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Sports

  • Edmonton Mercurys, a 1940s and 50s intermediate ice hockey team from Canada
  • Phoenix Mercury, a Women's National Basketball Association team from Arizona, United States
  • Toledo Mercurys, a defunct International Hockey League franchise from Ohio, United States

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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Mercury
.Mercury is the small st and least massive of the eight major planets in the Solar system (Pluto is no longer considered a planet).^ All but three of the species in the sample had at least one duck with mercury levels higher than what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers safe to eat.
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Mercury is the second densest planet in the solar system after Earth. At a mean distance from the Sun of 57.8 million kilometres, it is also the closest. Mercury has a faint atmosphere, mainly helium, and experiences extremes of temperature ranging from over 350°C during the day to -170°C at night. The planet orbits the Sun in 88 Earth-days and rotates on its axis in a period of 58.6 days. The gravity at the surface is 37.7% of what it is on Earth. Mercury's radius is 2439.7 kilometers at the equator, and has a mass 3.302 x 10^23.

Contents

Some information about the planet

Orbital characteristics

  • Aphelion: 69,816,927 km (0.46669733 AU)
  • Perihelion: 46,001,210 km (0.30749909 AU)
  • Semi-major axis: 57,909,068 km (0.38709821 AU)
  • Eccentricity: 0.205630294
  • Orbital period: 87.969 098 d (0.240846264 a)
  • Synodic period: 115.88 d
  • Avg. orbital speed: 47.87 km/s
  • Mean anomaly: 174.795884°
  • Inclination: 7.005015818° (3.38° to Sun’s equator)
  • Longitude of ascending node: 48.330541°
  • Argument of perihelion: 29.124279°
  • Satellites: None

Physical characteristics

.
The internal structure of Mercury:
1. Crust - 100-200 km thick
2. Mantle - 600 km thick
3. Core - 1,800 km radius
  • Mean radius: 2439.7 ± 1.0 km (0.3829 Earths)
  • Flattening: < 0.0006
  • Surface area: 7.48×107 km² (0.108 Earths)
  • Volume: 6.083×1010 km³ (0.054 Earths)
  • Mass: 3.3022×1023 kg (0.055 Earths)
  • Mean density: 5.427 g/cm³
  • Equatorial surface gravity: 3.7 m/s² (0.38 g)
  • Escape velocity: 4.25 km/s
  • Sidereal rotation period: 58.646 day (58 d 15.5 h)
  • Rotation velocity at equator: 10.892 km/h
  • Axial tilt: 0.01°
  • Right ascension of North pole: 18 h 44 min 2 s (281.01°)
  • Declination of North pole: 61.45°
  • Albedo: 0.119 (bond) 0.106 (geom.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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    ^ Similar correlations were observed between the mercury concentrations in fetal organs and the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples on day 15 of pregnancy.
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    ^ On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas.
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    )
  • Surface temp.: min mean max
  0°N, 0°W  100 K   340 K   700 K
  85°N, 0°W     80 K    200 K   380 K
  • Apparent magnitude: up to -1.9
  • Angular diameter: 4.5" — 13"
  • Adjectives: Mercurian

Atmosphere

  • Surface pressure: trace
  • Composition: [citation needed]
  1. 31.7% Potassium
  2. 24.9% Sodium
  3. 9.5% Atomic Oxygen
  4. 7.0% Argon
  5. Pancake% Helium
  6. 5.6% Molecular Oxygen
  7. 5.2% Nitrogen
  8. 3.6% Carbon dioxide
  9. 3.4% Water
  10. 3.2% Hydrogen
--km 21:39, 15 January 2008 (UTC)

See also


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MERCURY (symbol Hg, atomic weight = 200), in chemistry, a metallic element which is easily distinguished from all others by its being liquid at even the lowest temperatures naturally occurring in moderate climates.^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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^ Mercury easily collects in the brain, kidney, and lungs, is present in most all vaccines and some dental fillings..
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^ Mercury is a naturally occurring element that makes its way into the environment when oil- and coal-fired power plants burn those fossil fuels.
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To this -exceptional property it owes the synonyms of quicksilver in English (with the Germans Quecksilber is the only recognized name) and of hydrargyrum (from iibcop, water, and iipyupos, silver) in Graeco-Latin. This metal does not appear to have been known to the ancient Jews, nor is it mentioned by the earlier Greek writers. Theophrastus (about 300 B.C.) mentions it as prepared from cinnabar by treatment with copper and vinegar; Dioscorides obtained it from the same mineral with the aid of iron, employing at the same time a primitive distillation apparatus. With the alchemists it was a substance of great consequence. .Its appearance commended it as a substance for investigation; many of its compounds, especially corrosive sublimate and calomel, were studied, and improved methods for extracting and purifying the metal were devised.^ The new study echoed the 2001 study's findings on DDT; tobacco residue, called cotinine; lead; and other toxic compounds that have been measured for many years.
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.Being ignorant of its susceptibility of freezing into a compact solid, they did not recognize it as a true metal, and yet, on the authority of Geber, they held that mercury (meaning the predominating element in this metal) enters into the composition of all metals, and is the very cause of their metallicity (see Element).^ But Melby doesn't see mercury in vaccines as a big concern, saying levels are "way down from what they used to be."
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^ But they said the finding justified a greater effort to find ways to cut women's exposure to mercury, which at high levels can cause birth defects and other problems.
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^ They discuss the fact that there needs to be research into the synergy of the combined heavy metals and their impact in the vaccines.
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.When, about the beginning of the 16th century, chemistry and scientific medicine came to merge into one, this same mysterious element of " mercury " played a great part in the theories of pathology; and the metal,, h.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
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^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
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in the free as in certain combined states, came to be looked upon as a powerful medicinal agent.
Table of contents

Occurrence

.Mercury occurs in nature chiefly in the form of a red sulphide, HgS, called cinnabar (q.v.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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), which, as a rule, is accompanied by more or less of the reguline metal - the latter being probably derived from the former by some secondary reaction. .The most important mercury mines in Europe are those of Almaden in Spain and of Idria in Illyria; and in America those of California and Texas.^ The most important step in the management of mercury poisoning is eliminating the source of exposure.
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^ Despite these efforts, some scientists say California has yet to tackle its largest source of mercury: the mining waste that lingers from the Gold Rush.
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^ Most mercury pollution comes from the burning of fossil fuels in the coal-fired power plants, waste disposal, industrial processes and mining.
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Deposits also occur in Russia, the Bavarian palatinate, in Hungary, Italy, Transylvania, Bohemia, Mexico, Peru and in some other countries.
Mercury occurs in formations of all ages from the Archean to the Quaternary, and. it has been found in both sedimentary and eruptive rocks of the most varied character, e.g. conglomerates, sandstones, shales, limestones, quartzites, slates, serpentines, crystalline schists, and eruptive rocks from the most acid to the most basic. .It appears that nearly all known deposits occur along lines of;'continental uplift, where active shearing of the formations has occurred.^ Of all the gods in the list, Hestia , goddess of the hearth, was the least known and the least active in mythology.

.Large deposits are seldom found in eruptive rocks, but generally near such formations or near active or extinct hot springs.^ The element is also released from sources such as hot springs and active volcanoes.
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.The deposits are of many types, simple fissure veins being less usual than compound, reticulated, or linked veins.^ These compounds target the CNS with methyl- and ethylmercury being more toxic than phenylmercury.
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Segregations and impregnations are very common. .The form of the deposit seems to depend chiefly on the physical properties and structure of the enclosing rocks and the nature of the fissure systems that result from their disturbance.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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^ What it Is Mercury, a naturally occurring element in three forms (see Figure 1), can produce different levels of toxicity depending upon route of exposure and absorption.
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The principal ore is cinnabar, though metacinnabarite and native mercury are often abundant; the selenide (tiemannite), chloride, and iodide are rare. Of the associated heavy minerals, pyrite (or marcasite) is almost universal, and chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, blende and realgar are frequent. .Many deposits contain traces of gold and silver, and some deposits, as the Mercur in Utah, are more valuable for their gold than their mercury content.^ Some shellfish also fall in that category, with lobster containing more mercury than crab.
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^ "During the past decade children were given many more vaccines containing mercury, and the rate of autism skyrocketed.
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^ Some statues depicted her with more than two breasts, suggesting that she was goddess of fertility and sexuality, like at Ephesus (see Artemis of Ephesus ).

The usual gangue-forming minerals are quartz, dolomite, calcite, barite, fluorspar and various zeolites. Some form of bituminous matter is one of the most universal and intimate associates of cinnabar. Formerly quicksilver deposits were supposed to be formed by sublimation, but from a careful study of the California occurrences S. B. Christy was convinced as early as 1875 that this was unlikely, and that deposition from hot alkaline sulphide solutions was more probable. By treating the black mercuric sulphide with such solutions, hot and under pressure, he succeeded in producing artificial cinnabar and metacinnabarite. .He also showed that the mineral water at the New Almaden mines, when charged with sulphydric acid and heated under pressure, was capable of effecting the same change, and that this method of production agreed better with all the facts than the sublimation theory.^ Today, however, the federal government is under increasing pressure from pediatricians, academics, and its own scientists all clamoring for more testing of neurotoxicants.
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^ The Kellogg Company has agreed to remove all cereal boxes that contain Spider-Man toys called Spidey Signals from New Hampshire stores.
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^ "This was not a trivial exercise," Bleasby said of the labeling process, which included changing the packaging on all of the company's fluorescent and other mercury-containing lamp products.
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(See " Genesis of Cinnabar Deposits," Amer. Jour. Science, xvii. 453.) The investigations of Dr G. F. Becker on the " Quicksilver Deposits of the Pacific " (U.S. Geol. Survey, Mon. xiii., 1888) established the correctness of these views beyond doubt.
Spain.
United
Russia.
i
Austria-
Italy.
Mexico.
Total
(Metric
States.
Hungary.
Tons).
1901
754
1031
368
558
278
128
3120
1902
1425
1208
416
556
259
191
4056
1903
914
1288
362
567
314
188
3633
1904
1020
1192
393
581
357
1901
3733
1905
800
10 43
318
564
370
1901
3285

Production

.At one time the world's supply of mercury was almost entirely derived from the Almaden and Idrian mines; but now the greater proportion is produced in California and Texas, where cinnabar was used by the Indians as a pigment, and first turned to metallurgical purpose in 1845 by Castellero.^ Alas, Hightower says, that didn't spare one child, who initially was screened with nearly 15 times the NAS recommended ceiling concentrations for mercury.
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^ It also concluded that mercury is a "major threat" to the world's fishing industry, an important component of the food supply and the main way people are exposed to the pollutant.
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^ It is the first time any UK health official has admitted to the danger posed by mercury in vaccines.
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.In the United States mercury has also been found in Utah, Nevada, Oregon and Arizona.^ Some immigrants to the United States from Caribbean countries, such as Haiti, scatter mercury powder around their homes as part of religious rituals.
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^ Ten other states, including California and Oregon, have more-limited laws rest restricting mercury use and disposal.
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^ The mercury for the thermometers was imported, primarily from the United States, and finished thermometers were exported to markets in the United States and Europe.
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In the 16th century the Almaden and Idrian mines were practically the only producers of this metal; statistics of Almaden dating from 1564 and of Idria since 1525 are given in B. Neumann, Die Metalle (1904). Spain produced 1151 metric tons in 1870, and in 1889 its maximum of 1975 tons; since then it has, on the whole, been decreasing. The Austria-Hungary output steadily increased to about 550-600 tons at which it appears to remain. In 1887 Russia produced 64 tons, and has steadily improved. .The United States output was over 1000 tons, in 1871, and declined to 800-900 in the period 1889-1892; it has since increased and surpassed the supply from Spain.^ About 300 tons of mercury-contaminated material and waste from the thermometer plant in Kodaikanal town, in India's southern state of Tamil Nadu, will be shipped to the United States.
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^ The pesticide has long been banned in the United States and since 1997 has been phased out in Mexico.
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^ The EPA, in a report to Congress in 1997, estimated that 158 tons of the metal are released into the atmosphere annually from human-made sources in the United States.
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The following table gives the production in various countries for selected years: 1 Estimated.
.Mercury is transported in steel bottles closed by a screw stopper; the Almaden and Idrian bottles contain 76 lb; and until the 1st of June 1904, the Californian bottles contained 762 lb of mercury; they now hold 75 lb.^ We need to ensure safety of the people as a top priory, and the truth IS that they knew there were problems with the mercury and aluminum contained in our vaccines.
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^ The FDA has now continued and approved the administration and use of these vaccines containing mercury be continued for the next three years or until the stock pile of vaccines containing mercury have been depleted (There is plenty of Vaccine available without mercury).
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^ Then-EPA Administrator Carol Browner noted, "The greatest source of mercury emissions is power plants, and they have never been required to control these emissions before now."
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.From the smaller works the metal is sometimes sent out in sheepskin bags holding 55 lb of mercury.^ The findings indicate alteration of immune system in persons working in the risk of metal mercury vapours."
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Metallurgy

