Mercury (planet): Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Mercury (planet)

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mercury  
Mercury
MESSENGER false color image of Mercury
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈmɜrkjəri/  ( listen)
Adjective Mercurian, Mercurial[1]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 69,816,900 km
0.466 697 AU
Perihelion 46,001,200 km
0.307 499 AU
Semi-major axis 57,909,100 km
0.387 098 AU
Eccentricity 0.205 630[3]
Orbital period 87.969 1 d
(0.240 846 a)
0.5 Mercury solar day
Synodic period 115.88 d[3]
Average orbital speed 47.87 km/s[3]
Mean anomaly 174.796°
Inclination 7.005° to Ecliptic
3.38° to Sun’s equator
6.34° to Invariable plane[4]
Longitude of ascending node 48.331°
Argument of perihelion 29.124°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius 2,439.7 ± 1.0 km[5][6]
0.3829 Earths
Flattening 0[6]
Surface area 7.48 × 107 km²[5]
0.147 Earths
Volume 6.083 × 1010 km³[5]
0.056 Earths
Mass 3.3022 × 1023 kg[5]
0.055 Earths
Mean density 5.427 g/cm³[5]
Equatorial surface gravity 3.7 m/s²
0.38 g[5]
Escape velocity 4.25 km/s[5]
Sidereal rotation
period
58.646 day
1407.5 h[5]
Equatorial rotation velocity 10.892 km/h (3.026 m/s)
Axial tilt 2.11′ ± 0.1′[7]
North pole right ascension 18 h 44 min 2 s
281.01°[3]
North pole declination 61.45°[3]
Albedo 0.119 (bond)
0.106 (geom.)[3]
Surface temp.
   0°N, 0°W
   85°N, 0°W
min mean max
100 K 340 K 700 K
80 K 200 K 380 K
Apparent magnitude −2.3 to 5.7[8][3]
Angular diameter 4.5" – 13"[3]
Atmosphere
Surface pressure trace
Composition 42% Molecular oxygen
29.0% sodium
22.0% hydrogen
6.0% helium
0.5% potassium
Trace amounts of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, xenon, krypton, & neon[3]
Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet in the Solar System,[9] orbiting the Sun once every 87.969 days. .The orbit of Mercury has the highest eccentricity of all the Solar System planets, and it has the smallest axial tilt.^ "The nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury," said one government report.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It completes three rotations about the axis for every two orbits. The perihelion of Mercury's orbit precesses around the Sun at an excess of 43 arcseconds per century; a phenomenon that was explained in the 20th century by Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.[10] Mercury is bright when viewed from Earth, ranging from −2.3 to 5.7 in apparent magnitude, but is not easily seen as its greatest angular separation from the Sun is only 28.3°. .Since Mercury is normally lost in the glare of the Sun, unless there is a solar eclipse, Mercury can only be viewed in morning or evening twilight.^ Even so, experts say there are enormous uncertainties over what constitutes a "safe level" of mercury, and what could happen as mercury drains down into the Delta and beyond.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no question that high doses of mercury can be extremely toxic, even fatal.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mercury-free control group, only one baby had even a measurable level of mercury..
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Comparatively little is known about Mercury; ground-based telescopes reveal only an illuminated crescent with limited detail.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about 1 in 500 children whose parents gave them calomel got pink disease -- suggesting that a constitutional vulnerability to mercury was part of the clinical picture.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State toxicologist Lynda Knobeloch says "not much is known about ethyl mercury" but adds that "it's assumed to be similar to methyl mercury."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first of two spacecraft to visit the planet was Mariner 10, which mapped only about 45% of the planet’s surface from 1974 to 1975. The second is the MESSENGER spacecraft, which mapped another 30% during its flyby of January 14, 2008. A final flyby took place in September 2009. MESSENGER is scheduled to attain orbital insertion around Mercury in 2011, and will then survey and map the entire planet.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about 1 in 500 children whose parents gave them calomel got pink disease -- suggesting that a constitutional vulnerability to mercury was part of the clinical picture.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Infants may have receive 60 times a toxic dose or: * 2,370 times the allowable EPA Safe Limit for mercury in the first two years of life !
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mercury is similar in appearance to the Moon: it is heavily cratered with regions of smooth plains, has no natural satellites and no substantial atmosphere. However, unlike the moon, it has a large iron core, which generates a magnetic field about 1% as strong as that of the Earth.[11] It is an exceptionally dense planet due to the large relative size of its core. .Surface temperatures range from about 90 to 700 K (−183 °C to 427 °C, −297 °F to 801 °F),[12] with the subsolar point being the hottest and the bottoms of craters near the poles being the coldest.^ Of the 20 shovelers sampled, only one was below the standard, while the rest ranged from about twice the standard to 39 times the safety point.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recorded observations of Mercury date back to at least the first millennium BC. Before the 4th century BC, Greek astronomers believed the planet to be two separate objects: one visible only at sunrise, which they called Apollo; the other visible only at sunset, which they called Hermes.^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And they are not the only ones.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have been on the shelves for one to two months.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The English name for the planet comes from the Romans, who named it after the Roman god Mercury, which they equated with the Greek Hermes (Ἑρμῆς).^ The list of people who had potentially been contaminated began to grow as residents of both Texarkana, Ark., and Texarkana, Texas, began to come forward and tell officials they had been exposed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Incidentally, the Roman god associated with lead was Saturn, who devoured his own children.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The astronomical symbol for Mercury is a stylized version of Hermes' caduceus.[14]

Contents

Internal structure

.Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, and is a rocky body like the Earth.^ "Mercury is one of the most toxic elements on earth," the lawsuits claim.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The international body said millions of children may already be suffering ailments -- ranging from learning difficulties to impaired nervous systems -- due to dietary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children intoxicated by mercury shake and grab themselves like Mad Hatters in a mountain settlement known as the place that no one can find.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2,439.7 km.[3] .Mercury is even smaller—albeit more massive—than the largest natural satellites in the Solar System, Ganymede and Titan.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of that group, 63 people had blood mercury levels more than twice the recommended level and 19 showed blood mercury levels four times the level considered safe.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mercury consists of approximately 70% metallic and 30% silicate material.[15] .Mercury's density is the second highest in the Solar System at 5.427 g/cm³, only slightly less than Earth’s density of 5.515 g/cm³.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the Automotive Recyclers Association (ARA) and the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries say they have little financial incentive to take on the task, with each switch containing only a gram of the metal and mercury trading at less than $2 a pound.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And those with the highest levels of mercury were more than twice as likely to have had a heart attack than the men with the lowest mercury levels, the authors add.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .If the effect of gravitational compression were to be factored out, the materials of which Mercury is made would be denser, with an uncompressed density of 5.3 g/cm³ versus Earth’s 4.4 g/cm³.^ SB6533 would: Require manufacturers of mercury-containing items to label the products with information saying the item contains the toxin and should not be tossed out with the trash.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
Mercury’s density can be used to infer details of its inner structure. .While the Earth’s high density results appreciably from gravitational compression, particularly at the core, Mercury is much smaller and its inner regions are not nearly as strongly compressed.^ These results appear consistent with the notion that mercury levels in women of child-bearing age are already dangerously high.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Therefore, for it to have such a high density, its core must be large and rich in iron.[17]
1. Crust—100–300 km thick
2. Mantle—600 km thick
3. Core—1,800 km radius
.Geologists estimate that Mercury’s core occupies about 42% of its volume; for Earth this proportion is 17%.^ Meanwhile during the last decade, autism (symptoms of which are markedly similar to mercury poisoning) in the U.S. has grown to epidemic proportions-some estimates are between 10% and 17% per year.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EPA doubles mercury risk in newborns New estimate based on levels in umbilical cord blood By Guy Gugliotta Updated: 12:42 p.m.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Environmental Protection Agency estimates medical mercury thermometers contribute about 17 tons of mercury to solid waste per year, said Sen.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent research strongly suggests Mercury has a molten core.^ The committee report also suggests there is inadequate research regarding ethylmercury neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, and the relationship between autism and the use of mercury-containing vaccines.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18][19] Surrounding the core is a 500–700 km mantle consisting of silicates.[20][21] Based on data from the Mariner 10 mission and Earth-based observation, Mercury’s crust is believed to be 100–300 km thick.[22] .One distinctive feature of Mercury’s surface is the presence of numerous narrow ridges, and these can extend up to several hundred kilometers.^ She then convinced 113 of these fish eaters-several of whom also showed symptoms indicative of possible mercury poisoning-to get tested for the metal.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mercury, perhaps as much as a cupful, was handled by several students, some of whom threw it at one another, authorities have said.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is believed that these were formed as Mercury’s core and mantle cooled and contracted at a time when the crust had already solidified.^ These results appear consistent with the notion that mercury levels in women of child-bearing age are already dangerously high.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, local officials believed the mercury discovery would be an isolated incident.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Infants may have receive 60 times a toxic dose or: * 2,370 times the allowable EPA Safe Limit for mercury in the first two years of life !
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.Mercury's core has a higher iron content than that of any other major planet in the Solar System, and several theories have been proposed to explain this.^ Mercury levels in the men who had a heart attack were "15% higher than those in controls," Guallar and colleagues write.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The risk of consequences from diseases that vaccines prevent is still much higher than risks from vaccines and their contents."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury accumulates in fetuses in concentrations far higher than mother's blood.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most widely accepted theory is that Mercury originally had a metal-silicate ratio similar to common chondrite meteors, thought to be typical of the Solar System's rocky matter, and a mass approximately 2.25 times its current mass.^ The findings indicate alteration of immune system in persons working in the risk of metal mercury vapours."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury is a highly toxic metal, has been documented to be a cause of cancer, and can be absorbed through the digestive track, skin, and respiratory system.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury is: * 1,000 times more toxic than Lead, and ranking second behind radioactive uranium is the second most toxic metal.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .However, early in the solar system’s history, Mercury may have been struck by a planetesimal of approximately 1/6 that mass and several hundred kilometers across.^ Lawsuits have been filed by parents across the country who are convinced that their children suffered severe neurological damage from the mercury in the vaccines.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The international body said millions of children may already be suffering ailments -- ranging from learning difficulties to impaired nervous systems -- due to dietary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCLUSION The history of acrodynia illustrates that a severe disorder, afflicting a small but significant percentage of children, can arise from a seemingly benign application of low doses of mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] The impact would have stripped away much of the original crust and mantle, leaving the core behind as a relatively major component.[24] A similar process has been proposed to explain the formation of Earth’s Moon (see giant impact theory).[24]
Alternatively, Mercury may have formed from the solar nebula before the Sun's energy output had stabilized. .The planet would initially have had twice its present mass, but as the protosun contracted, temperatures near Mercury could have been between 2,500 and 3,500 K (Celsius equivalents about 273 degrees less), and possibly even as high as 10,000 K.[25] Much of Mercury’s surface rock could have been vaporized at such temperatures, forming an atmosphere of "rock vapor" which could have been carried away by the solar wind.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Federal health officials said the danger level for mercury was 10 times that high, a level not found in any of the women in the study.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
A third hypothesis proposes that the solar nebula caused drag on the particles from which Mercury was accreting, which meant that lighter particles were lost from the accreting material.[26] Each hypothesis predicts a different surface composition, and two upcoming space missions, MESSENGER and BepiColombo, both aim to make observations to test them.[27][28]

