The Full Wiki

Mesopotamia: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Mesopotamia

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ancient
Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Sumer
Eridu · Kish · Uruk · Ur
Lagash · Nippur · Ngirsu
Elam
Susa · Anshan
Akkadian Empire
Akkad · Mari
Amorites
Isin · Larsa
Babylonia
Babylon · Chaldea
Assyria
Assur · Nimrud
Dur-Sharrukin · Nineveh
Mesopotamia
Sumer (king list)
Kings of Elam
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Enûma Elish · Gilgamesh
Assyro-Babylonian religion
Sumerian · Elamite
Akkadian · Aramaic
Hurrian · Hittite
.Mesopotamia (from Greek Μεσοποταμία "[land] between the rivers", rendered in Arabic as بلاد الرافدين bilād al-rāfidayn)[1] is a toponym for the area of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern Iraq,[2] as well as some parts of northeastern Syria,[2] some parts of southeastern Turkey,[2] and some parts of the Khūzestān Province of southwestern Iran.^ The garden, too, is watered, not by rainfall, but by a river which parts into different heads, as do the Tigris and Euphrates when they spread out upon the flat alluvial land below Baghdad.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He supposedly ruled all of Sumer as well as some surrounding lands.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[3][4]
.Widely considered as the cradle of civilization, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires.^ Mesopotamia; the Babylonian and Assyrian civilization.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashurbanipal (668-626 BC), the last of the great Assyrian kings, subdued Elam, east of Mesopotamia, and extended the empire to its greatest size.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Atlas of Mesopotamia; a survey of the history and civilization of Mesopotamia from the Stone Age to the fall of Babylon [New York] Nelson, 1962.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires.^ Ashur-dan II establishes the Neo-Assyrian empire.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This aspect of the Neo- Assyrian empire is often overshadowed by scholars' baffling preoccupation with the Assyrian military machine and its so-called "barbaric behavior".
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He ruled from then on in relative peace until his death in 626 BC where the Assyrian empire started to fracture..Roads were built to enable the Assyrian armies to subdue rebels quickly.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The indigenous Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrians & Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the dawn of written history circa 3100 BC to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. It was then conquered by the Achaemenid Empire.^ Mesopotamia; the Babylonian and Assyrian civilization.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ashurbanipal (668-626 BC), the last of the great Assyrian kings, subdued Elam, east of Mesopotamia, and extended the empire to its greatest size.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Atlas of Mesopotamia; a survey of the history and civilization of Mesopotamia from the Stone Age to the fall of Babylon [New York] Nelson, 1962.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC and after his death it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire, by around 150 BC Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthians.^ Ashurbanipal (668-626 BC), the last of the great Assyrian kings, subdued Elam, east of Mesopotamia, and extended the empire to its greatest size.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of his reign most of the south of Mesopotamia (Sumer) was under control by Lugalzaggesi.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They began to control the area about 1900 B.C. During the next several hundred years, they conquered parts of Mesopotamia and Syria.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Mesopotamia became a battle ground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia (particularly Assyria) coming under periodic Roman control.^ At the beginning of his reign most of the south of Mesopotamia (Sumer) was under control by Lugalzaggesi.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They began to control the area about 1900 B.C. During the next several hundred years, they conquered parts of Mesopotamia and Syria.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 226 AD it fell to the Sassanid Persians, and remained under Persian rule until the 7th century AD Arab Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire.^ The Empire unifies the Middle East, from Egypt to the Caspian Sea, under one rule and by so doing lays the foundation for the subsequent rise of the Persians, Hellenism, Christianity, and Islam.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cyrus had to borrow the traditions of kingship from the Medes, who had ruled an empire when the Persians were merely their vassals.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He ruled from then on in relative peace until his death in 626 BC where the Assyrian empire started to fracture..Roads were built to enable the Assyrian armies to subdue rebels quickly.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A number of primarily Christian native Mesopotamian states existed beween the 1st Century BC and 3rd Century AD; Adiabene, Oshroene and Hatra.^ Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized Mesopotamian King List 2800 - 500 B.C. .
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

.The regional toponym Mesopotamia ( < meso (μέσος) = middle and potamia < ποταμός = river, literally means "between two rivers") was coined in the Hellenistic period without any definite boundaries, to refer to a broad geographical area and probably used by the Seleucids.^ On the Euphrates there are two methods used for local irrigation apart from the system of canals flowing from the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is an unenviable competition between places situated in the region of Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf as to which can be the hottest.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet Mesopotamia is to-day a desert except for the regions in the immediate vicinity of the rivers.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The term biritum/birit narim corresponded to a similar geographical concept and coined at the time of the Aramaicization of the region, in the 10th century BCE.[5] It is however widely accepted that early Mesopotamian societies simply referred to the entire alluvium as kalam in Sumerian (lit. "land"). .More recently terms like "Greater Mesopotamia" or "Syro-Mesopotamia" have been adopted to refer to wider geographies corresponding to the Near East or Middle East.^ Before the war, when Mesopotamia was a more distant land than it is to-day, Basra was often referred to as the Venice of the East.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The later euphemisms are Eurocentric terms attributed to the region in the midst of various 19th century Western encroachments.[6]

History

Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia
The history of ancient Mesopotamia begins with the emergence of urban societies during the Ubaid period, from ca. .5300 BCE. The history of the Ancient Near East is taken to end with either the arrival of the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BCE, or with the arrival of the Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia and the establishment of the Caliphate, from which point the region came to be known as Iraq.^ More than 15 centuries after its fall, the Roman Empire remains one of the most formative influences on the history of Europe.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is newly founded around 2350 BCE. Sargon establishes an empire consisting of the entire region of southern Mesopotamia and the region along the Euphrates in northern Mesopotamia, possibly extending to Lebanon.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Around 2350 BCE an important change took place: the conversion from local competing city states to the first regional state, an empire in Mesopotamia.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Mesopotamia housed some of the world's most ancient states with highly developed social complexity.^ An old house in Mesopotamia in which Sinbad the Sailor had not lived would be equivalent to one of England's ancient country mansions in which Queen Elizabeth had never slept.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The region was famous as one of the four riverine civilizations where writing was first invented, along with the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley in the Indian subcontinent and Yellow River valley in China (Although writing is also known to have arisen independently in Mesoamerica).^ From its humble origins as a cluster of rival chiefdoms along the banks of the Nile, ancient Egypt rose to become one of the most advanced civilizations of its time.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first our road ran along the quays by the river side.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first general impression of Basra is that of an unending series of quays along a river not unlike the Thames at Tilbury.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Mesopotamia housed historically important cities such as Uruk, Nippur, Nineveh, and Babylon as well as major territorial states such as the city of Ma-asesblu, Akkadian kingdom, Third Dynasty of Ur, and Assyrian empire.^ The old Assyrian city-state and its colonies.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Not only does it illustrate the geography of the Holy City, but provide useful diagrams of major archaeological finds as well.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inscriptions and reliefs from this city, to which the king moved from Nineveh, are the principal historical source for the reign.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the important historical Mesopotamian leaders were Ur-Nammu (king of Ur), Sargon (who established the Akkadian Kingdom), Hammurabi (who established the Old Babylonian state), and Tiglath-Pileser I (who established the Assyrian Empire).^ The old Assyrian city-state and its colonies.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized Mesopotamian King List 2800 - 500 B.C. .
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashurbanipal (668-626 BC), the last of the great Assyrian kings, subdued Elam, east of Mesopotamia, and extended the empire to its greatest size.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

"Ancient Mesopotamia" begins in the late 6th millennium BC, and ends with either the rise of the Achaemenid Persians in the 6th century BCE or the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia in the 7th century CE. This long period may be divided as follows:
Trends in Mesopotamian History
  • Pre-Pottery Neolithic:
    • Jarmo (ca. 7000 bce-? bce [lower-case bce=uncalibrated C-14 dates])
  • Pottery Neolithic:
    • Hassuna (ca. 6000 bce-? bce), Samarra (ca. 5700 bce-4900 bce) and Halaf (ca. 6000 bce-5300 bce) "cultures"
  • Chalcolithic or Copper age:
    • Ubaid period (ca. 5900 BCE–4400 BCE)
    • Uruk period (ca. 4400 BCE–3200 BCE)
    • Jemdet Nasr period (ca. .3100 BCE–2900 BCE)
  • Early Bronze Age
    • Early Dynastic Sumerian city-states (ca.^ Around 2350 BCE an important change took place: the conversion from local competing city states to the first regional state, an empire in Mesopotamia.
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Sumerian literary tradition states that Lugalbanda in his own right was a god-king of the city of Uruk.
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Lugalzaggisi had already united the city-states of Sumer by defeating each in turn and claimed to rule the lands not only of the Sumerian city-states but also those as far west as the Mediterranean.
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .2900 BCE–2350 BCE)
    • Akkadian Empire (ca.^ Around 2350 BCE an important change took place: the conversion from local competing city states to the first regional state, an empire in Mesopotamia.
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      2350 BCE–2193 BCE).
    • Third Dynasty of Ur ("Sumerian Renaissance" or "Neo-Sumerian Period") (ca. 2119 BCE–2004 BCE)
  • Middle Bronze Age
  • Late Bronze Age
  • Iron Age
    • Neo-Hittite or Syro-Hittite regional states (11th–7th c.^ Around 2350 BCE an important change took place: the conversion from local competing city states to the first regional state, an empire in Mesopotamia.
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      .BCE)
    • Neo-Assyrian Empire (10th to 7th c.^ Ashur-dan II establishes the Neo-Assyrian empire.
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This aspect of the Neo- Assyrian empire is often overshadowed by scholars' baffling preoccupation with the Assyrian military machine and its so-called "barbaric behavior".
      • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The king's magnates : a study of the highest officials of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
      • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

      .BCE)
    • Chaldea, Neo-Babylonian Empire (7th to 6th c.^ Nabonidus and Belshazzar; a study of the closing events of the Neo-Babylonian empire.
      • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

      ^ The Neo-Babylonian empire and Babylon in the latter prophets.
      • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

      BCE)
  • Classical Antiquity
  • Late Antiquity
.Dates are approximate for the second and third millennia BCE; compare Chronology of the Ancient Near East.^ Assyrian rulers of the third and second millennia BC (to 1115 BC) / A. Kirk Grayson with the assistance of Grant Frame, Douglas Frayne ; and a contribution on Nuzi by Maynard Maidman.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Assyrian rulers of the third and second millennia BC (to 1115 BC).
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Geography

.Mesopotamia encompasses the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, both of which have their headwaters in the mountains of Armenia in modern Turkey.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The garden, too, is watered, not by rainfall, but by a river which parts into different heads, as do the Tigris and Euphrates when they spread out upon the flat alluvial land below Baghdad.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the best of these efforts is elaborately cumbersome compared with housing schemes on these flat lands bordering [Pg 35] the Tigris and Euphrates.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both rivers are fed by numerous tributaries, and the entire river system drains a vast mountainous region.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Overland routes in Mesopotamia usually follow the Euphrates because the banks of the Tigris are frequently steep and difficult.^ Of the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the banks of the Euphrates are the more wooded and picturesque and the Tigris is the busier.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The climate of the region is semi-arid with a vast desert expanse in the north which gives way to a 6,000 square mile region of marshes, lagoons, mud flats, and reed banks in the south.^ The statement often made that Mesopotamia is a vast desert through which run two great rivers, bare but for the palm trees on their banks and flat as a pancake, is true as far as it goes.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the extreme south the Euphrates and the Tigris unite and empty into the Persian Gulf.^ He showed considerable logistic ability in his seaborne attack on Elam, in which ships built in Nineveh were taken by Phoenician sailors down the Tigris, overland to a canal of the Euphrates, and thence to the Persian Gulf.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

The arid environment which ranges from the northern areas of rain fed agriculture, to the south where irrigation of agriculture is essential if a surplus energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) is to be obtained. .This irrigation is aided by a high water table and by melted snows from the high peaks of the Zagros Mountains and from the Armenian cordillera, the source of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, that give the region its name.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The garden, too, is watered, not by rainfall, but by a river which parts into different heads, as do the Tigris and Euphrates when they spread out upon the flat alluvial land below Baghdad.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ THE HOUSE OF SINBAD THE SAILOR, BASRA An old-world touch is given to the waters of Basra by the high-sterned dhows anchored in the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The usefulness of irrigation depends upon the ability to mobilize sufficient labor for the construction and maintenance of canals, and this, from the earliest period, has assisted the development of urban settlements and centralized systems of political authority. .Agriculture throughout the region has been supplemented by nomadic pastoralism, where tent dwelling nomads move herds of sheep and goats (and later camels) from the river pastures in the dry summer months, out into seasonal grazing lands on the desert fringe in the wet winter season.^ The garden, too, is watered, not by rainfall, but by a river which parts into different heads, as do the Tigris and Euphrates when they spread out upon the flat alluvial land below Baghdad.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A fringe of palms, beyond, showed where the river flowed, the river that watered the garden where the land was green and good.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The area is generally lacking in building stone, precious metals and timber, and so historically has relied upon long distance trade of agricultural products to secure these items from outlying areas.^ He had surveys undertaken for new sources of alabaster and building stone, and he discovered new stands of giant timber in mountain forests.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

In the marshlands to the south of the country, a complex water-borne fishing culture has existed since pre-historic times, and has added to the cultural mix.
Periodic breakdowns in the cultural system have occurred for a number of reasons. .The demands for labour has from time to time led to population increases that push the limits of the ecological carrying capacity, and should a period of climatic instability ensue, collapsing central government and declining populations can occur.^ The decline of Babylonian culture at the end of the Old Babylonian period continued for some time under the Kassites.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Alternatively, military vulnerability to invasion from marginal hill tribes or nomadic pastoralists have led to periods of trade collapse and neglect of irrigation systems. .Equally, centripetal tendencies amongst city states has meant that central authority over the whole region, when imposed, has tended to be ephemeral, and localism has fragmented power into tribal or smaller regional units.^ The first was the Empire proper: he ruled Mesopotamia outright and imposed the State's will over all the cities.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Lugalzaggisi had already united the city-states of Sumer by defeating each in turn and claimed to rule the lands not only of the Sumerian city-states but also those as far west as the Mediterranean.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hittites penetrated what is now central Turkey shortly after 2000 B.C. They conquered the local people and set up a number of city-states.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[7] These trends have continued to the present day in Iraq.

Language and writing

The earliest language written in Mesopotamia was Sumerian, an agglutinative language isolate. Semitic dialects were also spoken in early Mesopotamia along with Sumerian. .Later a Semitic language, Akkadian, came to be the dominant language, although Sumerian was retained for administration, religious, literary, and scientific purposes.^ He appointed Semites to high administrative offices and posted all-Akkadian garrisons in the major cities.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sargon, in Akkadian arru knu , the 'true/lawful king' is a Semitic king and founder of a dynasty of Akkad (Sumerian Agade).
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The languages of the older cultures, Akkadian and Sumerian, continued or were soon reestablished, however.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Different varieties of Akkadian were used until the end of the Neo-Babylonian period.^ The decline of Babylonian culture at the end of the Old Babylonian period continued for some time under the Kassites.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Then Aramaic, which had already become common in Mesopotamia, became the official provincial administration language of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.^ Kerbela and Nejef are the great places of burial for the faithful, and among the common sights of the plains of Mesopotamia are endless caravans of corpses from the Persian hills or from the distant north.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Akkadian fell into disuse, but both it and Sumerian were still used in temples for some centuries.^ The pitching inside and out is still practised in putting together some of the Euphrates boats, and the method of making a goufa, covering it on both sides with bitumen, has a strong family likeness to the method of boat-building used in those primitive times.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Early Mesopotamia (around mid 4th millennium BC) cuneiform script was invented.^ Early exploration in Mesopotamia; with a list of the Assyro- Babylonian cuneiform texts published before 1851.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Cuneiform literally means "wedge-shaped", due to the triangular tip of the stylus used for impressing signs on wet clay. The standardized form of each cuneiform sign appear to have been developed from pictograms. .The earliest texts (7 archaic tablets) come from the E-anna super sacred precinct dedicated to the goddess Inanna at Uruk, Level III, from a building labeled as Temple C by its excavators.^ Uruk, and as such, the ritual husband of the Great Goddess Inanna, upon whose favour the citys prosperity depends.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Sumerian King List makes Enmerkar the second king of Uruk after the Flood which would place his reign at the time when the building of Enki's temple at Eridu reached its apogee.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The early logographic system of cuneiform script took many years to master.^ In many localities an urge was felt to imitate the model of Ur; Isin probably took over unchanged the administrative system of that state.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Thus only a limited number of individuals were hired as scribes to be trained in its reading and writing. .It was not until the widespread use of a syllabic script was adopted under Sargon's rule[citation needed] that significant portions of Mesopotamian population became literate.^ During Sargon's rule Akkadian became adapted to the script that previously had been used in the Sumerian language, and the new spirit of calligraphy that is visible upon the clay tablets of this dynasty is also clearly seen on contemporary cylinder seals, with their beautifully arranged and executed scenes of mythology and festive life.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For their own royal and religious writings, they used the Hittite language recorded either in Hittite hieroglyphic writing or in cuneiform script borrowed from the Mesopotamians.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He ruled for twenty-four years until overthrown by Sargon I. .
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Massive archives of texts were recovered from the archaeological contexts of Old Babylonian scribal schools, through which literacy was disseminated.