Chemically speaking, the extraction of mercury from its ores is a simple matter. .Metallic mercury is easily volatilized, and separated from the gangue, at temperatures far below redness, and cinnabar at a red heat is readily reduced to the metallic state by the action of iron or lime or atmospheric oxygen, the sulphur being eliminated, in the first case as iron sulphide, in the second as calcium sulphide and sulphate, in the third as sulphur dioxide.^ Maine is one of the first four states in the country to require dentists to install separators to reduce mercury discharges into the sewer systems that empty into rivers and bays.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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^ He also said the investigation has revealed - so far - no explanation for the presence of a metal such as mercury in the food.
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.A close iron retort would at first suggest itself as the proper kind of apparatus for carrying out these operations, and this idea was, at one time, acted upon in a few small establishments - for instance, in that of Zweibrucken in the Palatinate, where lime was used as a decomposing agent; but the method has now been discarded.^ In 1998, Congress directed the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to carry out a study of methylmercury toxicity to provide recommendations on exposure limits.19 The study was completed in June 2000 and concluded that, at this time, results of the Faroe Islands study should be used to establish a reference dose for mercury of 0.1 g/kg/d.
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^ "Most of the vaccines at one time or another had Thimerosal in them," Blatherwick said, and it is still used in MMR shots for children in Grade 6.
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^ He suggested that the two lawsuits filed this week -- the first in B.C. to claim a causal link between Thimerosal and autism -- will have a hard time proving the cause and effect.
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.In all the large works the decomposition of the cinnabar is effected by the direct exposure of the ore to the oxidizing flame of a furnace, and the mercury vapour, which gets diffused through an immense mass of combustion gases, is recovered in more or less imperfect condensers.^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
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^ The findings indicate alteration of immune system in persons working in the risk of metal mercury vapours."
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^ Clinical Effects Route of exposure, dose, age, and compound all cause varying toxicity.
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.With the exception of the massive deposits of Almaden in Spain and a few of those in California and Idria, cinnabar occurs in forms so disseminated as to make its mining very expensive.^ Mercury is a naturally occurring element that makes its way into the environment when oil- and coal-fired power plants burn those fossil fuels.
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Rude handsorting of the ores is usually practised. Wet concentration has not been successful, because it necessitates ore crushing and extensive slime losses of the brittle cinnabar. As a rule low-grade ores can be roasted directly with less loss and expense. At Almaden in Spain the ores average from 5 to 7%, but in other parts of the world much poorer ores have to be treated. .In California, in spite of the high cost of labour, improved furnaces enable ores containing not more than 2% to be mined and roasted at a profit.^ Farther uphill, he hiked into a weathered wood-and-metal shack, which houses a rusty, 60-foot-long furnace where miners used to roast the ore.
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^ Fish are the largest source for humans, and a tuna sandwich may contain more mercury than a vaccine shot.
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^ Some shellfish also fall in that category, with lobster containing more mercury than crab.
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The furnaces originally used at Almaden and Idria differ only in the condensing plant. .The roasting was carried out in internally fired, vertical shafts of brickwork, and, at Almaden, the vapours were led through a series of bottles named aludels, so arranged that the neck of one entered the sole of the next; and at Idria the vapours were led into large brickwork chambers lined with cement, and there condensed.^ "Eighty-seven percent of the mercury going out into the atmosphere is coming from utility boilers, waste combustors, coal-fired power plants, cement plants, and medical incinerators."
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^ "There are still a jillion tests that have to be carried out."
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.The aludel furnace, which was designed in 1633 by Lopez Saavedra Barba in Huancavelica, Peru (where cinnabar was discovered in 1566), and introduced at Almaden in 1646 by Bustamente, by whose name it is sometimes known, has now been entirely given up.^ Athena was sometimes known by her epithet, Tritogeneia - "thrice born", either because of Triton or because she grew up at Lake Tritonis, in Libya.

The Idrian furnace was designed in 1787 by von Leithner; it was introduced at Almaden in "Boo by Larranaga, and used side by side with the aludel furnace. The crude mercury is purified by straining through dense linen or chamois leather bags.
.The most important improvements in the metallurgy of mercury are the introduction of furnaces for treating coarse ores, and the replacement of the old discontinuous furnaces by those which work continuously.^ The most important step in the management of mercury poisoning is eliminating the source of exposure.
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The most successful of these continuous furnaces was a modification of Count Rumford's continuous limekiln. This furnace was introduced at New Almaden by J. B. Randol, the author of many improvements in the metallurgy of mercury. The success of the continuous coarse-ore furnace at New Almaden led Randol to attempt the continuous treatment of fine ores also, and the Huettner and Scott continuous fine-ore furnace, which was the result of these experiments solved the problem completely. .It contains several vertical shafts in which the descending ore is retarded at will by inclined shelving, which causes it to be exposed to the flames as long as may be necessary to roast it thoroughly.^ Farther uphill, he hiked into a weathered wood-and-metal shack, which houses a rusty, 60-foot-long furnace where miners used to roast the ore.
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The time of treatment is determined by the rapidity with which the roasted ore is withdrawn at the bottom. Several similar furnaces are in use, as the Knox and Osborne, the Livermore and the Cormak-Spirek. .The fumes from the roasting furnaces are received in masonry chambers, usually provided with water-cooled pipes; from these they pass through earthenware pipes, and finally through others of wood and glass.^ Farther uphill, he hiked into a weathered wood-and-metal shack, which houses a rusty, 60-foot-long furnace where miners used to roast the ore.
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^ She caused the death of the giants Otus and Ephialtes , when they pursuit her through the woods.

.Not all the yield is in liquid mercury; much of it is entangled in masses of soot that cover the condenser walls, and this is only recovered after much labour.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
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The conditions for effective condensation are: (1) The furnace gases should be well oxidized, to avoid the production of an excess of soot. .Gas firing would meet this requirement better than the use of wood or coal.^ "I used to order 10 or 12 dozen [vials], and it would be gone in less than two or three months."
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(2) The volume of permanent gases passing through the furnace should be reduced to a minimum consistently with complete oxidation. (3) The cross-section of the condensers should be sufficient to reduce the velocity of the escaping gases, and the surface large enough for cooling and for the adhesion of condensed mercury. The latter requirement is best provided for by hanging wooden aprons in the path of the cooled gases. (4) The temperature of the escaping gases should not exceed 15° to 20° C., but cooling below this temperature would not give any adequate return for the expense. .Cooling by water is quicker, but more expensive than by air.^ The report notes that children are more exposed and vulnerable to mercury and other environmental pollutants because they play outside, and for their size they drink more water, eat more food, and breathe more air than adults do, according to the article.
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^ According to the EPA, Tosco discharged more than 1 million pounds of pollutants into the air in 1998, many of them neurotoxicants.
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Water sprays, acting directly on the fumes, have not given good results, on account of the difficulty of recovering " floured " quicksilver from the water. (5) The use of an artificial inward draught is absolutely necessary to control the operation of the furnaces and condensers and to avoid the salivation of the workmen. (6) The condenser should be easily and quickly cleaned during the operation of the furnace. .(7) Both furnaces and condensers should have inclined iron plates in their foundations to prevent the infiltration of mercury.^ Both the cereal box and a slip of paper inside the plastic pouch in which the toys are wrapped warn the toys contain mercury and should be disposed properly.
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(8) There is a great need of some substance for the construction of quicksilver condensers which shall be strong enough to be made thin, be a good conductor of heat, and resistant to abrasion and the alternate action of heat and cold. It should also resist the action of mercury and warm dilute sulphuric acid, and be not too expensive.
Quicksilver is best removed from the " soot," not by pressure, but by the opposite treatment. .A machine in use for this purpose at New Almaden, devised by Colonel von Leicht, consists of an iron bowl, perforated at the bottom, in which revolves a vertical shaft carrying a propeller blade which tosses the soot (mixed with wood ashes and a little coal oil) into the air, so that the entangled mercury is free to run out through the bottom of the bowl.^ "Eighty-seven percent of the mercury going out into the atmosphere is coming from utility boilers, waste combustors, coal-fired power plants, cement plants, and medical incinerators."
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^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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^ "I was concerned because I had never seen drops of mercury in the bottom of a kid's bowl of food," Heminger said.
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The residue from which no more mercury can be extracted mechanically is returned to the roasting furnace.
The losses of treatment are: (I) Furnace loss, which is easily reduced to nothing, and (2) condenser loss, which can never be zero. The latter consists of mercury lost as vapour and as mist, and its minimum amount is determined not by the richness of the ore but by the volume of escaping gases, their velocity and temperature. The percentage of loss will be higher with a poor than a rich ore. On a 3% ore the losses need not exceed 3 or 4% ore content. On a % ore they will run from 5 to 10%. But in poorly arranged plants under bad management they may easily be doubled or even trebled. .The Huettner and Scott fine-ore furnace costs with condensers in California about $30,000, and roasts from 30 to 45 tons of ore (from 22 in.^ Farther uphill, he hiked into a weathered wood-and-metal shack, which houses a rusty, 60-foot-long furnace where miners used to roast the ore.
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to dust) in 24 hours at a cost of from $i to $0.62 per ton.

Purification

.Commercial mercury, as a rule, only needs to be forced through chamois leather or allowed to run though a very fine hole to become fit for all ordinary applications; but the metal, having the power of dissolving most other metals, is very liable to get contaminated, and requires then to be purified.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
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^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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For this purpose many chemical methods have been proposed; the commonest consist in allowing the metal to fall in a very fine stream through a column of a mixture of nitric acid and mercurous nitrate, or of sulphuric acid, or of potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid; the metal being subsequently dried and filtered through a perforated paper filter. The only really exhaustive method is distillation in a vacuum out of a glass apparatus. Many forms of apparatus have been devised to effect this. .Recent researches have shown, however, that the metal so obtained is not chemically pure, there being found in the distillate traces of other metals.^ They discuss the fact that there needs to be research into the synergy of the combined heavy metals and their impact in the vaccines.
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^ It is hypersensitive reactions to thiomersal, however, which are now being linked to autism by research.
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^ More recently, however, researchers have discovered evidence tying the compounds to lack of coordination, diminished IQ, and poor memory among children.
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Absolutely pure mercury does not at all adhere to any surface which does not consist of a metal soluble in mercury. .Hence the least quantity of it, when placed on a sheet of paper, forms a neatly rounded-off globule, which retains its form on being rolled about, and, when subtlivided, breaks up into a number of equally perfect globules, which tend to coalesce when sufficiently near to each other.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Gold poaching In Nambija, and many other gold camps, men break up gold-containing rock with dynamite, then carry the fragments in sacks to processing areas.
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^ ''I'm so ticked off about my grandson, and to think that the public-health people have been circling the wagons to cover up the facts!''
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The presence in it of the minutest trace of lead or tin causes it to " draw tails." A very impure metal may adhere even to glass, and in a glass vessel, instead of the normal convex, form an irregular flat meniscus.