Surface geology

First high-resolution image of Mercury transmitted by MESSENGER (false color)
Image from MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby. Kuiper crater is just below center. An extensive ray system emanates from the crater near the top.
.Mercury’s surface is overall very similar in appearance to that of the Moon, showing extensive mare-like plains and heavy cratering, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury was turning out to be like lead, which had been studied extensively in the homes of the Baltimore poor during Halsey's tenure at Hopkins.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the mothers had 59 or more parts per billion of mercury in their blood while pregnant, their children scored lower on intelligence tests several years later.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since our knowledge of Mercury's geology has been based on the 1975 Mariner flyby and terrestrial observations, it is the least understood of the terrestrial planets.[19] As data from the recent MESSENGER flyby is processed this knowledge will increase. For example, an unusual crater with radiating troughs has been discovered which scientists are calling "the spider."[29]
Albedo features refer to areas of markedly different reflectivity, as seen by telescopic observation. .Mercury possesses Dorsa (also called "wrinkle-ridges"), Moon-like highlands, Montes (mountains), Planitiae, or plains, Rupes (escarpments), and Valles (valleys).^ Children intoxicated by mercury shake and grab themselves like Mad Hatters in a mountain settlement known as the place that no one can find.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30][31]
.Mercury was heavily bombarded by comets and asteroids during and shortly following its formation 4.6 billion years ago, as well as during a possibly separate subsequent episode called the late heavy bombardment that came to an end 3.8 billion years ago.^ CHEWING ON MERCURY Anita Vasquez Tibau was a young college dance major 20 years ago when she suddenly found herself unable to breathe.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, three years ago, the Food and Drug Administration was called to review thimerosol and it's link to 'neurodevelopmental effects,' as stated in a 1997 report.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury emissions by continent The following numbers are estimates of global atmospheric mercury releases in 1995 (in tonnes/year).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] During this period of intense crater formation, the planet received impacts over its entire surface,[31] facilitated by the lack of any atmosphere to slow impactors down.[33] During this time the planet was volcanically active; basins such as the Caloris Basin were filled by magma from within the planet, which produced smooth plains similar to the maria found on the Moon.[34][35]
Data from the October 2008 flyby of MESSENGER gave researchers a greater appreciation for the jumbled nature of Mercury's surface. .Mercury's surface is more heterogeneous than either Mars's or the Moon's, both of which contain significant stretches of similar geology, such as maria and plateaus.^ "During the past decade children were given many more vaccines containing mercury, and the rate of autism skyrocketed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]

Impact basins and craters

Mercury’s Caloris Basin is one of the largest impact features in the Solar System.
Craters on Mercury range in diameter from small bowl-shaped cavities to multi-ringed impact basins hundreds of kilometers across. .They appear in all states of degradation, from relatively fresh rayed craters to highly degraded crater remnants.^ They all may contain highly toxic mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They found highly elevated mercury vapor levels in two homes and one vehicle, immediately evacuated both homes and cleaned and decontaminated them all.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mercurian craters differ subtly from lunar craters in that the area blanketed by their ejecta is much smaller, a consequence of Mercury's stronger surface gravity.^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, he said the findings might have been different if the researchers had done a separate analysis by gender, since boys are much more susceptible to mercury exposure than girls.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
The largest known crater is Caloris Basin, with a diameter of 1,550 km,[38]. The impact that created the Caloris Basin was so powerful that it caused lava eruptions and left a concentric ring over 2 km tall surrounding the impact crater. At the antipode of the Caloris Basin is a large region of unusual, hilly terrain known as the "Weird Terrain". One hypothesis for its origin is that shock waves generated during the Caloris impact traveled around the planet, converging at the basin’s antipode (180 degrees away). The resulting high stresses fractured the surface.[39] Alternatively, it has been suggested that this terrain formed as a result of the convergence of ejecta at this basin’s antipode.[40]
.Overall, about 15 impact basins have been identified on the imaged part of Mercury.^ Dave Parsons, a DNR chemist, says the threshold at which mercury in liquid waste would make it hazardous waste is about 200 parts per billion.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about 1 in 500 children whose parents gave them calomel got pink disease -- suggesting that a constitutional vulnerability to mercury was part of the clinical picture.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American lobster is among the shellfish species that tends to carry mercury, typically about 0.3 parts per million, according to FDA data.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A notable basin is the 400 km wide, multi-ring Tolstoj Basin which has an ejecta blanket extending up to 500 km from its rim and a floor that has been filled by smooth plains materials. Beethoven Basin has a similar-sized ejecta blanket and a 625 km diameter rim.[37] .Like the Moon, the surface of Mercury has likely incurred the effects of space weathering processes, including Solar wind and micrometeorite impacts.^ "This was not a trivial exercise," Bleasby said of the labeling process, which included changing the packaging on all of the company's fluorescent and other mercury-containing lamp products.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groundbreaking legislation is much more likely from the states, including Vermont, which passed the Mercury Reduction Act in 1998.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41]

Plains

The so-called “Weird Terrain” was formed by the Caloris Basin impact at its antipodal point.
There are two geologically distinct plains regions on Mercury.[37][42] .Gently rolling, hilly plains in the regions between craters are Mercury's oldest visible surfaces,[37] predating the heavily cratered terrain.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These inter-crater plains appear to have obliterated many earlier craters, and show a general paucity of smaller craters below about 30 km in diameter.[42] It is not clear whether they are of volcanic or impact origin.[42] The inter-crater plains are distributed roughly uniformly over the entire surface of the planet.
Smooth plains are widespread flat areas which fill depressions of various sizes and bear a strong resemblance to the lunar maria. Notably, they fill a wide ring surrounding the Caloris Basin. Unlike lunar maria, the smooth plains of Mercury have the same albedo as the older inter-crater plains. Despite a lack of unequivocally volcanic characteristics, the localisation and rounded, lobate shape of these plains strongly support volcanic origins.[37] .All the Mercurian smooth plains formed significantly later than the Caloris basin, as evidenced by appreciably smaller crater densities than on the Caloris ejecta blanket.^ The occurrence of antibodies against vessels (65%) was also significantly higher than in the controls (27%) as well as antibodies against smooth muscle (50% against 9% in the controls).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] The floor of the Caloris Basin is filled by a geologically distinct flat plain, broken up by ridges and fractures in a roughly polygonal pattern. It is not clear whether they are volcanic lavas induced by the impact, or a large sheet of impact melt.[37]
One unusual feature of the planet’s surface is the numerous compression folds, or rupes, which crisscross the plains. As the planet’s interior cooled, it may have contracted and its surface began to deform, creating these features. The folds can be seen on top of other features, such as craters and smoother plains, indicating that the folds are more recent.[43] .Mercury’s surface is flexed by significant tidal bulges raised by the Sun—the Sun’s tides on Mercury are about 17 times stronger than the Moon’s on Earth.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of that group, 63 people had blood mercury levels more than twice the recommended level and 19 showed blood mercury levels four times the level considered safe.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One bass from the Feather had mercury levels of 4 parts per million -- four times higher than the level considered safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Surface conditions and "atmosphere" (exosphere)

Radar image of Mercury's north pole
Size comparison of terrestrial planets (left to right): Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
.The mean surface temperature of Mercury is 442.5 K,[3] but it ranges from 100 K to 700 K[45] due to the absence of an atmosphere and a steep temperature gradient between the equator and the poles.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The international body said millions of children may already be suffering ailments -- ranging from learning difficulties to impaired nervous systems -- due to dietary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mean mercury levels in mothers' hair were 6.8 ppm (range: 0.5-27 ppm) in the Seychelles and 4.3 ppm (range: 0.2-39.1 ppm) in the Faroe Islands.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The subsolar point reaches about 700 K during perihelion then drops to 550 K at aphelion.[46] .On the dark side of the planet, temperatures average 110 K.[47] The intensity of sunlight on Mercury’s surface ranges between 4.59 and 10.61 times the solar constant (1,370 W·m−2).^ Federal health officials said the danger level for mercury was 10 times that high, a level not found in any of the women in the study.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four people had mercury levels 10 times as high as the government recommends.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48]
.Despite the generally extremely high temperature of its surface, observations strongly suggest that ice exists on Mercury.^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no question that high doses of mercury can be extremely toxic, even fatal.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baby food mercury concern Parents are being reassured about mercury levels in baby foods despite reports suggesting high levels have been found.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The floors of deep craters at the poles are never exposed to direct sunlight, and temperatures there remain below 102 K; far lower than the global average.[49] .Water ice strongly reflects radar, and observations by the 70 m Goldstone telescope and the VLA in the early 1990s revealed that there are patches of very high radar reflection near the poles.^ There are geographical links between Alzheimer's Disease and high aluminum in drinking water.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] While ice is not the only possible cause of these reflective regions, astronomers believe it is the most likely.[51]
The icy regions are believed to contain about 1014–1015 kg of ice,[52] and may be covered by a layer of regolith that inhibits sublimation.[53] By comparison, the Antarctic ice sheet on Earth has a mass of about 4 × 1018 kg, and Mars' south polar cap contains about 1016 kg of water.[52] .The origin of the ice on Mercury is not yet known, but the two most likely sources are from outgassing of water from the planet’s interior or deposition by impacts of comets.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children intoxicated by mercury shake and grab themselves like Mad Hatters in a mountain settlement known as the place that no one can find.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important step in the management of mercury poisoning is eliminating the source of exposure.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]
.Mercury is too small for its gravity to retain any significant atmosphere over long periods of time; however, it does have a "tenuous surface-bounded exosphere"[54] containing hydrogen, helium, oxygen, sodium, calcium and potassium.^ Once tightly bound via this mechanism, it is in the body for a long time.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have laboratory evidence of what mercury poisoning does to gold miners," he says, "but this is the first time we have been able to show from tests in the field what is happening to their children and wives."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, the small, button battery that powers the promotional toy contains mercury, a toxin that can damage the environment if thrown in household trash, and not recycled, she said.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This exosphere is not stable—atoms are continuously lost and replenished from a variety of sources. .Hydrogen and helium atoms probably come from the solar wind, diffusing into Mercury’s magnetosphere before later escaping back into space.^ "That means we need to reduce, to the maximum extent possible, the loads of mercury coming into the system."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Radioactive decay of elements within Mercury’s crust is another source of helium, as well as sodium and potassium.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methylmercury is the most toxic, formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury found in the environment via human or natural sources (Goldman & Shannon, 2001).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

MESSENGER found high proportions of calcium, helium, hydroxide, magnesium, oxygen, potassium, silicon and sodium. .Water vapor is present, released by a combination of processes such as: comets striking its surface, sputtering creating water out of hydrogen from the solar wind and oxygen from rock, and sublimation from reservoirs of water ice in the permanently shadowed polar craters.^ The results of the present study demonstrated that mercury vapor released from the amalgam fillings in pregnant rats was distributed to maternal and fetal organs in dose-dependent amounts of the amalgam fillings.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The detection of high amounts of water-related ions like O+, OH-, and H2O+ was a surprise.[55][56] .Because of the quantities of these ions that were detected in Mercury's space environment, scientists surmise that these molecules were blasted from the surface or exosphere by the solar wind.^ Churchill estimates that, because of the crude methods, 8.5 million pounds of mercury was "lost" to the environment during the Gold Rush, mostly in streams of Northern California.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are fossil-burning facilities throughout the U.S. that are not producing these large quantities of mercury in the atmosphere, he said.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methylmercury is the best known, because it is the predominant form of organic mercury found in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57][58]
Sodium and potassium were discovered in the atmosphere during the 1980s, and are believed to result primarily from the vaporization of surface rock struck by micrometeorite impacts. Due to the ability of these materials to diffuse sunlight, Earth-based observers can readily detect their composition in the atmosphere. Studies indicate that, at times, sodium emissions are localized at points that correspond to the planet's magnetic dipoles. This would indicate an interaction between the magnetosphere and the planet's surface.[59]

