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Mercury Comet
Mercury Comet coupe
Manufacturer Mercury
Parent company Ford Motor Company
Production 1960-1977
Assembly Oakville, Ontario, Canada
Successor Mercury Zephyr
Mercury Monarch
Class Compact (1960-65, 1971-77)
Mid-size (1966-1969)
Layout FR layout
Related Ford Falcon, Ford Maverick

The Mercury Comet is an automobile produced by the Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company between 1960 and 1977, with the exception of the 1970 model year. Changes in its design and marketing strategy resulted in the Comet being classified as either a compact or an intermediate-sized car during the seventeen years that the Comet name was used.

The Comet was an outgrowth of the compact Ford Falcon, and later twin to the Ford Maverick. Because it was marketed through Mercury, Comets received better grade interior trim details than concurrent Falcons, and a slightly longer wheelbase.

Contents

Relationship to the Edsel

Originally planned as an Edsel model, the Comet was not officially a Mercury until 1962, and was simply marketed in 1960 and 1961 as the Comet.

Developed concurrently with the Ford Falcon, early preproduction photographs of the sedan show a car remarkably close to the Comet that emerged, but with a split grille following the pattern established by Edsel models. Early Ford styling mules for the station wagon model carried the Edsel name as well.

When the cars were released, the split grille was replaced by one more in keeping with Mercury's design themes. However, the canted elliptical taillights, first seen on the Edsel prototype, were used and carried the "E" (Edsel) part number on them. While the short lived 1960 Edsels used elliptical shaped taillights, the lenses used on both cars differed in length and width. Certain other parts from the 1959 Edsel parts bin, including the parking lights and dashboard knobs, were used on the first-year Comet. Keys for the 1960 & 1961 Comets were shaped like Edsel keys, with the center bar of the "E" removed to form a "C".

1960-1965

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Overview

From 1960 to 1965, the Comet was based on the Ford Falcon platform (stretched 5" for sedans, but not for wagons). The 1960 to 1963 Comets share a similar basic shape. These are sometimes referred to as the "round body" Comets. For 1962 and 1963, the Comet shared a considerable number of body and mechanical parts with the short-lived Mercury Meteor intermediate.

1960-63

First generation
1962 Mercury Comet S-22
Also called Comet
Production 1960-1963
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door station wagon
Engine(s) 144 cid I6
170 cid I6
260 cid V8
Transmission(s) 3-speed manual
2-speed automatic
4-speed manual

Due to the demise of Edsel, the Comet was initially released without any divisional badging, only "Comet" badges. It was sold through Mercury dealers, but would not be branded as such for two more years.

Introduced in March 1960, initial body styles were 2-door coupes, 4-door sedans and 2 & 4-door station wagons. Two trim levels were available, standard and "Custom", with the custom package including badging, additional chrome trim and all-vinyl interiors. In 1960 the only engine available was the 144 cid Thriftpower straight six with a single-barrel Holley carburetor which produced 90 hp (67 kW) at 4200 rpm. (Some sources list it as producing 85 hp (63 kW) at 4200 rpm.) Transmission options were a column-shifted 3-speed manual and a 2-speed Merc-O-Matic automatic transmission (unique to the Comet, despite sharing a name with the Merc-O-Matic installed in other Mercurys).

Ford had purchased the name "Comet" from Comet Coach Company, a professional car manufacture inwhich the term belonged to a line of funeral coaches, mainly Oldsmobiles. The coach company then was renamed Cotner-Bevington.

In Canada, for the 1960 model year, Mercury-Meteor dealers sold a compact car called the "Frontenac." The Frontenac was considered a model in its own right and was badge-engineered version of the Ford Falcon with only minor trim differences to distinguish it from the Falcon. The Frontenac was produced for only one year. The Comet was introduced to the Canadian market for the 1961 model year and replaced the Frontenac as the compact offering by Mercury-Meteor dealers.

In response to complaints about the low performance of the 144 cid engine, a 170 cid straight-6 with a single-barrel Holley carburetor producing 101 hp (75 kW) at 4400 rpm was released for the 1961 model year. A new 4-speed manual transmission was also an option.

The optional S-22 package was released. Available only on the 2-door sedan it was billed as a "sport" package, although it shared the same mechanicals as regular Comets with the only changes being S-22 badging, bucket seats and a center console.

Comet was officially made a Mercury model for the 1962 model year, and received some minor restyling, mainly a redesign of the trunk and taillight area to bring the car more in line with the Mercury look. This is the first year the car carried Mercury badging.

The S-22 received six taillights while regular Comets had four. A Comet Villager station wagon, basically a Comet Custom 4-door station wagon with simulated wood-grain trim on the sides, was added to the lineup. (The Villager name had previously been used to denote the 4-door steel-sided station wagon in the Edsel Ranger series.)

While the 1963 model looked almost identical to the earlier models, the chassis & suspension was redesigned to accommodate an optional 260 cid V8 engine using a 2-barrel carburetor and producing 164 horsepower (122 kW). Convertible and hardtop (pillarless) coupe models were added to the Comet Custom and Comet S-22 lines this year.