Properties

.Pure mercury is a freely flowing liquid, which does not wet objects placed in it, and has a silvery white colour and perfect metallic lustre; in very thin layers it transmits a bluish-violet light.^ Fish were exposed to radioactive mercury, frozen, then cut into very thin slices.
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^ The magnification of light from the lamps in lighthouse takes place through giant arrangements of curved prisms and lenses which weigh several tons and which float in baths of liquid mercury.
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^ Mercury is a heavy metal that is very toxic even in small doses.
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It freezes at about - 39 0 C. (Mallet gives - 3 8.8 5 Hutchins,. - 39.44) with contraction, and the formation of a white, very ductile and malleable mass, easily cut with a knife, and exhibiting crystals belonging to the cubic system. .When heated the metal expands very uniformly, and vaporizes at about 360°; the volatility is generally increased by the presence of impurities; its high expansion and the wide range of temperature over which it is fluid render it especially valuable as a thermometric fluid (see Thermometry).^ The heat vaporizes the mercury, leaving a pot of pure gold worth about $100 to impoverished families.
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The vapour is colourless, and its density points to the conclusion that the molecules are monatomic. .Its specific gravity at o° is 13.5959, i.e. it is about half as heavy again as copper volume for volume, a quarter as heavy again as lead, and nearly twice as heavy as zinc; this property is turned to account in the construction of barometers and air-pumps.^ Emissions of some heavy metals such as zinc are down, and lead has been substantially reduced because of a switch from leaded to lead-free gasoline, the report said.
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Its specific heat is about 0.0333 (see Calorimetry); its electrical conductivity is involved in the definition of the ohm (see Electric conduction); and its thermal conductivity is about two thirds that of silver.
.Pure mercury remains unchanged in dry air, oxygen, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia and some other gases at ordinary temperatures; hence its application for collecting and measuring gases.^ In some cases, even 21 weeks later, the patients' mercury concentrations remained elevated well above the NAS guideline figures.
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^ The remaining 10% of the cases were related to mercury in Rhogam, a shot given to Rh-negative women, and to other sources of neurotoxicity.
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^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
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.In damp air it slowly becomes coated with a film of mercurous oxide; and when heated for some time in air or oxygen it becomes transformed into the red mercuric oxide, which decomposes into mercury and oxygen when heated to a higher temperature; this reaction is of great historical importance, since it led to the discovery of oxygen at the hands of Priestley and Scheele.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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^ Every time it rains, toxic mercury gushes from a mountain of spent ore and dumps into nearby Cache Creek.
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^ Often this transformation occurs in wetlands and reservoirs, he said, where low-oxygen conditions breed the kind of bacteria that turn raw mercury into its more dangerous cousin.
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The halogen elements and sulphur combine directly with the metal. Mercury is unattacked by dilute sulphuric acid; the strong acid, however, dissolves it ors heating with the formation of sulphur dioxide and mercurous or mercuric sulphate according as mercury is in excess or not. Hydrochloric acid has no action. .Dilute nitric acid readily attacks it, mercurous nitrate being formed in the cold with excess of mercury, mercuric nitrate with excess of acid, or with strong acid, in the warm.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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The metal dissolves in solutions containing chlorine or bromine, and consequently in aqua regia.
.Mercury readily dissolves many metals to form a class of compounds termed amalgams, which have considerable applications in the arts.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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.Compounds of Mercury. Mercury forms two well-defined series of salts - the mercurous salts derived from the oxide Hg 2 0, and the mercuric salts from the oxide HgO; the existence of these salts can hardly be inseparably connected with a variable valency, i.e. that mercury is monovalent in mercurous, and divalent in mercuric compounds, for according to Baker mercurous chloride or calomel (q.v.^ Within 41 weeks, all but two had reduced their blood mercury levels to below government-recommended thresholds, according to Hightower.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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^ Phenylmercury was formerly used in latex paint as a pesticide and preservative but has not been available since 1991.Absorption Due to being lipid soluble, organic mercury in its various forms is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract by ingestion.
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) has the formula Hg2Cl2.
.Mercurous Oxide, Hg 2 0, is an unstable dark-brown powder formed when caustic potash acts on calomel; it is decomposed by light or on trituration into mercury and mercuric oxide Mercuric oxide, HgO, occurs in two forms: it is obtained as a bright-red crystalline powder (also known as " red precipitate," or as mercurius praecipitatus per se) by heating the metal in air, or by calcining the nitrate, and as an orange-yellow powder by precipitating a solution of a mercuric salt with potash; the difference is probably one of subdivision.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Once emitted into the atmosphere, mercury knows no boundaries, and can move thousands of kilometres on air currents to other continents, where it is deposited in precipitation and then enters the aquatic food chain.
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^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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The yellow form is the most reactive and is transformed into the red when heated to 400°. .If the red oxide be heated it becomes black, regaining its colour on cooling, and on further heating to 630° it decomposes into mercury and oxygen.^ A Dominican santera "uses elemental mercury and red, yellow, and blue precipitados [mercury oxides] in secret Santeria rituals."
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^ Alpers and other USGS scientists are examining whether pumping oxygen into reservoirs would reduce the methylation of mercury.
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It is slightly soluble in water, to which it imparts an alkaline reaction and strongly metallic taste. A peroxide is obtained as a brown solid from mercury and slightly acid 30% hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures.
Mercurous and mercuric chlorides, known respectively as calomel (q.v.) and corrosive sublimate (q.v.), are two of the most important salts of mercury. Mercurous bromide, Hg 2 Br 2, is a yellowish-white powder, insoluble in water. Mercuric bromide, HgBr 2, forms white crystals, sparingly soluble in cold water, readily in hot, and prepared by the direct union of its components. Mercurous iodide, Hg 2 1 21 is a yellowish-green powder obtained by heating its components to about 250°, or by triturating them with a little alcohol; it is also obtained by precipitating a solution of mercurous nitrate with potassium iodide. It is blackened by exposure to light. Mercuric iodide, Hgl 2, exists in two crystalline forms. By mixing solutions of mercuric chloride and potassium iodide under a microscope, yellow rhombic plates are seen to be formed which are transformed very quickly into scarlet quadratic octahedra. On heating to about 126° the red form is transformed into the yellow modification; on cooling the reverse gradually occurs, and immediately if the yellow iodide be touched. Mercuric iodide is insoluble in water, but soluble in absolute alcohol; and also in potassium iodide solution, with the formation of K 2 HgI 4, which may be obtained in lemon-yellow crystals. A strongly alkaline solution of this salt is known as Nessler's reagent, and is specially used for determining traces of ammonia (see below). Mercuric iodide dissolves in other iodide solutions to form similar compounds; these solutions are characterized by their exceptionally high specific gravity, and hence are employed in density determinations (see Density). It also forms many other double salts. Oxidation with strong nitric acid gives the iodate, Hg(IOs)2. An iodide, Hg213, intermediate between mercurous and mercuric iodides, is obtained as a yellow insoluble powder by precipitating mercurous nitrate with a solution of iodine in potassium iodide. Mercurous fluoride, Hg 2 F 2, and mercuric fluoride, HgF 2, are unstable substances obtained from the corresponding oxide and hydrofluoric acid.
Mercurous Nitrate, Hg 2 (NO 3) 2.2H 2 O, is obtained as a white crystalline salt soluble in water by dissolving the metal in cold dilute nitric acid; if the metal be in excess a basic salt Hg 2 (NO 3) 2.2HG20.3H 2 0 is obtained. Several other basic salts are known. By adding ammonia to a solution of mercurous nitrate a black precipitate of variable composition, known in pharmacy as mercurius solubilis Hahnemanni, is obtained.

Mercuric Nitrate

By dissolving mercuric oxide in strong nitric acid there is obtained a thick liquid which will not crystallize, and which gives on the addition of strong nitric acid a white precipitate of 2Hg(N03)2. H 2 O. Water decomposes it to give basic salts of variable composition. By dissolving the oxide in dilute nitric acid, the basic salt Hg(N03)2. HgO. H 2 O, crystallizing in needles, is obtained.
Mercurous Sulphide, Hg 2 S, is an unstable black powder obtained by acting with sulphuretted hydrogen, diluted with carbon dioxide, on calomel at -10°. It decomposes into mercuric sulphide and mercury at 0°. .Mercuric sulphide, HgS, is one of the most important mercury compounds; it is the principal ore, occurring in nature as the mineral cinnabar (q.v.^ The most important step in the management of mercury poisoning is eliminating the source of exposure.
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^ Methylmercury is the most toxic, formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury found in the environment via human or natural sources (Goldman & Shannon, 2001).
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^ Mercury is a naturally occurring element that makes its way into the environment when oil- and coal-fired power plants burn those fossil fuels.
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), and is extensively used as a pigment, vermilion. .It is obtained as a black powder by triturating mercury with sulphur, the compound thus formed being known in pharmacy as Aethiops mineralis, and also by precipitating a mercuric salt with sulphuretted hydrogen.^ Methylmercury is the best known, because it is the predominant form of organic mercury found in the environment.
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^ MERCURY & ENDOCRINE SYSTEM NOTE: thimerosal = sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate = merthiolate Mercury compounds have long been known to be anti-thyroid agents.
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It is only slightly acted upon by nitric acid; it dissolves in aqua regia; chlorine gives a yellow compound, 2HgS. HgC1 2; and it dissolves in potassium sulphide solutions to form double salts of variable composition.
Mercurous Sulphate, Hg2S04, is a white, sparingly soluble, crystalline substance obtained by adding sodium sulphate to a solution of mercurous nitrate. Mercuric sulphate, HgSO 4, is a white, soluble salt obtained by dissolving mercury in hot strong sulphuric acid; on digestion with water, it decomposes into a basic salt HgSO 4.2HgO known as turbith or turpeth mineral, and into an acid salt, HgSO 4.2S03.
.Mercury Phosphide, Hg 3 P 2, is obtained as brilliant red, hexagonal crystals by heating mercury with phosphorus iodide to 300° and removing the mercuric iodide simultaneously formed by means of potassium iodide solution.^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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Mercurous phosphate, Hg 3 PO 4, and mercuric phosphate, Hg3(P04)2, are obtained as white precipitates by adding sodium phosphate to solutions of mercurous and mercuric nitrates respectively.

Mercurammonium Compounds

.By the action of ammonia and ammonium salts mercury compounds yield a number of substances, many of which have long been used in medicine.^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
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^ The substance is also contained in many skin-lightening creams as well as in some traditional medicines.
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^ A type of inorganic mercury known as calomel ("sweet mercury") was once commonly used to treat many ailments, including yellow fever, typhus and syphilis.
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By the action of dry ammonia on calomel mercuroso-ammonium chloride, NH 3 HgC1, is obtained; aqueous ammonia on calomel gives dimercuroso-ammonium chloride, NH 2 Hg 2 C1. By adding ammonia to a solution of mercuric chloride, mercurammonium chloride, known in pharmacy as " infusible white precipitate," NH2HgC1, is obtained; " fusible white precipitate " is mercuro-diammonium chloride, Hg(NH 3 C1) 2, and is obtained by adding a solution of mercuric chloride to hot solutions of ammonium chloride and ammonia so long as the precipitate first formed redissolves; the substance separates out on cooling. By precipitating a strongly alkaline solution of mercuric iodide in potassium iodide (Nessler's solution) there is obtained a yellow precipitate of NH 2 Hg 2 OI; this reaction is the most delicate test for ammonia, a yellow coloration being given by minute traces. By passing dry ammonia over precipitated mercuric oxide at 130°, a nitride N 2 Hg 3 is obtained. The oxide and ammonia solution gives the stable and basic mercurhydroxylamine, NHg 2 OH. The constitution of these compounds has been especially studied by K. A. Hofmann and E. C. Marburg (Zeit. Anorg. Chem. 23, p. 126); these chemists formulate " infusible precipitate " as Hg(NH 2)Cl, " fusible precipitate " as Hg(NH3C1)2 " Millon's base " as (HO. Hg) 2 :NH 2 OH, thus postulating three distinct types of compounds, (1) amidochlorides; (2) amines; (3) substituted ammonium derivatives.