Magnetic field and magnetosphere

Graph showing relative strength of Mercury's magnetic field
.Despite its small size and slow 59-day-long rotation, Mercury has a significant, and apparently global, magnetic field.^ The decision followed the release of a report outlining a significant global threat to humans and wildlife from mercury, a naturally occurring metal.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, significant correlations were also found between the mercury concentrations in all maternal organs and the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples on day 15 of pregnancy.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCLUSION The history of acrodynia illustrates that a severe disorder, afflicting a small but significant percentage of children, can arise from a seemingly benign application of low doses of mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to measurements taken by Mariner 10, it is about 1.1% as strong as the Earth’s. The magnetic field strength at the Mercurian equator is about 300 nT.[60][61] Like that of Earth, Mercury's magnetic field is dipolar.[59] Unlike Earth, however, Mercury's poles are nearly aligned with the planet's spin axis.[62] Measurements from both the Mariner 10 and MESSENGER space probes have indicated that the strength and shape of the magnetic field are stable.[62]
It is likely that this magnetic field is generated by way of a dynamo effect, in a manner similar to the magnetic field of Earth.[63][64] This dynamo effect would result from the circulation of the planet's iron-rich liquid core. Particularly strong tidal effects caused by the planet's high orbital eccentricity would serve to keep the core in the liquid state necessary for this dynamo effect.[65]
Mercury’s magnetic field is strong enough to deflect the solar wind around the planet, creating a magnetosphere. The planet's magnetosphere, though small enough to fit within the Earth,[59] is strong enough to trap solar wind plasma. This contributes to the space weathering of the planet's surface.[62] Observations taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft detected this low energy plasma in the magnetosphere of the planet's nightside. Bursts of energetic particles were detected in the planet's magnetotail, which indicates a dynamic quality to the planet's magnetosphere.[59]
During its second flyby of the planet on October 6, 2008, MESSENGER discovered that Mercury’s magnetic field can be extremely "leaky." The spacecraft encountered magnetic "tornadoes" – twisted bundles of magnetic fields connecting the planetary magnetic field to interplanetary space – that were up to 800 km wide or a third of the radius of the planet. These 'tornadoes' form when magnetic fields carried by the solar wind connect to Mercury's magnetic field. .As the solar wind blows past Mercury's field, these joined magnetic fields are carried with it and twist up into vortex-like structures.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the school, mercury was spattered across walls, poured down drains, and thrown on people, winding up in the hair of some students.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Mercury is like the crazy aunt that California has kept in the closet all these years," said Bill Jennings, head of the Deltakeeper environmental group.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These twisted magnetic flux tubes, technically known as flux transfer events, form open windows in the planet's magnetic shield through which the solar wind may enter and directly impact Mercury's surface.^ Once metallic mercury (vapor, Hg - 0) enters the cell, it can be easily converted to its cationic form, and in this form, readily binds to sulfhydryl groups on enzymes and other proteins.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
The process of linking interplanetary and planetary magnetic fields, called magnetic reconnection, is common throughout the cosmos. It occurs in Earth's magnetic field, where it generates magnetic tornadoes as well. .However, the MESSENGER observations show the reconnection rate is ten times higher at Mercury.^ One bass from the Feather had mercury levels of 4 parts per million -- four times higher than the level considered safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten goldeneyes were tested and showed results ranging from below the EPA standard of .3 milligrams of mercury per kilogram of edible tissue to 14 times the standard.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have laboratory evidence of what mercury poisoning does to gold miners," he says, "but this is the first time we have been able to show from tests in the field what is happening to their children and wives."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mercury's proximity to the sun only accounts for about a third of the reconnection rate observed by MESSENGER.[66]

Orbit and rotation

Orbit of Mercury (yellow)
.Mercury has the most eccentric orbit of all the planets; its eccentricity is 0.21 with its distance from the Sun ranging from 46 to 70 million kilometers.^ Mercury easily collects in the brain, kidney, and lungs, is present in most all vaccines and some dental fillings..
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The international body said millions of children may already be suffering ailments -- ranging from learning difficulties to impaired nervous systems -- due to dietary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While today, most but not all infant vaccines are mercury-free, the preservative is still added to formulations for influenza (flu vaccines),diphtheria-tetanus, tetanus, hepatitis B, pneumococcal and rabies.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It takes 88 days to complete an orbit. .The diagram on the right illustrates the effects of the eccentricity, showing Mercury’s orbit overlaid with a circular orbit having the same semi-major axis.^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The higher velocity of the planet when it is near perihelion is clear from the greater distance it covers in each 5-day interval. The size of the spheres, inversely proportional to their distance from the Sun, is used to illustrate the varying heliocentric distance. This varying distance to the Sun, combined with a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance of the planet’s rotation around its axis, result in complex variations of the surface temperature.[15]
.A solar day on Mercury lasts about 176 Earth days, which is about twice as long as Mercury's orbital period, roughly 88 Earth Days.^ Though roughly comparable to the mercury tainting of tuna steaks, it carries only about a third as much as swordfish or shark.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury is a potent toxin -- long-lasting, readily spread through droplets and evaporation, and easily absorbed through the lungs.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, a Mercury year is about 0.5 Mercury days long, and one Mercury day lasts approximately two Mercury years.^ What will it be by 2005 Estimate at the rate over last two years could it be?
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "One mercury thermometer contains about one gram of mercury," said Collins, "enough mercury to contaminate all the fish in a 20-acre (8 hectare) lake."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been thought that breathing in mercury vapour over a period of years was the reason why some lighthouse keepers went mad.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
Mercury’s orbit is inclined by 7° to the plane of Earth’s orbit (the ecliptic), as shown in the diagram on the right. .As a result, transits of Mercury across the face of the Sun can only occur when the planet is crossing the plane of the ecliptic at the time it lies between the Earth and the Sun.^ The enzymes, which our immune system relies on for chemical reactions to occur, become disrupted as a result of the mercury binding to these sulfur-hydro groups.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a result that appears surprising at first, they found that the autistic hair mercury levels were only a fraction of the controls'.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten goldeneyes were tested and showed results ranging from below the EPA standard of .3 milligrams of mercury per kilogram of edible tissue to 14 times the standard.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This occurs about every seven years on average.[68]
Orbit of Mercury as seen from the ascending node (bottom) and from 10° above (top)
Mercury’s axial tilt is almost zero,[69][70] with the best measured value as low as 0.027°.[7] This is significantly smaller than that of Jupiter, which boasts the second smallest axial tilt of all planets at 3.1 degrees. .This means that to an observer at Mercury’s poles, the center of the Sun never rises more than 2.1′ above the horizon.^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of that group, 63 people had blood mercury levels more than twice the recommended level and 19 showed blood mercury levels four times the level considered safe.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fish are the largest source for humans, and a tuna sandwich may contain more mercury than a vaccine shot.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.At certain points on Mercury’s surface, an observer would be able to see the Sun rise about halfway, then reverse and set before rising again, all within the same Mercurian day.^ Within 41 weeks, all but two had reduced their blood mercury levels to below government-recommended thresholds, according to Hightower.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recognizing the hazard and rising abatement costs for spills, the American Hospital Association and its members are taking steps to phase out all mercury products.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dave Parsons, a DNR chemist, says the threshold at which mercury in liquid waste would make it hazardous waste is about 200 parts per billion.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is because approximately four days before perihelion, Mercury’s angular orbital velocity exactly equals its angular rotational velocity so that the Sun’s apparent motion ceases; at perihelion, Mercury’s angular orbital velocity then exceeds the angular rotational velocity. Thus, the Sun appears to move in a retrograde direction. Four days after perihelion, the Sun’s normal apparent motion resumes at these points.[15]

Spin–orbit resonance

After one orbit, Mercury has rotated 1.5 times, so after two complete orbits the same hemisphere is again illuminated.
.For many years it was thought that Mercury was synchronously tidally locked with the Sun, rotating once for each orbit and always keeping the same face directed towards the Sun, in the same way that the same side of the Moon always faces the Earth.^ A type of inorganic mercury known as calomel ("sweet mercury") was once commonly used to treat many ailments, including yellow fever, typhus and syphilis.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been thought that breathing in mercury vapour over a period of years was the reason why some lighthouse keepers went mad.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, radar observations in 1965 proved that the planet has a 3:2 spin–orbit resonance, rotating three times for every two revolutions around the Sun; the eccentricity of Mercury’s orbit makes this resonance stable—at perihelion, when the solar tide is strongest, the Sun is nearly still in Mercury’s sky.^ He suggested that the two lawsuits filed this week -- the first in B.C. to claim a causal link between Thimerosal and autism -- will have a hard time proving the cause and effect.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alas, Hightower says, that didn't spare one child, who initially was screened with nearly 15 times the NAS recommended ceiling concentrations for mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every time it rains, toxic mercury gushes from a mountain of spent ore and dumps into nearby Cache Creek.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
.The original reason astronomers thought it was synchronously locked, was that whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always nearly at the same point in its 3:2 resonance, hence showing the same face.^ He says this form of mercury is chemically nearly the same and possibly more dangerous than ordinary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has long been thought that breathing in mercury vapour over a period of years was the reason why some lighthouse keepers went mad.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is because, coincidentally, Mercury's rotation period is almost exactly half of its synodic period with respect to Earth.^ ''And that's almost exactly what happened with mercury.''
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to Mercury’s 3:2 spin–orbit resonance, a solar day (the length between two meridian transits of the Sun) lasts about 176 Earth days.^ People familiar with the final report, originally due last May, told the newspaper the study finds that mercury poses a serious health problem for children.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ STUDIES HIGHLIGHT CONTROVERSY Two studies released Wednesday looked at the relationship between mercury and heart disease.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar correlations were observed between the mercury concentrations in fetal organs and the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples on day 15 of pregnancy.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] A sidereal day (the period of rotation) lasts about 58.7 Earth days.[15]
.Simulations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of Mercury varies chaotically from nearly zero (circular) to more than 0.45 over millions of years due to perturbations from the other planets.^ When the EPA concluded in 1996, for example, that more than 6 million Americans were at risk of mercury poisoning, industry lobbyists persuaded the agency not to make the report public for more than a year.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He says this form of mercury is chemically nearly the same and possibly more dangerous than ordinary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consumption of fish is the primary route of exposure to organic mercury for children older than 1 year.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][72] .This is thought to explain Mercury’s 3:2 spin-orbit resonance (rather than the more usual 1:1), since this state is more likely to arise during a period of high eccentricity.^ "During the past decade children were given many more vaccines containing mercury, and the rate of autism skyrocketed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ten other states, including California and Oregon, have more-limited laws rest restricting mercury use and disposal.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .Numerical simulations show that a resonant orbital interaction with Jupiter may cause the eccentricity of Mercury's orbit to increase to the point where the planet may collide with Venus within the next five billion years.^ In adults, mercury may increase the risk of heart attack and infertility and cause memory and concentration problems.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have done mass spectrometer studies to show that aluminum impacts the bones, and there may be some interaction triggering arthritis.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Things could get worse in the coming years, as increases in temperature also appear to help the spread of the mercury."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]

Advance of perihelion

.In 1859, the French mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier reported that the slow precession of Mercury’s orbit around the Sun could not be completely explained by Newtonian mechanics and perturbations by the known planets.^ Yet, Moore could not completely reverse the mercury blockage even after 20 to 30 minutes of washing.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He suggested, among possible explanations, that another planet (or perhaps instead a series of smaller 'corpuscules') might exist in an orbit even closer to the Sun than that of Mercury, to account for this perturbation.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We have long known that the effects of methyl mercury on the fetal nervous system are more serious" than on adults, Mahaffey said in a telephone interview yesterday.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, he said the findings might have been different if the researchers had done a separate analysis by gender, since boys are much more susceptible to mercury exposure than girls.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] (Other explanations considered included a slight oblateness of the Sun.) The success of the search for Neptune based on its perturbations of the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to place faith in this possible explanation, and the hypothetical planet was even named Vulcan. However, no such planet was ever found.[76]
The precession of Mercury is 5600 arc seconds per century. .Newtonian mechanics, taking into account all the effects from the other planets, predicts a precession of 5557 seconds of arc per century.^ "When it gets in the water and the food chain and into people, it can create all kinds of serious health effects."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77] In the early 20th century, Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity provided the explanation for the observed precession. .The effect is very small: the Mercurian relativistic perihelion advance excess is just 42.98 arcseconds per century, therefore it requires a little over twelve million orbits for a full excess turn.^ Health experts emphasize that fish is indeed healthy food and some kinds, such as salmon and many small fish, contain very little mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Similar, but much smaller, effects operate for other planets: 8.62 arcseconds per century for Venus, 3.84 for Earth, 1.35 for Mars, and 10.05 for 1566 Icarus.[78][79]

Coordinate system

Longitude on Mercury increases in the westerly direction. A small crater named Hun Kal provides the reference point for measuring longitude. The center of Hun Kal is 20° west longitude.[80]