Literature and mythology

In Babylonian times there were libraries in most towns and temples; an old Sumerian proverb averred that "he who would excel in the school of the scribes must rise with the dawn." Women as well as men learned to read and write,[8] and for the Semitic Babylonians, this involved knowledge of the extinct Sumerian language, and a complicated and extensive syllabary.
.A considerable amount of Babylonian literature was translated from Sumerian originals, and the language of religion and law long continued to be the old agglutinative language of Sumer.^ Assyrian and Babylonian literature : selected translations / with a critical introduction by Robert Francis Harper.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He appointed his daughter to be high priestess of the god Sin in Ur, thus returning to the Sumerian-Old Babylonian religious tradition.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The decline of Babylonian culture at the end of the Old Babylonian period continued for some time under the Kassites.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Vocabularies, grammars, and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students, as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of obscure words and phrases. The characters of the syllabary were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists of them were drawn up.
There are many Babylonian literary works whose titles have come down to us. .One of the most famous of these was the Epic of Gilgamesh, in twelve books, translated from the original Sumerian by a certain Sin-liqe-unninni, and arranged upon an astronomical principle.^ Noah's ark and the Ziusudra epic : Sumerian origins of the flood Myth.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the most attractive books which the war has yet evoked."—Connoisseur.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is one of the most thoroughly satisfactory artist-tourist books we have seen, and its publisher has done justice to the good material at his disposal."— Morning Post.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Each division contains the story of a single adventure in the career of Gilgamesh. .The whole story is a composite product, and it is probable that some of the stories are artificially attached to the central figure.^ Although the oral tale of Gilgamesh could have been attributed to various rulers over millennia, the story we know is probably attached to a real king.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Philosophy

Template:Futher
.The origins of philosophy can be traced back to early Mesopotamian wisdom, which embodied certain philosophies of life, particularly ethics, in the forms of dialectic, dialogs, epic poetry, folklore, hymns, lyrics, prose, and proverbs.^ It is easy to forget discomfort and insects and feel a certain glamour coming back to things which, at the time, represented the commonplaces of life.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Babylonian reasoning and rationality developed beyond empirical observation.[9]
The earliest form of logic was developed by the Babylonians, notably in the rigorous nonergodic nature of their social systems. Babylonian thought was axiomatic and is comparable to the "ordinary logic" described by John Maynard Keynes. Babylonian thought was also based on an open-systems ontology which is compatible with ergodic axioms.[10] Logic was employed to some extent in Babylonian astronomy and medicine.
Babylonian thought had a considerable influence on early Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy. In particular, the Babylonian text Dialog of Pessimism contains similarities to the agonistic thought of the sophists, the Heraclitean doctrine of contrasts, and the dialectic and dialogs of Plato, as well as a precursor to the maieutic Socratic method of Socrates.[11] The Ionian philosopher Thales was influenced by Babylonian cosmological ideas.

Science and technology

Astronomy

The Babylonian astronomers were very interested in studying the stars and sky, and most could already predict eclipses and solstices. People thought that everything had some purpose in astronomy. Most of these related to religion and omens. Mesopotamian astronomers worked out a 12 month calendar based on the cycles of the moon. .They divided the year into two seasons: summer and winter.^ Thus we can divide the empire into two sections.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

The origins of astronomy as well as astrology date from this time.
.During the 8th and 7th centuries BC, Babylonian astronomers developed a new approach to astronomy.^ Sargon II, (721-705 BC) one of Assyria's great kings during the last century of its history.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Many scholars believe that the essential groundwork for the development of the subsequent Babylonian culture was laid during the later epoch of the Kassite era.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

They began studying philosophy dealing with the ideal nature of the early universe and began employing an internal logic within their predictive planetary systems. This was an important contribution to astronomy and the philosophy of science and some scholars have thus referred to this new approach as the first scientific revolution.[12] This new approach to astronomy was adopted and further developed in Greek and Hellenistic astronomy.
In Seleucid and Parthian times, the astronomical reports were of a thoroughly scientific character; how much earlier their advanced knowledge and methods were developed is uncertain. The Babylonian development of methods for predicting the motions of the planets is considered to be a major episode in the history of astronomy.
.The only Greek Babylonian astronomer known to have supported a heliocentric model of planetary motion was Seleucus of Seleucia (b.^ The Babylonian chronicle is extant only for the years 605-594, and not much is known from other sources about the later years of this famous king.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

190 BC).[13][14][15] Seleucus is known from the writings of Plutarch. He supported Aristarchus of Samos' heliocentric theory where the Earth rotated around its own axis which in turn revolved around the Sun. According to Plutarch, Seleucus even proved the heliocentric system, but it is not known what arguments he used (except that he correctly theorized on tides as a result of Moon's attraction).
Babylonian astronomy was the basis for much of what was done in Greek and Hellenistic astronomy, in classical Indian astronomy, in Sassanian, Byzantine and Syrian astronomy, in medieval Islamic astronomy, and in Central Asian and Western European astronomy.[16]

Mathematics

The Mesopotamians used a sexagesimal (base 60) numeral system. This is the source of the current 60-minute hours and 24-hour days, as well as the 360 degree circle. The Sumerian calendar also measured weeks of seven days each. This mathematical knowledge was used in mapmaking.
The Babylonians might have been familiar with the general rules for measuring the areas. .They measured the circumference of a circle as three times the diameter and the area as one-twelfth the square of the circumference, which would be correct if pi were estimated as 3. The volume of a cylinder was taken as the product of the base and the height, however, the volume of the frustum of a cone or a square pyramid was incorrectly taken as the product of the height and half the sum of the bases.^ Its base measured about 300 feet on each side, and it was 300 feet in height.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If this surmise be a correct one, then we can trace the poop tower of the Great Harry and the square windows and super-imposed galleries of the Victory's stern to this common ancestor.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From time to time, one of these three would mount on the head or fore-part of this object, with the effect of causing it to slide and plunge forward for a few yards to stick again and again, snorting and panting and unable apparently to make any further progress.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Also, there was a recent discovery in which a tablet used pi as 3 and 1/8 (3.125 for 3.14159~). .The Babylonians are also known for the Babylonian mile, which was a measure of distance equal to about seven miles (11 km) today.^ The Babylonian chronicle is extant only for the years 605-594, and not much is known from other sources about the later years of this famous king.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

This measurement for distances eventually was converted to a time-mile used for measuring the travel of the Sun, therefore, representing time.[17]

Medicine

.The oldest Babylonian texts on medicine date back to the Old Babylonian period in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.^ Old Babylonian omen texts.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Old Babylonian period (2003-1595 BC).
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Old Babylonian extispicy : omen texts in the British Museum.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The most extensive Babylonian medical text, however, is the Diagnostic Handbook written by the physician Esagil-kin-apli of Borsippa,[18] during the reign of the Babylonian king Adad-apla-iddina (1069-1046 BC).^ Most of the kings seem to have only reigned for one to three years, with the longest being seven years.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sargon II, (721-705 BC) one of Assyria's great kings during the last century of its history.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Utuhegal, king of Erech (reigned about 2120-2112 BC), won a decisive victory later celebrated in Sumerian literature.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.Along with contemporary ancient Egyptian medicine, the Babylonians introduced the concepts of diagnosis, prognosis, physical examination, and prescriptions.^ The long arcade with brick pillars runs along the margin of the river, suggestive of some ancient Babylonian city from this distance, and is but a sorry enough place in reality.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

In addition, the Diagnostic Handbook introduced the methods of therapy and aetiology and the use of empiricism, logic and rationality in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. The text contains a list of medical symptoms and often detailed empirical observations along with logical rules used in combining observed symptoms on the body of a patient with its diagnosis and prognosis.[20]
The symptoms and diseases of a patient were treated through therapeutic means such as bandages, creams and pills. If a patient could not be cured physically, the Babylonian physicians often relied on exorcism to cleanse the patient from any curses. Esagil-kin-apli's Diagnostic Handbook was based on a logical set of axioms and assumptions, including the modern view that through the examination and inspection of the symptoms of a patient, it is possible to determine the patient's disease, its aetiology and future development, and the chances of the patient's recovery.[18]
Esagil-kin-apli discovered a variety of illnesses and diseases and described their symptoms in his Diagnostic Handbook. These include the symptoms for many varieties of epilepsy and related ailments along with their diagnosis and prognosis.[21]

Technology

.Mesopotamian people invented many technologies including metal and copper-working, glass and lamp making, textile weaving, flood control, water storage, and irrigation.^ In irrigation lands like Mesopotamia it is the combination of great heat and abundant water that makes for luxuriant growth.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The flood tide had spent itself and the river seemed unusually still as twilight deepened and the many lights of the works wriggled in long reflection in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our army of occupation includes "irrigation officers," and gradually the work of watering the country is extending.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.They were also one of the first Bronze age people in the world.^ One of them, Sargon I, would rise from humble beginnings to become the first emperor the world had seen since Nimrod.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Early on they used copper, bronze and gold, and later they used iron. Palaces were decorated with hundreds of kilograms of these very expensive metals. Also, copper, bronze, and iron were used for armor as well as for different weapons such as swords, daggers, spears, and maces.
.The earliest type of pump was the Archimedes screw, first used by Sennacherib, King of Assyria, for the water systems at the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and Nineveh in the 7th century BC, and later described in more detail by Archimedes in the 3rd century BC.[22] Later during the Parthian or Sassanid periods, the Baghdad Battery, which may have been the first batteries, were created in Mesopotamia.^ Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized Mesopotamian King List 2800 - 500 B.C. .
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The civilizations of Babylon and Assyria owed their very life to the science of watering the land, and even in the later times of Haroun Alraschid their great systems had been well maintained.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The name was undoubtedly chosen in reminiscence of two former kings of Assyria, particularly in commemoration of Sargon of Akkad (flourished 2300 BC).
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[23]

Religion

Mesopotamian religion was the first to be recorded. Mesopotamians believed that the world was a flat disc[citation needed], surrounded by a huge, holed space, and above that, heaven. They also believed that water was everywhere, the top, bottom and sides, and that the universe was born from this enormous sea. In addition, Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic.
Although the beliefs described above were held in common among Mesopotamians, there were also regional variations. The Sumerian word for universe is an-ki, which refers to the god An and the goddess Ki. Their son was Enlil, the air god. They believed that Enlil was the most powerful god. He was the chief god of the Pantheon, as the Greeks had Zeus and the Romans had Jupiter. The Sumerians also posed philosophical questions, such as: Who are we?, Where are we?, How did we get here?. They attributed answers to these questions to explanations provided by their gods.

Holidays, Feasts, and Festivals

Ancient Mesopotamians had ceremonies each month. The theme of the rituals and festivals for each month is determined by six important factors:
.
  1. The phase of the Moon;
    waxing Moon = abundance and growth;
    waning Moon = decline, conservation, and festivals of the Underworld;
  2. the phase of the annual agricultural cycle;
  3. equinoxes and solstices of the solar year;
  4. the mythos of the City and its divine Patrons;
  5. the success of the reigning Monarch;
  6. commemoration of specific historical events (founding, military victories, temple holidays, etc.^ He commemorated the victory by having the Stele of the Vultures made, which is the oldest historical document ever found.
    • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An inscription was found during the reign of the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad I that stated that Manishtushu founded the famous temple of Ishtar in Nineveh.
    • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    )

Primary gods and goddesses

  • Anu was the Sumerian god of the sky. He was married to Ki, but in some other Mesopotamian religions he has a wife called Uraš. Though he was considered the most important god in the pantheon, he took a mostly passive role in epics, allowing Enlil to claim the position as most powerful god.
  • Enlil was initially the most powerful god in Mesopotamian religion. His wife was Ninlil, and his children were Iškur (sometimes), Nanna - Suen, Nergal, Nisaba, Namtar, Ninurta (sometimes), Pabilsag, Nushu, Enbilulu, Uraš Zababa and Ennugi. His position at the top of the pantheon was later usurped by Marduk and then by Ashur.
  • Enki (Ea) god of Eridu. .He was the god of rain.
  • Marduk was the principal god of Babylon.^ The cuneiform records of Nabopolassar relate how the god Marduk commanded him 'to lay the foundation of the Tower of Babylon ...
    • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .When Babylon rose to power, the mythologies raised Marduk from his original position as an agricultural god to the principal god in the pantheon.
  • Ashur was god of the Assyrian empire and likewise when the Assyrians rose to power their myths raised Ashur to a position of importance.
  • Gula or Utu (in Sumerian), Shamash (in Akkadian) was the sun god and god of justice.
  • Ereshkigal was goddess of the Netherworld.
  • Nabu was the Mesopotamian god of writing.^ Assyrian origins : discoveries at Ashur on the Tigris : antiquities in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin / edited by Prudence O. Harper...
    • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mesopotamian poetic language : Sumerian and Akkadian / M.E. Vogelzang, H.L.J. Vanstiphout, editors.
    • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

    He was very wise, and was praised for his writing ability. In some places he was believed to be in control of heaven and earth. His importance was increased considerably in the later periods.
  • Ninurta was the Sumerian god of war. He was also the god of heroes.
  • Iškur (or Adad) was the god of storms.
  • Erra was probably the god of drought. He is often mentioned in conjunction with Adad and Nergal in laying waste to the land.
  • Nergal was probably a plague god. He was also spouse of Ereshkigal.
  • Pazuzu, also known as Zu, was an evil god, who stole the tablets of Enlil’s destiny, and is killed because of this. He also brought diseases which had no known cure.

Burials

Hundreds of graves have been excavated in parts of Mesopotamia, revealing information about Mesopotamian burial habits. .In the city of Ur, most people were buried in family graves under their houses (as in Catalhuyuk), along with some possessions.^ A BRITISH CRUISER IN THE PERSIAN GULF Mesopotamia under the Turks was in some ways worse off than others of his badly governed possessions.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long arcade with brick pillars runs along the margin of the river, suggestive of some ancient Babylonian city from this distance, and is but a sorry enough place in reality.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

A few have been found wrapped in mats and carpets. Deceased children were put in big "jars" which were placed in the family chapel. Other remains have been found buried in common city graveyards. 17 graves have been found with very precious objects in them ; it is assumed that these were royal graves.

Culture

Music, songs and instruments

Some songs were written for the gods but many were written to describe important events. .Although music and songs amused kings, they were also enjoyed by ordinary people who liked to sing and dance in their homes or in the marketplaces.^ They themselves expected to be kings of the East although coming from the West, and some, it is interesting to note, explain the Prussians as of Oriental origin.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Songs were sung to children who passed them on to their children. Thus songs were passed on through many generations until someone wrote them down. .These songs provided a means of passing on through the centuries highly important information about historical events that were eventually passed on to modern historians.^ Here again we were held up while countless mahailas passed through, but we succeeded in getting over at last and eventually found the house of the Wise Men, the headquarters of the irrigation officers.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The Oud (Arabic:العود) is a small, stringed musical instrument. The oldest pictorial record of the Oud dates back to the Uruk period in Southern Mesopotamia over 5000 years ago. It is on a cylinder seal currently housed at the British Museum and acquired by Dr. Dominique Collon. The image depicts a female crouching with her instruments upon a boat, playing right-handed. .This instrument appears hundreds of times throughout Mesopotamian history and again in ancient Egypt from the 18th dynasty onwards in long- and short-neck varieties.^ Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc To Find Location of a Book, Please Check the Catalog .
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

The oud is regarded as a precursor to the European lute. Its name is derived from the Arabic word العود al-‘ūd 'the wood', which is probably the name of the tree from which the oud was made. (The Arabic name, with the definite article, is the source of the word 'lute'.)