Analysis

.Mercury compounds, when heated in a closed tube with sodium carbonate, yield a grey to black sublimate of metallic mercury, which readily unites to form visible globules.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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^ MERCURY & ENDOCRINE SYSTEM NOTE: thimerosal = sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate = merthiolate Mercury compounds have long been known to be anti-thyroid agents.
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The metal is precipitated from solutions by digestion with bright copper-foil, a coating being formed on the copper, which becomes silvery on rubbing, and disappears when the quicksilvered copper is heated in a sublimation tube.
Solutions of mercurous salts with hydrochloric acid give a white precipitate of calomel, which becomes jet-black on treatment with ammonia. Stannous chloride, in its twofold capacity as a chloride and a reducing agent, precipitates both mercurous and mercuric solutions, at first as calomel, and on addition of an excess of reagent the precipitate becomes grey through conversion into finely-divided quicksilver. Sulphuretted hydrogen, when added very gradually to an acid mercuric solution, gives at first an almost white precipitate, which, on addition of more and more reagent, assumes successively a yellow, orange and at last jet-black colour. The black precipitate is HgS, which is identified by its great heaviness, and by being insoluble in boiling nitric and in boiling hydrochloric acid. A mixture of the two (aqua regia) dissolves it as chloride.
." Mercurous " mercury is quantitatively estimated by precipitating as calomel and weighing the precipitate on a tared filter at 100°.^ Perhaps news finally filtered to the president's desk that the EPA's own scientists doubled the risk estimate of fetuses exposed to mercury.
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The metal may also be estimated by distillation in a closed tube with lime, the metal being collected and weighed, or by precipitating the solution with an excess of stannous chloride. More convenient is the method of precipitating as sulphide by an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, and weighing the precipitate on a tared filter; or by means of a Gooch crucible.
.Pharmacology and Therapeutics The use of mercury as a therapeutic agent is of comparatively recent date.^ They were compared with 15 infants seen at a clinic in Bethesda, Md., using mercury-free vaccines.
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^ The lawsuits claim the drug companies should have known of the neurotoxic effects of the mercury contained in Thimerosal, which had been used as a preservative and anti-biological agent since the 1930s.
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^ Organic mercury has recently received attention because of the accumulation of methylmercury in some predatory fish and the use of thimerosal as a preservative in some vaccines.
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To the Greeks and Romans its value was unknown, and the Arabian physicians only used it for skin affections. .It was not till the middle of the 16th century that the special properties of mercury were fully appreciated, but since that time the metal has continued to hold a high though fluctuating value as a medicine.^ None of the other five species tested averaged high enough levels of mercury for an advisory, though some individual ducks were above the recommended levels.
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^ Many popular fish species contain high levels of mercury.
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^ Mercury is: * 1,000 times more toxic than Lead, and ranking second behind radioactive uranium is the second most toxic metal.
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.At first the metal in a finely divided state or in vapour was used; but very soon its various compounds were found to be endowed with powers even greater than those of the metal itself, and with the discovery of new compounds the number of mercurial medicines has largely increased.^ Mercury vapour is a very poisonous substance, the symptoms of mercury poisoning being madness.
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^ Both studies followed up on a 1995 Finnish study that found an increased risk of heart disease in people whose hair had high mercury levels.
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^ She no longer uses any asthma medicine, and she reports much higher energy levels and an increased attention span.
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.The British Pharmacopeia contains some twenty-five mercurial preparations, including those of calomel (q.v.^ The law was the first in the nation to require labels on products containing mercury, including thermostats, switches, thermometers and fluorescent light bulbs.
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^ Make illegal the sales of mercury-containing novelty items such as games, toys, ornaments and jewelry, thermometers (with some exceptions), and thermostats.
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^ A type of inorganic mercury known as calomel ("sweet mercury") was once commonly used to treat many ailments, including yellow fever, typhus and syphilis.
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). Only the useful preparations will be mentioned here. .Free mercury is contained in Hydrargyrum cum Creta, or " grey powder," which consists of one part of mercury to two of prepared chalk.^ "One mercury thermometer contains about one gram of mercury," said Collins, "enough mercury to contaminate all the fish in a 20-acre (8 hectare) lake."
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^ Some immigrants to the United States from Caribbean countries, such as Haiti, scatter mercury powder around their homes as part of religious rituals.
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^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
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.The power of this valuable and widely used preparation varies somewhat with its age, as old specimens contain some mercuric oxide, which makes them more active.^ Make illegal the sales of mercury-containing novelty items such as games, toys, ornaments and jewelry, thermometers (with some exceptions), and thermostats.
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^ This data provides a breakdown on the total number of children in each age group from 6 to 22 years old in U.S. Public Schools that have various childhood disorders.
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^ Some shellfish also fall in that category, with lobster containing more mercury than crab.
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The dose is 1-5 gr., and the preparation is usually employed for children. .The Pilula Hydrargyri, or " blue pill," contains one part of mercury in three, and the dose is 4-8 gr.^ "One mercury thermometer contains about one gram of mercury," said Collins, "enough mercury to contaminate all the fish in a 20-acre (8 hectare) lake."
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^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
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^ A study of 300 children conducted by Dr. Mark R. Geier evaluated the doses of mercury that children received from thimerosal-containing vaccine, as part of the routine U.S. childhood immunization schedule.
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It is usually employed for adults. .There are also five preparations of free mercury for external use.^ The committee report also suggests there is inadequate research regarding ethylmercury neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, and the relationship between autism and the use of mercury-containing vaccines.
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^ "There are alternatives for mercury uses, but there is no alternative to global cooperation."
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^ They were compared with 15 infants seen at a clinic in Bethesda, Md., using mercury-free vaccines.
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.Of these the most useful is the Unguentum Hydrargyri, " or blue ointment," which contains one part of mercury in two.^ "One mercury thermometer contains about one gram of mercury," said Collins, "enough mercury to contaminate all the fish in a 20-acre (8 hectare) lake."
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^ ''In most vaccine containers, thimerosal is listed as a mercury derivative, a hundredth of a percent.
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^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
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.Weaker ointments are also prepared from the red and the yellow forms of mercuric oxide.^ A Dominican santera "uses elemental mercury and red, yellow, and blue precipitados [mercury oxides] in secret Santeria rituals."
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.The perchloride of mercury or corrosive sublimate is therapeutically the most important salt of mercury.^ The most important step in the management of mercury poisoning is eliminating the source of exposure.
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The dose is s l y1 1 6 gr. It is incompatible with alkalies, alkaline carbonates, potassium iodide, albumen and many other substances, and should therefore be prescribed alone. It is decomposed by impure water, and distilled water is therefore used in making the Liquor Hydrargyri Perchloridi, in which form it is usually prescribed. This contains half a grain of the perchloride to the fluid ounce and its dose is 30-60 minims. The perchloride is also compounded with lime-water to form the Lotio Hydrargyri Flava, or " yellow wash," which contains two grains of the salt to the fluid ounce. Mercuric iodide is an equally potent salt and has come into wide use of late years. It has the same dose as the perchloride and is largely prescribed in the Liquor Arsenii et Hydrargyri lodidi, or Donovan's solution, which contains i % of arsenious iodide and I % of mercuric iodide, the dose being 5-20 minims. An ointment widely used is prepared from the mercurammonium chloride (Unguentum Hydrargyri ammoniatum) of which it contains one part in ten. It is known as " white precipitate ointment." .In discussing the pharmacology of mercury and its compounds, it is of the first importance to observe that metallic mercury is inert as such, and that the same may practically be said of mercurous salts generally.^ In general, organic mercury compounds are lipid soluble, and 90% to 100% is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
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^ Researchers say they have found the first evidence that mercury can circumvent the blood-brain barrier that usually prevents such toxins from entering the brain.
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^ He also said the investigation has revealed - so far - no explanation for the presence of a metal such as mercury in the food.
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.Both mercury itself and mercurous salts tend to be converted in the body into mercuric salts, to which the action is due.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
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^ Mercury falls into waterways and is converted into methylmercury.
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^ Natural processes in lakes and rivers convert mercury into methylmercury.
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.When metallic mercury is triturated or exposed to air it is partly oxidized, the first stage of its transformation to an active condition being thus reached.^ In the first days after the mercury was stolen, school officials and police played down the criminal aspect of the incident while they tried to identify all the students exposed.
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^ First Coast News has learned that nineteen other families claim their children were also exposed to high levels of mercury.
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.Metallic mercury can be absorbed by the skin, passing in minute globules through the ducts of the sweat-glands.^ Mercury, a highly toxic heavy metal, is particularly dangerous for infants and children, and it can be passed from pregnant women to their fetuses.
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^ Mercury is a potent toxin -- long-lasting, readily spread through droplets and evaporation, and easily absorbed through the lungs.
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^ Mercury is a highly toxic metal, has been documented to be a cause of cancer, and can be absorbed through the digestive track, skin, and respiratory system.
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.The mercury contained in " blue ointment " is certainly thus absorbed, actually circulating in the blood in a very different form, as described below.^ 'The key factor in the revised estimates is research showing differences in mercury levels in the blood of pregnant women and their unborn children.
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^ Thimerosal critics cite tests for methyl mercury, a different form of mercury proven to have a toxic effect on humans, as evidence against thimerosal.
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^ And although the thimerosal levels in vaccines exceeded the E.P.A.'s guidelines for methyl mercury, thimerosal contained ethyl mercury, a compound that behaves somewhat differently in the body.
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There is no local action on the skin. .The mercuric salts, and especially the chloride and iodide, are probably the most powerful of all known antiseptics.^ The best known affair of them all was also his most unsuccessful.

.One part of the perchloride in 500,000 will prevent the growth of anthrax bacilli, and one part in 2000 - the strength commonly employed in surgery - kills all known bacteria.^ Pediatrician Dr. Stephanie Dewar says, 'It's in there to prevent the growth of bacteria in those vaccines to keep kids safe.'
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^ All but one of the infants in the group exposed to thimerosal had bloodlevels of 1 to 3 parts per billion; the one exception went to 4.1.
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.The action is apparently specific and not due to the fact that perchloride of mercury precipitates albumen, including the albuminous bodies of bacteria, for the iodide is still more powerful as a germicide, though it does not coagulate albumen.^ Ten other states, including California and Oregon, have more-limited laws rest restricting mercury use and disposal.
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^ He reported: A Colombian santera "lamented the fact that it's now more difficult to sell mercury ...
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^ The international body said millions of children may already be suffering ailments -- ranging from learning difficulties to impaired nervous systems -- due to dietary mercury.
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These salts cannot be employed for sterilizing metallic instruments, which they tarnish. .As these drugs are essentially poisons they must be used with the greatest care in surgical practice, and as they are particularly deleterious to the secreting structure of the kidney they must not be employed as antiseptics in diseases where renal inflammation is already present or probable.^ WASHINGTON, May 12 /PRNewswire/ -- The Federal Drug and Food Administration and Centers for Disease Control both get a big "F" in protecting children from the hazards of mercury poisoning.
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^ 'If you were to look at the symptoms of someone with mercury poisoning and the characteristics of an autistic child, they're practically identical.'
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^ Then-EPA Administrator Carol Browner noted, "The greatest source of mercury emissions is power plants, and they have never been required to control these emissions before now."
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They are therefore contra-indicated for application to the throat in scarlet-fever or to the uterus in eclampsia. .The stronger mercurial ointments kill cutaneous parasites and also possess some degree of antipruritic action, especially when the cause of the itching is somewhat obscure.^ Some 33 percent of shark tissue studied by the FDA was found to exceed the action level for mercury, as was 4 percent of tuna.
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^ At temperatures below 38 degrees some forms of aluminum crystallize and in animals have been found to cause selling reactions and sarcomas.
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Mercuric salts, when in strong solution, are caustic. .It is important to observe that the volatility of metallic mercury and many of its compounds causes their absorption by the lungs even when no such effect is intended to follow their external application.^ No study has proved that thimerosal causes any ill effects, but at the urging of federal health officials, vaccine makers began eliminating it in mid-1999.
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^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
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^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
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.This fact explains the occurrence of chronic mercurial poisoning in certain trades.^ With the help of Fernando Ortega, from the Universidad de San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador, Counter explained how mercury was poisoning them.
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^ Mercury poisoning has a huge array of symptoms including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, breathing problems, skin problems, autism, alzheimers, and many more.
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.Single doses of mercury or its compounds have no action upon the mouth, the characteristic salivation being produced only after many doses.^ At high doses, both sexes are affected equally; at low doses only males are affected (38,40,127) DISCUSSION We have shown that every major characteristic of autism has been exhibited in at least several cases of documented mercury poisoning.
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^ "No single country can resolve the mercury problem on its own," said Michael Bender, director of the Mercury Policy Project, an organization working to focus attention on the problem.
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^ There is no question that high doses of mercury can be extremely toxic, even fatal.
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.Their typical action on the bowel is purgative, the effect varying with the state of the mercury.^ Past studies have shown that mercury's effects vary tremendously from person to person, presumably because of genetic differences in the body's capacity to protect delicate organs from it.
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^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
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.So relatively inert is metallic mercury that a pound of it has been given without ill effects in cases of intestinal obstruction, which it was hoped to relieve by the mere weight of the metal.^ The remaining 10% of the cases were related to mercury in Rhogam, a shot given to Rh-negative women, and to other sources of neurotoxicity.
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^ All three of these vaccines contain relatively large amounts of thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl-mercury by weight.
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^ The FDA has been studying the effects of mercury in fish tissue for 10 years without reaching any conclusions.
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Half a grain of the perchloride, on the other hand, is a highly toxic dose. .The action of mercurials on the bowel is mostly exerted on the duodenum and jejunum, though the lower part of the bowel is slightly affected.^ When the mothers had 59 or more parts per billion of mercury in their blood while pregnant, their children scored lower on intelligence tests several years later.
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Hence a dose of mercury usually needs a saline aperient to complete its action, as in the " blue pill and black draught " of former days. .Mercurials do not cause, in therapeutic doses, much increase in the intestinal secretion, the action being mainly exerted on the muscular wall of the bowel.^ In adults, mercury may increase the risk of heart attack and infertility and cause memory and concentration problems.
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^ Too much mercury can cause health problems for anyone.
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^ The vaccine contains 49% mercury, a chemical that can cause neurological disorders in high doses.
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The bile is rapidly removed from the duodenum, before any re-absorption can occur, and the bacterial action which decomposes the bile-pigment is arrested by the antiseptic power of the drug, so that the excreta are of a very dark colour. The classical experiments of William Rutherford (1839-1899), of Edinburgh, showed that calomel does not increase the amount of bile formed by the liver. Corrosive sublimate does, however, stimulate the liver to a slight degree. The value of calomel in hepatic torpor is as an excretory, not a secretory, cholagogue, the gall-bladder being stimulated to expel its stagnant contents. In large doses mercurials somewhat diminish the secretion of bile. The greater part of the mercury administered by the mouth, in whatever form, is excreted as mercuric sulphide. .Prior to this decomposition the mercury exists as a complex soluble compound with sodium, chlorine and albumen.^ In general, organic mercury compounds are lipid soluble, and 90% to 100% is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
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^ MERCURY & ENDOCRINE SYSTEM NOTE: thimerosal = sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate = merthiolate Mercury compounds have long been known to be anti-thyroid agents.
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.When perchloride of mercury is injected subcutaneously the sodium chloride in the blood similarly prevents the precipitation of the albuminate of mercury, and it is therefore desirable to add a little sodium chloride to the solution for injection of mercuric chloride.^ Researchers say they have found the first evidence that mercury can circumvent the blood-brain barrier that usually prevents such toxins from entering the brain.
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.Some observers assert that mercury is a haematinic, increasing, like iron, the amount of haemoglobin in the blood.^ Some of the federal safety guidelines on mercury were relaxed in the 90's, even as the amount of mercury that children received in vaccines increased.
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^ Some hospitals and doctors' offices are replacing blood pressure gauges that contain mercury, and at least one state, Connecticut, is phasing in a ban on mercury thermometers.
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^ However, they noted, the substantial DHA concentrations measured in some subpopulations of the participants would suggest their mercury likely derived from consumption of marine fish.
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Whilst this is doubtful it is certain that large doses, when continued, produce marked anaemia. The excretion of the drug is accomplished by all the secreting glands, including the breasts, if these are functioning. .All the secretions of the body, except that of the peptic glands of the stomach, are stimulated, but the excretion of mercury is slow, and it is typically one of the drugs that are cumulative, like arsenic and digitalis.^ "One mercury thermometer contains about one gram of mercury," said Collins, "enough mercury to contaminate all the fish in a 20-acre (8 hectare) lake."
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^ And though follow-up blood tests showed that their bodies indeed began shedding mercury, the drop was slow.
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^ Children intoxicated by mercury shake and grab themselves like Mad Hatters in a mountain settlement known as the place that no one can find.
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.Mercury is largely used in affections of the alimentary canal, and has an obscure but unquestionable value in many cases of heartdisease and arterial degeneration.^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
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^ A type of inorganic mercury known as calomel ("sweet mercury") was once commonly used to treat many ailments, including yellow fever, typhus and syphilis.
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^ A small group of doctors in the United States worries that mercury, used as a preservative in children's vaccines, may underlie the alarming increase in cases of autism in this country.
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.But its value in syphilis (see Venereal Diseases) far outweighs all its other uses.^ Cotinine is a compound left behind after the body breaks down cigarette smoke and is used as an indicator of exposure to a host of other cigarette ingredients that can cause cancer and other diseases.
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Toxicology