1964-65

Second generation
1964 Mercury Comet Caliente
Production 1964-1965
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
2-door convertible
4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
Engine(s) 170 cid I6
200 cid I6
260 cid V8
289 cid V8
Transmission(s) 3-speed automatic
4-speed manual

The 1964 Comet was redesigned with a much more square shape, though it was still built on the same unibody as the 1963 model. The front grille used styling similar to that of the Lincoln Continental. Along with the redesign the model designations were changed. The performance version was known as the Cyclone, replacing the previous S-22. Then in descending order of trim levels were the Caliente, 404 and 202 replacing the previous Custom and base models. The 2-door station wagon bodystyle was discontinued. The top-of-the-line station wagon continued to be known as the Villager). The base 144 cid six engine was dropped and the 170 cid six became the new base engine. The 260 V8 was available at the beginning of the production run with the new 289 being available mid-year.

For 1964 Ford produced about 50 ultra-high performance lightweight Comet Cyclones, equipped with their racing two-carburetor 427 engine, similar to their cousin, the Ford Thunderbolt. In order not to compete with each other, the Thunderbolts ran in Super Stock on 7-inch (180 mm) tires, but the Cyclones were modified to run in A/FX on 10-inch (250 mm) tires, where they were as dominant as the Thunderbolts were in Super Stock. Drivers included Ronnie Sox, Don Nicholson and Wild Bill Shrewsberry in conjunction with Jack Christman.[1] Shrewsberry still owns his original 427 Comet in Caliente trim.

For 1965 the Comet received updated styling front and rear (including stacked headlights). The base 6-cylinder engine was increased from 170 cid to 200 cid. Still using a single-barrel carburetor it produced 120 horsepower (89 kW) at 4400 rpm. The base 8-cylinder engine was increased from 260 to 289 cid and, using a 2-barrel carburetor, it produced 200 horsepower (150 kW) at 4400 rpm. The standard transmission continued as a column-shifted 3-speed manual transmission. However, the optional automatic was changed to a "Merc-O-Matic" 3-speed automatic transmission (essentially a Ford C4 transmission). The 289 V8 was available in three horsepower ratings, base 2bbl 200hp, 4bbl 225hp and the premier driveline option was the 289 cubic inch, 271 hp high-performance engine and four-speed manual transmission found on the Ford Mustang.

1966-1969

1966-1967

Third generation
1966 Mercury Comet Cyclone
Production 1966-1967
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
2-door station wagon
Engine(s) 390 cid V8

Beginning in 1966, the Comet grew from a compact to became a mid-sized car. It was now based on the same chassis as the Ford Fairlane intermediate (and the previous Mercury Meteor intermediate which was only offered from 1962 to 1963). These intermediate-sized cars used the same basic chassis as the original Ford Falcon and Mercury Comet compacts, but stretched with longer wheelbases. The Comet wagon would introduce a Dual-Action tailgate, able to both fold down or swing aside, an idea soon copied by all the major U.S. manufacturers.[2]


The 1966 Comet received distinct outer body panels. The Comet Capri would replace the previous Comet 404 and the Comet Voyager 4-door station wagon would replace the previous Comet 404 station wagon. (The Voyager name had previously been used to designate a full-sized Mercury station wagon that was positioned between the base Commuter and the top-of-the-line Colony Park station wagon models.) The Comet 202 4-door station wagon would be discontinued. The new top-of-the-line series was the Comet Cyclone GT.

New engines available in the Comet for 1966 included a 390 cid V-8 engine with a 2-barrel carburetor producing 265 hp (198 kW) at 4400 rpm, a 390 cid V-8 engine with a 4-barrel carburetor producing 275 hp (205 kW), and 390 cid V-8 engine that produced 335 hp (250 kW). The 335 hp 390 cid V-8 engine was standard on the Cyclone GT and optional on other models. The Cyclone GT when equipped with an automatic transmission was referred to as the Cyclone GTA.

A Cyclone GT convertible was the pace car for the 1966 Indianapolis 500.

Beginning with the 1967 model year, the Comet name was used only on the base Comet 202 model, available only in 2 or 4-door sedan bodystyles. Other models were now referred to by what had previously been their subseries names. Mercury's mid-size line-up ranged from the basic Comet 202, up through the Capri, Caliente, Cyclone, and Cyclone GT models, as well as steel-sided Voyager and simulated wood paneled Villager station wagon models which were comparable to the Capri.

1968-1969

Fourth generation
Production 1968-1969
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
4-door station wagon
Engine(s) 250 cid I6
302 cid V8
351 cid V8
428 cid V8

In 1968 Mercury's mid-sized models again received new sheet metal and handsome styling that resembled the full-sized Mercury models and that shared their chassis and many parts with Ford's mid-sized Fairlane and Torino models. The mid-sized base model was the Comet, Mercury dropping the 202 suffix, available only as a 2-door coupe. The Capri was replaced by the Montego and the Caliente by the Montego MX. There was also a more luxurious Montego MX Brougham, basically an option package for the Montego MX. Top of the line mid-sized models continued to use the Cyclone and Cyclone GT names.