Games

Hunting was popular among Assyrian kings. .Boxing and wrestling feature frequently in art, and some form of polo was probably popular, with men sitting on the shoulders of other men rather than on horses.^ A BRITISH CRUISER IN THE PERSIAN GULF Mesopotamia under the Turks was in some ways worse off than others of his badly governed possessions.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[24] They also played majore, a game similar to the sport rugby, but played with a ball made of wood. They also played a board game similar to senet and backgammon, now known as the "Royal Game of Ma-asesblu."

Family life

The Babylonian marriage market, in the Royal Holloway College.
.Mesopotamia across its history became more and more a patriarchal society, in which the men were far more powerful than the women.^ Before the war, when Mesopotamia was a more distant land than it is to-day, Basra was often referred to as the Venice of the East.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Thorkild Jacobsen, and others have suggested that early Mesopotamian society was ruled by a "council of elders" in which men and women were equally represented, but that over time, as the status of women fell, that of men increased. As for schooling, only royal offspring and sons of the rich and professionals such as scribes, physicians, temple administrators, and so on, went to school. Most boys were taught their father's trade or were apprenticed out to learn a trade.[25] Girls had to stay home with their mothers to learn housekeeping and cooking, and to look after the younger children. Some children would help with crushing grain, or cleaning birds. Unusual for that time in history, women in Mesopotamia had rights. They could own property and, if they had good reason, get a divorce.

Economy

Mining areas of the ancient Middle East. Boxes colors: arsenic is in brown, copper in red, tin in grey, iron in reddish brown, gold in yellow, silver in white and lead in black. Yellow area stands for arsenic bronze, while grey area stands for tin bronze.
Sumer developed the first economy, while the Babylonians developed the earliest system of economics, which was comparable to modern post-Keynesian economics, but with a more "anything goes" approach.[10]

Agriculture

The geography of Mesopotamia is such that agriculture is possible only with irrigation and good drainage, a fact which has had a profound effect on the evolution of Mesopotamian civilization. .The need for irrigation led the Sumerians and later the Akkadians to build their cities along the Tigris and Euphrates and the branches of these rivers.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the best of these efforts is elaborately cumbersome compared with housing schemes on these flat lands bordering [Pg 35] the Tigris and Euphrates.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Euphrates there are two methods used for local irrigation apart from the system of canals flowing from the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Some major cities, such as Ur and Uruk, took root on tributaries of the Euphrates, while others, notably Lagash, were built on branches of the Tigris. The rivers provided the further benefits of fish (used both for food and fertilizer), reeds and clay (for building materials).
.With irrigation the food supply in Mesopotamia was quite rich with the Tigris and Euphrates River valleys forming the northeastern portion of the Fertile Crescent, which also included the Jordan River valley & that of the Nile.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Euphrates there are two methods used for local irrigation apart from the system of canals flowing from the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the banks of the Euphrates are the more wooded and picturesque and the Tigris is the busier.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although land nearer to the rivers was fertile and good for crops, portions of land farther from the water were dry and largely uninhabitable.^ Maxwell's sketches are extremely good and vivid, and the text is lively and readable."— Land and Water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These two systems, as can be easily imagined, are good only for the land in the immediate vicinity of the river bank, as the supply of water is necessarily not large.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Large reservoirs and lakes for storing surplus water were made, and thus the uneven delivery of water by the rivers was checked and a more regular and manageable supply maintained.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

This is why the development of irrigation was very important for settlers of Mesopotamia. Other Mesopotamian innovations include the control of water by dams and the use of aqueducts. .Early settlers of fertile land in Mesopotamia used wooden plows to soften the soil before planting crops such as barley, onions, grapes, turnips and apples.^ Before the war, when Mesopotamia was a more distant land than it is to-day, Basra was often referred to as the Venice of the East.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Mesopotamian settlers were some of the first people to make beer and wine.
Although the rivers sustained life, they also destroyed it by frequent floods that ravaged entire cities. The unpredictable Mesopotamian weather was often hard on farmers; crops were often ruined so backup sources of food such as cows and lambs were also kept. As a result of the skill involved in farming in the Mesopotamian, farmers did not depend on slaves to complete farm work for them, with some exceptions. There were too many risks involved to make slavery practical (i.e. the escape/mutiny of the slave).

Government

The geography of Mesopotamia had a profound impact on the political development of the region. .Among the rivers and streams, the Sumerian people built the first cities along with irrigation canals which were separated by vast stretchs of open desert or swamp where nomadic tribes roamed.^ On the Euphrates there are two methods used for local irrigation apart from the system of canals flowing from the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At first our road ran along the quays by the river side.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The long arcade with brick pillars runs along the margin of the river, suggestive of some ancient Babylonian city from this distance, and is but a sorry enough place in reality.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Communication among the isolated cities was difficult and at times dangerous. Thus each Sumerian city became a city-state, independent of the others and protective of its independence. At times one city would try to conquer and unify the region, but such efforts were resisted and failed for centuries. As a result, the political history of Sumer is one of almost constant warfare. Eventually Sumer was unified by Eannatum, but the unification was tenuous and failed to last as the Akkadians conquered Sumeria in 2331B.C. only a generation later.
The Akkadian Empire was the first successful empire to last beyond a generation and see the peaceful succession of kings. The empire was relatively short lived, as the Babylonians conquered them within only a few generations.

Kings

.The Mesopotamians believed their kings and queens were descended from the City of Gods, but, unlike the ancient Egyptians, they never believed their kings were real gods.^ The long arcade with brick pillars runs along the margin of the river, suggestive of some ancient Babylonian city from this distance, and is but a sorry enough place in reality.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An old house in Mesopotamia in which Sinbad the Sailor had not lived would be equivalent to one of England's ancient country mansions in which Queen Elizabeth had never slept.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[26] Most kings named themselves “king of the universe” or “great king”. Another common name was “shepherd”, as kings had to look after their people.
Notable Mesopotamian kings include:
Eannatum of Lagash who founded the first (short-lived) empire.
.Sargon of Akkad who conquered all of Mesopotamia and created the first empire that outlived its founder.^ He is a rash man who would prophesy concerning the future of Mesopotamia as far as our empire is concerned.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The future of Mesopotamia with its enormous productive potentialities is a subject fraught with great interest to all those who have studied her past.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Hammurabi founded the first Babylonian empire.
.Tiglath-Pileser III founded the Neo-Assyrian Empire.^ The construction of the Assyrian empire : a historical study of the inscriptions of Shalmanesar III relating to his campaigns in the West.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The king's magnates : a study of the highest officials of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Nebuchadnezzar was the most powerful king in the Neo-Babylonian Empire.^ Nabonidus and Belshazzar; a study of the closing events of the Neo-Babylonian empire.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Neo-Babylonian empire and Babylon in the latter prophets.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The king's magnates : a study of the highest officials of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

He was thought to be the son of the god Nabu. He married the daughter of Cyaxeres, so the Median and the Babylonian dynasties had a familial connection. Nebuchadnezzar’s name means: Nabo, protect the crown!
Belshedezzar was the last king of Babylonia. He was the son of Nabonidus whose wife was Nictoris, the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar.

Power

When Assyria grew into an empire, it was divided into smaller parts, called provinces. Each of these were named after their main cities, like Nineveh, Samaria, Damascus and Arpad. They all had their own governor who had to make sure everyone paid their taxes; he had to call up soldiers to war, and supply workers when a temple was built. He was also responsible for the laws being enforced. In this way it was easier to keep control of an empire like Assyria. Although Babylon was quite a small state in the Sumerian, it grew tremendously throughout the time of Hammurabi's rule. He was known as “the law maker”, and soon Babylon became one of the main cities in Mesopotamia. It was later called Babylonia, which meant "the gateway of the gods." It also became one of history's greatest centers of learning.

Warfare

Assyrian soldiers, from a plate in THE HISTORY OF COSTUME by Braun & Schneider (ca. 1860).
As city-states began to grow, their spheres of influence overlapped, creating arguments between other city-states, especially over land and canals. .These arguments were recorded in tablets several hundreds of years before any major war - the first recording of a war occurred around 3200BCE but was not common until about 2500BCE. At this point warfare was incorporated into the Mesopotamian political system, where a neutral city may act as an arbitrator for the two rival cities.^ Perhaps the scarcity of paint during years of war may have had something to do with this noticeable absence of colouring in regard to both houses and boats.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From a painter's point of view, the scene of this great city, about which he has pictured so much, is somewhat disappointing.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it was for the Imperial War Museum that I went to Mesopotamia, these notes are not about the War, but they are a series of impressions of Mesopotamia in general.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

This helped to form unions between cities, leading to regional states.[27] .When empires were created, they went to war more with foreign countries.^ Although it was for the Imperial War Museum that I went to Mesopotamia, these notes are not about the War, but they are a series of impressions of Mesopotamia in general.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

King Sargon, for example conquered all the cities of Sumer, some cities in Mari, and then went to war with northern Syria. Many Babylonian palace walls were decorated with the pictures of the successful fights and the enemy, whether desperately escaping, or hiding amongst reeds. A king in Sumer, Gilgamesh, was thought two-thirds god and only one third human. There were legendary stories and poems about him, which were passed on for many generations, because he had many adventures that were believed very important, and won many wars and battles.

Laws

King Hammurabi, as mentioned above, was famous for his set of laws, The Code of Hammurabi (created ca. .1780 BC), which is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.^ An old house in Mesopotamia in which Sinbad the Sailor had not lived would be equivalent to one of England's ancient country mansions in which Queen Elizabeth had never slept.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

He made over 200 laws for Mesopotamia For more information, see Hammurabi and Code of Hammurabi. See also: Laws of Eshnunna, Code of Ur-Nammu.

Architecture

.The study of ancient Mesopotamian architecture is based on available archaeological evidence, pictorial representation of buildings and texts on building practices.^ Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries : the archaeological evidence.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Scholarly literature usually concentrates on temples, palaces, city walls and gates and other monumental buildings, but occasionally one finds works on residential architecture as well.^ The writing on the wall : studies in the architectural context of late Assyrian palace inscriptions.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The mound Babil is thought to be the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II. An inscription reads: "On the brick wall towards the north my heart inspired me to build a palace for the protecting of Babylon.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[28] Archaeological surface surveys also allowed for the study of urban form in early Mesopotamian cities. .Most notably known architectural remains from early Mesopotamia are the temple complexes at Uruk from the 4th millennium BC, temples and palaces from the Early Dynastic period sites in the Diyala River valley such as Khafajah and Tell Asmar, the Third Dynasty of Ur remains at Nippur (Sanctuary of Enlil) and Ur (Sanctuary of Nanna), Middle Bronze Age remains at Syrian-Turkish sites of Ebla, Mari, Alalakh, Aleppo and Kultepe, Late Bronze Age palaces at Bogazkoy (Hattusha), Ugarit, Ashur and Nuzi, Iron Age palaces and temples at Assyrian (Kalhu/Nimrud, Khorsabad, Nineveh), Babylonian (Babylon), Urartian (Tushpa/Van Kalesi, Cavustepe, Ayanis, Armavir, Erebuni, Bastam) and Neo-Hittite sites (Karkamis, Tell Halaf, Karatepe).^ The writing on the wall : studies in the architectural context of late Assyrian palace inscriptions.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Neo-Babylonian empire and Babylon in the latter prophets.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Royal gifts in the late Bronze Age, fourteenth to thirteenth centuries B.C.E. : selected texts recording gifts to royal personages / transcriptions and translations.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Houses are mostly known from Old Babylonian remains at Nippur and Ur. .Among the textual sources on building construction and associated rituals, Gudea's cylinders from the late 3rd millennium are notable, as well as the Assyrian and Babylonian royal inscriptions from the Iron Age.^ Assyrian royal inscriptions.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A translation of the inscription proved beyond doubt that the Shushan was used by Nebuchadnezzar [Pg 44] as a royal yacht, and is the last surviving link with the Babylonian navy.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The construction of the Assyrian empire : a historical study of the inscriptions of Shalmanesar III relating to his campaigns in the West.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Houses

.The materials used to build a Mesopotamian house were the same as those used today: mud brick, mud plaster and wooden doors, which were all naturally available around the city,[29] although wood could not be naturally made very well during the particular time period described.^ The fact that all the stock-in-trade of a township amounts to a few pots and pans and house material of cane matting and mud makes it impossible to impress them by destroying their houses.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pitching inside and out is still practised in putting together some of the Euphrates boats, and the method of making a goufa, covering it on both sides with bitumen, has a strong family likeness to the method of boat-building used in those primitive times.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the bright sunlight of the Mesopotamian plains, and probably also on account of their prominence at a distance over the flat land, some of these mud buildings look quite imposing.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Most houses had a square center room with other rooms attached to it, but a great variation in the size and materials used to build the houses suggest they were built by the inhabitants themselves [4]. .The smallest rooms may not have coincided with the poorest people; in fact it could be that the poorest people built houses out of perishable materials such as reeds on the outside of the city, but there is very little direct evidence for this.^ The fact that all the stock-in-trade of a township amounts to a few pots and pans and house material of cane matting and mud makes it impossible to impress them by destroying their houses.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There was very little to do at Basra except watch steamers load up with the more fortunate candidates for demobilization and give them a send-off.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our baggage we left there and set out on foot to try and reach Navy House, which was the other side of the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[30]

The Palace

The palaces of the early Mesopotamian elites were large scale complexes, and were often lavishly decorated. Earliest examples are known from the Diyala River valley sites such as Khafajah and Tell Asmar. These third millennium BC palaces functioned as a large scale socio-economic institutions, therefore, along with residential and private function, they housed craftsmen workshops, food storehouses, ceremonial courtyards, and often associated with shrines. For instance, the so-called "giparu" (or Gig-Par-Ku in Sumerian) at Ur where the Moon god Nanna's priestesses resided was a major complex with multiple courtyards, a number of sanctuaries, burial chambers for dead priestesses, a ceremonial banquet hall, etc. .A similarly complex example of a Mesopotamian palace was excavated at Mari in Syria, dating from the Old Babylonian period.^ Old Babylonian period (2003-1595 BC).
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Assyrian palaces of the Iron Age, especially at Kalhu/Nimrud, Dur Sharrukin/Khorsabad and Ninuwa/Nineveh, have become famous due to the pictorial and textual narrative programs on their walls, all carved on stone slabs known as orthostats.^ The writing on the wall : studies in the architectural context of late Assyrian palace inscriptions.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis restored; an essay on ancient Assyrian and Persian architecture.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

These pictorial programs either incorporated cultic scenes or the narrative accounts of the kings' military and civic accomplishments. Gates and important passageways were flanked with massive stone sculpture of apotropaic mythological figures. The architectural arrangement of these Iron Age palaces were also organized around large and small courtyards. Usually the king's throneroom opened to a massive ceremonial courtyard where important state councils met, state ceremonies performed.
.Massive amounts of ivory furniture pieces were found in many Assyrian palaces pointing out an intense trade relationship with North Syrian Neo-Hittite states at the time.^ How many times has a sketch done in a failing light looked strong in tone, only to go to pieces when seen under normal conditions?
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

There is also good evidence that bronze repousse bands decorated the wooden gates.

