13. ^ "Police warn of potentially fatal 'fake ecstasy'". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/06/17/2277735.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  14. ^ "Ecstasy users warned of drug switch". News.com.au. 2008-06-20. http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23895043-5005961,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  15. ^ "EMCDDA 2008 Annual Report". http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/attachements.cfm/att_77265_EN_Annex%202_New%20psychoactive%20substances%20reported%202008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-26. 
  16. ^ "DEA Microgram Bulletin July 2009". http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/programs/forensicsci/microgram/mg0709/mg0709.pdf. 
  17. ^ a b Psychiatrists call for 'legal high' drug 4-MMC to be banned, Telegraph, 30 Apr 2009
  18. ^ Legal online drugs providing real alternative to Class A substances, Telegraph, 12 Mar 2009
  19. ^ Campbell, Denis (17 January 2010). "Fears grow over safety of 'legal high' mephedrone". The Observer. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/jan/17/drug-legal-methedrone-high. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  20. ^ a b c d e Clubbers are 'turning to new legal high mephedrone' BBC News Jim Reed 13 January 2010
  21. ^ Call for ban on 'legal high' drug, BBC News, 30 April 2009
  22. ^ Online sales of legal alternatives to class A drugs raise safety fears, guardian.co.uk, 12 March 2009
  23. ^ Newcombe, Russell (December 2009). "The Use of Mephedrone (M-cat, Meow) in Middlesbrough". Lifeline Publications and Research. http://www.lifelineproject.co.uk/docs/M-cat%20report%20small.pdf. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  24. ^ Wood, DM. "153. Recreational Use of 4-Methylmethcathinone (4-MMC) Presenting with Sympathomimetic Toxicity and Confirmed by Toxicological Screening". Clinical Toxicology vol. 47 no. 7 2009. http://www.eapcct.org/publicfile.php?folder=congress&file=Abstracts_SanAntonio.pdf. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  25. ^ Hartung WH, Munch JC, Deckart WA, Crossley F (August 1930). "AMINO-ALCOHOLS. II. HOMOLOGS AND ANALOGS OF PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE". Journal of the American Chemical Society 52 (8): 3317–3322. doi:10.1021/ja01371a046. 
  26. ^ a b Saner, Emine (5 Dec 2009). "Mephedrone and the problem with 'legal highs'". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/dec/05/mephedrone-problem-legal-highs. Retrieved 24 December 2009. 
  27. ^ "Woman died of mephedrone". http://www.thelocal.se/16366/20081215/. 
  28. ^ "Teenager dies of 'net drug' overdose — The Local". http://www.thelocal.se/16366/20081215. 
  29. ^ Booth, Robert (18 March 2010). "Hove man's death caused by mephedrone". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/mar/18/john-sterling-smith-mephedrone-death. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  30. ^ Sumnall, Harry; Olivia Wooding. "Mephedrone Briefing". North West Public Health Observatory. http://www.cph.org.uk/showPublication.aspx?pubid=614. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  31. ^ "'Miaow' drug seized in mail busts". Sydney Morning Herald. February 12, 2010. http://www.smh.com.au/national/miaow-drug-seized-in-mail-busts-20100212-nwad.html. Retrieved 12 February 2010. 
  32. ^ Statham, Larine (March 15 2010). "First youth convicted for new party drug". The Sydney Morning Herald. http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-national/first-youth-convicted-for-new-party-drug-20100315-q9df.html. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  33. ^ [2] (in Estonian)
  34. ^ Vierundzwanzigste Verordnung zur Änderung betäubungsmittelrechtlicher Vorschriften (24. BtMÄndV)
  35. ^ Shaw, Danny (4 March 2010). "Guernsey could outlaw 'legal high' mephedrone". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/guernsey/8548685.stm. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  36. ^ [backPid=11&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=7494 Hungary's state health service for banning new recreational drug] Hungary Around the Clock 2010-02-11 archived
  37. ^ Irish youth are fourth highest cocaine users in Europe The Irish Times, November 6 2009 archived
  38. ^ a b Kelly, Fiack (03 March 2010). "Head shop substances to be banned". Irish Independent. http://www.independent.ie/national-news/head-shop-substances-to-be-banned-2086255.html. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  39. ^ Now illegal to import drug 'plant food' to Isle of Man
  40. ^ Campbell, Adina (4 March 2010). "Call to ban legal high mephedrone test change". BBC Newsbeat. http://news.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/hi/health/newsid_10050000/newsid_10059100/10059133.stm. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  41. ^ Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 No 116 (as at 01 December 2009), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation
  42. ^ Ustawa z dnia 20 marca 2009 r. o zmianie ustawy o przeciwdziałaniu narkomanii
  43. ^ Salvia divinorum, psilocybe mushrooms are among hallucinogenic herbs banned by gov’t Financiarul 11 February 2010 archived
  44. ^ Legal in Singapore -- the party drug that's banned everywhere else
  45. ^ Svensk författningssamling (in Swedish)
  46. ^ Nutt, David (17 March 2010). "Mephedrone: the class D solution". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/mar/17/mephedrone-class-d-solution-criminalise. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  47. ^ United States Drug Enforcement Agency Drug Scheduling. Accessed 23:50 GMT 11th January 2010
  48. ^ Substances producing ‘legal highs’ no longer legal

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mephedrone, which are similar to those in the above article.








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