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HaYishuv haYashan
Jews in Jerusalem 1895.jpg
Jewish life in the Holy Land before Modern Zionism
Founders:
NahmanidesYechiel of Paris
BartenuraYehuda he-Hasid
Finance:
KollelHalukkaEtrog
Communities:
SephardimPerushimHasidim
Synagogues:
RambanAriHurvaShomrei HaChomos
Related articles:
History of the Jews in the Land of IsraelHistory of Zionism (Timeline) • Haredim and ZionismEdah HaChareidisNeturei KartaShaDaRYishuvThree Oaths


A meshulach (Hebrew: משולח‎) or SHaDaR (Hebrew: שד"ר‎, acronym for SHelichei DeRabonan - an emissary entitled by the rabbis; according to others, the acronym is SHelichah DeRachmanah - an emissary from God) is a rabbinical emissary sent to collect charity funds (chalukah). In the original meaning it was for the resque of the Yishuv ha-Yashan of Eretz Yisrael, the funds were distributed by the Kollelim in form of chalukah.

During centuries only trustworthy meshulachim were employed. A list of the best-known meshulachim, with their dates and spheres of activity, is provided here:

  • 1441. Esrim ve-Arba‘ah: Europe.
  • 1587. Joseph ben Moses Miṭrani the Elder (or di Ṭrani, 1569 – 1639): Egypt.
  • 1598 – 1599. Joseph ben Moses Miṭrani the Elder (or di Ṭrani, 1569 – 1639): Istanbul (first mission).
  • 1600. Judah de Leon: Italy[1].
  • 1600s – 1606. Joseph ben Moses Miṭrani the Elder (or di Ṭrani, 1569 – 1639): Istanbul (second mission).
  • 1650. Nathan ben Reuben David Spiro: Italy and Germany[2].
  • 1659. Benjamin ha-Levi: the Levant and Italy[3].
  • 1670s. Judah Sharaf: Livorno, Italy.
  • 1676. Joseph ben Eliezer: Italy and Germany.
  • 1676. Joseph Shalit Riqueti: Italy and Germany (with the preceding, author of Iggeret Mesapperet).
  • 1688 - 1692. Ḥezekiah ben David da Silva (1656 – 1697): Western Europe (including Amsterdam).
  • 1690. Judah Sharaf: the Levant and Italy[4].
  • 1695. Avraham Yitzchaḳi: Italy[5].
  • 1695. Shmuel ha-Kohen: Italy, etc.[6].
  • 1695. Abraham ben Levi Conque: Italy, Germany, and Poland[7].
  • 1700. Hayyim Asael ben Benjamin: Smyrna[8].
  • 1705. Gedaliah Hayyim: Italy[9].
  • 1709. Nathan Mannheim: Germany and Poland.
  • 1709. Jacob of Vilna: Germany and Poland (with the preceding, author of Me’orot Natan).
  • 1710. David Melammed.
  • 1712. Hayyim Hazzan[10].
  • 1712. Abraham Rovigo[11].
  • 1718. Hayyim Jacob ben Jacob David: the Levant and Europe[12].
  • 1720. Ephraim ben Aaron Nabon: Italy[13].
  • 1730. David Capsoto: Holland[14].
  • 1730. Moses Hagiz: the Levant and Europe for a period of 50 years (Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, i. 34).
  • 1740. Baruch Gad: Media and Persia (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 58).
  • 1740s-1749. Ḥayyim ben Elias Moda‘i.
  • 1750. Baruch of Austria (ib. p. 62).
  • 1750. Ḥayyim Joseph David ben Zeraḥiyyah Azulai (1724 - 1806): the Levant and Europe (including Egypt, Amsterdam, England, and Livorno, for 56 years. His Ma‘agal Yashar contains part of his itinerary.
  • 1750. Hayyim Abraham Tzebi: Italy (ib. p. 115).
  • 1750. Hayyim Mordecai Tzebi: Italy, etc. (Michael, l.c. No. 886).
  • 1750. Rahmim Nissim Mizrahi: the Levant and Italy (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 312).
  • 1759. Moses Malki: America (Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society p. 18).
  • 1760. Hayyim Nissim Jeroham of Vilna: Germany (Qiryah Ne’emanah, p. 114, together with other meshullahim).
  • 1760. Yom-Ṭob al-Ghazi: the Levant and Italy (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 167).
  • 1760s. Ḥayyim ben Elias Moda‘i (1720 – 1794): Holland (wrote approbation to Pe’er ha-Dor) and elsewhere in Europe.
  • 1765. Jacob al-Yashar: Persia.
  • 1767. Issachar Abulafia: Italy (wrote approbation to Yad Mal’akhi).
  • 1770. Abraham Solomon Zalmon: Europe (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 61).
  • 1772. Abraham Segre: Germany (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 25).
  • 1773. Isaac Carregal: West Indies and the British Colonies of North America.
  • 1776. Jacob Raphael Saraval: Holland and England (ib. p. 206).
  • 1780. Judah Samuel Ashkenazi (ib. p. 214).
  • 1783. Abraham ha-Kohen of Lask: Germany and Poland.
  • 1790. David Hayyim Hazzan: Italy.
  • 1796. Joseph Aben Samon: Tripoli (wrote approbation to Ḥayyey Abraham).
  • 1800. Israel of Shklov: Lithuania and Belarus.
  • 1804. Israel Raphael Segre (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 25).
  • 1807. Hayyim Baruch of Austria: Germany (wrote approbation to Otsar ha-Ḥayyim).
  • 1810. Solomon David Hazzan: the Levant and Italy (Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 343).
  • 1830. Joseph Edels Ashkenazi: Italy (ib. p. 212).
  • 1848. Isaac Covo: Egypt.
  • 1848. Jacob Saphir: Southern countries (first mission).
  • 1850. Isaac Farhi: Italy (ib. p. 220).
  • 1850. Levi Nehemias: Italy (ib.).
  • 1850. Joseph Schwarz: the United States (author of Ṭevu’at ha-Arets).
  • 1854. Jacob Saphir: Yemen, British India, Egypt, and Australia (Second mission).
  • 1856. Moses Hazzan: the Levant (author of Naḥalah le-Yisra’el).
  • 1865. Raphael Meir Fanijil: Europe (haham başı and author of Lev Marpe’).
  • 1885. Moses Riwlin: Australia.
  • 1885. Nathan Natkin: the United States (d. 1888, in New York).
  • 1890. Abraham ibn Ephraim: Persia (Sephardic).
  • 1903 (then serving):
    • Shalom Hamadi: Yemen (Sephardic).
    • Benjamin ha-Kohen: Caucasia, Russia (Sephardic).
    • J. Meynhas: India (Sephardic).
    • Eliezer Zalman Grajewski: the United States.
    • Joshua Loeb Suessenwein: the United States (author of Tsir Ne’eman, Jerusalem, 1898).
    • Solomon Joseph Eliach.

References

  1. ^ Graziadio Nepi-Mordecai Ghirondi, Toledot Gedoley Yisra’el. p. 166.
  2. ^ ib. p. 61.
  3. ^ Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, No. 593.
  4. ^ Michael, l.c. No. 835.
  5. ^ Nepi-Ghirondi, l.c. p. 206.
  6. ^ ib. p. 359.
  7. ^ Michael, l.c. No. 154.
  8. ^ ib. No. 895.
  9. ^ ib. No. 664.
  10. ^ Michael, l.c. No. 871.
  11. ^ ib.
  12. ^ ib. No. 877.
  13. ^ ib. No. 518.
  14. ^ Nepi-Ghirondi. l.c. p. 76.
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