Ziggurats

Ziggurats were huge pyramidal temple towers built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels. There are 32 ziggurats known at, and near, Mesopotamia. Twenty-eight of them are in Iraq, and four of them are in Iran. Notable Ziggurats include the Great Ziggurat of Ur near Nasiriyah, Iraq, the Ziggurat of Aqar Quf near Baghdad, Iraq, Chogha Zanbil in Khūzestān, Iran, the most recent to be discovered - Sialk near Kashan, Iran and others. Ziggurats were built by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Elamites and Assyrians as monuments to local religions. The earliest examples of the ziggurat were raised platforms that date from the Ubaid period[31] during the fourth millennium BC, and the latest date from the 6th century BC. The top of the ziggurat was flat, unlike many pyramids. The step pyramid style began near the end of the Early Dynastic Period.[32] Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors and may have had astrological significance. Kings sometimes had their names engraved on these glazed bricks. The number of tiers ranged from two to seven, with a shrine or temple at the summit. Access to the shrine was provided by a series of ramps on one side of the ziggurat or by a spiral ramp from base to summit. It has been suggested that ziggurats were built to resemble mountains, but there is little textual or archaeological evidence to support that hypothesis.
Ur-Nammu's ziggurat at Ur was designed as a three-stage construction, today only two of these survive. This entire mudbrick core structure was originally given a facing of baked brick envelope set in bitumen, circa 2.5 m on the first lowest stage, and 1.15 m on the second. Each of these baked bricks were stamped with the name of the king. The sloping walls of the stages were buttressed. The access to the top was by means of a triple monumental staircase, which all converges at a portal that opened on a landing between the first and second stages. The height of the first stage was about 11 m while the second stage rose some 5.7 m. Usually a third stage is reconstructed by the excavator of the ziggurat (Leonard Woolley), and crowned by a temple. At the Tschoga Zanbil ziggurat archaeologists have found massive reed ropes that ran across the core of the ziggurat structure and tied together the mudbrick mass. The Ancient Mesopotamians were located at the center of the near east. It was in present day Iraq as well as some parts of Syria and Turkey. .Ancient Mesopotamia was between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An ancient prophecy foretells that the great river Euphrates shall be dried up that the way of the kings of the East shall be prepared.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ MUD HOUSES ON THE TIGRIS The object of the ancient irrigationists was to tap the rivers at the higher part of this plain, and then, by means of great canals, lead the water where they wanted it.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Mesopotamia literally means “The land between two rivers”.^ These two systems, as can be easily imagined, are good only for the land in the immediate vicinity of the river bank, as the supply of water is necessarily not large.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The river was high and the land in between the great bends was a maze of rushes and lagoons.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The southern part of Mesopotamia made up part of the Fertile Crescent. Because of where it is, Mesopotamia has hot summers and cold winters. The first city in Mesopotamia was Eridu. The rivers of Mesopotamia helped sustain life and provide food. The rivers helped the Mesopotamians by wetting and irrigating the soil and land. The rivers could also be dangerous, and cause floods and wash away crops and newly planted seeds. .The Mesopotamians lived a similar lifestyle to the Marsh Arabs, who live on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and use them to help them live.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the Euphrates there are two methods used for local irrigation apart from the system of canals flowing from the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the banks of the Euphrates are the more wooded and picturesque and the Tigris is the busier.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the rain bringing season sometimes the rivers would partially flood the land, so only the highest points or dirt mounds would not be covered with water.^ The tide is felt in all these waters, and sometimes, during a spring tide, the effect of some of these date palm plantations, with the ground just covered, is strange.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Owing to the river being in flood, it was open, that is, the middle section had been floated out, for fear that the hawsers would not stand the strain and the only road across was the Maude Bridge lower down.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The flood tide had spent itself and the river seemed unusually still as twilight deepened and the many lights of the works wriggled in long reflection in the water.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

If this happened then the Mesopotamians would have to use boats to go to other people’s houses or to outside of the flooding areas. The river affected Mesopotamian life in many different ways. The Mesopotamians had complex and intricate ways of farming. .They would use canals (which they often had to repair and re - dig) to irrigate during the dry season.^ On the Euphrates there are two methods used for local irrigation apart from the system of canals flowing from the river.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The Mesopotamians had bucket lifting devices to move water between different levels in the canals and to bring water to the crops. .The irrigation was counted on so crops could grow and the crops would be enough food to last through the winter.^ Here again we were held up while countless mahailas passed through, but we succeeded in getting over at last and eventually found the house of the Wise Men, the headquarters of the irrigation officers.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Irrigation in Mesopotamia played an important role. The Mesopotamians were the first people to invent writing, or an alphabet! At the beginning, writing was simple, a picture to show what you wanted to show. Eventually writing evolved to complex cuneiform. There were hundreds of letters in the cuneiform alphabet. The language Mesopotamians spoken was not called Mesopotamian, but Sumerian. Cuneiform has been adapted for use with Akkadian, Babylonian, Persian, and many other languages.
Farmers grew food to feed the people of Mesopotamia, but the wealth of the cities of Mesopotamia came from merchants and craftspeople. The Mesopotamians placed great value on commerce. Mesopotamia didn’t have many natural resources, so they traded mostly grain and textiles. .The Tigris and Euphrates rivers were responsible for getting the goods to and from Mesopotamia.^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the banks of the Euphrates are the more wooded and picturesque and the Tigris is the busier.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She would be approaching the coast at the mouth of the river Euphrates, the Tigris flowing-out some fifty miles further east.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

They traded goods as far as Africa, Asia, and Europe. Mesopotamia didn’t use coins, but standards based on the weight of silver and grains were established. .Money from taxes helped a program to build a bridge across the Euphrates river to trade even more.^ Of the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the banks of the Euphrates are the more wooded and picturesque and the Tigris is the busier.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea of getting across the river in a goufa flashed across his mind, but a glance at the foaming, tearing water was sufficient deterrent even to an optimist like Brown.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Without trade Mesopotamia would have easily failed. .Mesopotamians created the first wheeled vehicles in about 3500 B.C.E. They first used the wheel to make wheel – thrown pottery and then in Uruk, while trying to figure out how to carry a heavy load of goods a man created a sort of wheel.^ They are all women who do the selling—weird figures in black carrying baskets of eggs and occasionally chicken.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.He placed a block of wood on a log and used it to pull his goods.Without the invention of the wheel the modern world would not be the same.^ Up till now, upon a map of the world in Abraham's time, the good little Shushan would still be at sea.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Mesopotamia - The British Museum". http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/geography/home_set.html. 
  2. ^ a b c "Geography of Mesopotamia - Thematic Essay - Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/m_wam/hd_m_wam.htm. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ "Khuzestan". Khuzestan. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 2008. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045360/Khuzestan. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  5. ^ Finkelstein, J. J.; 1962. “Mesopotamia”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21: 73-92
  6. ^ Scheffler, Thomas; 2003. “ 'Fertile crescent', 'Orient', 'Middle East': the changing mental maps of Southeast Asia,” European Review of History 10/2: 253–272. Also: Bahrani, Zainab; 1998. “Conjuring Mesopotamia: imaginative geography a world past", in Archaeology under fire: Nationalism, politics and heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. L. Meskell (ed.), Routledge: London and New York, 159–174.
  7. ^ Thompson, William R. (2004) "Complexity, Diminishing Marginal Returns, and Serial Mesopotamian Fragmentation" (Vol 3, Journal of World Systems Research)
  8. ^ Tatlow, Elisabeth Meier Women, Crime, and Punishment in Ancient Law and Society: The ancient Near East Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd. (31 Mar 2005) ISBN 978-0826416285 p.75 [2]
  9. ^ Giorgio Buccellati (1981), "Wisdom and Not: The Case of Mesopotamia", Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (1), p. 35-47.
  10. ^ a b Sheila C. Dow (2005), "Axioms and Babylonian thought: a reply", Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 27 (3), p. 385-391.
  11. ^ Giorgio Buccellati (1981), "Wisdom and Not: The Case of Mesopotamia", Journal of the American Oriental Society 101 (1), p. 35-47 43.
  12. ^ D. Brown (2000), Mesopotamian Planetary Astronomy-Astrology , Styx Publications, ISBN 9056930362.
  13. ^ Otto E. Neugebauer (1945). "The History of Ancient Astronomy Problems and Methods", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 4 (1), p. 1-38.
  14. ^ George Sarton (1955). "Chaldaean Astronomy of the Last Three Centuries B. C.", Journal of the American Oriental Society 75 (3), p. 166-173 [169].
  15. ^ William P. D. Wightman (1951, 1953), The Growth of Scientific Ideas, Yale University Press p.38.
  16. ^ Pingree (1998)
  17. ^ Eves, Howard An Introduction to the History of Mathematics Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969 p.31 [3]
  18. ^ a b H. F. J. Horstmanshoff, Marten Stol, Cornelis Tilburg (2004), Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine, p. 99, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004136665.
  19. ^ Marten Stol (1993), Epilepsy in Babylonia, p. 55, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9072371631.
  20. ^ H. F. J. Horstmanshoff, Marten Stol, Cornelis Tilburg (2004), Magic and Rationality in Ancient Near Eastern and Graeco-Roman Medicine, p. 97-98, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004136665.
  21. ^ Marten Stol (1993), Epilepsy in Babylonia, p. 5, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9072371631.
  22. ^ Stephanie Dalley and John Peter Oleson (January 2003). "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient World", Technology and Culture 44 (1).
  23. ^ Twist, Jo (20 November 2005). "Open media to connect communities". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4450052.stm. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  24. ^ Karen Rhea Nemet-Nejat (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. 
  25. ^ Rivkah Harris (2000). Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia. 
  26. ^ Robert Dalling (2004). The Story of Us Humans, from Atoms to Today's Civilization. 
  27. ^ >Robert Dalling (2004). The Story of Us Humans, from Atoms to Today's Civilization. 
  28. ^ Dunham, Sally (2005). "Ancient Near Eastern architecture". in Daniel Snell. A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 266–280. ISBN 0-631-23293-1. 
  29. ^ Nicholas Postgate, J N Postgate (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. 
  30. ^ Susan Pollock (1999). Ancient Mesopotamia. 
  31. ^ Crawford, page 73
  32. ^ Crawford, page 73-74

Bibliography

  • Atlas de la Mésopotamie et du Proche-Orient ancien, Brepols, 1996 ISBN|2503500463.
  • Benoit, Agnès; 2003. Art et archéologie : les civilisations du Proche-Orient ancien, Manuels de l'Ecole du Louvre.
  • Jean Bottéro; 1987.Mésopotamie. L'écriture, la raison et les dieux, Gallimard, coll. « Folio Histoire », ISBN|2070403084.
  • Jean Bottéro; 1992. Mesopotamia: writing, reasoning and the gods. Trans. by Zainab Bahrani and Marc Van de Mieroop, University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
  • Edzard, Dietz Otto; 2004. Geschichte Mesopotamiens. Von den Sumerern bis zu Alexander dem Großen, München, ISBN 3-406-51664-5
  • Hrouda, Barthel and Rene Pfeilschifter; 2005. Mesopotamien. Die antiken Kulturen zwischen Euphrat und Tigris. München 2005 (4. Aufl.), ISBN 3-406-46530-7
  • Joannès, Francis; 2001. Dictionnaire de la civilisation mésopotamienne, Robert Laffont.
  • Korn, Wolfgang; 2004. Mesopotamien - Wiege der Zivilisation. 6000 Jahre Hochkulturen an Euphrat und Tigris, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-8062-1851-X
  • Kuhrt, Amélie; 1995. The Ancient Near East: c. 3000-330 B.C. 2 Vols. .Routledge: London and New York.
  • Liverani, Mario; 1991. Antico Oriente: storia, società, economia.^ LONDON: JOHN LANE, THE BODLEY HEAD, VIGO STREET NEW YORK: JOHN LANE COMPANY MCMXXI .
    • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    Editori Laterza: Roma.
  • Matthews, Roger: 2003. The archaeology of Mesopotamia. Theories and approaches, London 2003, ISBN 0-415-25317-9
  • Matthews, Roger; 2005. The early prehistory of Mesopotamia - 500,000 to 4,500 BC, Turnhout 2005, ISBN 2-503-50729-8
  • Oppenheim, A. Leo; 1964. Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a dead civilization. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago and London. Revised edition completed by Erica Reiner, 1977.
  • Pollock, Susan; 1999. Ancient Mesopotamia: the Eden that never was. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • Postgate, J. Nicholas; 1992. Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the dawn of history. Routledge: London and New York.
  • Roux, Georges; 1964. Ancient Iraq, Penguin Books.
  • Silver, Morris; 2007. "Redistribution and Markets in the Economy of Ancient Mesopotamia: Updating Polanyi", Antiguo Oriente 5: 89-112.
  • Snell, Daniel (ed.); 2005. A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Malden, MA : Blackwell Pub, 2005.
  • Van de Mieroop, Marc; 2004. A history of the ancient Near East. ca 3000-323 BC. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There is more than one place called Mesopotamia:

Argentina

Middle East

  • Mesopotamia - An ancient region largely corresponding to modern day Iraq and northeastern Syria.
This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.'MESOPOTAMIA (ME601ro-rapLa, sc. wpa or /vpia, from 4cros,, middle, lroray63, river), one of the Greek renderings of the earlier Semitic names for the river-country that stretches eastward from northern maritime Syria.^ Greek renderings of the earlier Semitic names for the river-country that stretches eastward from northern maritime Syria .

^ Name one present-day country that is in Mesopotamia?
  • WikiAnswers - What is current day Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning “The land between the two rivers”) is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey , and the Khūzestān Province of southwestern Iran .

The earliest
Name.. .appearance of a Semitic name of this kind is in the last paragraph of the biography of Alhmose of el-Kab, the aged officer of Tethmosis (Thutmose) I. As early therefore as the late 16th century B.C. the name Naharin (N'h'ryn
) was in use.^ Semitic name of this kind is in the last paragraph of the biography of Alhmose of el-Kab, the aged officer of Tethmosis (Thutmose) I. As early therefore as the late 16th century B.C. the name Naharin ( N'h'ryn ) was in use.

^ Ahmose, the officer of Tethmosis (Thutmose) I., mentions Naharin (late 16th century), he does not say anything about the inhabitants.

^ PHOTO of the uppermost portion in Chambers ASSYRIANS (14th to 6th centuries B.C.) a Semitic people: ASSUR, both the name of the chief god and his chief city.
  • NOTES ON MESOPOTAMIA 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.csun.edu [Source type: General]

That the:. name was connected with nahar (a river) was plain to some of the Egyptian scribes, who wrote the word with determinative for "water" in addition to that for "country." The scribes show no suspicion, however, of the name's being, anything but a singular.' .Is it possible that a consciousness that the word was not a plural can have survived till the early Christian centuries, when the Targum of Ongelos (Onkelos) rendered Naharaim by "the river Euphrates" (Pethor of Aram which is on the' Euphrates: Deut.^ Is it possible that a consciousness that the word was not a plural can have survived till the early Christian centuries, when the Targum of Ongelos (Onkelos) rendered Naharaim by "the river Euphrates " (Pethor of Aram which is on the' Euphrates: Deut.

^ The Greek word Mesopotamia, "country between rivers" ( Euphrates and Tigris ), is used for the first time by the historian Arrian of Nicomedia , in his account of the campaigns of Alexander the Great .
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The word Mesopotamia comes from Greek origin, meaning the land between two rivers -- the Tigris and the Euphrates.

xxiii. 4 [s])? .The Naharin or Naharen of the Egyptian texts appears some five generations later in the Canaanitic of the Amarna letters in the form Nabrim (a), which would seem.^ The Naharin or Naharen of the Egyptian texts appears some five generations later in the Canaanitic of the Amarna letters in the form Nabrim (a), which would seem.

^ The style of cooking described represents probably the activities of the cooks of some royal court, perhaps from the later part of the Larsa Dynasty (ended 1763 B.C.E.) since it appears from older texts that birds were a favorite dish at the queen's table.
  • Mesopotamia, Ancient: Encyclopedia of Food & Culture 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, some description does appear in written form: recorded by the Sumerians and later by the Akkadians.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

therefore to be the pronunciation then prevalent in Phoenicia. .(Gebal) and Palestine (Jerusalem).^ (Gebal) and Palestine (Jerusalem).

.About the same time Naharin (N-h-ry-n) is given as the northern boundary of Egypt's domain (year 30 of Amenbotep or Amenophis III.), over against Kush in the south (tomb of Khamhet: Breasted, Anc.^ About the same time Naharin (N-h-ry-n) is given as the northern boundary of Egypt's domain (year 30 of Amenbotep or Amenophis III.), over against Kush in the south (tomb of Khamhet: Breasted, Anc.

^ At about the same time, the idea of a royal year took precise shape, beginning probably at the time of barley harvest, when the king celebrated the new (agricultural) year by offering first fruits to gods in expectation of their blessings for the year.
  • Mesopotamia, Calendar 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In about 1600, while Egypt was falling to the Hyksos invasion, Mesopotamia was faced with troublesome northern neighbors.
  • Brief History of Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC it.stlawu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rec.
ii. 350).
.The origin of the name is suggested by the Euphrates being called "the water of Naharin," - on the Karnak stele more fully "the.^ The origin of the name is suggested by the Euphrates being called "the water of Naharin," - on the Karnak stele more fully "the.