Observation

.Mercury’s apparent magnitude varies between about −2.3—brighter than Sirius—and 5.7. The extremes occur when Mercury is close to the Sun in the sky.^ President Bush has said his proposed Clear Skies initiative would reduce mercury emissions by about 70 percent.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] Observation of Mercury is complicated by its proximity to the Sun, as it is lost in the Sun’s glare for much of the time. Mercury can be observed for only a brief period during either morning or evening twilight. .The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures which prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.^ ''One cannot prevent them from making hay regardless of whether the sun is shining or not.''
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, it found that all other population groups, including children, had blood levels of mercury well below the government safety limit.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Redwood contends that three infant vaccines administered to her son when he was 2 months old exposed him to levels of mercury that far exceeded all safety guidelines.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81]
Like the Moon, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction. The planet is rendered invisible on both of these occasions because of its rising and setting in concert with the Sun in each case. .The first and last quarter phases occur at greatest elongation east and west, respectively, when Mercury's separation from the Sun ranges anywhere from 17.9° at perihelion to 27.8° at aphelion.^ A recent analysis of foods found a quarter of samples contained mercury, which on average was double that when baby food was last analysed three years ago.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mean mercury levels in mothers' hair were 6.8 ppm (range: 0.5-27 ppm) in the Seychelles and 4.3 ppm (range: 0.2-39.1 ppm) in the Faroe Islands.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82][83] .At greatest elongation west, Mercury rises at its earliest before the Sun, and at greatest elongation east, it sets at its latest after the Sun.^ Then-EPA Administrator Carol Browner noted, "The greatest source of mercury emissions is power plants, and they have never been required to control these emissions before now."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84]
Mercury attains inferior conjunction every 116 days on average,[3] but this interval can range from 105 days to 129 days due to the planet’s eccentric orbit. Mercury can come as close as 77.3 million km to the Earth.[3] .In 871, the nearest approach was the first in about 41,000 years to be closer than 82.2 Gm, something that has happened 68 times since then, as of 2008. After much longer gaps, the next approach to within 82.1 Gm is in 2679, and to 82 Gm in 4487. But it will not be closer to Earth than 80 Gm until 28,622.[85] In its period of retrograde motion as seen from Earth can vary from 8 to 15 days on either side of inferior conjunction.^ He faces up to 10 years in prison and a fine of $68,000 if convicted.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four year old Alex Maher has come a long way since he was diagnosed with autism about three years ago.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For more than 40 years, the family shared the big house and two trailers a mile from the Monsanto chemical plant, on the west side of Anniston, Ala.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This large range arises from the planet’s high orbital eccentricity.[15]
.Mercury is more often easily visible from Earth’s Southern Hemisphere than from its Northern Hemisphere; this is because its maximum possible elongations west of the Sun always occur when it is early autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, while its maximum possible eastern elongations happen during late winter in the Southern Hemisphere.^ "During the past decade children were given many more vaccines containing mercury, and the rate of autism skyrocketed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Churchill estimates that, because of the crude methods, 8.5 million pounds of mercury was "lost" to the environment during the Gold Rush, mostly in streams of Northern California.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] .In both of these cases, the angle Mercury strikes with the ecliptic is maximized, allowing it to rise several hours before the Sun in the former instance and not set until several hours after sundown in the latter in countries located at southern temperate zone latitudes, such as Argentina and New Zealand.^ At high doses, both sexes are affected equally; at low doses only males are affected (38,40,127) DISCUSSION We have shown that every major characteristic of autism has been exhibited in at least several cases of documented mercury poisoning.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These problems plagued Tibau for 20 years until, in 2000, a blood test showed she was highly sensitive to mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early environmental insult, in these cases, is mercury exposure that overwhelmed the bodys attempts at detoxification.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[84] By contrast, at northern temperate latitudes, Mercury is never above the horizon of a more-or-less fully dark night sky. .Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse.^ During most of the 90's, many American 6-month-olds received a total of 187.5 micrograms of ethyl mercury through vaccination.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury was turning out to be like lead, which had been studied extensively in the homes of the Baltimore poor during Halsey's tenure at Hopkins.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86]
Mercury is brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a gibbous phase, between either quarter phase and full. .Although the planet is further away from Earth when it is gibbous than when it is a crescent, the greater illuminated area visible more than compensates for the greater distance.^ "It's the only place we have studied this, but it's bound to occur in other more northern areas where concentrations of pollutants are equally high or even greater."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] The opposite is true for Venus, which appears brightest when it is a thin crescent, because it is much closer to Earth than when gibbous.[87]

Studies

Ancient astronomers

The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the MUL.APIN tablets. .These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.[88] The cuneiform name used to designate Mercury on the MUL.APIN tablets is transcribed as UDU.IDIM.GU4.UD ("the jumping planet").^ These include finding substitutes to mercury use, establishing a global programme of action, even launching talks for a contentious legally-binding treaty.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Mercury is like the crazy aunt that California has kept in the closet all these years," said Bill Jennings, head of the Deltakeeper environmental group.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used for centuries in mining and other industries, mercury is not just a theoretical threat.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[b][89] Babylonian records of Mercury date back to the 1st millennium BC. The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the Gods in their mythology.[90]
The ancient Greeks of Hesiod's time knew the planet as Στίλβων (Stilbon), meaning "the gleaming", and Ἑρμάων (Hermaon).[91] Later Greeks called the planet Apollo when it was visible in the morning sky and Hermes when visible in the evening. Around the 4th century BC, however, Greek astronomers came to understand that the two names referred to the same body. .The Romans named the planet after the swift-footed Roman messenger god, Mercury (Latin Mercurius), which they equated with the Greek Hermes, because it moves across the sky faster than any other planet.^ But they said the finding justified a greater effort to find ways to cut women's exposure to mercury, which at high levels can cause birth defects and other problems.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report notes that children are more exposed and vulnerable to mercury and other environmental pollutants because they play outside, and for their size they drink more water, eat more food, and breathe more air than adults do, according to the article.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ray said he was glad the agencies moved quickly because hunters will be able to make good decisions on what they shoot and eat.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][92] The Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun in his work Planetary Hypotheses. .He suggested that no transits had been observed either because planets such as Mercury were too small to see, or the transits were too infrequent.^ Symptoms of catecholamine excess such as sweating and hypertension occur because mercury blocks the degradation pathway of catecholamines.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cork may make a somewhat sloppy fit, because no level of mercury completely abolished the current.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Health experts emphasize that fish is indeed healthy food and some kinds, such as salmon and many small fish, contain very little mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[93]
Ibn al-Shatir's model for the appearances of Mercury, showing the multiplication of epicycles using the Tusi-couple, thus eliminating the Ptolemaic eccentrics and equant.
In ancient China, Mercury was known as Ch'en-Hsing, the Hour Star. It was associated with the direction north and the phase of water in the Wu Xing.[94] Hindu mythology used the name Budha for Mercury, and this god was thought to preside over Wednesday.[95] The god Odin (or Woden) of Germanic paganism was associated with the planet Mercury and the name Wednesday was derived from Woden's day.[96] .The Maya may have represented Mercury as an owl (or possibly four owls; two for the morning aspect and two for the evening) that served as a messenger to the underworld.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Infants may have receive 60 times a toxic dose or: * 2,370 times the allowable EPA Safe Limit for mercury in the first two years of life !
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]
In ancient Indian astronomy, Aryabhata treated the epicycle motion of Mercury as an ellipse rather than a circle in his Aryabhatiya (499).[98] .The Surya Siddhanta, an Indian astronomical text of the 5th century, estimates the diameter of Mercury as 3,008 miles, an error of less than 1% from the currently accepted diameter of 3,032 miles.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An analysis of leachate from the landfill last September showed mercury at less-than-detectable levels.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Artisinal mining of gold and silver in some less developed countries is releasing an estimated 400-500 tonnes of mercury each year to the air, soils and waterways.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, this estimate was based upon an inaccurate guess of the planet's angular diameter as 3.0 arcminutes. This may have been influenced by the measurements of the Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy, who found a value of 2.09 arcminutes. This is close to the resolution of the human eye and is significantly larger than the value later obtained by telescope.[99]
In medieval Islamic astronomy, the Andalusian astronomer Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī in the 11th century represented the primary epicycle of Mercury's geocentric orbit as an ellipse, departing from the ancient Greek notion of uniform circular motions.[100][101] In the 12th century, Ibn Bajjah observed "two planets as black spots on the face of the Sun," which was later suggested as the transit of Mercury and/or Venus by the Maragha astronomer Qotb al-Din Shirazi in the 13th century.[102] (Note that most such medieval reports of transits were later taken as observations of sunspots.[103]) In the 14th century, Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya recognized Mercury as the smallest known planet,[104] while Ibn al-Shatir, as an alternative to the Ptolemaic model, produced his own geocentric model for Mercury. This may have influenced the 16th century basis for the Copernican model of Mercury, but in a heliocentric context.[105][106][107]
In India, the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji in the 15th century developed a partially heliocentric planetary model in which Mercury orbits the Sun, which in turn orbits the Earth, similar to the Tychonic system later proposed by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century. .However, Nilakantha's system was more accurate at predicting the heliocentric orbit of Mercury than the later Tychonic and Copernican models, and remained the most accurate until the 17th century when Johannes Kepler reformed the computation for Mercury in much the same way Nilakantha did.^ In some cases, even 21 weeks later, the patients' mercury concentrations remained elevated well above the NAS guideline figures.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Halsey's view, however, was not shared by a small but vocal faction of parents who questioned whether all these shots did more harm than good.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108][109][110]

Ground-based telescopic research

Transit of Mercury. Mercury is the small dot in the lower center, in front of the sun. The dark area on the left of the solar disk is a sunspot.
The first telescopic observations of Mercury were made by Galileo in the early 17th century. Although he observed phases when he looked at Venus, his telescope was not powerful enough to see the phases of Mercury. In 1631 Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler. In 1639 Giovanni Zupi used a telescope to discover that the planet had orbital phases similar to Venus and the Moon. The observation demonstrated conclusively that Mercury orbited around the Sun.[15]
A very rare event in astronomy is the passage of one planet in front of another (occultation), as seen from Earth. .Mercury and Venus occult each other every few centuries, and the event of May 28, 1737 is the only one historically observed, having been seen by John Bevis at the Royal Greenwich Observatory.^ But mercury thermometers are only one, very visible part of the problem.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used for centuries in mining and other industries, mercury is not just a theoretical threat.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111] The next occultation of Mercury by Venus will be on December 3, 2133.[112]
.The difficulties inherent in observing Mercury mean that it has been far less studied than the other planets.^ Mercury sells for less than $2 a pound on the wholesale market, and even when it is "recycled," it may still end up in the environment.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many developing countries also are far less apt to notify their populations about the risks of mercury, like the dangers of too much seafood for pregnant women.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "New studies show that far more women are at risk of exposure to methyl mercury than previously thought," said Caroline Smith DeWaal, director of food safety at the Center for Science in the Public Interest.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1800 Johann Schröter made observations of surface features, claiming to have observed 20 km high mountains. Friedrich Bessel used Schröter's drawings to erroneously estimate the rotation period as 24 hours and an axial tilt of 70°.[113] .In the 1880s Giovanni Schiaparelli mapped the planet more accurately, and suggested that Mercury’s rotational period was 88 days, the same as its orbital period due to tidal locking.^ "If you're exposed to mercury over long periods of time, then you're going to see more of an effect."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He says this form of mercury is chemically nearly the same and possibly more dangerous than ordinary mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fetus and infant are known to be more at risk due rapid brain development and mercury's neurotoxicant properties.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114] This phenomenon is known as synchronous rotation and is shown by Earth’s Moon. .The effort to map the surface of Mercury was continued by Eugenios Antoniadi, who published a book in 1934 that included both maps and his own observations.^ Both studies included a range of oral mercury exposures that are very relevant to the US population.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59] Many of the planet's surface features, particularly the albedo features, take their names from Antoniadi's map.[115]
.In June 1962 Soviet scientists at the Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences lead by Vladimir Kotelnikov became first to bounce radar signal off Mercury and receive it, starting radar observations of the planet.^ David Evers, director and chief scientist at the Maine-based Biodiversity Research Institute, said he doubts that mercury caused the Indiana eagles problems.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Infants may have receive 60 times a toxic dose or: * 2,370 times the allowable EPA Safe Limit for mercury in the first two years of life !
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[116][117][118] .Three years later radar observations by Americans Gordon Pettengill and R. Dyce using 300-meter Arecibo Observatory radio telescope in Puerto Rico showed conclusively that the planet’s rotational period was about 59 days.^ Four year old Alex Maher has come a long way since he was diagnosed with autism about three years ago.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the mothers had 59 or more parts per billion of mercury in their blood while pregnant, their children scored lower on intelligence tests several years later.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119][120] .The theory that Mercury’s rotation was synchronous had become widely held, and it was a surprise to astronomers when these radio observations were announced.^ The enzymes, which our immune system relies on for chemical reactions to occur, become disrupted as a result of the mercury binding to these sulfur-hydro groups.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's the warning from researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering, who have found surprising levels of mercury in these insects.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If Mercury were tidally locked, its dark face would be extremely cold, but measurements of radio emission revealed that it was much hotter than expected.^ (An early University of Rochester study was reassuring: it indicated that children eliminate thimerosal much more quickly than expected.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also would ban the sales of motor vehicles manufactured in 2003 with mercury switches found in anti-lock brakes and lights.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study, reported Saturday in The Lancet, a London-based medical journal, also found that infants excrete the mercury much faster than expected, suggesting it does not build up from one vaccination to the next.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Astronomers were reluctant to drop the synchronous rotation theory and proposed alternative mechanisms such as powerful heat-distributing winds to explain the observations.[121]
Italian astronomer Giuseppe Colombo noted that the rotation value was about two-thirds of Mercury’s orbital period, and proposed that the planet’s orbital and rotational periods were locked into a 3:2 rather than a 1:1 resonance.[122] Data from Mariner 10 subsequently confirmed this view.[123] .This means that Schiaparelli's and Antoniadi's maps were not "wrong". Instead, the astronomers saw the same features during every second orbit and recorded them, but disregarded those seen in the meantime, when Mercury's other face was toward the Sun, since the orbital geometry meant that these observations were made under poor viewing conditions.^ Keener and Khang are attempting to identify the source of the mercury to determine if these concentration variations are natural to cicadas or if man-made sources are contributing to the mercury levels.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pertinent characteristic of mercury is the great variability in its effects by individual, so that at the same exposure level, some will be affected severely while others will be asymptomatic (9,11,28).
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the campaigns have made more headway than others, but all have acquired a new urgency as the dangers of mercury become better known.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113]
.Ground-based observations did not shed much further light on the innermost planet, and it was not until the first space probe flew past Mercury that many of its most fundamental properties became known.^ "During the past decade children were given many more vaccines containing mercury, and the rate of autism skyrocketed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most European and Japanese auto manufacturers stopped installing mercury convenience light switches in the mid-1990s.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A type of inorganic mercury known as calomel ("sweet mercury") was once commonly used to treat many ailments, including yellow fever, typhus and syphilis.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, recent technological advances have led to improved ground-based observations. In 2000, high-resolution lucky imaging observations were conducted by the Mount Wilson Observatory 1.5 meter Hale telescope. .They provided the first views that resolved surface features on the parts of Mercury which were not imaged in the Mariner mission.^ In the first days after the mercury was stolen, school officials and police played down the criminal aspect of the incident while they tried to identify all the students exposed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers say they have found the first evidence that mercury can circumvent the blood-brain barrier that usually prevents such toxins from entering the brain.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a result that appears surprising at first, they found that the autistic hair mercury levels were only a fraction of the controls'.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[124] Later imaging has shown evidence of a huge double-ringed impact basin even larger than the Caloris Basin in the non-Mariner-imaged hemisphere. It has informally been dubbed the Skinakas Basin.[125] Most of the planet has been mapped by the Arecibo radar telescope, with 5 km resolution, including polar deposits in shadowed craters of what may be water ice.[126]