A 302 cid V-8 engine using a 2-barrel carburetor and generating 210 hp (160 kW) at 4600 rpm would replace the previous 289 cid V-8 for the 1968 model year, but the 289 was still available.

There would be few changes to Mercury's mid-sized lineup for the 1969 model year, the last year that the Comet name would grace a mid-sized model. A Comet 4-door sedan for 1969 was supposedly planned, but never offered. New top-of-the-line Cyclone Spoiler and Cyclone CJ models would join the lineup.

A 250 cid inline-6 using a single-barrel carburetor and generating 155 hp (116 kW) at 4000 rpm would replace the previous 200 cid 6 as standard. New engine options included a 302 cid V-8 engine using a 4-barrel carburetor and generating 220 hp (160 kW) at 4400 rpm (standard on the Cyclone), a 351 cid V-8 using a 4-barrel carburetor generating 290 hp (220 kW) at 5200 rpm (standard on the Cyclone Spoiler), and a 428 cid V-8 using a 4-barrel carburetor generating 335 hp (250 kW) at 5200 rpm (standard on the Cyclone CJ). These new V-8s replaced the previous 390 cid V-8s.

Still using the same basic chassis, 1970 models would receive dramatic new styling, but the base model would now be the Montego. Comet was no longer the base level intermediate. The Cyclone name would continue to be used through the 1971 model year.

1971-1977

Fifth generation
Mercury Comet 5.0 coupe
Production 1971-1977
Body style(s) 2-door coupe
4-door sedan
Engine(s) 170 cid I6
200 cid I6
302 cid V8
Transmission(s) 3-speed automatic
3-speed manual

For 1971, the Comet name was revived on Mercury's version of the Ford Maverick compact. Sharing most of its sheet-metal with the Maverick it used a different grille, taillights, and hood, as well as different badging. The taillight pods were shared with the 1970 and 1971 Montego and Cyclone models. Underneath it all was the same basic chassis that had originally been used for the Ford Falcon, the original Comet, and for the mid-sized Ford Fairlane, Mercury Meteor, and later Mercury Comets.

The base engine was the 170 cid inline-6 with a single-barrel carburetor producing 100 hp (75 kW) at 4200 rpm. Optional engines were the 200 cid inline-6 with a single-barrel carburetor producing 115 hp (86 kW) and a 302 cid V-8 with a 2-barrel carburetor producing 210 hp (160 kW). Transmissions were either a 3-speed manual or 3-speed automatic with either column or floor-mounted shifters.

The Comet was available as 2 and 4-door sedans and in base (1971-1977), and "muscle car" Comet GT series (2-door sedan-only 1971-1975). The GT featured a blacked-out grille, dual body-side tape stripes, high-back bucket seats, wheel trim rings, dual racing mirrors, bright window frames, black instrument panel, Deluxe door trim panels, and a huge simulated hood scoop.

In 1972 models, the base 170 cid six was rated at 82 hp (61 kW) at 4400 rpm, the 200 cid six at 91 hp (68 kW), and the 302 cid V-8 at 138 hp (103 kW). A new engine option for 1972 was the 250 cid six with a single-barrel carburetor rated at 98 hp (73 kW).

For 1973 models, the base 170 cid six was dropped and the 200 cid six became the base engine. Horsepower ratings would fluctuate slightly up or down through the years that the Comet would remain in production, but not by very much. A new larger front bumper to meet federal standards was added to all models in 1973. A new Custom decor package featuring vinyl roof, body-colored wheel covers, wide vinyl-insert body-side moldings, vinyl bucket seats, luxury carpeting, and extra sound insulation was a popular option.

Changes for 1974 included even larger front bumpers and new larger rear bumpers to match. They added 2 and a half inches to the length of the 2-door model and 4 inches (100 mm) to the length of the 4-door model.

Ford had originally planned to the replace the Comet and its Ford Maverick counterpart for the 1975 model year with updated and extensively redesigned models that would continue to use the Comet and Maverick names, such as the Mercury Monarch. However, fairly late in the game they decided that the updated versions would be built alongside the original Maverick and the Comet that had originally been introduced for 1971. These would-be replacements, also using the same basic chassis as the Comet and Maverick, became the Mercury Monarch and the American Ford Granada, came with more standard and optional equipment than the Comet and Maverick, and were considered to be "luxury compacts," a step up from the Comet and Maverick.

Although 1975 was the last year for the Mercury Comet GT, the GT features remained available in 1976 and 1977 with the "Sports Accent" option group.

The model was offered with comparatively few changes through the 1977 model year, and was then discontinued to make room for the new Mercury Zephyr for the 1978 model year.

References

  1. ^ http://www.69hemi.com/compcar/page_01.htm List of '64 427 A/FX drivers at 69hemi.com
  2. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1960-1972 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2004), p.456.

Sources

  • Burness, Tad, American Car Spotter's Guide (Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1978 & 1981)
  • Flammang, James M. & Kowlake, Ron, Standard Catalog of American Cars: 1976-199, 3rd Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 1999)
  • Gunnell, John, Standard Catalog of American Cars: 1946-1975, Revised 4th Edition (Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 2002)

External links


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