^ There are several suggested origins for the name.
  • Iraq, Babylon, Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.mychurch.org [Source type: General]

^ Lower Zab Riviera to the Euphrates Riviera ( ebirtan Puratti, well rendered "Parapotamia" by Winckler 4) and Ijatte-land; but this is obviously not a proper name in the same sense as Naharin.

water of the Great Bend (par wr) of Naharin (N-h-r-n)" (Breasted„ Anc. Rec. ii. .263), or on the Constantinople obelisk simply "the Great Bend of .Naharin" (loc.^ The Sea of the Great Bend would seem to be the sea fed by the north-to-south waters of Naharin, just as the Mediterranean, fed by the south-to-north waters of the Nile , is called the Great Circle ( šn wr).

^ Constantinople obelisk simply "the Great Bend of .Naharin" ( loc.

^ Great Bend ( par wr ) of Naharin (N-h-r-n)" (Breasted„ Anc.

cit.
note d). .The precise meaning of pier wr is not certain.^ The precise meaning of pier wr is not certain.

When Breasted renders "Great Bend" of the Euphrates he is probably thinking of the great. sweep round between Birejil-Zeugma and Ra a-Nicephorium. .W. M. Muller, on the other hand, rendering Kreislauf, explains it of the Euphrates water system as a whole, thought of as encompassing Naharin.^ W. M. Muller, on the other hand, rendering Kreislauf, explains it of the Euphrates water system as a whole, thought of as encompassing Naharin.

^ Lower Zab Riviera to the Euphrates Riviera ( ebirtan Puratti, well rendered "Parapotamia" by Winckler 4) and Ijatte-land; but this is obviously not a proper name in the same sense as Naharin.

^ A breakthrough of the river to the lowlands in the direction south west (to modern An Najat, where the Euphrates flows nowadays) would mean that a whole system of irrigation channels would be without water supply.
  • Protohistory in Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home6.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Sea of the Great Bend would seem to be the sea fed by the north-to-south waters of Naharin, just as the Mediterranean, fed by the south-to-north waters of the Nile, is called the Great Circle (šn wr). For many centuries after Amenophis IV. the name cannot be found.^ The Sea of the Great Bend would seem to be the sea fed by the north-to-south waters of Naharin, just as the Mediterranean, fed by the south-to-north waters of the Nile , is called the Great Circle ( šn wr).

^ For many centuries after Amenophis IV. the name cannot be found.

^ The dry climate at the end of the 4th millennium now allowed habitation of the great plains in the extreme south of Mesopotamia, the area later called Sumer.
  • Protohistory in Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home6.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The next occurrence is in Hebrew (Gen.^ The next occurrence is in Hebrew (Gen.

xxiv. .J), where the district from which a wife for Isaac is brought is called Aram-Naharaim.^ J), where the district from which a wife for Isaac is brought is called Aram-Naharaim.

^ In Hebrew it was called,, Aram-Naharaim " which we encounter in the old testament .
  • The Arameans of Aram-Nahrin 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.aramnaharaim.org [Source type: Original source]

.The diphthongal pronunciation of 'the termination aim is probably a much later development.^ The diphthongal pronunciation of 'the termination aim is probably a much later development.

.We should probably read something like Aram-Naharim.^ We should probably read something like Aram-Naharim.

The meaning is :. the .Naharim portion of the Aramaic speaking domain.'^ Naharim portion of the Aramaic speaking domain.'

^ Aram- Damascus , which means, the Damascus portion of the Aramaic domain; and har- Ephraim , which means, the Ephraim portion of the (Israelitish) highlands - EV "Mount Ephraim."

.Probably the author thought primarily of the district of Harran.^ Probably the author thought primarily of the district of Harran.

.3 Some generations later Aram-Naharim is used of the district including Pethor, a town on the west bank of the Euphrates' (Deut.^ Some generations later Aram-Naharim is used of the district including Pethor, a town on the west bank of the Euphrates' (Deut.

^ It took a full two months to clear the west bank of resistance below Kut, and included the capture of the fortified Hadairi Bend on 29 January 1917.
  • Turkey in the First World War - Palestine 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.turkeyswar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it possible that a consciousness that the word was not a plural can have survived till the early Christian centuries, when the Targum of Ongelos (Onkelos) rendered Naharaim by "the river Euphrates " (Pethor of Aram which is on the' Euphrates: Deut.

xxiii.
.' The threefold n after Nahar in a stele of Persian or Greek.^ The threefold n after Nahar in a stele of Persian or Greek.

times .(healing of Bentresh) is probably only the determinative for "water," a fourth n being accidentally omitted (Breasted, Ancient Records, iii.^ Bentresh) is probably only the determinative for "water," a fourth n being accidentally omitted (Breasted, Ancient Records, iii.

§ 434).
2 Cf. Aram-Damascus, which means, the Damascus portion of the Aramaic domain; and har-Ephraim, which means, the Ephraim portion of the (Israelitish) highlands - EV "Mount Ephraim." Halevy's suggestion that we are to look towards the Hauran,. and think of the rivers of .Damascus, has not met with favour.^ Damascus, has not met with favour.

4 Padan-Aram (Rev. Vers. better .Paddan-Aram), Gen.^ It is also called Paddan-aram in the Old Testament ( Gen 25:20 ) or field of Aram ( Hos 12:12 ).
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paddan-Aram), Gen.

xxv. .20, &c., rendered by the Septuagint "Mesopotamia of Syria," is obscure.^ The area where the Aramean people come from was known as Mesopotamia and has been divided into the modern countries Iraq, Syria, and Turkey since the 20 th century.
  • The Arameans of Aram-Nahrin 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.aramnaharaim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Septuagint "Mesopotamia of Syria," is obscure.

.Paddan has been connected phonetically with Patin, west of the Euphrates, and explained by others as a synonym for Harran. 4 = D).^ Paddan has been connected phonetically with Patin, west of the Euphrates, and explained by others as a synonym for Harran.

^ A second route crossed the Euphrates somewhat more to the sooth, and joined the other via Harran and Rhesaena.

^ W. M. Muller, on the other hand, rendering Kreislauf, explains it of the Euphrates water system as a whole, thought of as encompassing Naharin.

.The Syriac version of the Old Testament (2nd cent.^ George Smith, an assistant in The British Museum, identified this Assyrian version of the Old Testament flood story in 1872.

A.D. ?) uses Beth Nahrin. .This may or may not imply the belief that Nahrin is a plural.^ This may or may not imply the belief that Nahrin is a plural.

Eventually that belief was general, as is proved by the substitution of the normal feminine plural (for the supposed masculine) in the alternative form Beth Nahrawatha (e.g. Wright, Chron. Joshua Styl. §§ 49, 50). .Beth is probably the Syriac equivalent of the Assyrian Bit as in Bit-Adini (see below, § 3 viii.^ Beth is probably the Syriac equivalent of the Assyrian Bit as in Bit-Adini (see below, § 3 viii.

^ To thoroughly overpower the troublesome Bit-Adini (see above, § 3, viii.

), as is shown by such names as .Beth `Arbaye, "district of Arabians," Beth Armaye, "district of Aramaeans."^ Beth `Arbaye, "district of Arabians," Beth Armaye, "district of Aramaeans."

.The Parapotamia of Strabo xvi.^ The Parapotamia of Strabo xvi.

.2, II, would be a suitable Greek equivalent.^ II, would be a suitable Greek equivalent.

.Mesopotamia seems to imply the view that beth is the preposition "amid," which has the same form,' but need not imply the meaning "between," that is, the idea that there were precisely two rivers.^ Mesopotamia - The country between the two rivers (Heb.
  • Mesopotamia - Easton's Bible Dictionary on StudyLight.org 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.studylight.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MESOPOTAMIA Mesopotamia means "the land between the rivers" or "the land between the two rivers."

^ The word Mesopotamia' means land between rivers'.
  • Mesopotamia Region,Argentina Mesopotamia Region,Tourist Attractions Argentina,Mesopotamia Region Argentina 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.worldtravel4indians.com [Source type: News]

.There is evidence of the use of this form as early as the Septuagint translation of the Pentateuch (3rd cent.^ There is evidence of the use of this form as early as the Septuagint translation of the Pentateuch (3rd cent.

^ Science was at a relatively early stage, and there are no known attempts to create laws and little use of analogy.
  • Mesopotamia - LookLex Encyclopaedia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC i-cias.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towns grew to be cities, an early form of pictographic writing was used, metal working had begun, and temples were built on a monumental scale.
  • MEDICINE IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

B.C.). .It is natural to suppose it was adopted by the Greeks who accompanied Alexander's expedition.^ It is natural to suppose it was adopted by the Greeks who accompanied Alexander's expedition.

^ Alexander's expedition brought significant improvements of geography and natural history.
  • Alexander the Great, Synopsys,JJP p a r t t w o 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC 1stmuse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who have been to Egypt or seen the Sahara naturally picture a sandy waste with its accompanying oases, palms and camels.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Xenophon does not use it.^ Xenophon does not use it.

.As early as the time of Ephraem (d.^ As early as the time of Ephraem (d.

.A.D. 373) the use of the Syriac Gezirtha, " island," had come in, and over a century earlier Philostratus reported (Life of Apollonius, i.^ Indeed Greeks made extensive use of Egyptian science and medicine and created their own school of medicine that dominated the ancient civilisations for centuries to come.
  • History of Iran: History of ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.iranchamber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A.D. 373) the use of the Syriac Gezirtha, " island," had come in, and over a century earlier Philostratus reported ( Life of Apollonius , i.

^ "For because of the greatness of their empire many things were brought to them from foreign countries, and the island itself provided most of what was required by them for the uses of life."
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

20) that the Arabs designated Mesopotamia as an island. .2 This term in the form al-Gazira became, and still is, the usual Arabic name.^ This term in the form al-Gazira became, and still is, the usual Arabic name.

^ AD 51 80) founded the city Vologesias, near Seleucia, as his capital, but the whole area (including Ctesiphon and Seleucia) became an urban complex called M ( R x z A in Aramaic and Al-Mad ( in in Arabic; both names mean The Cities.
  • Mesopotamia from c 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its name is derived from the Arabic word العود al-‘ūd ‘the wood’, which is probably the name of the tree from which the oud was made.

.The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim). The name was not distinctive enough from the point of view of Babylonia, which belonged to the same water system.^ After the fall of the Assyrian & Babylonian Empires , the Persian Empire absorbed Mesopotamia & divided the area into two territories: north – Assyria & south – Babylonia .
  • Talaria Enterprises museum store TEACH art history newsletter Mesopotamia: Ancient Assyrian Art 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.talariaenterprises.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city was destroyed (c.689 B.C. ) by the Assyrians and its real spendor belongs to the later period of Babylonia after the city was rebuilt.
  • Iraq, Babylon, Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.mychurch.org [Source type: General]

^ The meeting was the first time that many archaeologists from more than a dozen countries gathered to discuss the fresh finds that point to this new view of civilization's start.
  • Mesopotamia human civilization 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.theallineed.com [Source type: News]

.Tiglath-pileser I. (Octagon Prism, 6, 40, 42 seq.^ Tiglath-pileser I. (Octagon Prism , 6, 40, 42 seq.

) sums up the results of the military operations of his first five years as reaching from the .Lower Zab Riviera to the Euphrates Riviera (ebirtan Puratti, well rendered "Parapotamia" by Winckler 4) and Ijatte-land; but this is obviously not a proper name in the same sense as Naharin.^ Lower Zab Riviera to the Euphrates Riviera ( ebirtan Puratti, well rendered "Parapotamia" by Winckler 4) and Ijatte-land; but this is obviously not a proper name in the same sense as Naharin.

^ I was developed between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates; in fact, my name means "land between the two rivers"!
  • MesopotamiA | Facebook 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the time of the Sasanids, too, as well as in that of the Parthians, the country of the lower Euphrates and Tigris played a leading part ; it formed in fact the main centre of the Persian kingdom.

.5 That probably originated in the maritime district of Syria.^ That probably originated in the maritime district of Syria.

.Whilst the names we have mentioned are derived from physical geography, there are related names the meaning and origin of which are not so clear.^ There are several suggested origins for the name.
  • Iraq, Babylon, Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.mychurch.org [Source type: General]

^ Its name, meaning “between the rivers” in Greek, is derived from its being between the Paraná River (on the southwest to north) and the Uruguay River (on the southeast to northeast).
  • Mesopotamia (region, Argentina) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The account which I present here is mostly derived from mainstream academic sources, although I will also present some speculations in areas where there is no clear evidence.
  • Robert Hand: History of Astrology - Astrodienst 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.astro.com [Source type: Original source]

Tethmosis III. is said, in a tomb which contains a picture of "the chief of Kheta," to have "overthrown the lands of My-tn" (Breasted, Anc. Rec. ii. § .773), which lands are mentioned also in his hymn of victory (Breasted, Anc.^ Tethmosis III. is said, in a tomb which contains a picture of "the chief of Kheta," to have "overthrown the lands of My-tn" (Breasted, Anc.

Rec.
ii. § 659). Amenophis II. receives tribute from the "chiefs of My-tn" (Breasted, Anc. Rec. ii. § 804). In the bilingual Hittite inscription of Tarqudimme the land is called "the land of the city of Metan," just as in the Hittite documents the Hittite country in Asia Minor is called "the land of the city of Khatti." Metan is clearly the same as Mitanni, over against Khatti, mentioned e.g. by Tiglath-pileser I. (vi. .63), which is the same as Mitanni, several letters from which are in the Amarna collection.^ Mitanni, several letters from which are in the Amarna collection.

^ Since a Mitanni princess of these letters is called in Egyptian scarabs a princess of Naharin, it is clear that Mitanni and Naharin are more or less equivalent, whilst in the Amarna letters, even Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, seems to use in the same way the name Khanigalbat.

.Since a Mitanni princess of these letters is called in Egyptian scarabs a princess of Naharin, it is clear that Mitanni and Naharin are more or less equivalent, whilst in the Amarna letters, even Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, seems to use in the same way the name Khanigalbat.^ (These merchants used a form of double-entry bookkeeping they called "balanced accounts."

^ From the time of Kurigalzu II these were registered on stone tablets or, more frequently, on boundary stones called kudurru s.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On my way back from G.H.Q. everything seemed to go black, and I don't remember any more until I came to and found myself in a field ambulance , with my officer watching over me.
  • First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries - France, Egypt, Mesopotamia 1915-1916 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.firstworldwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.A shorter form of this name is Khani, which it is difficult not to connect with Khana, the capital of which at one time was Tirqa, on the Euphrates, below the Khabur (see § 4).^ He contributed four manas of capital to this enterprise, while Bel-shunu, who was to carry on the business, contributed one half mana and seven shekels, whatever property he might have, and his time.
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: A Collection of Contracts from Mesopotamia, c. 2300 -428 BCE 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At one time the Tigris and Euphrates emptied into the Persian Gulf separately.
  • Mesopotamia - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the time of the Sasanids, too, as well as in that of the Parthians, the country of the lower Euphrates and Tigris played a leading part ; it formed in fact the main centre of the Persian kingdom.

.The slowly accumulating data have not yet made it possible to determine precisely the probably varying relations of these various names.^ In addition, there are numerous local variations of these deities names which, in the next section, such 'optional' names appear in parentheses after the more prevalent name.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Versed probably in no philosophy save the precepts of the Koran, he yet entertained the clearest possible notions on the sanctity of contract.

^ The conclusion of these Gaint scholars is beyond any doubt, namely that the Syrians, in our known by various names, are the Arameans of Mesopotamia!
  • The Arameans of Aram-Nahrin 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.aramnaharaim.org [Source type: Original source]

.The great astrological work uses a term of still wider signification, Subartu, eventually Suri (written Su.^ Except as otherwise permitted by written agreement, uses of the work inconsistent with U.S. and applicable foreign copyright and related laws are prohibited.
  • MESOPOTAMIA 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This makes it easier for those not knowing the original languages to still use mid-level reference works.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great gods The term 'Great Gods' is often used in the texts.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

Edin; see especially Winckler's discussion in Or. .Lit.-Zeit., 1907).^ Lit.-Zeit., 1907).

This represented one of the four quarters of the world in the early Babylonian view, the other three being Akkad (i.e. Babylonia) in the "north," Elam in the "south," and Amurru in the "west." It appears to have denoted the territory above Babylonia stretching from Anshan in the southeast north-westwards, across the Tigris-Euphrates district, indefinitely towards Asia Minor. .At an early time it seems to have formed along with Anshan a distinct kingdom.^ In the time of the Sasanids, too, as well as in that of the Parthians, the country of the lower Euphrates and Tigris played a leading part ; it formed in fact the main centre of the Persian kingdom.