Research with space probes

.Reaching Mercury from Earth poses significant technical challenges, since the planet orbits so much closer to the Sun than does the Earth.^ Since shovelers and goldeneyes both eat brine shrimp, brine shrimp eggs and larvae, the reasons why shovelers had mercury levels so much higher are a mystery.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study, reported Saturday in The Lancet, a London-based medical journal, also found that infants excrete the mercury much faster than expected, suggesting it does not build up from one vaccination to the next.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, he said the findings might have been different if the researchers had done a separate analysis by gender, since boys are much more susceptible to mercury exposure than girls.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Mercury-bound spacecraft launched from Earth must travel over 91 million kilometers into the Sun’s gravitational potential well.^ The United Nations report found that mercury travels throughout the earth at a far greater rate than was previously known, circulating between the air, water and soil as well as in living things.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mercury has an orbital speed of 48 km/s, while Earth’s orbital speed is 30 km/s. .Thus the spacecraft must make a large change in velocity (delta-v) to enter a Hohmann transfer orbit that passes near Mercury, as compared to the delta-v required for other planetary missions.^ Require Ecology to work with hospitals, small businesses and others to reduce the use of mercury and prevent the toxin from being disposed of improperly.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127]
.The potential energy liberated by moving down the Sun’s potential well becomes kinetic energy; requiring another large delta-v change to do anything other than rapidly pass by Mercury.^ "The mercury report gives us another compelling reason to reduce society's dependence on carbon-intensive energy supplies," said Toepfer.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "This was not a trivial exercise," Bleasby said of the labeling process, which included changing the packaging on all of the company's fluorescent and other mercury-containing lamp products.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large predator fish such as bass, walleye, tuna, and swordfish can have levels of mercury one million times higher than the surrounding water.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To land safely or enter a stable orbit the spacecraft would rely entirely on rocket motors. .Aerobraking is ruled out because the planet has very little atmosphere.^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A trip to Mercury requires more rocket fuel than that required to escape the solar system completely.^ Infants are more susceptible than adults to the toxic effects of mercury because mercury interferes with infants' developing neurological systems, the lawsuits say.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of that group, 63 people had blood mercury levels more than twice the recommended level and 19 showed blood mercury levels four times the level considered safe.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fish are the largest source for humans, and a tuna sandwich may contain more mercury than a vaccine shot.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As a result, only two space probes have visited the planet so far.[128] .A proposed alternative approach would use a solar sail to attain a Mercury-synchronous orbit around the Sun.^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Bush has said his proposed Clear Skies initiative would reduce mercury emissions by about 70 percent.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Susan Collins (R-Maine) has proposed legislation that would create a task force to address the mercury problem on a national scale.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[129]

Mariner 10

The Mariner 10 probe, the first probe to visit the innermost planet
View of Mercury from Mariner 10
The first spacecraft to visit Mercury was NASA’s Mariner 10 (1974–75).[13] .The spacecraft used the gravity of Venus to adjust its orbital velocity so that it could approach Mercury, making it both the first spacecraft to use this gravitational “slingshot” effect and the first NASA mission to visit multiple planets.^ Because mercury has many uses and applications, the movement to get it out of the atmosphere must take a multipronged approach.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Making matters worse, the latest science on mercury damage suggested that even small amounts of organic mercury could do harm to the fetal brain.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lawsuits claim the drug companies should have known of the neurotoxic effects of the mercury contained in Thimerosal, which had been used as a preservative and anti-biological agent since the 1930s.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[127] .Mariner 10 provided the first close-up images of Mercury’s surface, which immediately showed its heavily cratered nature, and revealed many other types of geological features, such as the giant scarps which were later ascribed to the effect of the planet shrinking slightly as its iron core cools.^ As the mercury moves downstream, however, natural bacteria convert it into an organic form -- methylmercury -- that moves readily up the food chain.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linear regression analysis showed relatively high correlation coefficients between the mercury content and amalgam surface areas, and the coefficients were statistically significant.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And though follow-up blood tests showed that their bodies indeed began shedding mercury, the drop was slow.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130] Unfortunately, due to the length of Mariner 10's orbital period, the same face of the planet was lit at each of Mariner 10’s close approaches. This made observation of both sides of the planet impossible,[131] and resulted in the mapping of less than 45% of the planet’s surface.[132]
.On March 27, 1974, two days before its first flyby of Mercury, Mariner 10's instruments began registering large amounts of unexpected ultraviolet radiation near Mercury.^ In the first days after the mercury was stolen, school officials and police played down the criminal aspect of the incident while they tried to identify all the students exposed.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gold mines in northeastern Nevada, upwind of Salt Lake City, have reported releasing large amounts of mercury into the atmosphere.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All three of these vaccines contain relatively large amounts of thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl-mercury by weight.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This led to the tentative identification of Mercury's moon. .Shortly afterward, the source of the excess UV was identified as the star 31 Crateris, and Mercury's moon passed into astronomy's history books as a footnote.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keener and Khang are attempting to identify the source of the mercury to determine if these concentration variations are natural to cicadas or if man-made sources are contributing to the mercury levels.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In children, mercury vapors easily pass into the brain and nervous system, causing permanent developmental problems.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The spacecraft made three close approaches to Mercury, the closest of which took it to within 327 km of the surface.[133] .At the first close approach, instruments detected a magnetic field, to the great surprise of planetary geologists—Mercury’s rotation was expected to be much too slow to generate a significant dynamo effect.^ In a result that appears surprising at first, they found that the autistic hair mercury levels were only a fraction of the controls'.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is too weak and does too little, too late to protect the next generation of students from the harmful health effects of mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The second close approach was primarily used for imaging, but at the third approach, extensive magnetic data were obtained. The data revealed that the planet’s magnetic field is much like the Earth’s, which deflects the solar wind around the planet. .However, the origin of Mercury’s magnetic field is still the subject of several competing theories.^ The Institute of Medicine's Immunization Safety Review Commission, however, concluded it is still best for infants and pregnant women to avoid any form of mercury.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[134]
.Just a few days after its final close approach, Mariner 10 ran out of fuel.^ The agencies knew it was vital to get the information out before the hunt's opening day, which they did with just 40 hours to spare.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since its orbit could no longer be accurately controlled, mission controllers instructed the probe to shut down on March 24, 1975.[135] Mariner 10 is thought to be still orbiting the Sun, passing close to Mercury every few months.^ "We think that given 24 hours the air level will come down, and as long as the disposal is done properly there should be no ill effects," he said.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was exactly the case last year, when HoltraChem, a mercury-based chlor-alkali plant in Maine, shut down.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That dermatologist probed the woman's medical history but could find no explanation.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[136]

MESSENGER

MESSENGER being prepared for launch
.A second NASA mission to Mercury, named MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging), was launched on August 3, 2004, from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard a Boeing Delta 2 rocket.^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On each day of pregnancy, the amount of mercury in 24 h air samples was in proportion to the amalgam surface areas.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.N. Environment Program (UNEP) said activities from gold mining to burning coal in power stations had tripled mercury levels in the air since pre-industrial times.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It made a fly-by of the Earth in August 2005, and of Venus in October 2006 and June 2007 to place it onto the correct trajectory to reach an orbit around Mercury.^ Friday, June 29, 2007 ---------------------------------------------------------- Green Beret finds mercury in meat from commissary ---------------------------------------------------------- Posted: June 29, 2007 1:00 a.m.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[137] .A first fly-by of Mercury occurred on January 14, 2008, a second on October 6, 2008,[138] and a third on September 29, 2009.[139] Most of the hemisphere not imaged by Mariner 10 has been mapped during these fly-bys.^ The enzymes, which our immune system relies on for chemical reactions to occur, become disrupted as a result of the mercury binding to these sulfur-hydro groups.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most exposure in humans occurs through the diet, by consuming fish with high levels of methylmercury, a mercury compound.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These Infants may have receive 60 times a toxic dose or: * 2,370 times the allowable EPA Safe Limit for mercury in the first two years of life !
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The probe will then enter an elliptical orbit around the planet in March 2011; the nominal mapping mission is one terrestrial year.[138]
.The mission is designed to clear up six key issues: Mercury’s high density, its geological history, the nature of its magnetic field, the structure of its core, whether it really has ice at its poles, and where its tenuous atmosphere comes from.^ Both studies followed up on a 1995 Finnish study that found an increased risk of heart disease in people whose hair had high mercury levels.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forty states have issued advisories about eating fish that may have high levels of mercury in their tissues.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To this end, the probe is carrying imaging devices which will gather much higher resolution images of much more of the planet than Mariner 10, assorted spectrometers to determine abundances of elements in the crust, and magnetometers and devices to measure velocities of charged particles.^ (An early University of Rochester study was reassuring: it indicated that children eliminate thimerosal much more quickly than expected.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The risk of consequences from diseases that vaccines prevent is still much higher than risks from vaccines and their contents."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, he said the findings might have been different if the researchers had done a separate analysis by gender, since boys are much more susceptible to mercury exposure than girls.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Detailed measurements of tiny changes in the probe’s velocity as it orbits will be used to infer details of the planet’s interior structure.[27]