.Acute poisoning by mercurials usually occurs in the case of corrosive sublimate.^ In the medical literature, most cases of acute mercury poisoning result from doses hundreds or thousands of times higher than what infants received with thimerosal-laden vaccines.
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^ The peeling of the skin on the extremities seen in cases of Kawasaki disease often occurs 13 weeks after presentation, as opposed to occurring concurrently with the rash and other findings in cases of mercury poisoning.
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^ Unusual epileptiform activity has been found in a number of mercury poisoning cases (18,27,34,86-88).
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There is intense gastro-intestinal inflammation, with vomiting, frequent " rice-water " stools and extreme collapse. .The treatment, except when the case is seen at once, is very difficult, but white-of-egg or other form of albumen is the antidote, forming an insoluble compound with the perchloride.^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
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^ Our hope is she picked it up over a very long time, but we will keep looking to see if there are any other (cases).
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.Chronic poisoning (hydrargyrism or mercurialism) is of great importance, since any indication of its symptoms must be closely watched for in patients who are under mercurial treatment.^ Even so, local physicians were alerted to watch for symptoms of mercury poisoning.
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^ 'If you were to look at the symptoms of someone with mercury poisoning and the characteristics of an autistic child, they're practically identical.'
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^ Indeed, nerves in biopsy samples from patients who have chronic pain show similar repetitive firing.
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Usually the first symptom is slight tenderness of the teeth whilst eating, and some foetor of the breath. .These symptoms become more marked and the gums become the seat of severe inflammation, being spongy, vascular and prone to bleed.^ These indices of thyroid function were more marked in those animals ingesting lead acetate.
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^ Hera had reluctantly become resigned to Dionysus being one of them, but was more accepting of her stepson later, when she was in trouble.

^ She then convinced 113 of these fish eaters-several of whom also showed symptoms indicative of possible mercury poisoning-to get tested for the metal.
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The salivary glands are swollen and tender, and the saliva pours from the mouth, and may amount to pints in the course of a day. The teeth become quite loose and may fall out. The symptoms are aggravated until the tongue and mouth ulcerate, the jaw-bone necroses, haemorrhages occur in various parts of the body, and the patient dies of anaemia, septic inflammation or exhaustion. The treatment consists, besides stopping the intake of poison and relieving the symptoms, in the administration of potassium iodide in small, often repeated doses.
Bibliography. - For the history of mercury see B. Neumann, Die Metalle (1904); A. Rossing, Geschichte der Metalle (1901). The general chemistry is treated in detail in O. Dammer, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, and H. Moissan, Traite de chimie minerale. For the metallurgy reference may be made to Carl Schnabel, Handbook of Metallurgy, vol. ii. (1906), translated by H. Louis.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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See also mercury

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Mercury
.
  1. The Roman god associated with speed, sometimes used as a messenger.^ Incidentally, the Roman god associated with lead was Saturn, who devoured his own children.
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    He wore winged sandals. Mercury corresponded to the Greek god Hermes.
  2. (astronomy) The planet in the solar system with the closest orbit to the Sun, named after the god; represented by .

Translations

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to General Astronomy/Mercury article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< General Astronomy

Contents

Visibility

Next Greatest Elongation, WEST: 2006 November 25
Next Greatest Elongation, EAST: 2006 October 17
Next transit of Mercury will begin at 19h:12m Universal Time on 8 November 2006.
Followed by that of 9 May 2016.

.In Roman and Greek mythology, the planet Mercury played an important role in the religious life of many ancient civilizations.^ In cellular immunity, cells play the most important role in destroying foreign invaders.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Euphemus played an important role in the Clashing Rocks episode and later on when their ship was stranded in Libya .

^ Monokines and lymphokines secreted by macrophages and CD4+ helper cells, respectively, play an important role in directing and augmenting both cellular and humoral immune responses.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Roman religion, Mercury was god of commerce and messenger of the gods, identified with the Greek Hermes.^ He was identified as the Roman god, Mercury .

^ Hermes was the patron god of heralds and messengers.

^ Hermes had many skills and attributes, but his primary duty was to act as a messenger or herald for the gods.

.He was honoured at the Mercuralia, a festival held in May and attended primarily by traders and merchants.^ In Rome, where he was honoured by his names as Liber or Bacchus, his festival was held on March 17.

^ A festival of reconciliation was held in honour of Hera, at Plataea, every seven years.

^ Each year, the festival Hyacinthia was held in honour of both Hyacinthus and Apollo at Amyclas.

.Mercury is the closest planet to our sun lying at a mean distance of 57.909 million km and has a equatorial radius of 2,439 km, so that not only is Mercury slightly more than 1,367.6 km larger than the moon, it also looks very similar because the planet is covered with impact craters.^ More than 0.5 parts per million of mercury in eggs is considered sufficient to prevent hatching.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the EPA concluded in 1996, for example, that more than 6 million Americans were at risk of mercury poisoning, industry lobbyists persuaded the agency not to make the report public for more than a year.
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^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
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.The other unique attribute of Mercury is that the planet is almost entirely spherical since the planet’s polar diameter is the about the same as its equatorial diameter.^ Since 1990, the patient had been using "Creme de Belleza-Manning" daily on her face, hands, and chest and had no other known exposures to mercury.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Maybe Dictynna is just another name for Artemis, since they almost have identical attributes.

^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The planet is inclined on its axis at a mere 0.01º which is the lowest of all the planets in our solar system. .Mercury is upright in its orbital path around the sun which takes only 87.968 days (115.88 Synodic days) to complete, as the planet rushes through space at 47.87 km/s.^ NASA announced that the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) manned orbital flight would be delayed several days due to checkout problems with the Atlas launch vehicle.

^ Key personnel operational assignments for the Mercury-Atlas 4 (MA-4) unmanned orbital mission were made by the Space Task Group.

^ November 13 - Cooper named for Mercury MA-9 1-day orbital mission.

The orbital inclination of Mercury is 7º. If it were possible to visit Mercury, the pole star would be the tenth magnitude star TYCHO 4215-996-1 in the northern constellation of Draco, the dragon.
.The first attempts by amateur astronomers to measure the length of the planet’s solar day by observing and mapping surface markings, were quite wide of the mark; furthermore, only true measurements made by earthbound radar and spacecraft visiting Mercury, found the true figure to be 4,222.6 hours.^ Especially relevant to manned space flight were its measurements of solar radiation in high frequency ranges, of cosmic dust effects, and of the thermal properties of spacecraft surface materials.

^ In addition, procurement of the test spacecraft incorporating Mercury flight items was on schedule, and the first spacecraft had been instrumented by Space Task Group personnel.

^ Researchers say they have found the first evidence that mercury can circumvent the blood-brain barrier that usually prevents such toxins from entering the brain.
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.Therefore Mercury’s solar day is almost 176 earth days in length, and about twice as long as the planet’s year.^ Four year old Alex Maher has come a long way since he was diagnosed with autism about three years ago.
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^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
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^ By contrast, its mercury load is generally about twice the concentration typical of crab or canned tuna.
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.Mercury rotates on its axis three times while it circles the Sun twice in synchronous rotation.^ Of that group, 63 people had blood mercury levels more than twice the recommended level and 19 showed blood mercury levels four times the level considered safe.
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The planet's sidereal day - the time it takes to rotate on its axis - is 1,407.6 hours, or 58.785 earth days, in length.
.Prehistoric man probably saw Mercury; the first recorded observation was by Timocharis in 265 BC. The early Greeks believed that the east and west elongations of Mercury represented two separate objects which they called Hermes (evening star) and Apollo (morning star).^ By the ancient Greeks, Apollon, When visible in the morning sky and, Hermes, When visible in the evening, But Greek astronomers knew that, The two names referred to the, Same body, Beyond all, Case is limiting case, In which a class of object changes, Its nature, So as to belong to another, Further, Gold and silver.
  • Temple of Hermes's Dreambook 10 January 2010 8:08 UTC books.dreambook.com [Source type: General]

^ In the first days after the mercury was stolen, school officials and police played down the criminal aspect of the incident while they tried to identify all the students exposed.
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^ Researchers say they have found the first evidence that mercury can circumvent the blood-brain barrier that usually prevents such toxins from entering the brain.
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.When later the Greeks recognized that Mercury was one object, they designated it Hermes, the messenger of the gods, and god of twilight and dawn who announced the rising of Zeus.^ Hermes was the patron god of heralds and messengers.

^ The third Dionysus is the commonly known wine god with the name Bacchus, who was the son of Zeus and Semele , a Theban princess and daughter of Cadmus.

^ Recognizing the hazard and rising abatement costs for spills, the American Hospital Association and its members are taking steps to phase out all mercury products.
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.The ancient Egyptians however, first discovered that Mercury (called by them Sabkou) orbited the Sun.^ This was the first Mercury spacecraft to attain an earth orbit.

.To the Teutonic people Mercury was known as Woden, and our anglicized version of the midweek day Wednesday is derived from the original Woden's Day.^ We need to ensure safety of the people as a top priory, and the truth IS that they knew there were problems with the mercury and aluminum contained in our vaccines.
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^ People familiar with the final report, originally due last May, told the newspaper the study finds that mercury poses a serious health problem for children.
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The present name Mercury is derived directly from the Latin name Mercurius, which is the Roman designation for the Greek name Hermes.
.Because Mercury and its neighbour the planet Venus are inferior planets - that is, they lie inside earth’s orbit - they are both able to display phases like our Moon, as they travel around the sun.^ We need to ensure safety of the people as a top priory, and the truth IS that they knew there were problems with the mercury and aluminum contained in our vaccines.
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^ All of us alive will have to bear its effects both in the lifetime care of the damaged children and the loss of what they otherwise might have contributed to our society.
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^ Because the vaccine contains thimerosal, "It has to go to our Clean Sweep site, along with other mercury-containing items."
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The Italian astronomer Zupus first observed the phases of Mercury in 1639. Hevelius later observed them independently in 1644.
.Another phenomenon associated with Mercury and Venus is a planetary transit, which takes place when Mercury (or Venus) passes between the Earth and the Sun.^ Recognizing the hazard and rising abatement costs for spills, the American Hospital Association and its members are taking steps to phase out all mercury products.
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^ NASA announced that first Mercury-Scout launch to verify the readiness of the worldwide Mercury tracking network would take place at Atlantic Missile Range.

On such rare occasions, the inferior planet may be seen as a small black disk passing slowly across the Sun’s brilliant surface in transit. The transit of Mercury was first predicted by Kepler in 1630 and was observed by Gassendi.
.The first recorded observations of the surface markings were by Schroter and Harding in 1800. In the same year, Schroter incorrectly measured a rotation period of 24 hours with a rotation axis inclined 70° to the orbital plane.^ Six drops were made, but later (April 24-28, 1961) the tests were extended for two additional drops to monitor hard-surface landing effects.

^ That means in a 24-hour period, they can do their job 2,880,000,000 times.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first case of autism was diagnosed four years after - a condition never before recorded in medical science.
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Another incorrect rotation period of 88 days determined by Schiaparelli 80 years later was not corrected until the advent of recent radar observations, which in turn were confirmed by measurements made by the first Mercury space craft visitor Mariner 10.
.It had been thought that the planet Mercury had no atmosphere whatsoever because of its low escape velocity of 4.3 km/s and its close proximity to the Sun, since the rapid movement of any atmospheric atoms would be greater than its escape velocity.^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
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^ In a meeting at Langley, NASA officials concluded that the tower configuration was the best escape system for the Mercury spacecraft and development would proceed using this concept.

^ Since 1990, the patient had been using "Creme de Belleza-Manning" daily on her face, hands, and chest and had no other known exposures to mercury.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, visiting spacecraft, in particular Mariner 10, did detect a tenuous atmosphere - or "exosphere" - with a total mass of less than 1,000 kilograms.^ The resulting design was less than a third of the weight of the Russian Vostok spacecraft, and more limited as a result.