^ It also appears in about 20% of the grave sites in Early Dynastic II-III times (2650-2500 B.C.), along with gold, silver, and lapis lazuli.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the simplest form of rental, and comes from the early Babylonian times.
  • Ancient History Sourcebook: A Collection of Contracts from Mesopotamia, c. 2300 -428 BCE 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Strabo (xvi. .746) makes the south limit of Mesopotamia the Median wall; Pliny (v.^ Towards the south the ancient boundary was the so-called Median Wall, which, near Pirux Shapur, not much to the south of Hít (the ancient Is), crossed from the Euphrates in the direction of Kadisiya (Opis) to the Tigris.

.24 § 21) seems to extend it to the Persian Gulf.^ Mesopotamia extended from Armenia (now part of Turkey, modern Armenia, Aberbijan, and Iran) southeasdt to where the rivers exit into the Persian Gulf.
  • chronology of boys' clothing : ancient civilizations -- Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The region extends from the Persian Gulf north to the mountains of Armenia and from the Zagros and Kurdish mountains on the east to the Syrian Desert.
  • Mesopotamia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mesopotamia: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ishbi-Erra in turn extended his sway along the rivers from Hamazi to the Persian Gulf.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Latin term naturally varied in meaning with the changing extent of Roman authority.^ The Latin term naturally varied in meaning with the changing extent of Roman authority.

.For example, under Trajan Mesopotamia reached the gulf and was bounded by Assyria and Armenia.^ For example, under Trajan Mesopotamia reached the gulf and was bounded by Assyria and Armenia .

^ Trajan advanced to the Persian Gulf, but he died of illness and his successor Hadrian made peace, abandoning the conquests in Mesopotamia, although client states remained.
  • Mesopotamia from c 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mesopotamia extended from Armenia (now part of Turkey, modern Armenia, Aberbijan, and Iran) southeasdt to where the rivers exit into the Persian Gulf.
  • chronology of boys' clothing : ancient civilizations -- Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern times it is often There may be further evidence of the prevalence of the interpretation "amid" if the difficult bainath athrawatha of Cureton, Anc.^ In modern times it is often There may be further evidence of the prevalence of the interpretation "amid" if the difficult bainath athrawatha of Cureton, Anc.

^ It does seem clear, however, that these fragments of evidence should not be interpreted as reflecting the food of the common people of the time."
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--Mesopotamia through Shakespeare 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This author fully supports this interpretation, however, I believe that there is almost certainly another more important fulfillment that will take place in the end times.
  • Mesopotamia In Prophecy 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.markswatson.com [Source type: Original source]

Syr. Doc.
p. .112, 1.21, is correctly rendered in Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syr. 469, "Mesopotamia," and if we may assume a reading Nahrawatha for Athrawatha. Compare the use of the adjective, Ephr.^ Compare the use of the adjective , Ephr.

^ "Mesopotamia," and if we may assume a reading Nahrawatha for Athrawatha.

^ In architecture the use of ayvan s (arches in porticoes) and domed vaults is attributed to the Parthian period; they may have originated in Mesopotamia.
  • Mesopotamia from c 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Op. Gr. ii. 403 (cf. B. O. i. 145, 168, 169), and the noun, B. O. ii. 108, 109.
3 Mesopotamian personal names like Na-ha-ra-a-u occur (cf. Johns, Deeds and Documents, iii. 127); but these may be connected with a divine name Nachor.
Auszug vorderas. Gesch. 34; on the meaning see Alt.-orient. Forsch. iii. 349.
.5 I seems worth considering, however, whether ebir nari (see Johns, Assyr.^ I seems worth considering, however, whether ebir nari (see Johns, Assyr.

.Doomsday Book,
69; Winckler, Alt.-or.^ Doomsday Book, 69; Winckler, Alt.-or.

Forsch.
212; Hommel, Anc. Heb. .Trad., index) is not in origin practically a Begrif equivalent to Naharin.^ Trad., index) is not in origin practically a Begrif equivalent to Naharin.

used for the whole .Euphrates-Tigris country.^ MESOPOTAMIA The country between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Euphrates-Tigris country.

^ From what has been said it appears that ‘Irák extended far beyond the country between Euphrates and Tigris.

.That would provide a useful name for an important geographical unit, but is too misleading.^ That would provide a useful name for an important geographical unit, but is too misleading.

^ Used to represent the Moon's +5° to -5° latitude, each unit would represent 25/36 of a degree.
  • ephemeris.com Early History of Astronomy - Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC ephemeris.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.^ MESOPOTAMIA The country between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.

^ The Euphrates drains the western part of Mesopotamia.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It would thus include the country lying between Babylonia on the south and the Armenian Taurus highlands on the north, the maritime Syrian district on the west, and Assyria proper on the east.^ It would thus include the country lying between Babylonia on the south and the Armenian Taurus highlands on the north, the maritime Syrian district on the west, and Assyria proper on the east.

^ He boasts that his territory extends from Kish in the north, to Mari in the west, Uruk in the south and Elam in the east, although it is not clear what the `ruling' over these cities actually means.
  • Protohistory in Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home6.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The region extends from the Persian Gulf north to the mountains of Armenia and from the Zagros and Kurdish mountains on the east to the Syrian Desert.
  • Mesopotamia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Mesopotamia: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.That is practically the sense in which it is treated in this article s We may begin, however, with the definition of Jezira by the Arabic geographers, who take it as representing the central part of the Euphrates-Tigris system, the part, namely, lying between the alluvial plains in the south and the mountainous country in the north.^ Certainly it was the wide alluvial plain created by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
  • chronology of boys' clothing : ancient civilizations -- Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC histclo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The town lies between Harran and the Eupharates, in a plain to which it gives its name.

^ I was developed between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates; in fact, my name means "land between the two rivers"!
  • MesopotamiA | Facebook 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measured on the Euphrates, this would be from the place where the river, having bored its way through the rocks, issues on to the high plain a little above Samsat (Samosata) only 1 500 ft.^ Measured on the Euphrates, this would be from the place where the river, having bored its way through the rocks, issues on to the high plain a little above Samsat (Samosata) only 1 500 ft.

^ This irrigation is aided by a high water table and by melted snows from the high peaks of the Zagros and from the Armenian cordillera, the source of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, that give the region its name.

^ With the Euphrates River, the Tigris supplies water to the dry plain formerly called Mesopotamia.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the sea, to somewhere about .Hit (Is = Id), where, probably less than 150 ft.^ Hit ( Is = Id), where, probably less than 150 ft.

above the sea, it begins to make its way through the alluvial deposits of the last few millenniums. In these 750 m. it has descended less than 1400 ft. .Measured on the Tigris Mesopotamia would stretch from some where between Jeziret-ibn-`Omar and Mosul to somewhere below Tekrit.^ Measured on the Tigris Mesopotamia would stretch from some where between Jeziret-ibn-` Omar and Mosul to somewhere below Tekrit.

^ Old ruin on the banks of the Tigris River, Mosul, Mesopotamia, 1918.
  • Mesopotamia Stock Photo Images. 228 Mesopotamia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Mesopotamia (from a Greek term meaning "between rivers" ) is the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is Iraq today [ see map 1 ].

.In the tract defined, physical changes unconnected with civilization have been slight as compared with those in Babylonia; the two great rivers, having cut themselves deep channels, could not shift their courses far.^ In the tract defined, physical changes unconnected with civilization have been slight as compared with those in Babylonia; the two great rivers, having cut themselves deep channels, could not shift their courses far.

^ The course of the Euphrates River has constantly changed channels in its lower portion.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The change in course of many arms of the river has had great consequences in the past.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

Table of contents
1 i. .Natural Divisions
2 ii.^ Natural Divisions 2 ii.

Drainage

i. Natural Divisions

.The stretch from Samsat and Jeziret-ibn- 'Omar to the alluvial plain seems to divide itself naturally into three parallel belts, highland watershed district, un- Geography. dulating plains and steppe.^ The stretch from Samsat and Jeziret-ibn- 'Omar to the alluvial plain seems to divide itself naturally into three parallel belts, highland watershed district, un- Geography.

^ The Sumerian day and night were each divided into three "watches."
  • ephemeris.com Early History of Astronomy - Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC ephemeris.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Early Dynastic period is divided into three phases.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(I) The Taurus footh i ll barrier that shuts off the east to west course of the Euphrates and Tigris culminates centrally in the rugged volcanic Karaja-Dagh (6070 ft.^ Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west ( Ps.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In summary, geological and biblical evidence suggests that the four rivers of Eden from west to east were the Pishon (Wadi al Batin), the Euphrates, the Hiddekel (Tigris), and the Gihon (the Karun and/or the Karkheh).
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Either water levels rose, or over time the rivers changed their course, (for example, in places the course of the Euphrates is now as much as 50 kilometres to the west of its position c.
  • 'An Introduction to Ancient Mesopotamia' paper by Ian Lawton 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.ianlawton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) which blocks the .gap between the two rivers, continued eastwards by the mountainous district of Tur-`Abdin (the modern capital Midyat is at a height of 3500 ft.^ I was developed between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates; in fact, my name means "land between the two rivers"!
  • MesopotamiA | Facebook 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning “The land between the two rivers”) is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey , and the Khūzestān Province of southwestern Iran .

^ Mesopotamia, the "Land between the Two Rivers," is one of the so-called "cradles" of civilization, along with Egypt, China, and the Indus Valley.
  • Robert Hand: History of Astrology - Astrodienst 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.astro.com [Source type: Original source]

) and westwards by the elevated tract that sends down southwards the promontory of J. Tektek (c. 1950 ft.). .(2) At the line where this east to west wall ends begins the sea of undulating plains where there is enough rain for abundant wheat and barley.^ At Ur the mouth ends in another freshwater lake west of an-Nasiriyah where marshlands begin.
  • SealandsMapsofAncientLowerMesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.bibleorigins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first winter rains clothe the plain with verdure, and by the beginning of the year a number of bulbous plants are in bloom—Amaryllidae, and Colchicum.

^ If spring rains are only moderately abundant, wheat and barley grow to a great height, and yield from thirty to forty fold.

.(3) From the alluvial flats upwards toward these undulating plains is an extensive stretch of steppe land almost destitute of rain.^ In the bright sunlight of the Mesopotamian plains, and probably also on account of their prominence at a distance over the flat land, some of these mud buildings look quite imposing.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet the best of these efforts is elaborately cumbersome compared with housing schemes on these flat lands bordering [Pg 35] the Tigris and Euphrates.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The whole land falls into two unequal portions, -- an extensive dry steppe with at any rate a healthy desert climate, and an unhealthy region of swamps.

.Not far above the transition from the barren steppe is a second mountain wall (125 m.^ Not far above the transition from the barren steppe is a second mountain wall (125 m.

between extremities) roughly parallel with the first, consisting of the .Sinjar chain (about 3000 ft., limestone, 50 m.^ Sinjar chain (about 3000 ft., limestone , 50 m.

long, 7 m. broad), continued westwards after a marshy break by the volcanic .Tell Kokab (basalt, about 1300 ft.^ Tell Kokab (basalt, about 1300 ft.

^ Tell Kokab (about 1300 ft.

), and then the `Abd al-`Aziz range .(limestone), veering upwards towards its western end as if to meet the Tektek promontory from the north.^ Abd al-`Aziz range (limestone), veering upwards towards its western end as if to meet the Tektek promontory from the north.

ii. Drainage

.The water system is thus determined.^ The water system is thus determined.

.West of Tektek drains into the Belikh, east of Tektek into the Khabur.^ West of Tektek drains into the Belikh, east of Tektek into the Khabur.

^ In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.

^ The influence of his grandson, Naram-Sin, however, extended west into Syria and east as far as Susa in present-day Iran.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All this drainage, collected into two rivers, the Belikh and the Khabur, is towards the left bank of the Euphrates, for the Mesopotamian watershed seems to be only some 15 m.^ The city was divided into two portions by the river Euphrates.
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All this drainage, collected into two rivers, the Belikh and the Khabur, is towards the left bank of the Euphrates, for the Mesopotamian watershed seems to be only some 15 m.

^ I was developed between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates; in fact, my name means "land between the two rivers"!
  • MesopotamiA | Facebook 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

or less from the .Tigris until, south of the Sinjar range, it lies farther west, and the Tharthar river is possible.^ Tigris until, south of the Sinjar range, it lies farther west, and the Tharthar river is possible.

^ The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar , in Tukulti- Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.

^ The palm-trees which appear on the banks of both the rivers farther south do not come so far north On account of the hot dry summer the orange does not succeed.

.The Belikh (Balich, Bilechas, BaXivvos 7), a stream some 30 ft.^ The Belikh (Balich, Bilechas, BaXivvos 7), a stream some 30 ft.

wide, has its main source some 50 m. north in the `Ain .Khalil ar-Rahman, but receives also the waters of the united Nahr al-Kut (in its upper course formerly the Daisan, /lcipros) from Edessa and Kopru Dagh, and the Jullab from Tektek Dagh about as much farther north.^ Ain Khalil ar-Rahman, but receives also the waters of the united Nahr al-Kut (in its upper course formerly the Daisan, /lcipros) from Edessa and Kopru Dagh, and the Jullab from Tektek Dagh about as much farther north.

^ The Arabian geographer Yákút makes the distinction that the country called Sawád reaches farther to the north (viz., to the district of the Upper Záb).

.The Khabur (Chabur, Chaboras 8), 80-10o ft.^ The Khabur (Chabur, Chaboras 8), 80-10o ft.

wide, before its last 40 m. reach in a southwest direction, has a 70 m. reach due north and south from .Tell Kokab (about 1300 ft.^ Tell Kokab (basalt, about 1300 ft.

^ Tell Kokab (about 1300 ft.

), near which are united the .Jaghjagh (earlier, Hirmas, 20 ft.^ Jaghjagh (earlier, Hirmas, 20 ft.

in width), which has come 50 m. from .Nasibin in the north-east, bringing with it the waters of the many streams from the Tar `Abdin highlands; the north 'Awij, which at certain seasons brings much water due south from Mardin, and the main stream of the Khabur, which has come 60 m.^ A BACKWATER IN EDEN In the creeks the water is much clearer than in the river, as it deposits the silt when it flows more placidly than in the turmoil of the main stream.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The mountain range East of the `Arabah is generally higher in the South than in the North.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Syria proper was bounded by Amanus and Taurus on the north by the Euphrates and the Arabian desert on the east, by Palestine on the south, by the Mediterranean near the mouth of the Orontes, and then by Phoenicia on the west.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

from .Ras al-`Ain in the northwest, after flowing 50 m.^ Ras al-`Ain in the northwest, after flowing 50 m.

^ The same is doubtless true of the route from Osroene by Ras al-`Ain and Nasibin, and that by Veranshehr and Mardin to the Tigris.

^ Belikh; Veranshehr (Tela), Ras al-`Ain (Rhesaena), Mardin (half-way up the mountain wall), and Nasibin (Assyr.

by way of .Weranshahr from Karaja Dagh in the north.^ Weranshahr from Karaja Dagh in the north.

.The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar, in Tukulti-Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.^ The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar , in Tukulti- Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.

^ Bitumen is found at Hit, whence perhaps its name (Babylonian Id in Tukulti Ninib II.'s inscription referred to above), and near the Tigris.2 Climate.

^ Tigris until, south of the Sinjar range, it lies farther west, and the Tharthar river is possible.

.So it was two generations before Ahab (Annales de Tukulti Ninip, V. Scheil, 1909).^ So it was two generations before Ahab ( Annales de Tukulti Ninip, V. Scheil, 1909).

.The Arabian geographers represent the Tharthar as connected at its upper end (by a canal?^ The Arabian geographers represent the Tharthar as connected at its upper end (by a canal?

^ The Arabian geographer Yákút makes the distinction that the country called Sawád reaches farther to the north (viz., to the district of the Upper Záb).

) with the Khabur system.
.6 In general the Tigris is considered to belong to Assyria or Babylonia, and all west of the Euphrates to Arabia or Syria.^ In general the Tigris is considered to belong to Assyria or Babylonia, and all west of the Euphrates to Arabia or Syria.

^ Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west ( Ps.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 609 when Assyria was in the death grapple with Babylonia, Pharaoh-necoh took advantage of the situation, invaded Syria, and, defeating Josiah en route, marched to Carchemish.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

' Cf. Ritter, Erdkunde, V. 250-253.
8 Ibid. xi. 253-265.

iii. Character of Surface. 1

.(i) The tract between the Belikh and the Euphrates is in its middle section exceedingly fertile, as is implied in the name Anthemusia, and according to v.^ The tract between the Belikh and the Euphrates is in its middle section exceedingly fertile, as is implied in the name Anthemusia, and according to v.

^ I was developed between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates; in fact, my name means "land between the two rivers"!
  • MesopotamiA | Facebook 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.

Oppenheim (
Z. d. Gesellsch. f. .Erdkunde, 36, 1901, p.^ Erdkunde, 36, 1901, p.

80) the same is true of the southern portion also. .The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.^ The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.

^ In the western district the fertile red-brown humus of the Orfa plain, derived from the lime of Nimrúd Dágh, extends to about 12 miles south of Harran.

^ Below, a map showing _ incorrectly _ the Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf) extending to Ur and Eridu, by the way, Eridu on satellite photos is 12 miles SW of Ur, not SE of Ur!
  • SealandsMapsofAncientLowerMesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.bibleorigins.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(2) The rolling plains north of the `Abd al `Aziz Sinjar mountain wall are intersected by the many streams of the Khabur system (the Arab geographer Mustaufi speaks of 300 feeders), which under favourable political and administrative conditions would produce a marked fertility.^ Nebuchadrezzar maintained the existing canal systems and built many supplementary canals, making the land even more fertile.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From the mountainous north, Mesopotamia slopes down through grassy steppes to a central alluvial plain, which was once rendered exceedingly fertile by a network of canals.
  • Mesopotamia: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In many localities an urge was felt to imitate the model of Ur; Isin probably took over unchanged the administrative system of that state.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

At Nasibin (Nisibis) rice is cultivated with success. .(3) The country south of the mountain range is steppe land, imperfectly known, and of little use except for nomadic tribes, apart from the banks of the rivers (on which see Euphrates, Tigris).^ The Tigris and Euphrates are rivers fed by the melting snow in the mountains of Armenia.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He made the Tigris and Euphrates rivers from Tiamat's eyes and made mountains from her udders.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ New look on the history of old Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, in the light of geological evidence, recent archeological discoveries and historical sources.

.It consists mainly of grey dreary flats covered with selenite; and a little below the surface, gypsum.^ The southern half consists mainly or grey, dreary flats covered with selenite ; and gypsum everywhere makes its appearance a little below the surface ; bitumen is not unfrequent, and here and there it rises in petroleum wells.

.Bitumen is found at Hit, whence perhaps its name (Babylonian
Id in Tukulti Ninib II.'s inscription referred to above), and near the Tigris.2 Climate.^ Sumerian and Babylonian names appear in the same Babylonian document, sometimes referring to the same entity.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He ultimately gained the freedom of Sumer south of Nippur and founded the Dynasty of the Sealand (the Babylonian name for the southern Sumer region).
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Babylonian names were to be found even among the royalty, and they predominated among the civil servants and the officers.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.3 - Mesopotamia combines strong contrasts of climate, and is a connecting link between the mountain region of western Asia and the desert of Arabia.^ In this way the northern district of Mesopotamia combines strong contrasts, and is a connecting link between the mountain region of western Asia and the desert of Arabia.

^ Mesopotamia combines strong contrasts of climate, and is a connecting link between the mountain region of western Asia and the desert of Arabia.

^ By 3000 B.C., Mesopotamian civilization had made contact with other cultures of the Fertile Crescent (a term first coined by James Breasted in 1916), an extensive trade network connecting Mesopotamia with the rest of Ancient Western Asia.
  • Lecture 2: Ancient Western Asia and the Civilization of Mesopotamia 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.historyguide.org [Source type: Original source]

.At Der ez-Zor, for example, the heat is intense.^ At Der ez-Zor, for example, the heat is intense.

.(I) In the steppe, during the sandstorms which frequently blow from the West Arabian desert the temperature may rise to 122° F. On the other hand, in winter the warm currents coming in from the Persian Gulf being met to a large extent by northerly currents from the snow-covered tracts of Armenia, are condensed down on to the plain and discharge moisture enough to cover the gravel steppes with spring herbage.^ (I) In the steppe, during the sandstorms which frequently blow from the West Arabian desert the temperature may rise to 122° F. On the other hand, in winter the warm currents coming in from the Persian Gulf being met to a large extent by northerly currents from the snow -covered tracts of Armenia, are condensed down on to the plain and discharge moisture enough to cover the gravel steppes with spring herbage.

^ During the sand storms which frequently blow the West Arabian desert, the temperature may rise to 50° C. (122° Fahr.

^ Particularly numerous in the steppe are the antelope species ; and herds of gazelles are frequently met with, Beavers are said to have been observed on the Euphrates.

.(2) In the higher plains, in mid winter, since the high temperature air from the gulf is drawn up the valleys of the Euphrates and the Tigris there may be,
e.g.^ The Tigris and Euphrates valley was extremely fertile.
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the higher plains, in mid winter, since the high temperature air from the gulf is drawn up the valleys of the Euphrates and the Tigris there may be, e.g.

^ Lying within the western regions of modern-day Iraq, Mesopotamia - literally 'The Land between the Rivers' - is the name given since ancient times to the great alluvial plain built up by the silt deposits of the Euphrates in the west and the Tigris in the east.
  • 'An Introduction to Ancient Mesopotamia' paper by Ian Lawton 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.ianlawton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

at Mosul, a "damp mildness." In spring the grass on the rolling plains is soon parched. .So when the hot sandstorms blow in the lower steppe the scorching heat is carried right up to the foot of the mountains.^ On its banks was situated Nisibis, the chief city of the district, which commanded the great road at the foot of the mountains leading through the steppe, which here from the scarcity of water comes up to the edge of the hills.

On the other hand, since the spurs of the Taurus bring the winter cold a long way south, and the cold increases from west to east as we leave the mild coast of the Mediterranean, far down into the Mesopotamian plain the influence of the snowcovered ridges can be felt, and in the higher parts of the plain snow and ice are not infrequent; and although there is no point of sufficient altitude to retain snow for long, the temperature may fall as low as 14° F., especially if the cold north winds are blowing.
.The cycle of vegetation begins in November.^ The cycle of vegetation begins in November.

.The first winter rains clothe the plain with verdure, and by the beginning of the year various bulbous plants are in bloom.^ The first winter rains clothe the plain with verdure, and by the beginning of the year a number of bulbous plants are in bloom—Amaryllidae, and Colchicum.

^ The first winter rains clothe the plain with verdure, and by the beginning of the year various bulbous plants are in bloom .

^ At the line where this east to west wall ends begins the sea of undulating plains where there is enough rain for abundant wheat and barley .

.The full summer development is reached in June.^ The full summer development is reached in June.

^ The full summer development is reached in June ; and by the end of August everything is burnt up.

.By the end of August everything is burnt up; August and September are the low-water months in the rivers, March to May the time of flood.^ By the end of August everything is burnt up; August and September are the low-water months in the rivers, March to May the time of flood .

^ The full summer development is reached in June ; and by the end of August everything is burnt up.

^ Its waters first begin to rise in March, reach their peak in May, and normally recede in June or July.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flora. 4

.(i) Botanical lists have been published by von Oppenheim (Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, ii.^ Botanical lists have been published by von Oppenheim ( Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf , ii.

^ Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, vol.

.373-388) of a collection made in 1893 containing 43 entries for Mesopotamia, and by E. Herzfeld (
Herbaraufnahmen aus Kal`at-.erkat-Assur, in Beiheft II. zur Or.^ Assur, containing 181 entries.

^ Mesopotamia, and by E. Herzfeld ( Herbaraufnahmen aus Kal`at-.erkat- Assur , in Beiheft II. zur Or.

.Lit.-Zeit, 2908, pp.^ Lit.-Zeit, 2908, pp.

.29-37) of a collection made in1903-1905in the neighbourhood of Assur, containing 181 entries.^ Assur, containing 181 entries.

.(2) The following are among the more important products of the central zone of Mesopotamia: wheat, barley, rice (e.g.^ The following are among the more important products of the central zone of Mesopotamia: wheat, barley, rice (e.g.

^ Therefor Sîn is one of the more important general deities in Mesopotamia.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Rice and corn were unknown, and wheat flourished on a soil less saline than exists in most of Mesopotamia.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--Mesopotamia through Shakespeare 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

at .Saruj, the Khabur), millet, sesemum (for oil, instead of olive), dura (
Holcus sorghum and H. bicolor); lentils, peas, beans, vetches; cotton, hemp, safflower, tobacco; Medicago sativa (for horses); cucumber, melons, water-melons, figs (those of Sinjar famed for sweetness), dates (below, 'Ana and Tekrit); a few timber trees; plane and white poplar (by streams), willow and sumach (by the Euphrates).^ Poplar s, willow s, tamarisk , date s, pine s and even scrub by oak s grow with some abundance, along with grasses and wild grains (Nemet-Nejat 12).
  • Mesopotamia@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fruits would have included dates, figs, melons, and possibly fruits imported from other countries.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--Mesopotamia through Shakespeare 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some notes to get you started: "The raw materials of the Sumerian diet...were barley, wheat and millet; chick peas, lentils and beans; onions, garlic and leeks; cucumbers, cress, mustard and fresh green lettuce.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--Mesopotamia through Shakespeare 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sides of Karaja-Dagh, J. `Abd el-`Aziz and Sinjar are wooded, but not now the neighbourhood of Nisibis.^ Nisibis in the time of Trajan no trace remains ; but the slopes both of the Masius mountains and of the Jebel ‘Abd-el ‘Azíz, as well as, more especially, those of the Sinjar range, are still covered with wood.

.(3) In the steppe the vegetation is that which prevails in similar soil from Central Asia to Algeria; but many of the arborescent plants that grow in the rockier and more irregular plateaux of western Asia, and especially of Persia, have been reported as missing.^ In the steppe the vegetation is that which prevails in similar soil from Central Asia to Algeria ; but many of the arborescent plants that grow in the rockier and more irregular plateaux of western Asia, and especially of Persia , have been reported as missing.

^ The wide treeless tracts of the low country of Mesopotamia are covered with the same stepped vegetarian which prevails from Central Asia to Algebra, but there is an absence of a great many of the arborescent plants that grow in the rockier and more irregular plateaus of western Asia and especially of Persia.

^ Wild seed-bearing grass es such as varieties of emmer and barley are among the plants that grow on the steppe and the riverbanks (Nemat-Nejat 247).
  • Mesopotamia@Everything2.com 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Endless masses of tall weeds, belonging to a few species, cover the face of the country - large
Cruciferae, Cynareae and Umbelliferae - also large quantities of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and echinata) and Lagonychium, and the white ears of the Imperata.^ Endless masses of tall weeds, belonging to a few species, cover the face of the country, -- large Cruciferae, Cynareae, and Umbelliferae disputing the possession of the soil in company with extraordinary quantities of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and echinata) as well as Lagonychium and the white ears of the Imperata.

^ Endless masses of tall weeds, belonging to a few species, cover the face of the country - large Cruciferae , Cynareae and Umbelliferae - also large quantities of liquorice ( Glycyrrhiza glabra and echinata ) and Lagonychium, and the white ears of the Imperata.

^ Among the aromatic plants, which even Xenophon mentions in Mesopohamia, the first place belongs to the species of wormwood (Artemisia), which cover wide areas, and the second to Labiatae, such as species of thyme and Salvia, which, however, became rarer in the low country.

In autumn the withered weeds are torn up by the wind and driven immense distances.
Fauna. .5 - The following abound: wild swine, hyaena, jackal, cheetah, fox; gazelle (in herds), antelope species (in the steppe); jerboa, mole, porcupine, and especially the common European rat (in the desert); bat, long-haired desert hare.^ Jerboas, moles, porcupines, and especially the common European rat, abound in the desert ; bats and numerous ; and the long-haired desert hare is also found.

^ Particularly numerous in the steppe are the antelope species ; and herds of gazelles are frequently met with, Beavers are said to have been observed on the Euphrates.

^ The wild ass too is very rare ; but on the other hand wild swine, hyaepas , jackals, cheetahs, and foxes are extremely abundant.

.The following are rare: wild ass; beaver, said to have been observed on the Euphrates; wolf, among others a variety of black wolf (Canis lycaon), said to be found in the plains; lion, said to roam as far as the Khabur.^ The following are rare: wild ass; beaver , said to have been observed on the Euphrates; wolf , among others a variety of black wolf ( Canis lycaon ), said to be found in the plains; lion , said to roam as far as the Khabur.

^ Wolves are said to exist in the plain, and among others a variety of black wolf (Canis lycaon).

^ Particularly numerous in the steppe are the antelope species ; and herds of gazelles are frequently met with, Beavers are said to have been observed on the Euphrates.

.On the Euphrates are the following: vulture, owl, raven, &c., falcon (Tinnanculus alaudarius), also the trained to hunt.^ On the Euphrates are the following: vulture , owl , raven , &c., falcon ( Tinnanculus alaudarius ), also the trained to hunt.

^ Bird-life is very rare in the southern parts of the plain ; though on the Euphrates there are vultures, owls, ravens, &c., as well as falcons (?Tinnunculaus alaudarius) which are trained to hunt.

.Among game birds are: wild duck and goose, partridge, francolin, some kinds of dove, and in the steppe the buzzard.^ Among game birds are: wild duck and goose , partridge , francolin, some kinds of dove , and in the steppe the buzzard .

^ Among game-birds are some kinds of doves, francolins, partridges, wild ducks and geese, and in the steppe bustards.

^ A luxuriant vegetation of water-plants is to be found in the swamps, which are the haunt of numerous wild beasts – wild swine, lions, different kinds of aquatic and birds.

.The ostrich seems almost to have disappeared.^ The ostrich seems almost to have disappeared.

Large tortoises abound, and, in the `Ain el-'Arus pool, fresh-water turtles and carp. .Of domestic Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.^ It is possible that its 6 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

^ Of domestic Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

^ Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

493-498.
2 See Geog. Journ. lx. 528-532 (with map).
3 Ritter, xi. 49 8 -499.4 Ibid., xi. 499-502.5 Ibid., xi. 502-510.
animals in the steppe the first place belongs to the .camel; next come goat and sheep (not the ordinary fat-tailed variety); the common buffalo is often kept by the Arabs and the Turkomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris; on the Euphrates is found the Indian zebu.^ Arabs and the Turkomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris; on the Euphrates is found the Indian zebu.

^ Among the domestic animals in this steppe country the camel holds the first place ; and next come goats and sheep country the camel holds the first place ; and next come goats and sheep; but the Beldouin sheep is not the ordinary fat-tailed variety.

^ The common buffalo is often kept by the Arabs and Turcomans on the Euphrates and the Tigris ; and on the Euphrates we also find the Indian zebu, which is still more frequent in the district farther tot the south.

vii. .Towns.° - The towns that have survived are on the rivers.^ Towns.° - The towns that have survived are on the rivers.

.Such are Samsat (see Samosata), Rakka (Nicephorium) above the mouth of the Belikh, Der ez-Zor, a rising town on the right bank, where there is (since 1897) a stone bridge, 'Ana (on an island; see ANA), Hit (Is, Bab.^ Such are Samsat (see Samosata ), Rakka (Nicephorium) above the mouth of the Belikh, Der ez-Zor, a rising town on the right bank, where there is (since 1897) a stone bridge, 'Ana (on an island; see ANA), Hit ( Is, Bab.

^ On the left bank of the Euphrates lay Apamea (the modern Birejik), connected with Zeugma on the other side by a bridge, and farther south, at the mouth of the Bilechas (modern Belik), was the trading town and fortress Nicephorium, founded by command of Alexander , and completed by Seleucus Nicator, in memory of whose victory it was named.

^ At Der ez-Zor, for example, the heat is intense.

.Id), on the Euphrates; Jeziret ibn `Omar, Mosul (q.v.^ In the case of the Euphrates this takes place at Sumeisát (Samosata), in that of the Tigris near Jezíret ibn ‘Omar (Bezabdá) and Mosul ( Nineveh ).