BepiColombo

.The European Space Agency is planning a joint mission with Japan called BepiColombo, which will orbit Mercury with two probes: one to map the planet and the other to study its magnetosphere.^ Mercury concentrations in major maternal organs with one, two and four amalgam fillings tended to increase with the increasing amalgam surface areas.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All but three of the species in the sample had at least one duck with mercury levels higher than what the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers safe to eat.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two studies have yielded contradictory findings about the possible heart dangers of eating mercury-laden fish.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[140] .Once launched, the spacecraft bus is expected to reach Mercury in 2019.[141] The bus will release a magnetometer probe into an elliptical orbit, then chemical rockets will fire to deposit the mapper probe into a circular orbit.^ Once emitted into the atmosphere, mercury knows no boundaries, and can move thousands of kilometres on air currents to other continents, where it is deposited in precipitation and then enters the aquatic food chain.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, methylmercury in the environment is formed by microorganisms from elemental mercury deposited from the air or discharged into water from natural or human sources.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Environmental campaigners highlighted the need for more work to reduce chemical releases into the environment and more research on risks.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both probes will operate for a terrestrial year.[140] .The mapper probe will carry an array of spectrometers similar to those on MESSENGER, and will study the planet at many different wavelengths including infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray.^ Mercury poisoning has a huge array of symptoms including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, breathing problems, skin problems, autism, alzheimers, and many more.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[142]

In culture

In western astrology Mercury is the ruling planet of Gemini and Virgo. That is, the supposed astrological influence of the planet was greatest when it was observed in these constellations.[143]
.On maps of Mercury created by astronomers before the detailed mapping of recent decades, the Solitudo Hermae Trismegisti (Wilderness of Hermes Trismegistus) was identified as a major feature of the planet Mercury, covering about one-fourth of the planet in the SE quadrant.^ "One mercury thermometer contains about one gram of mercury," said Collins, "enough mercury to contaminate all the fish in a 20-acre (8 hectare) lake."
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They knew it was "bad to touch or play with, [but] no one knew about the dangers of mercury vapors or the possible effects of long term exposure.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About one gram of mercury can contaminate a 20-acre lake enough to cause health advisories for fish present.
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[144][145][146]
Mercury, the Winged Messenger is a movement in Gustav Holst's The Planets.

See also

Notes

.
  1. ^ 1/30 of a degree is the fractional equivalent to 2.1 arcminutes.
  2. ^ Some sources precede the cuniform transcription with "MUL". "MUL" is a cuneiform sign that was used in the Sumerian language to designate a star or planet, but it is not considered part of the actual name.^ Some noted sources attribute the apparent increase in autism incidence to better diagnoses on the part of pediatricians and the various pediatric specialties.
    • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Human exposure to mercury comes from a variety of sources - consumption of fish, occupational and household uses, dental fillings and some vaccines.
    • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The "4" is a reference number in the Sumero-Akkadian transliteration system to designate which of several syllables a certain cuneiform sign is most likely designating.