^ An analysis of leachate from the landfill last September showed mercury at less-than-detectable levels.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I used to order 10 or 12 dozen [vials], and it would be gone in less than two or three months."
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It has a measured composition of: 42% oxygen (O2), 29% sodium (Na), 22% hydrogen (H2), 6% helium (He) and 0.5% potassium (K). .There were also very low traces of water, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, despite the average surface temperature of Mercury being 169 degrees Celsius.^ The fish have very low mercury concentrations, but pilot whale meat has a mean content of methylmercury of 1.9 ppm.
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^ Mercury vapour is a very poisonous substance, the symptoms of mercury poisoning being madness.
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^ Upon taking office, the Bush Administration signaled that it might reverse campaign promises about power plant carbon dioxide and mercury emissions.
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However, the atmosphere is still essentially a vacuum in every sense of the word.
.Although Mercury is remarkably similar to the Moon, it is different from it in many respects.^ And although the thimerosal levels in vaccines exceeded the E.P.A.'s guidelines for methyl mercury, thimerosal contained ethyl mercury, a compound that behaves somewhat differently in the body.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury has many industrial applications, although safer alternatives exist.
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This was unexpected, based on observations from Earth prior the Mariner 10 mission. .On the one hand it was known that Mercury reflects sunlight and radar waves in the same manner, as does the Moon.^ Since 1990, the patient had been using "Creme de Belleza-Manning" daily on her face, hands, and chest and had no other known exposures to mercury.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children intoxicated by mercury shake and grab themselves like Mad Hatters in a mountain settlement known as the place that no one can find.
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This similarity combined with the probable absence of any appreciable atmosphere suggested a cratered surface and a lunar-like regolith of pulverized rock mantling the surface of the planet as the result of meteoritic bombardment. .On the other hand, the bulk density of the planet was known to be almost the same as that of Earth and about 60 percent greater than that of the Moon, implying that Mercury was a body greatly enriched in the heavy elements and, like Earth, perhaps having an iron-rich core.^ The tests showed that of 116 patients who had their blood tested, 89 percent showed mercury levels greater than the 5 parts per million recognized as safe by the National Academy of Sciences.
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^ A reasonable conclusion of greatly increased mercury exposure to developing fetuses, newborns and young infants being responsible for the obvious autism epidemic" is almost inescapable.
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^ Each and every atom of mercury is able to disable an enzyme or other critical protein in your body.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

.The surface of Mercury, like that of the Moon, was found to be pockmarked with impact craters.^ In February 2003, the UN Governing Council found that there were sufficient adverse impacts from global mercury pollution to warrant international action.
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.However, not expected was the discovery that Mercury, unlike the Moon, has a weak but nevertheless Earth-like magnetic field whose origin is undoubtedly related to a large iron-rich core.^ However, they noted, the substantial DHA concentrations measured in some subpopulations of the participants would suggest their mercury likely derived from consumption of marine fish.
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Paradoxically, Mercury has a Moon-like exterior and an Earth-like interior.
Craters and basins dominate the illuminated surface observed by Mariner 10 as it first approached Mercury. .This region of Mercury shows a heavily cratered surface that at first glance could be mistaken for the lunar highlands.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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^ "We have laboratory evidence of what mercury poisoning does to gold miners," he says, "but this is the first time we have been able to show from tests in the field what is happening to their children and wives."
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.In marked contrast to this view of Mercury, the surface photographed after the flyby, as the spacecraft receded from Mercury, exhibited features totally different from those shown on the incoming views, including large basins and extensive relatively smooth areas with few craters.^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
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^ As a complement to the Mercury spacecraft reliability program, a decision was made that one production spacecraft would be withdrawn from the operational program for extensive testing.

^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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.The smooth surfaces are clearly younger than the heavily cratered ground seen in the incoming views of Mercury.^ Children younger than 12, women who are pregnant or plan to be, and nursing mothers are most at risk from mercury exposure.
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The most striking feature in this region of the planet is a huge circular basin, 1300 km in diameter that was undoubtedly produced from a tremendous impact comparable to the event that formed the Imbrium basin on the Moon. .This prominent Mercurial feature, named Caloris Planitia - or Caloris Basin - is filled with material forming a smooth surface or plain that appears similar in many respects to the lunar Maria.^ This is because DMPS may appear in the saliva and act to dissolve the surface of the existing amalgam fillings.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mercury, much like the Moon, can thus present two totally different faces; one is a heavily cratered surface like the highlands on the backside of the Moon, and the second shows a region of large basins filled with smooth plains similar to the front side of the Moon.^ Recaptured amalgam can be shipped to groups like Dental Recycling North America, which recovers 90 to 95 percent of the mercury in the fillings.
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^ Patch-clamp techniques showed no differences in the intrinsic properties of the KATP channels between the two groups.
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^ Children intoxicated by mercury shake and grab themselves like Mad Hatters in a mountain settlement known as the place that no one can find.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both the heavily cratered regions of Mercury and the craters themselves, however, differ from their lunar counterparts.
.Mercury's heavily cratered surfaces exhibit relatively smooth areas or plains between the craters and basins, whereas the lunar highlands display closely packed and overlapping craters.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GBPSR (2001) found a significant correlation between impairment in the areas of language, attention and memory with prenatal mercury exposure.
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^ On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many cases, these "intercrater" plains appear to predate that time when most of the large Mercurial craters were formed.^ As with many chronic disorders, most cases of autism appear to be caused by some genetic predisposition coupled with some early environmental insult.
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^ The good news is this school appears safe again; the bad news: Hg spills occur many times a year in schools and colleges across the country.
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^ There are fossil-burning facilities throughout the U.S. that are not producing these large quantities of mercury in the atmosphere, he said.
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.The lunar and Mercurial heavily cratered surfaces are probably different because the force of gravity on Mercury is twice that on the Moon.^ Past studies have shown that mercury's effects vary tremendously from person to person, presumably because of genetic differences in the body's capacity to protect delicate organs from it.
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.The ballistic range of material ejected from a primary crater on Mercury is less than that on the Moon and, consequently, covers, depending on the ejection velocity, an area from a fifth to a twentieth smaller for craters of the same size.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
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^ He says this form of mercury is chemically nearly the same and possibly more dangerous than ordinary mercury.
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^ Consumption of fish is the primary route of exposure to organic mercury for children older than 1 year.
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.As a result, ejecta deposits and secondary craters on Mercury are confined more closely around the primary crater than on the Moon; thus, the early cratering record stored in the surface features of Mercury may be better preserved than on the Moon.^ Is it better diagnosis or is it more mercury early in life?
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^ More than 0.5 parts per million of mercury in eggs is considered sufficient to prevent hatching.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the early Roman accounts, Mars was known more as a god of agriculture than that of war.

.Ejecta-forming secondary craters from the most recent large basin events on the Moon have been superposed on the earlier record of primary craters, increasing the density of craters and obliterating the earlier activity.^ Most vaccine makers no longer use the preservative, and there is no proof that it is tied to recently documented increases in autism.
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The difference in the gravity fields is also probably responsible for the variation in the geometry of craters of the same size on the two bodies. In both cases, the smallest craters are bowl-shaped and with increasing size exhibit central peaks and develop terraces on their inner walls.
At the larger sizes, the central peaks become complex structures and undergo a transition into an inner mountain ring that is concentric with the crater rim.
.Although this progressive change in crater geometry is the same on both the Moon and Mercury, the change from one type to another occurs with smaller diameters on Mercury and apparently reflects gravitationally induced modifications to the original excavation crater.^ Hu H., Moller G., Abedi-Valugerdi M. Mechanism of mercury-induced autoimmunity: both T helper 1- and T helper 2-type responses are involved.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ''If antivaccinationists did not have mercury, they would have another issue,'' he said at one meeting.
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^ Although rash, oral mucosa and extremity changes are features of both Kawasaki disease and mercury toxicity, patients with the latter do not have a fever.
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.An additional important difference between the heavily cratered surfaces of Mercury and the Moon are the lobate scarps or cliffs that are several kilometres high and extend for hundreds of kilometres across the Mercurial surface.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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^ Lawsuits have been filed by parents across the country who are convinced that their children suffered severe neurological damage from the mercury in the vaccines.
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The scarp named Discovery is one of the best examples of this feature. Its shape and transection relationships suggest that scarps are thrust faults resulting from compressive stresses, perhaps due to cooling and shrinkage of the iron-rich core, and causing crustal shortening on a global scale.
.Regardless of the mechanism for forming these escarpments, their presence in the large, well preserved craters establishes an approximate relative time scale for their age and eliminates the possibility that planet-wide melting or Earth-like movement of crustal plates has taken place since the heavily cratered ground was created.^ Phenylmercury was formerly used in latex paint as a pesticide and preservative but has not been available since 1991.Absorption Due to being lipid soluble, organic mercury in its various forms is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract by ingestion.
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^ All three of these vaccines contain relatively large amounts of thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl-mercury by weight.
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.The extensive areas of smooth surfaces or plains on Mercury have been classified into three types.^ The mercury bill was signed into law by Governor George E. Pataki at a press conference in White Plains today.
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^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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^ On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas.
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.The most widespread type forms a level to gently rolling ground between and around large craters and basins.^ Various side-arm controllers were used, and it appeared that the three-axis type (yaw, roll, and pitch) was the most satisfactory.

.These "intercrater" plains are characterized by an extremely high density of superimposed small (5 to 10 km) craters, which are frequently elongate, shallow, and suggestive of being of secondary origin.^ Baby food mercury concern Parents are being reassured about mercury levels in baby foods despite reports suggesting high levels have been found.
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A second type, "hummocky" plains, occurs within a broad ring that is 600 to 800 km wide and circumscribes the Caloris Planitia. These plains consist of low, closely spaced to scattered hills, and have been interpreted to be material ejected during the cratering event that produced the Caloris basin. ."Smooth" plains are the third type and form relatively level tracts with a very low population of craters, both within and external to Caloris Planitia as well as in some of the smaller basins (e.g., Borealis Planitia in the Borealis quadrangle).^ "The very low thiomersal concentrations present in the pharmacological and biological products are relatively non-toxic in adults," the UKMI report says.
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^ Both studies included a range of oral mercury exposures that are very relevant to the US population.
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.The smooth plains are similar to the lunar maria and, if analogous, result from extensive lava flows that would reflect an extended period of volcanism on Mercury after the Caloris event.^ As a complement to the Mercury spacecraft reliability program, a decision was made that one production spacecraft would be withdrawn from the operational program for extensive testing.

^ Exposure to mercury can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism, and the similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry.
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^ In the event Mercury-Atlas 10 (MA-10) were flown, 15B would be the prime spacecraft.

In addition to the cratered surfaces and plains regions, several other distinctive topographic features occur.
A system of linear hills and valleys that extends up to 300 kilometres cuts through, or modifies, some parts of the heavily cratered areas in the Discovery quadrangle. These valleys are scalloped and range up to 10 km wide.
The best example of this type of feature extends more than 1000 km to the northeast from the mountainous rim, Caloris Montes, in the Shakespeare quadrangle. Both examples are similar to the so-called lunar Imbrium sculpture.
.It is generally believed that this type of lineated surface feature resulted from excavations by secondary projectiles when the large basins were formed and, possibly, fracturing and faulting of the planet's crust during the basin formation.^ Additionally, 70% of the knockouts died suddenly during treadmill-generated stress, but all the wild types survived.
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The basin associated with the lineations in the Discovery quadrangle is unknown, but it may be found in the darkened hemisphere that was hidden from Mariner 10's cameras.
.Some of the most peculiar and interesting landforms seen on Mercury are in another region in the Discovery quadrangle that has been termed "hilly and lineated."^ Mercury easily collects in the brain, kidney, and lungs, is present in most all vaccines and some dental fillings..
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^ Although some was shipped off to Asia, most of the mercury was carted to an estimated 13,500 gold mines in the Sierra and other parts of the state.
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^ A student who admitted removing the mercury from the unlocked classroom sold some of it to another student for a dollar.
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The hills are 5 to 10 km wide and vary from a few hundred meters up to almost 2 km in height. .This region included many old degraded craters whose rims have been broken up into hills and valleys.^ Many people have called the Poison Center asking how to clean up the mercury from a broken thermometer.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

Similar surfaces are known at two sites on the Moon. .In all three cases, the regions are antipodal to the youngest large basins (Imbrium and Orientale on the Moon and Caloris on Mercury).^ Samples from the latter three were all below the mercury standard.
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^ All three of these vaccines contain relatively large amounts of thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl-mercury by weight.
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^ All but three of the species in the sample had at least one duck with mercury levels higher than what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers safe to eat.
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.For this reason, there could be a genetic relationship between the formation of the basins and the hilly and lineated terrain.^ This study failed to measure mercury levels, but there is a direct relationship between the amount of lead absorbed and the amount of mercury absorbed by human bodies.
  • The Problem With Mercury - Hg = Mercury - a Toxic Element - Avoid Contact at Any Cost ! 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC www.hbci.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The committee report also suggests there is inadequate research regarding ethylmercury neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, and the relationship between autism and the use of mercury-containing vaccines.
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It has been suggested that seismic waves generated by the basin impacts are focused in the antipodal region and are the cause of the peculiar surfaces.
.Well-defined bright streaks or ray systems radiating away from craters constitute another distinctive feature of the Mercurial surface, again in remarkable similarity to the Moon.^ Exposure to mercury can cause immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with autism, and the similarities extend to neuroanatomy, neurotransmitters, and biochemistry.
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.The rays cut across and are superposed on all other surface features, indicating that the source craters are the youngest topographic features on the surface of Mercury.^ Some of the campaigns have made more headway than others, but all have acquired a new urgency as the dangers of mercury become better known.
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^ For example, it found that all other population groups, including children, had blood levels of mercury well below the government safety limit.
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^ The reports also indicate that the two other stations the Kennedy plant in Talleyrand and the now defunct Southside Station plant also produced high levels of mercury.
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.Despite some differences, the striking duplication of surface features between Mercury and the Moon suggests that although an absolute time scale for the development of the Mercurial surface must remain uncertain, the relative sequence of events for the two bodies must have been very similar, if not contemporary.^ In some cases, even 21 weeks later, the patients' mercury concentrations remained elevated well above the NAS guideline figures.
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^ There is also evidence that mercury found in some childhood vaccines can hamper development.
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^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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The greatest uncertainty in the Mercurial absolute time scale is: When did the heavy bombardment forming the heavily cratered surfaces (lunar highlands) and the large basins (lunar Imbrium and Orientale) come to an end'?
.Within these uncertainties, Mercury's evolution can be divided into five stages or epochs.^ Even so, experts say there are enormous uncertainties over what constitutes a "safe level" of mercury, and what could happen as mercury drains down into the Delta and beyond.
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^ Calhoun and Brown told officials they had divided the mercury up into smaller containers and then gave the containers to their friends.
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^ The special committee on Life Sciences decided to divide these into two groups and 69 prospective pilot candidates were briefed and interviewed in Washington.

.The first epoch includes the interval of time at the earliest stage of the solar system, condensation of the solar nebula into solids, and the accumulation of the solid material into the main mass of Mercury.^ In children, mercury vapors easily pass into the brain and nervous system, causing permanent developmental problems.
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^ Mercury makes its way into air and water, where it can accumulate in fish flesh and pose health threats to people who eat the fish.
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^ Maine is one of the first four states in the country to require dentists to install separators to reduce mercury discharges into the sewer systems that empty into rivers and bays.
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.It is not known whether the planet accumulated heterogeneously or homogeneously; i.e., whether it formed directly as an iron core with a silicate crust, or whether the proto-Mercury was initially a mixture of iron and silicates which subsequently melted and separated into the core and crust configuration.^ Alpers and other USGS scientists are examining whether pumping oxygen into reservoirs would reduce the methylation of mercury.
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^ Because none of the patients had known elevated exposures to mercury, the data hinted that heart muscle might selectively accumulate the metal, leading to its selective poisoning.
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.Regardless of how the planet accumulated, all crustal melting must have been completed well before the craters in the heavily cratered surfaces were formed to have preserved their shapes and geometries to the present time.^ The answer remains unknown at the present time, although recent investigations point to the possibility of problems with at least one form of metallothionein.
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.Moreover, if Mercury ever had been enveloped in an atmosphere either during or immediately after accumulation, aeolian degradation of craters would have occurred, similar to that seen on Mars.^ Symptoms of catecholamine excess such as sweating and hypertension occur because mercury blocks the degradation pathway of catecholamines.
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.Because such degradation has not been recognized, any atmosphere must have disappeared before the oldest cratered surfaces were formed.^ Symptoms of catecholamine excess such as sweating and hypertension occur because mercury blocks the degradation pathway of catecholamines.
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^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
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The second epoch following accumulation and chemical separation was a period of heavy bombardment by large objects from an unknown source that produced the heavily cratered surfaces and the large basins; this epoch was terminated by the time of the Caloris event. .It is not certain whether this last period of heavy bombardment was the terminal phase of the accumulation of Mercury, or if it was the second episode of bombardment unrelated to the accretionary phase.^ Mercury is a persistent heavy metal that accumulates in water and in the tissues of humans, fish, and animals.
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The "intercrater" plains probably represent an older surface that predates this second epoch, or they may have been emplaced during the period of heavy bombardment. .Because the lobate scarps are prevalent in the intercrater areas and sometimes pass through and deform some of the older craters, core shrinkage and crustal shortening may have occurred during the end of the first epoch and extended into at least the early part of the second.^ "But it may be toxic in utero [in the foetus] and during the first six months of life."
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The Caloris basin was a massive event marking the onset of the third epoch. It produced the mountainous ring Caloris Montes and the basin Caloris Planitia, as well as the ejecta deposits and sculpturing of the older heavily cratered surface that can be traced more than 1000 km from the ring of mountains. .If the Caloris basin were contemporary with our Moon's two youngest basins, Imbrium and Orientale, an absolute time for the Caloris event would be about 4 billion years ago.^ Prolonged protests from environmental activists led to the closing of the Hindustan Lever plant two years ago.
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^ Four year old Alex Maher has come a long way since he was diagnosed with autism about three years ago.
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^ Dave Parsons, a DNR chemist, says the threshold at which mercury in liquid waste would make it hazardous waste is about 200 parts per billion.
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The start of the fourth epoch followed an indeterminate but probably short, period after the Caloris event. During this time broad plains were formed, most probably as a result of widespread volcanism grossly similar to that which produced the lunar maria. It has been suggested, however, that the smooth plains surrounding the Caloris Planitia (i.e., the Suisei, Odin, and Tir Planitia) are ejecta from Caloris that were melted by the impact. .If the smooth plains are analogous to lunar maria, this fourth epoch may represent the period from four to 3 billion years ago.^ Four year old Alex Maher has come a long way since he was diagnosed with autism about three years ago.
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^ Methylmercury may represent the only environmental toxicant for which there is good evidence for delayed neurotoxicity that may be manifested many years after cessation of exposure.
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If the plains are impact melt, they must be contemporary with the Caloris event, about 4 billion years in age.
.The fifth and final epoch in what can be recognized in Mercurial history probably extends from about 3 billion years ago to the present.^ According to state officials, it probably would cost billions to clean up just some of the 240 mercury mines in the Coastal Range alone.
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^ Four year old Alex Maher has come a long way since he was diagnosed with autism about three years ago.
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^ Dave Parsons, a DNR chemist, says the threshold at which mercury in liquid waste would make it hazardous waste is about 200 parts per billion.
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.Little has happened on Mercury during this period except for a light "dusting" of meteoritic debris that has produced many of the prominent rayed craters.^ "During the past decade children were given many more vaccines containing mercury, and the rate of autism skyrocketed.
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^ During most of the 90's, many American 6-month-olds received a total of 187.5 micrograms of ethyl mercury through vaccination.
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^ Health experts emphasize that fish is indeed healthy food and some kinds, such as salmon and many small fish, contain very little mercury.
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The crater population on the smooth plains is very similar to that on the lunar Maria.
The apparent similarity in the sequence of events for the Moon and Mercury is especially significant for interpreting and understanding evolutionary processes of the terrestrial planets.
.It is now clear that Mercury, in common not only with the Moon, but also with Mars, was subjected to an early, intense crater-producing bombardment (including basin events) that was followed by volcanism and, in turn, by a greatly reduced impact flux.^ Mercury, once it is released, persists in the atmosphere, first impacting locally and then hitting the global commons, travelling thousands of miles.
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^ President Bush has said his proposed Clear Skies initiative would reduce mercury emissions by about 70 percent.
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^ Mercury light switches are now used in only a few Ford and General Motors vehicles.
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Ice on Mercury

.Mercury would seem to be one of the least likely places in the solar system to find ice.^ As a complement to the Mercury spacecraft reliability program, a decision was made that one production spacecraft would be withdrawn from the operational program for extensive testing.

^ In a meeting at Langley, NASA officials concluded that the tower configuration was the best escape system for the Mercury spacecraft and development would proceed using this concept.

^ The findings indicate alteration of immune system in persons working in the risk of metal mercury vapours."
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.The closest planet to the Sun has temperatures, which can reach over 700 °C. The local day on the surface of Mercury is 176 earth-days, so the surface is slowly rotating under a relentless assault from the Sun.^ On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas.
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.Nonetheless, Earth-based radar imaging of Mercury has revealed areas of high radar reflectivity near the north and south poles, which could be indicative of the presence of ice in these regions.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
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^ She then convinced 113 of these fish eaters-several of whom also showed symptoms indicative of possible mercury poisoning-to get tested for the metal.
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^ When these samples where analyzed in a U.S. laboratory, it was found that the Andean children had extravagantly high levels of mercury.
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There appear to be dozens of these areas with generally circular shapes. .Presumably, the ice is located within permanently shadowed craters near the poles, where it may be cold enough for ice to exist over long periods of time.^ "If you're exposed to mercury over long periods of time, then you're going to see more of an effect."
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^ Pigs were eliminated as Little Joe flight test subjects when studies disclosed that they could not survive long periods of time on their backs.

The discovery of ice on the Earth's moon, and on Mars, can only serve to strengthen the arguments for ice on Mercury.
.Ice is highly radar reflective and the radar reflections off ice tend to be highly depolarized, unlike typical silicate rock that comprises the bulk of Mercury's surface.^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
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.While not as highly reflective as other icy solar system objects, such as on Jupiter’s moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, these areas are still significantly more reflective than silicate material.^ Sulfur is used as a binding compound within these groups and without such, or if absent, the body cannot make connective tissue or anti-bodies for the Immune System.
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^ These compounds target the CNS with methyl- and ethylmercury being more toxic than phenylmercury.
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^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
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Moreover, the depolarized nature of the reflections is also an indicator of water ice. The Arecibo results show that the radar reflective areas are concentrated in crater-sized spots. .At the South Pole, the location of the largest area appears coincident with the large crater Chao Meng-Fu and the smaller areas with other identified craters.^ In some other image, like the one on the right, Artemis appeared to have a pair of large wings.

At the North Pole much of the area containing the radar bright spots was not imaged, and cannot be correlated with any known craters.
However, for the imaged areas at both poles most of the areas have been loosely correlated with known craters. Craters near the poles could provide the permanent, or near permanent, shading required for ice to exist on Mercury.
The radar results indicate the reflective areas are probably relatively uncontaminated ice. However, the lower reflectivity compared to pure ice features indicates the ice may be covered by a thin layer of dust or soil or else does not completely cover the crater floor. Note that no direct unequivocal detection of ice has been made.
The coincidence of the radar bright areas with large, possibly permanently shadowed, polar craters is strong circumstantial evidence for ice.
However, the radar reflections could be explained by an enhancement of some other radar reflective material, such as metal sulphides or other metallic condensates, or precipitated sodium ions
.Investigations of Mercury were done from Earth using the Arecibo radio telescope, the Goldstone antenna, and the Very Large Array (VLA).^ The very next day, the old plant was investigated and locked down by environment officials and the search for the mercury began.
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.The Goldstone/VLA study used the NASA Deep Space Network 70-m Goldstone dish antenna to transmit 8.51 GHz, 460 kW, right circularly polarized radar waves towards Mercury.^ Testifying before the Senate Space Committee, James E. Webb, the NASA Administrator, said: 'There will be no further Mercury shots .

^ As developmental planning for Project Mercury evolved, NASA notified the Army that to reduce the variety of launching vehicles to Jupiter missile would not be used for Project Mercury tests.

^ In a meeting at Langley, NASA officials concluded that the tower configuration was the best escape system for the Mercury spacecraft and development would proceed using this concept.