References

  1. ^ "mercurial". Merriam-Webster Online. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mercurial. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  2. ^ Yeomans, Donald K. (April 7, 2008). "HORIZONS System". NASA JPL. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Mercury Fact Sheet". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. November 30, 2007. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/mercuryfact.html. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  4. ^ "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-03.  (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Munsell, Kirk; Smith, Harman; Harvey, Samantha (May 28, 2009). "Mercury: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mercury&Display=Facts. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  6. ^ a b Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A’hearn, M. F.; et al. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAGWorking Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 90: 155–180. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/doi/10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  7. ^ a b c Margot, L.J.; Peale, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Holin, I. V. (2007). "Large Longitude Libration of Mercury Reveals a Molten Core". Science 316 (5825): 710–714. doi:10.1126/science.1140514. PMID 17478713. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Sci...316..710M. 
  8. ^ a b c Espenak, Fred (July 25, 1996). "Twelve Year Planetary Ephemeris: 1995–2006". NASA Reference Publication 1349. NASA. http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/TYPE/mercury2.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  9. ^ Pluto was once considered the smallest, but, as of 2006, it is classified as a dwarf planet.
  10. ^ Jose Wudka (1998-09-24). "Precession of the perihelion of Mercury". Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Riverside. http://physics.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node98.html. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  11. ^ "Mercury magnetic field". C. T. Russell & J. G. Luhmann. http://www-spc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/merc_mag/. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  12. ^ "Background Science". European Space Agency. http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/category/index.cfm?fcategoryid=4586. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  13. ^ a b c Dunne, J. A. and Burgess, E. (1978). "Chapter One". The Voyage of Mariner 10 — Mission to Venus and Mercury. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-424/ch1.htm. 
  14. ^ Duncan, John Charles (1946). Astronomy: A Textbook. Harper & Brothers. pp. 125. "The symbol for Mercury represents the Caduceus, a wand with two serpents twined around it, which was carried by the messenger of the gods." 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Strom, Robert G.; Sprague, Ann L. (2003). Exploring Mercury: the iron planet. Springer. ISBN 1852337311. 
  16. ^ staff (May 8, 2003). "Mercury". U.S. Geological Survey. http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/BrowseTheGeologicSolarSystem/MercuryBack.html. Retrieved 2006-11-26. 
  17. ^ Lyttleton, R. A. (1969). "On the Internal Structures of Mercury and Venus". Astrophysics and Space Science 5 (1): 18. doi:10.1007/BF00653933. 
  18. ^ Gold, Lauren (May 3, 2007). "Mercury has molten core, Cornell researcher shows". Chronicle Online (Cornell University). http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/May07/margot.mercury.html. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  19. ^ a b Finley, Dave (May 3, 2007). "Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows". National Radio Astronomy Observatory. http://www.nrao.edu/pr/2007/mercury/. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  20. ^ Spohn, Tilman; Sohl, Frank; Wieczerkowski, Karin; Conzelmann, Vera (2001). "The interior structure of Mercury: what we know, what we expect from BepiColombo". Planetary and Space Science 49 (14–15): 1561–1570. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(01)00093-9. Bibcode2001P&SS...49.1561S. 
  21. ^ Gallant, R. 1986. The National Geographic Picture Atlas of Our Universe. National Geographic Society, 2nd edition.
  22. ^ J.D. Anderson, et al. (July 10, 1996). "Shape and Orientation of Mercury from Radar Ranging Data". Icarus (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology) 124: 690. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0242. 
  23. ^ Schenk, P.; Melosh, H. J.;. "Lobate Thrust Scarps and the Thickness of Mercury’s Lithosphere". Abstracts of the 25th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 1994: 1994LPI....25.1203S. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994LPI....25.1203S. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  24. ^ a b c d Benz, W.; Slattery, W. L.; Cameron, A. G. W. (1988). "Collisional stripping of Mercury’s mantle". Icarus 74 (3): 516–528. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90118-2. 
  25. ^ a b Cameron, A. G. W. (1985). "The partial volatilization of Mercury". Icarus 64 (2): 285–294. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(85)90091-0. 
  26. ^ Weidenschilling, S. J. (1987). "Iron/silicate fractionation and the origin of Mercury". Icarus 35 (1): 99–111. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(78)90064-7. 
  27. ^ a b Grayzeck, Ed. "MESSENGER Web Site". Johns Hopkins University. http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  28. ^ "BepiColombo". ESA Science & Technology. European Space Agency. http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=30. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  29. ^ Staff (February 28, 2008). "Scientists see Mercury in a new light". Science Daily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080201093149.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  30. ^ Blue, Jennifer (April 11, 2008). "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". US Geological Survey. http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/. Retrieved 2008-04-11. 
  31. ^ a b Dunne, J. A. and Burgess, E. (1978). "Chapter Seven". The Voyage of Mariner 10 — Mission to Venus and Mercury. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-424/ch7.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  32. ^ Strom, Robert (September 1979). "Mercury: a post-Mariner assessment". Space Science Reviews 24: 3–70. 
  33. ^ Broadfoot, A. L.; S. Kumar, M. J. S. Belton, and M. B. McElroy (July 12, 1974). "Mercury's Atmosphere from Mariner 10: Preliminary Results". Science 185 (4146): 166–169. doi:10.1126/science.185.4146.166. PMID 17810510. 
  34. ^ Staff (August 5, 2003). "Mercury". U.S. Geological Survey. http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/BrowseTheGeologicSolarSystem/MercuryBack.html. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  35. ^ Head, James W.; Solomon, Sean C. (1981). "Tectonic Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets". Science 213 (4503): 62–76. doi:10.1126/science.213.4503.62. PMID 17741171. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/213/4503/62. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  36. ^ Jefferson Morris, "Laser Altimetry", Aviation Week & Space Technology Vol 169 No 18, 10 Nov. 2008, p. 18: "Mercury's crust is more analogous to a marbled cake than a layered cake."
  37. ^ a b c d e f g Spudis, P. D. (2001). "The Geological History of Mercury". Workshop on Mercury: Space Environment, Surface, and Interior, Chicago: 100. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001mses.conf..100S. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  38. ^ Shiga, David (January 30, 2008). "Bizarre spider scar found on Mercury's surface". NewScientist.com news service. http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn13257-bizarre-spider-scar-found-on-mercurys-surface.html. 
  39. ^ Schultz, Peter H.; Gault, Donald E. (1975). "Seismic effects from major basin formations on the moon and Mercury". Earth, Moon, and Planets 12 (2): 159–175. doi:10.1007/BF00577875. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1975Moon...12..159S. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  40. ^ Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T. (2001). "A Serenitatis origin for the Imbrian grooves and South Pole-Aitken thorium anomaly". Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (E11): 27853–27864. doi:10.1029/2000JE001384. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2001/2000JE001384.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  41. ^ Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S. (2008). "Albedo of Immature Mercurian Crustal Materials: Evidence for the Presence of Ferrous Iron". Lunar and Planetary Science 39: 1750. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.1750D. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  42. ^ a b c R.J. Wagner et al. (2001). "Application of an Updated Impact Cratering Chronology Model to Mercury's Time-Stratigraphic System". Workshop on Mercury: Space Environment, Surface, and Interior, Chicago: 106. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2001mses.conf..106W&db_key=AST&data_type=HTML&format=&high=4613707b1d22308. 
  43. ^ Dzurisin, D. (October 10, 1978). "The tectonic and volcanic history of Mercury as inferred from studies of scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments". Journal of Geophysical Research 83: 4883–4906. doi:10.1029/JB083iB10p04883. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1978JGR....83.4883D. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  44. ^ Van Hoolst, Tim; Jacobs, Carla (2003). "Mercury’s tides and interior structure". Journal of Geophysical Research 108 (E11): 7. doi:10.1029/2003JE002126. 
  45. ^ Prockter, Louise (2005). Ice in the Solar System. Volume 26. Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest. http://www.jhuapl.edu/techdigest/td2602/Prockter.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  46. ^ Lewis, John S. (2004). Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System (2nd ed.). Academic Press. p. 463. ISBN 012446744X. 
  47. ^ Murdock, T. L.; Ney, E. P. (1970). "Mercury: The Dark-Side Temperature". Science 170 (3957): 535–537. doi:10.1126/science.170.3957.535. PMID 17799708. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/170/3957/535. Retrieved 2008-04-09. 
  48. ^ Lewis, John S. (2004). Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System. Academic Press. p. 461. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ERpMjmR1ErYC&pg=RA1-PA461&lpg=RA1-PA461&dq=solar-constant+mercury+-wikipedia+-wiki+-encyclopedia&source=web&ots=5jprP6dXYk&sig=iJEN0OU01yxgxnZhPcG17z-exYw&hl=en#PRA1-PA461,M1. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  49. ^ Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Svitek, Tomas; Murray, Bruce C. (November 1992). "Stability of polar frosts in spherical bowl-shaped craters on the moon, Mercury, and Mars". Icarus 100 (1): 40–47. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90016-Z. Bibcode1992Icar..100...40I. 
  50. ^ Slade, M. A.; Butler, B. J.; Muhleman, D. O. (1992). "Mercury radar imaging — Evidence for polar ice". Science 258 (5082): 635–640. doi:10.1126/science.258.5082.635. PMID 17748898. 
  51. ^ Williams, David R. (June 2, 2005). "Ice on Mercury". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/ice/ice_mercury.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  52. ^ a b c Rawlins, K; Moses, J. I.; Zahnle, K.J. (1995). "Exogenic Sources of Water for Mercury's Polar Ice". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 27: 1117. Bibcode1995DPS....27.2112R. 
  53. ^ Harmon, J. K.; Perillat, P. J.; Slade, M. A. (January 2001). "High-Resolution Radar Imaging of Mercury's North Pole". Icarus 149 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6544. 
  54. ^ Domingue, Deborah L. et al. (August 2009). "Mercury's Atmosphere: A Surface-Bounded Exosphere". Space Science Reviews 131 (1–4): 161–186. doi:10.1007/s11214-007-9260-9. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SSRv..131..161D. 
  55. ^ Hunten, D. M.; Shemansky, D. E.; Morgan, T. H. (1988). [www.uapress.arizona.edu/onlinebks/Mercury/MercuryCh17.pdf "The Mercury atmosphere"]. Mercury. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1085-7. www.uapress.arizona.edu/onlinebks/Mercury/MercuryCh17.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  56. ^ Lakdawalla, Emily (July 3, 2008). "MESSENGER Scientists 'Astonished' to Find Water in Mercury's Thin Atmosphere". http://www.planetary.org/news/2008/0703_MESSENGER_Scientists_Astonished_to.html. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  57. ^ Zurbuchen, Thomas H. et al. (July 2008). "MESSENGER Observations of the Composition of Mercury’s Ionized Exosphere and Plasma Environment". Science 321 (5885): 90–92. doi:10.1126/science.1159314. PMID 18599777. 
  58. ^ "Instrument Shows What Planet Mercury Is Made Of". University of Michigan. June 30, 2008. http://newswise.com/articles/view/542209/. Retrieved 2009-05-18. 
  59. ^ a b c d e Beatty, J. Kelly; Petersen, Carolyn Collins; Chaikin, Andrew (1999). The New Solar System. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521645875. 
  60. ^ Seeds, Michael A. (2004). Astronomy: The Solar System and Beyond (4th ed.). Brooks Cole. ISBN 0534421113. 
  61. ^ Williams, David R. (January 6, 2005). "Planetary Fact Sheets". NASA National Space Science Data Center. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/planetfact.html. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  62. ^ a b c Staff (January 30, 2008). "Mercury’s Internal Magnetic Field". NASA. http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/image.php?page=2&gallery_id=2&image_id=152. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  63. ^ Gold, Lauren (May 3, 2007). "Mercury has molten core, Cornell researcher shows". Cornell University. http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/May07/margot.mercury.html. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  64. ^ Christensen, Ulrich R. (2006). "A deep dynamo generating Mercury's magnetic field". Nature 444 (7122): 1056–1058. doi:10.1038/nature05342. PMID 17183319. 
  65. ^ Spohn, T.; Sohl, F.; Wieczerkowski, K.; Conzelmann, V. (2001). "The interior structure of Mercury: what we know, what we expect from BepiColombo". Planetary and Space Science 49 (14–15): 1561–1570. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(01)00093-9. 
  66. ^ a b Steigerwald, Bill (June 2, 2009). "Magnetic Tornadoes Could Liberate Mercury's Tenuous Atmosphere". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/messenger/multimedia/magnetic_tornadoes.html. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  67. ^ "Space Topics: Compare the Planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, The Moon, and Mars". Planetary Society. http://www.planetary.org/explore/topics/compare_the_planets/terrestrial.html. Retrieved 2007-04-12. 
  68. ^ Espenak, Fred (April 21, 2005). "Transits of Mercury". NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/transit/catalog/MercuryCatalog.html. Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  69. ^ Samantha Harvey (April 24, 2008). "Weather, Weather, Everywhere?". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/scitech/display.cfm?ST_ID=725. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  70. ^ S. Biswas (2000). Cosmic Perspectives in Space Physics. Springer. pp. 176. 
  71. ^ Liu, Han-Shou; O'Keefe, John A. (1965). "Theory of Rotation for the Planet Mercury". Science 150 (3704): 1717. doi:10.1126/science.150.3704.1717. PMID 17768871. 
  72. ^ Correia, Alexandre C.M; Laskar, Jacques (2009). "Mercury's capture into the 3/2 spin-orbit resonance including the effect of core-mantle friction". Icarus 201: 1. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.12.034. http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.1843. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  73. ^ Correia, Alexandre C. M.; Laskar, Jacques (2004). "Mercury’s capture into the 3/2 spin–orbit resonance as a result of its chaotic dynamics". Nature 429: 848–850. doi:10.1038/nature02609. 
  74. ^ Laskar, J.; Gastineau, M. (June 11, 2009). "Existence of collisional trajectories of Mercury, Mars and Venus with the Earth". Nature 459 (7248): 817–819. doi:10.1038/nature08096. PMID 19516336. Bibcode2009Natur.459..817L. 
  75. ^ U. Le Verrier (1859), (in French), "Lettre de M. Le Verrier à M. Faye sur la théorie de Mercure et sur le mouvement du périhélie de cette planète", Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences (Paris), vol. 49 (1859), pp.379-383. (At p.383 in the same volume Le Verrier's report is followed by another, from Faye, enthusiastically recommending to astronomers to search for a previously undetected intra-mercurial object.)
  76. ^ Baum, Richard; Sheehan, William (1997). In Search of Planet Vulcan, The Ghost in Newton's Clockwork Machine. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-45567-6. 
  77. ^ Clemence, G. M. (October 1947). "The Relativity Effect in Planetary Motions". Reviews of Modern Physics 19 (4): 361–364. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.19.361. 
  78. ^ Gilvarry, J. J. (1953). "Relativity Precession of the Asteroid Icarus" (subscription required). Physical Review 89 (5): 1046. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.89.1046. http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v89/i5/p1046_1. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  79. ^ Anonymous. "6.2 Anomalous Precession". Reflections on Relativity. MathPages. http://www.mathpages.com/rr/s6-02/6-02.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  80. ^ "USGS Astrogeology: Rotation and pole position for the Sun and planets (IAU WGCCRE)". http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/WGCCRE/constants/iau2000_table1.html. Retrieved 22 October 2009. 
  81. ^ Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael; Wilson, Jody K. (2000). "A Digital High-Definition Imaging System for Spectral Studies of Extended Planetary Atmospheres. I. Initial Results in White Light Showing Features on the Hemisphere of Mercury Unimaged by Mariner 10". The Astronomical Journal 119: 2458–2464. doi:10.1086/301323. 
  82. ^ John Walker. "Mercury Chaser's Calculator". Fourmilab Switzerland. http://www.fourmilab.ch/images/3planets/elongation.html. Retrieved 2008-05-29.  (look at 1964 and 2013)
  83. ^ "Mercury Elognation and Distance". http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/Mercury.txt. Retrieved 2008-05-30.  —Numbers generated using the Solar System Dynamics Group, Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System.
  84. ^ a b c Patrick Kelly, ed. (2007). Observer's Handbook 2007. Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. ISBN 0-9738109-3-9. 
  85. ^ Mercury Closest Approaches to Earth generated with:
    1. Solex 10 (Text Output file)
    2. Gravity Simulator charts
    3. JPL Horizons 1950-2200
    (3 sources are provided to prevent {{OR}} concerns and to support general long-term trends)
  86. ^ Tunç Tezel (January 22, 2003). "Total Solar Eclipse of 2006 March 29". Department of Physics at Fizik Bolumu in Turkey. http://www.physics.metu.edu.tr/~aat/TSE2006/TSE2006.html. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  87. ^ Espenak, Fred (1996). "NASA Reference Publication 1349; Venus: Twelve year planetary ephemeris, 1995–2006". Twelve Year Planetary Ephemeris Directory. NASA. http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/TYPE/venus2.html. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  88. ^ Schaefer, Bradley E. (May 2007). "The Latitude and Epoch for the Origin of the Astronomical Lore in MUL.APIN". American Astronomical Society Meeting 210, #42.05 (American Astronomical Society). http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2007AAS...210.4205S. 
  89. ^ Hunger, Hermann; Pingree, David (1989). "MUL.APIN: An Astronomical Compendium in Cuneiform". Archiv für Orientforschung (Austria: Verlag Ferdinand Berger & Sohne Gesellschaft MBH) 24: 146. 
  90. ^ Staff (2008). "MESSENGER: Mercury and Ancient Cultures". NASA JPL. http://btc.montana.edu/messenger/elusive_planet/ancient_cultures_2.php. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  91. ^ H.G. Liddell and R. Scott; rev. H.S. Jones and R. McKenzie (1996). Greek–English Lexicon, with a Revised Supplement (9th ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 690 and 1646. ISBN 0-19-864226-1. 
  92. ^ Antoniadi, Eugène Michel; Translated from French by Moore, Patrick (1974). The Planet Mercury. Shaldon, Devon: Keith Reid Ltd. pp. 9–11. 
  93. ^ Goldstein, Bernard R. (February 1996), "The Pre-telescopic Treatment of the Phases and Apparent Size of Venus", Journal for the History of Astronomy: 1, Bibcode1996JHA....27....1G 
  94. ^ Kelley, David H.; Milone, E. F.; Aveni, Anthony F. (2004). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. Birkhäuser. ISBN 0387953108. 
  95. ^ Pujari, R.M.; Kolhe, Pradeep; Kumar, N. R. (2006). Pride of India: A Glimpse Into India's Scientific Heritage. Samskrita Bharati. ISBN 8187276274. 
  96. ^ Bakich, Michael E. (2000). The Cambridge Planetary Handbook. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521632803. 
  97. ^ Milbrath, Susan (1999). Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore and Calendars. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292752261. 
  98. ^ Hayashi, Takao (2008). "Aryabhata I". Encyclopedia Britannica. 
  99. ^ Thompson, Richard (1997). "Planetary Diameters in the Surya-Siddhanta". Journal of Scientific Exploration 11 (2): 193–200 [193–6]. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_11_2_thompson.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  100. ^ Rufus, W. C. (May 1939). "The Influence of Islamic Astronomy in Europe and the Far East". Popular Astronomy 47 (5): 233–238 [237]. 
  101. ^ Willy Hartner, "The Mercury Horoscope of Marcantonio Michiel of Venice", Vistas in Astronomy, 1 (1955): 84-138, at pp. 118-122.
  102. ^ Ansari, S. M. Razaullah (2002). "History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion-17 at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 (History of Astronomy), held in Kyoto, August 25-26, 1997". Springer. p. 137. ISBN 1402006578. 
  103. ^ Goldstein, Bernard R. (December 1969). "Some Medieval Reports of Venus and Mercury Transits". Centaurus 14 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0498.1969.tb00135.x. Bibcode1969Cent...14...49G. 
  104. ^ Livingston, John W. (1971). "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation". Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103 [99]. doi:10.2307/600445. 
  105. ^ Roberts, V.; Kennedy, E. S. (1959). The Planetary Theory of Ibn al-Shatir 50: 232–234. 
  106. ^ Sabra, A. I. (1998). "Configuring the Universe: Aporetic, Problem Solving, and Kinematic Modeling as Themes of Arabic Astronomy". Perspectives on Science 6 (3): 288–330. 
  107. ^ Guessoum, N. (June 2008). "Copernicus and Ibn Al-Shatir: does the Copernican revolution have Islamic roots?". The Observatory 128: 231–239. Bibcode2008Obs...128..231G. 
  108. ^ Template:Journal
  109. ^ Joseph, George G. (2000). The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics. Princeton University Press. p. 408. 
  110. ^ Ramasubramanian, K.; Srinivas, M. D.; Sriram, M. S. (1994). "Modification of the earlier Indian planetary theory by the Kerala astronomers (c. 1500 AD) and the implied heliocentric picture of planetary motion"]. Current Science 66: 784–790. http://www.physics.iitm.ac.in/~labs/amp/kerala-astronomy.pdf. 
  111. ^ Sinnott, RW; Meeus, J (1986). "John Bevis and a Rare Occultation". Sky and Telescope 72: 220. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986S&T....72..220S. 
  112. ^ Ferris, Timothy (2003). Seeing in the Dark: How Amateur Astronomers. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0684865807. 
  113. ^ a b Colombo, G.; Shapiro, I. I.. "The Rotation of the Planet Mercury". SAO Special Report #188R. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965SAOSR.188.....C. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  114. ^ Holden, E. S. (1890). "Announcement of the Discovery of the Rotation Period of Mercury [by Professor Schiaparelli"]. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 2 (7): 79. doi:10.1086/120099. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1890PASP....2...79H. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  115. ^ Merton E. Davies, et al. (1978). "Surface Mapping". Atlas of Mercury. NASA Office of Space Sciences. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-423/surface.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  116. ^ Evans, J. V.; Brockelman, R. A.; Henry, J. C.; Hyde, G. M.; Kraft, L. G.; Reid, W. A.; Smith, W. W. (1965). "Radio Echo Observations of Venus and Mercury at 23 cm Wavelength". Astronomical Journal 70: 487–500. doi:10.1086/109772. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965AJ.....70..486E/0000487.000.html. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  117. ^ Moore, Patrick (2000). The Data Book of Astronomy. New York: CRC Press. p. 483. ISBN 0750306203. http://books.google.com/books?lr=&as_brr=3&q=kotelnikov+1962+mercury&btnG=Search+Books. 
  118. ^ Butrica, Andrew J. (1996). "Chapter 5". To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy. NASA History Office, Washington D.C.. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4218/ch5.htm. 
  119. ^ Pettengill, G. H.; Dyce, R. B. (1965). "A Radar Determination of the Rotation of the Planet Mercury". Nature 206 (1240): 451–2. doi:10.1038/2061240a0. 
  120. ^ Mercury at Eric Weisstein's 'World of Astronomy'
  121. ^ Murray, Bruce C.; Burgess, Eric (1977). Flight to Mercury. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231039964. 
  122. ^ Colombo, G. (1965). "Rotational Period of the Planet Mercury". Nature 208: 575. doi:10.1038/208575a0. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1965Natur.208..575C. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  123. ^ Davies, Merton E. et al. (October 1976). "Mariner 10 Mission and Spacecraft". SP-423 Atlas of Mercury. NASA JPL. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-423/mariner.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  124. ^ Dantowitz, R. F.; Teare, S. W.; Kozubal, M. J. (2000). "Ground-based High-Resolution Imaging of Mercury". Astronomical Journal 119: 2455–2457. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.05.071. http://ukads.nottingham.ac.uk/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2000AJ....119.2455D&db_key=AST. 
  125. ^ L. V. Ksanfomality (2006). "Earth-based optical imaging of Mercury". Advances in Space Research 38: 594. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2005.05.071. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2006AdSpR..38..594K&db_key=AST&data_type=HTML&format=&high=461152a03222956. 
  126. ^ Harmon, J. K. et al. (2007). "Mercury: Radar images of the equatorial and midlatitude zones". Icarus 187: 374. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.026. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Icar..187..374H. 
  127. ^ a b Dunne, J. A. and Burgess, E. (1978). "Chapter Four". The Voyage of Mariner 10 — Mission to Venus and Mercury. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-424/ch4.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  128. ^ "Mercury". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. May 5, 2008. http://solarsystem.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mercury&Display=OverviewLong. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  129. ^ Leipold, M.; Seboldt, W.; Lingner, S.; Borg, E.; Herrmann, A.; Pabsch, A.; Wagner, O.; Bruckner, J. (July 1996). "Mercury sun-synchronous polar orbiter with a solar sail". Acta Astronautica 39 (1): 143–151. doi:10.1016/S0094-5765(96)00131-2. 
  130. ^ Phillips, Tony (October 1976). "NASA 2006 Transit of Mercury". SP-423 Atlas of Mercury. NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/solarsystem/20oct_transitofmercury.html. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  131. ^ "BepiColumbo - Background Science". European Space Agency. http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/category/index.cfm?fcategoryid=4586. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  132. ^ Tariq Malik (August 16, 2004). "MESSENGER to test theory of shrinking Mercury". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2004-08-16-mercury-may-shrink_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  133. ^ Merton E. Davies, et al. (1978). "Mariner 10 Mission and Spacecraft". Atlas of Mercury. NASA Office of Space Sciences. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-423/mariner.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  134. ^ Ness, Norman F. (March 1978). "Mercury - Magnetic field and interior". Space Science Reviews 21: 527–553. doi:10.1007/BF00240907. Bibcode1978SSRv...21..527N. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1978SSRv...21..527N. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  135. ^ Dunne, J. A. and Burgess, E. (1978). "Chapter Eight". The Voyage of Mariner 10 — Mission to Venus and Mercury. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-424/ch8.htm. 
  136. ^ Grayzeck, Ed (April 2, 2008). "Mariner 10". NSSDC Master Catalog. NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1973-085A. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  137. ^ "MESSENGER Engine Burn Puts Spacecraft on Track for Venus". SpaceRef.com. 2005. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewsr.html?pid=18956. Retrieved 2006-03-02. 
  138. ^ a b "Countdown to MESSENGER's Closest Approach with Mercury". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. January 14, 2008. http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/image.php?gallery_id=2&image_id=115. Retrieved 2008-05-30. 
  139. ^ "MESSENGER Gains Critical Gravity Assist for Mercury Orbital Observations". MESSENGER Mission News. September 30, 2009. http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/news_room/details.php?id=136. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  140. ^ a b "ESA gives go-ahead to build BepiColombo". European Space Agency. February 26, 2007. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMC8XBE8YE_index_0.html. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  141. ^ Fleming, Nic (January 18, 2008). "Star Trek-style ion engine to fuel Mercury craft". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/earth/2008/01/18/scimerc118.xml. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  142. ^ "Objectives". European Space Agency. February 21, 2006. http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/object/index.cfm?fobjectid=31350. Retrieved 2008-05-29. 
  143. ^ Beck, Roger (2007). A Brief History of Ancient Astrology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 84–87. ISBN 1405110740. 
  144. ^ Antoniadi’s Map of Mercury (with grid lines)
  145. ^ Antoniadi’s Map of Mercury (without grid lines):
  146. ^ The Planet Mercury--An Overview:

External links

.This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.^ For a complete list see www.epa.gov/grtlakes/bnsdocs/merccomm/merccomm.pdf Practice Points: Environmental History Taking and Discharge Information How can you incorporate environmental history questions that may reveal potential problems?
  • Mercury 2 February 2010 9:09 UTC vaccinetruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2008-01-16, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
.

Simple English

Mercury File:Mercury
File:Mercury in color - Prockter07False color image of Mercury taken by MESSENGER.
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 69,816,900 km
0.466 697 AU
Perihelion 46,001,200 km
0.307 499 AU
Semi-major axis 57,909,100 km
0.387 098 AU
Eccentricity 0.205 630[2]
Orbital period 87.969 1 d
(0.240 846 a)
Synodic period 115.88 d[2]
Average orbital speed 47.87 km/s[2]
Mean anomaly 174.796°
Inclination 7.005° to Ecliptic
3.38° to Sun’s equator
6.34° to Invariable plane[3]
Longitude of ascending node 48.331°
Argument of perihelion 29.124°
Satellites None
Physical characteristics
Mean radius 2,439.7 ± 1.0 km[4][5]
0.3829 Earths
Flattening < 0.0006[5]
Surface area 7.48×107 km²
0.147 Earths[4]
Volume 6.083×1010 km³
0.054 Earths[4]
Mass 3.3022×1023 kg
0.055 Earths[4]
Mean density 5.427 g/cm³[4]
Equatorial surface gravity 3.7 m/s²
0.38 g[4]
Escape velocity 4.25 km/s[4]
Sidereal rotation period 58.646 day
1407.5 h[4]
Rotation velocity at equator 10.892 km/h (3.026 m/s)
Axial tilt 2.11′ ± 0.1′[6]
Right ascension of North pole 18 h 44 min 2 s
281.01°[2]
Declination of North pole 61.45°[2]
Albedo 0.119 (bond)

0.106 (geom.)[2]

Surface temperature:
   0°N, 0°W
   85°N, 0°W
min mean max
100 K 340 K 700 K
80 K 200 K 380 K
Apparent magnitude up to −1.9[2]
Angular size 4.5" – 13"[2]
Adjectives Mercurian, Mercurial[7]
Atmosphere
Surface pressure trace
Composition 42% Molecular oxygen
29.0% sodium
22.0% hydrogen
6.0% helium
0.5% potassium
Trace amounts of argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, xenon, krypton, & neon[2]

Mercury is the planet that is closest to the Sun and also the smallest planet in the Solar System,[8] making one trip around the Sun once every 87.969 days.[9] Mercury is bright when it is able to be seen from Earth, ranging from −2.0 to 5.5 in apparent magnitude, but is not easily seen as it is usually too close to the Sun. Since Mercury is normally lost in the glare of the Sun, unless there is a solar eclipse, Mercury can only be seen in the morning or evening twilight.

Compared to what is known about the other planets in the Solar System, little is known about Mercury; telescopes on the Earth show only a small, bright crescent. The first of two spacecraft to visit the planet was Mariner 10,[10] which mapped only about 45% of the planet’s surface from 1974 to 1975. The second is the MESSENGER spacecraft, which mapped another 30% during its trip to Mercury on January 14, 2008. MESSENGER made one more pass by Mercury in 2009, and is now orbiting the planet to complete the mapping.

Mercury looks a lot like our Moon: it has many craters with areas of smooth plains, no moons around it and no atmosphere. However, unlike the moon, it has a large iron core, which gives off a magnetic field about 1% as strong as that of the Earth.[11] It is a very dense planet due to the large size of its core. Surface temperatures can be anywhere from about 90 to 700 K (−183 °C to 427 °C, −297 °F to 801 °F),[12] with the subsolar point being the hottest and the bottoms of craters near the poles being the coldest.

Known sightings of Mercury date back to at least the first millennium BC. Before the 4th century BC, Greek astronomers thought that Mercury was two different objects: one able to be seen only at sunrise, which they called Apollo; the other that was only able to be seen at sunset, which they called Hermes.[13] The English name for the planet is from the Romans, who named it after the Roman god Mercury, which they thought to be the same as the Greek god Hermes. The symbol for Mercury is based on Hermes' staff.[14]

Contents

Inside Mercury

Mercury is one of four terrestrial planets in the Solar System, and has a rocky body like the Earth. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with a radius of 2,439.7 km.[2] Mercury is even smaller, though it has a greater mass, than the largest moons in our Solar System. Mercury is made of about 70% metallic and 30% silicate material.[15] Mercury's density is the second highest in the Solar System at 5.427 g/cm³, only a little bit less than Earth’s.[2]

Other pages

Other websites

References

  1. Yeomans, Donald K. (April 7, 2008). "HORIZONS System". NASA JPL. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?horizons. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 "Mercury Fact Sheet". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. November 30, 2007. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/mercuryfact.html. Retrieved 2008-05-28. 
  3. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-03.  (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Munsell, Kirk; Smith, Harman; Harvey, Samantha (May 28, 2009). "Mercury: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Mercury&Display=Facts. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, B. A.; A’hearn, M. F.; et al. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAGWorking Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 90: 155–180. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/doi/10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  6. Margot, L.J.; Peale, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Holin, I. V. (2007). "Large Longitude Libration of Mercury Reveals a Molten Core". Science 316: 710–714. doi:10.1126/science.1140514. PMID 17478713. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Sci...316..710M. 
  7. "mercurial". Merriam-Webster Online. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mercurial. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  8. Pluto was once thought to be the smallest, but, as of 2008, Pluto is now known as a dwarf planet.
  9. [1]
  10. [2]
  11. "Mercury magnetic field". C. T. Russell & J. G. Luhmann. http://www-spc.igpp.ucla.edu/personnel/russell/papers/merc_mag/. Retrieved 2007-03-16. 
  12. "Background Science". European Space Agency. http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/category/index.cfm?fcategoryid=4586. Retrieved 2008-05-23. 
  13. Dunne, J. A. and Burgess, E. (1978). "Chapter One". The Voyage of Mariner 10 — Mission to Venus and Mercury. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-424/ch1.htm. 
  14. Duncan, John Charles (1946). Astronomy: A Textbook. Harper & Brothers. pp. 125. "The symbol for Mercury represents the Caduceus, a wand with two serpents twined around it, which was carried by the messenger of the gods." 
  15. Strom, Strom, Robert G.; Sprague, Ann L. (2003). Exploring Mercury: The Iron Planet. ISBN 1852337311. 

frr:Merkuriusrue:Меркур (планета)


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mercury (planet), which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message