The National Radio Astronomy Observatories 26 VLA antennas received the reflections. Calibration and processing of the radar returns showed radar-bright (high radar reflectivity) with depolarized signatures at the North Pole. The Arecibo observations were made by transmitting an S-band (2.4 GHz), 420 kW, circularly polarized coded radar wave at Mercury. The wave reflects off Mercury back to Earth. The wave is both transmitted and received by the Arecibo radio telescope.
Filtering and processing the return signal gives a radar reflectivity map of Mercury's surface with a resolution of approximately 15 km. About 20 anomalously reflective and highly depolarized features were observed at the north and south poles.
.As mentioned above, all provinces on Mercury are exposed to the Sun for almost 90 earth-days at a time, and can reach temperatures over 700 °C. Additionally, Mercury has no ambient atmosphere and has very low gravity.^ In the first days after the mercury was stolen, school officials and police played down the criminal aspect of the incident while they tried to identify all the students exposed.
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^ Fish were exposed to radioactive mercury, frozen, then cut into very thin slices.
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^ The fish have very low mercury concentrations, but pilot whale meat has a mean content of methylmercury of 1.9 ppm.
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.Water ice on the surface of Mercury is exposed directly to vacuum, and will rapidly sublime and escape into space unless it is kept cold at all times.^ In the first days after the mercury was stolen, school officials and police played down the criminal aspect of the incident while they tried to identify all the students exposed.
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^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
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^ Fish were exposed to radioactive mercury, frozen, then cut into very thin slices.
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This implies that the ice can never be exposed to direct sunlight.
.The only locations on the surface of Mercury where this is possible would seem to be near the poles (Mercury’s South Pole is shown here), where the floors of some craters might be deep enough to afford permanent shading.^ According to state officials, it probably would cost billions to clean up just some of the 240 mercury mines in the Coastal Range alone.
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^ The children took the mercury to their homes and to two schools, spilling some at each location.
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^ But increasingly researchers warn that the health benefits of some seafood might be offset by the dangers of mercury pollution.
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.Whether such permanently shadowed craters exist on Mercury is still problematic.^ Factors such as whether it uses European or much lower American recommendations on mercury levels will affect its recommendations.
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The only close-up images we have of Mercury were taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft on three close passes in 1974 and 1975.
.The same hemisphere of Mercury was sunlit on each of these passes, so nearly half the planet has never been imaged, and no determination can be made of what polar areas, if any, are permanently shadowed.^ He says this form of mercury is chemically nearly the same and possibly more dangerous than ordinary mercury.
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^ Keener and Khang are attempting to identify the source of the mercury to determine if these concentration variations are natural to cicadas or if man-made sources are contributing to the mercury levels.
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^ Then-EPA Administrator Carol Browner noted, "The greatest source of mercury emissions is power plants, and they have never been required to control these emissions before now."
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.However, theoretical studies assuming typical crater dimensions show that craters near the poles should have areas that never rise above about 102 °C and that even flat surfaces at the poles would not exceed about 167 °C. Other studies also indicate that water ice in polar craters on Mercury could be stable over the age of the solar system.^ The more Halsey learned about these mercury studies, the more he worried.
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^ "Thus, mercury and other toxins could possibly accumulate in human brains via nerve transport."
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^ About 8 percent of American women of childbearing age have concentrations of mercury in their bodies that could put their unborn children at risk of adverse health effects, according to a report released Jan.
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.There are only two significant sources for ice on Mercury: meteorite bombardment and planetary out gassing.^ There are other sources of mercury, including industries, particularly coal-fired power plants.
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^ No influenza vaccines are available that are completely mercury-free, although two brands only contain trace amounts.
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^ There were no other physical changes besides neurological problems, and its no secret there are sources of fish laden with mercury.
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.Meteorites, especially in the past, potentially carried large amounts of water to Mercury's surface.^ Gold mines in northeastern Nevada, upwind of Salt Lake City, have reported releasing large amounts of mercury into the atmosphere.
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^ On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas.
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^ All three of these vaccines contain relatively large amounts of thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl-mercury by weight.
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Out gassing of water from the planet's interior could also provide a non-negligible flux of water to the surface, although this is speculative.
.The permanently shadowed regions near Mercury's poles should act as "cold-traps" so that any water, which found its way to these regions, would freeze on the surface and remain.^ Mercury makes its way into air and water, where it can accumulate in fish flesh and pose health threats to people who eat the fish.
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^ When these samples where analyzed in a U.S. laboratory, it was found that the Andean children had extravagantly high levels of mercury.
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^ SB6533 would: Require manufacturers of mercury-containing items to label the products with information saying the item contains the toxin and should not be tossed out with the trash.
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.(The possibility that the ice is relatively uncontaminated may indicate that each deposit was laid down in one or a small number of rapid events, such as a large comet impact.^ There was a small procession where a boy walked with a priest and one of his nearest relatives, who carried an olive branch, bearing laurel flowers and bronze balls.

^ Large predator fish such as bass, walleye, tuna, and swordfish can have levels of mercury one million times higher than the surrounding water.
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) Meteorites, which impacted near the poles and water, which out gassed in that region, could have been easily trapped.

Solar Wind

The planet Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, our nearby star, which gives off a huge amount of light and heat. The Sun also has significant super hot plasma burst from its surface known as prominences, and upper atmosphere called Coronal Mass Ejections.
The charged atomic particles then move at great speed through the solar system. Mercury therefore is the planet that is regularly in the line of fire, so that its surface is constantly bathed by the solar wind. While the planet’s atmosphere is too thin and rarefied to erode Mercrian surface features, the solar wind does appear to have an affect, albeit slowly, over eons of time.

Mercury's Physical Characteristics

Mass 0.3302 kg Volume 6,083 kg³ Equatorial Radius 2,439.7 km Polar Radius 2,439.7 km Ellipticity (Flattening) 0.0000 Mean Density 5.427 g/cm³ Surface Gravity 6 km/s Escape Velocity 4.3 km/s Visual Magnitude -0.42 (seen from Earth). Number of Moons None Planetary Ring system None Mean Orbital Velocity 47.87 km/s Orbital Inclination 7º Orbital Eccentricity 0.2056 Sidereal Axis rotation 1,407.6 hours Length of day 4,222.6 hours
Mercurian Magnetic Field
Dipole field strength 0.0033 gauss-Rh^3 Dipoles tilt to rotation axis 169º Longitude of tilt 285º (From Mercury-1 flyby) 115º (From Mercury-III flyby).

Transit of Mercury Phenomena

A transit is the passage of a planet across the Sun's bright disk. At this time, the planet can be seen as a small black disk slowly moving in front of the Sun.
.The orbits of Mercury and Venus lie inside Earth's orbit, so they are the only planets that can pass between Earth and Sun to produce a transit.^ This was the first Mercury spacecraft to attain an earth orbit.

^ The only 'hazard' they mentioned was the legal trouble they thought you could get into if you were caught with mercury."
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^ Between this date and December 5, 1959, the tentative design and layout of the Mercury Control Center to be used to monitor the orbiting flight of the Mercury spacecraft were completed.

Transits are very rare astronomical events. In the case of Mercury, there are on average thirteen transits each century. .A transit of Mercury occurs only if the planet is in inferior conjunction with the Sun (between Earth and Sun) and is also crossing through Earth's orbital plane (the Ecliptic).^ Mercury is a highly toxic element that occurs naturally in the environment but also has been introduced through human activity.
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^ Most exposure in humans occurs through the diet, by consuming fish with high levels of methylmercury, a mercury compound.
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.During the present period in Earth's history, Mercury's orbit crosses Earth's orbital plane in early May and early November each year.^ May 29 - Centrifuge training for Mercury-Atlas orbital missions..

^ This was the first Mercury spacecraft to attain an earth orbit.

^ NASAs Mercury orbital operations plan of July 19, 1961 had four spacecraft equipped for three-orbit flights.

If Mercury is passing between the Earth and Sun at that time, a transit will be seen.
During the seven-century period 1601 to 2065, Earth experiences 94 transits of Mercury across the Sun. .These events can be organized into two groups: All Transits = 94 = 100.0%.^ "Mercury is like the crazy aunt that California has kept in the closet all these years," said Bill Jennings, head of the Deltakeeper environmental group.
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^ The special committee on Life Sciences decided to divide these into two groups and 69 prospective pilot candidates were briefed and interviewed in Washington.

May (Descending Node) = 31 = 33.0 %. November (Ascending Node) = 63 = 67.0 %
Mercury's orbit is highly eccentric (e = 0.2056). This causes the planet's distance from the Sun to vary from 46 to 70 million kilometres. At perihelion, Mercury's orbital velocity (59.0 km/s) is over 50% faster than it is at aphelion (38.9 km/s).
Furthermore, the planet's orbit is tipped 7 degrees to Earth's around the Sun. .Such a wildly varying and inclined orbit has important consequences on the characteristics and frequency of Mercury's transits.^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During May transits, the apparent diameters of the Sun and Mercury are 1902 and 12 arc-seconds, respectively.^ WASHINGTON, May 12 /PRNewswire/ -- The Federal Drug and Food Administration and Centers for Disease Control both get a big "F" in protecting children from the hazards of mercury poisoning.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 12 - The Manned Spacecraft Center announced a mid-May flight for Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9)..

^ July 12 - Instrumentation to measure noise level during the Mercury Big Joe-Atlas launching..

Thus, Mercury appears to be 1/158 the size of the Sun. .In contrast, the apparent diameters of the Sun and Mercury during November transits are 1937 and 10 arcseconds, respectively.^ November 28 - Retrofire initiated 2 seconds late during Mercury MA-8.

^ Between November 1959 and January 1960, 10 developmental Mercury full-pressure suits were delivered.

So then Mercury appears to be 1/194 the size of the Sun. .Consecutive transits of Mercury appear to be separated by 3.5, 7, 9.5, 10, or 13 years.^ "Things could get worse in the coming years, as increases in temperature also appear to help the spread of the mercury."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The FDA has been studying the effects of mercury in fish tissue for 10 years without reaching any conclusions.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pattern is rather complex because of Mercury's elliptical orbit. .The shorter periods are a consequence of several longer harmonics between the orbital periods of Mercury and Earth.^ NASA announced that the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) manned orbital flight would be delayed several days due to checkout problems with the Atlas launch vehicle.

^ When this happens, the improper disposal of the mercury can have severe environmental and physical consequences," Collins said.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 13-year period is of particular note because it corresponds to nearly 54 orbits of Mercury around the Sun (it falls short of a perfect fit by just 2.01 days).^ Thus, after a period of 4 years, 8 months, and 1 week, Project Mercury, America's first manned space flight program, came to a close.

^ WASHINGTON - A new government analysis nearly doubled the estimate of the number of newborn children at risk for health problems because of unsafe mercury levels in their blood.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NASA sponsored a 1-day symposium in Washington on the results of the Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) three-orbit flight of John Glenn.

.A longer period of 33 years (10 + 10 + 13) produces an even better fit, which corresponds to 137 orbits of Mercury minus 1.67 days.^ Thus, after a period of 4 years, 8 months, and 1 week, Project Mercury, America's first manned space flight program, came to a close.

^ November 13 - Cooper named for Mercury MA-9 1-day orbital mission.

^ NASA sponsored a 1-day symposium in Washington on the results of the Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) three-orbit flight of John Glenn.

.If one combines the 13 year and 33 year periods together, the 46-year total equals 191 orbits of Mercury plus only 0.34 days.^ It has long been thought that breathing in mercury vapour over a period of years was the reason why some lighthouse keepers went mad.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mercury-free control group, only one baby had even a measurable level of mercury..
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A useful way to organize Mercury's transits is by grouping them into series where each member is separated by 16,802 days or 46 years (= sum of 13 and 33 years).^ But Melby doesn't see mercury in vaccines as a big concern, saying levels are "way down from what they used to be."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next day he returned to the store to talk to the manager, who said there were no thermometers, which used to use mercury, or other items in the food processing department, and they didn't know how it got into the meat.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Mercury is like the crazy aunt that California has kept in the closet all these years," said Bill Jennings, head of the Deltakeeper environmental group.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, the transits of 1957, 2003 and 2049 belong to one series, while the transits of 1960, 2006 and 2052 belong to another series. .May transits occur about a month after Mercury's aphelion passage so the planet is travelling at close to its minimum velocity?^ Thus, after a period of 4 years, 8 months, and 1 week, Project Mercury, America's first manned space flight program, came to a close.

^ Forty states have issued advisories about eating fish that may have high levels of mercury in their tissues.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The planet's relative position with respect to the Sun shifts by approximately 200 arcseconds with each transit. .This rapidly evolving geometry means that transit series, which occur in May only, last about 10 cycles or 414 years.^ People familiar with the final report, originally due last May, told the newspaper the study finds that mercury poses a serious health problem for children.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lyn Redwood, a nurse practitioner and the wife of a physician in suburban Atlanta, spoke to me last week about her 8-year-old son, Will.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methylmercury may represent the only environmental toxicant for which there is good evidence for delayed neurotoxicity that may be manifested many years after cessation of exposure.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In comparison, November transits occur just a few days before Mercury reaches perihelion so the planet is travelling at nearly its maximum orbital velocity.^ NASA announced that the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) manned orbital flight would be delayed several days due to checkout problems with the Atlas launch vehicle.

^ November 13 - Cooper named for Mercury MA-9 1-day orbital mission.

^ November 28 - Mercury Simulator 2 modified to the 1-day configuration..

.Mercury's relative position with respect to the Sun shifts by only about 100 arcseconds with each transit, so November series last about twice as long as a May series.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People familiar with the final report, originally due last May, told the newspaper the study finds that mercury poses a serious health problem for children.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Series 8 (November at Ascending Node) began in 1776 and will run through 2604 for a total of 19 transits spanning 828 years. For comparison, Series 9 (May at Descending Node) began just recently in 1957 and will run through 2371 for a total of 10 transits spanning 414 years. .At any one time, there can be about six transit series running concurrently.^ UNEP said a U.S. study found about one in 12 women there had mercury levels in their bodies above those deemed safe by national authorities.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the 20 shovelers sampled, only one was below the standard, while the rest ranged from about twice the standard to 39 times the safety point.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far, in my account about Dionysus, there was only one Dionysus, son of Zeus and Semele, but there are some writers who say that there is not a single Dionysus, but several.

.But since the November series last twice as long as the May series, there are twice as many transits in November as there are in May.^ People familiar with the final report, originally due last May, told the newspaper the study finds that mercury poses a serious health problem for children.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methylmercury may represent the only environmental toxicant for which there is good evidence for delayed neurotoxicity that may be manifested many years after cessation of exposure.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former Utah governor has been re-examining the agency's mercury plan since his appointment to the EPA last November.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mercury's transit series are quite analogous to the Saros series for solar and lunar eclipses although they are shorter and tend not have as many events in each series.

Ephemeris Data


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Hermes article)

From BibleWiki

Mercury, a Roman Christian (Rom 16:14).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
Facts about HermesRDF feed

Simple English

Mercury means more than one thing.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mercury (planet), which are similar to those in the above article.








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