), Tekrit, on the Tigris; Edessa (q.v.), Harran (q.v.), on confluents of the .Belikh; Veranshehr (Tela), Ras al-`Ain (Rhesaena), Mardin (half-way up the mountain wall), and Nasibin (Assyr.^ Belikh; Veranshehr (Tela), Ras al-`Ain (Rhesaena), Mardin (half-way up the mountain wall), and Nasibin (Assyr.

^ Ras al-`Ain in the northwest, after flowing 50 m.

^ The same is doubtless true of the route from Osroene by Ras al-`Ain and Nasibin, and that by Veranshehr and Mardin to the Tigris.

.Nasibina, Nisibis), on confluents of the Khabur; Sinjar (Singara) on the Tharthar.^ Nasibina, Nisibis), on confluents of the Khabur; Sinjar (Singara) on the Tharthar.

.Villages are more numerous than has often been supposed.^ Before the war, when Mesopotamia was a more distant land than it is to-day, Basra was often referred to as the Venice of the East.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Von Oppenheim counted in the district west of Edessa and Harran, in a stretch of two days' march, 300 flourishing villages. .At one time, however, Mesopotamia was teeming with life.^ However, rock- crystal quartz was only used sporadically in Mesopotamia in ancient times, 22 and one wonders why the ancient writer would even mention it along with gold and bdellium if it were not an especially desirable commodity.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even at the time that a large part of the population in Mesopotamia had a sedentary (non-migratory) life in settlements, large groups of people (nomads) at the same time are migrating.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lines of the rivers are marked at frequent intervals by the ruins of flourishing towns of Assyrian, Roman and Caliphate times.^ The lines of the rivers are marked at frequent intervals by the ruins of flourishing towns of Assyrian, Roman and Caliphate times.

.Such are Birejik, Jerablus, Tell Ahmar, IKa1 `at en-Najm, Balls, Karkisiya (Qargisiya, Circesium), on the Euphrates; Kuyunjik, Nimrud on the Tigris; Khorsabad on a small tributary; `Arban, Tell Khalaf, on the Khabur.^ The later Tabelt 5 tells how Marduk caused the Euphrates and the Tigris to flow from the slain Tiamat's eyes.
  • ephemeris.com Early History of Astronomy - Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC ephemeris.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name is used for the area watered by the Euphrates and Tigris and its tributaries, roughly comprising modern Irak and part of Syria.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.The interesting oasis town el-Hacir (Hatra) is near the Tharthar.^ The interesting oasis town el-Hacir (Hatra) is near the Tharthar.

.Excavation has hardly begun.^ Excavation has hardly begun.

.The country is covered with countless mounds (tells), each of which marks the site of a town.^ The country is covered with countless mounds ( tells ), each of which marks the site of a town.

.The documents from the ancient Tirqa said to have been found at Ishara, a few miles belowKarkisiya, are referred to below (§ 4).^ The documents from the ancient Tirqa said to have been found at Ishara, a few miles belowKarkisiya, are referred to below (§ 4).

^ BC), which is one of the earliest sets of laws found and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia.

^ With few exceptions, ancient Mesopotamian rulers have left no documents from which to write an actual biography.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At Anaz(=Dar of Tiglathpileser IV.) was found in 1901 a slab (Pognon, Inscript.^ At Anaz(=Dar of Tiglathpileser IV.) was found in 1901 a slab (Pognon, Inscript.

sent. de la .Syrie,
Plate xxvi.^ Syrie, Plate xxvi.

No. 59) with a bas-relief and an inscription of the governor of Dar, MushezibShamash. .7 The stele referred to below (§ 7, end) as being probably8 Nabonidus's was found in 1906 some 15-20' W. of Eski-Harran, a little nearer to it than to Hmeira, which is west of Eski-Harran, an hour and a half north-east of the ruins of Harran.^ The stele referred to below (§ 7, end) as being probably8 Nabonidus's was found in 1906 some 15-20' W. of Eski-Harran, a little nearer to it than to Hmeira, which is west of Eski-Harran, an hour and a half north-east of the ruins of Harran.

^ The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.

^ Ferhan and the South Shammar claimed the steppe south-east of a line from Mosul to Mayadin (just below Karl isiya), and Faris and the North Shammar the north-west.

.Parts of Mesopotamia have probably always harboured wandering tribes.^ Parts of Mesopotamia have probably always harboured wandering tribes.

^ The wandering Arab tribe which at the present time is dominant in Mesopotamia is the Shammar ; they have driven back the Aneze, the most powerful tribe of the Syrian desert.

^ The head of the tribes who roam over the greater part of Mesopotamia -- pasturing their camels and sheep to the east of the Chaboras in the colder season and to the north in the hotter -- is the chivalrous Fáris.

.Exactly how far the intervening lands beyond reach of the streams have done so it is difficult to make out.^ Exactly how far the intervening lands beyond reach of the streams have done so it is difficult to make out.

.Fraser (Short Cut to India, p.^ D. Fraser, Short Cut to India (1909); W. Kurz, "Beurteilung der Aussichten auf eine Wiederbelebung der Kultur der Euphratand Tigrisniederung," in Deutsche geographische Blotter, xxxi.

^ Fraser ( Short Cut to India , p.

1 34) insists that in the undulating plains the direct rainfall is quite sufficient for agricultural purposes.

viii. Political Divisions

.On the whole the natural lie of the country has been reflected in the political divisions, which have of course varied in detail.^ On the whole the natural lie of the country has been reflected in the political divisions, which have of course varied in detail.

.We only mention some of those most often occurring.^ We only mention some of those most often occurring.

^ It could often happen that the punitive expedition arrived to find the town moved to some district not mentioned in the orders for the day.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the pre-Persian period, besides those referred to elsewhere, we may cite Kashyari (Tar `Abdin), Guzanu (Gozan of 2 Kings xvii.^ In the pre-Persian period, besides those referred to elsewhere, we may cite Kashyari (Tar `Abdin), Guzanu (Gozan of 2 Kings xvii.

^ A person may be referred to, using his epithet: 'Sun King' in stead of Louis XVI or 'Christ' in stead of Jezus.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ A person may be referred to, using his epithet: `Sun King' in stead of Louis XVI or `Christ' in stead of Jezus.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.6; in the Khabur district), Bit Adini (Osroene), Kummukh (north-west corner and beyond); in the Roman period, Osroene, Mygdonia (in the east), and in Syriac usage Beth `Arbaye (between Nisibis and Mosul); in the Arab period, Diarbekr (T ar `Abdin), Diar Rebi'a (Mygdonia), Diar Muelar (Osroene).^ In East-Syriac we say: Suryaye and West-Syriac dialect of Aramaic we say: Suryoye.
  • The Arameans of Aram-Nahrin 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.aramnaharaim.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

Roads. 9

.The routes of communication have probably changed little in the last 5000 years.^ The routes of communication have probably changed little in the last 5000 years.

.It has not yet been proved that Edessa is an ancient city (see Edessa: § 2) but it probably was, and its neighbour Harran, the tower of which can be seen from it, bears a name which seems to indicate its position as a highway centre.^ It has not yet been proved that Edessa is an ancient city (see Edessa : § 2) but it probably was, and its neighbour Harran, the tower of which can be seen from it, bears a name which seems to indicate its position as a highway centre.

^ Yet, in spite of or even because of this internal discord, no ancient civilization proved so dynamic or productive.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under its ancient name of Arrapha, the city reached great prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(I) An obvious series of routes followed the course of the rivers: from Thapsacus (Dibse) down the Euphrates, from Jeziret ibn `Omar down the Tigris, from Circesium up the Khabur.^ (I) An obvious series of routes followed the course of the rivers: from Thapsacus (Dibse) down the Euphrates, from Jeziret ibn `Omar down the Tigris, from Circesium up the Khabur.

^ The geological implication of this is that the source of the cobbles was to the southwest in Saudi Arabia, and that enough water once flowed in the Pishon River to transport rock debris from the Western highlands down toward the Euphrates-Tigris river basin.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was situated on both sides of the Shatt-en-Nil canal, one of the earliest courses of the Euphrates, between the present bed of that river and the Tigris, about 100 miles (160 km.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Euphrates was crossed at Birejil (Til Barsip ?^ The Euphrates was crossed at Birejil (Til Barsip ?

), or Jerablus (Carchemish?), or .Tell Ahmar (unidentified), or Thapsacus.^ Tell Ahmar (unidentified), or Thapsacus.

.10 (2) Probably the modern route from Samosata eastwards behind the Karaja Dagh to Diarbekr was also well known.^ Probably the modern route from Samosata eastwards behind the Karaja Dagh to Diarbekr was also well known.

.The same is doubtless true of the route from Osroene by Ras al-`Ain and Nasibin, and that by Veranshehr and Mardin to the Tigris.^ The same is doubtless true of the route from Osroene by Ras al-`Ain and Nasibin, and that by Veranshehr and Mardin to the Tigris.

^ Ras al-`Ain in the northwest, after flowing 50 m.

^ These are all in the Osroene district; but Nasibin became an Antioch, and as its district was known as Mygdonia (from Macedon) there were doubtless many other Greek settlements.

.About other cross-roads, such as those from Harr - an to Tell Shaddada on the lower Khabur, or from 'Ana by al-Haelr to Mosul it is difficult to say.^ About other cross-roads, such as those from Harr - an to Tell Shaddada on the lower Khabur, or from 'Ana by al-Haelr to Mosul it is difficult to say.

^ Creation myths as such ostensibly deal with the origins of things, but their real focus is mainly on matters of present concern to those who compose them, tell them, or listen to them.

^ Others tell about the victories by king Lugalbanda , the tributes and the exchange of grain for precious stones.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.Functionally, Mesopotamia is the domain that lies between Babylonia and the related trans-Tigris districts on the one hand, and the west Asian districts of Maritime Syria and Asia Minor on the other.^ Functionally, Mesopotamia is the domain that lies between Babylonia and the related trans-Tigris districts on the one hand, and the west Asian districts of Maritime Syria and Asia Minor on the other.

^ That probably originated in the maritime district of Syria.

^ Meanwhile Mesopotamia continued to be crossed and recrossed by the endless marches of the Assyrian kings (such as Adad-nirari, Shalmaneser I. and his son), building and rebuilding the Assyrian empire (see Babylonia g Y P (AND Assyria ), and eventually pushing their conquests towards Asia Minor at the expense of the Hittite domain.

.Its position has given it long, complicated and exciting history.^ Its position has given it long, complicated and exciting history.

.The great rivers, in later times theoretically regarded as its boundaries, have never really been barriers (cf.^ The great rivers, in later times theoretically regarded as its boundaries, have never really been barriers (cf.

^ The civilizations of Babylon and Assyria owed their very life to the science of watering the land, and even in the later times of Haroun Alraschid their great systems had been well maintained.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

e.g. Winckler, Altorient. Forschungen, iii. 348), whence the vagueness of the geographical terminology in all times. .Its position, along with its character, has prevented it often or long, if ever, playing a really independent part.^ Its position, along with its character, has prevented it often or long, if ever, playing a really independent part.

^ Despite Blair's earnest submissions, and all his fawning, Bush has made it clear that the UN will play no independent part in the administration of postwar Iraq.
  • Mesopotamia. Babylon. The Tigris and Euphrates | World news | The Guardian 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The long arcade with brick pillars runs along the margin of the river, suggestive of some ancient Babylonian city from this distance, and is but a sorry enough place in reality.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Who the earliest inhabitants of Mesopotamia in approximately historical times were is not yet clear.^ Who the earliest inhabitants of Mesopotamia in approximately historical times were is not yet clear.

^ The Bible also correctly identifies the Euphrates and Tigris, both of which are modern rivers which drain approximately the same area of Mesopotamia as they did in ancient times.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is possible that its 6 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.^ It is possible that its 6 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

^ Of domestic Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

^ Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

279-492.
For the interpretation cf. Or. Lit.-Zeit. xi. 242-244.
On the interpretation see P. Dhorme, Rev. Bibl. (Jan., 1908).
.9 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.^ It is possible that its 6 Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

^ Of domestic Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

^ Ritter, Erdkunde, xi.

265-278.
.On these and other crossing places, see Ritter, Erdkunde, x.^ Its proximity to the scorching desert, its choking dustiness and its depressing isolation, are characteristics which it shares with countless other places among these mud plains.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

959-1004.
connexion with the north, and .Asia Minor, goes back to a very early date.^ Asia Minor, goes back to a very early date.

^ Trade was intense and they traveled to Iran and Asia Minor, bringing back timber, stone, and metals.
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

.It may be that some of the early north Babylonian kingdoms, such as Kish, extended control thither.^ It may be that some of the early north Babylonian kingdoms, such as Kish, extended control thither.

.The earliest Babylonian monarch of whose presence in Mesopotamia there is positive evidence is Lugalzaggisi (before 2500 s.c.^ The earliest Babylonian monarch of whose presence in Mesopotamia there is positive evidence is Lugalzaggisi (before 2500 s.c.

^ It is just as uncertain how long Asshur remained under the Babylonian suzerainty of which there is evidence in the time of Khammurabi, and what the relation of Asshur to western Mesopotamia was under the early kings whose names have lately been recovered.

^ There are many Babylonian literary works whose titles have come down to us.

), who claims, with the help of .En-lil, to have led his countless host victorious to the Mediterranean.^ En-lil, to have led his countless host victorious to the Mediterranean.

.His empire, if he founded one, was before long eclipsed, however, by the rising power of the Semites.^ His empire, if he founded one, was before long eclipsed, however, by the rising power of the Semites.

^ The earliest layer of Semitic population was the Amorite which was found in Syria when the first Babylonian empire extended its authority over the land.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, other scholars cite evidence which places camel domestication long before this--perhaps as early as 2000-3000 B.C. or before.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Excavation in Mesopotamia may in time cast some light on the questions whether the Semites really reached Babylonia by way of Mesopotamia,' when, and whom they found there, and whether they partly settled there by the way.^ Excavation in Mesopotamia may in time cast some light on the questions whether the Semites really reached Babylonia by way of Mesopotamia,' when, and whom they found there, and whether they partly settled there by the way.

^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

^ In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah , Ishmael ; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.

.Whether SharruGI, Manishtusu and Remush (often called Uru-mush) really preceded, and to some extent anticipated, "Sargon" i.e. Shargani-sharri, as L. W. King now 2 plausibly argues, is not certain; nor whether the 32 kings who revolted and were conquered by Manishtusu, as we now learn, were by the Mediterranean, as Winckler argued, or by the Persian Gulf, as King holds.^ Whether SharruGI, Manishtusu and Remush (often called Uru-mush) really preceded, and to some extent anticipated, " Sargon " i.e.

^ Shargani-sharri, as L. W. King now 2 plausibly argues, is not certain; nor whether the 32 kings who revolted and were conquered by Manishtusu, as we now learn, were by the Mediterranean, as Winckler argued, or by the Persian Gulf, as King holds.

^ No Persian chauvinist, Cyrus was quick to learn from the conquered peoples.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.That Sargon was or became supreme in Mesopotamia cannot be doubted, since there is contemporary evidence that he conquered Amurru.^ That Sargon was or became supreme in Mesopotamia cannot be doubted, since there is contemporary evidence that he conquered Amurru.

^ They became so professional that they conquered the whole Mesopotamia.
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The earliest Babylonian monarch of whose presence in Mesopotamia there is positive evidence is Lugalzaggisi (before 2500 s.c.

.The three versions of the proceedings of Sargon (Sharru-GI-NA) in Suri leave us in doubt what really happened.^ The three versions of the proceedings of Sargon (Sharru-GI-NA) in Suri leave us in doubt what really happened.

.As he must have asserted himself in Mesopotamia before he advanced into the maritime district (and perhaps beyond: see Sargon), what is referred to in the Omens and the Chronicle 26,472 may be, as Winckler argued (Or.^ As he must have asserted himself in Mesopotamia before he advanced into the maritime district (and perhaps beyond: see Sargon ), what is referred to in the Omens and the Chronicle 26,472 may be, as Winckler argued ( Or.

^ Before the war, when Mesopotamia was a more distant land than it is to-day, Basra was often referred to as the Venice of the East.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their position in Mesopotamia must have been very like that of the Shammar at the present time (see ad fin.

.Lit.-Zeit.
1907, col.^ Lit.-Zeit., 1907).

.296), an immigration of new elements into Suri - in that case perhaps one of the early representatives of the "Hittite" group.^ Suri - in that case perhaps one of the early representatives of the "Hittite" group.

^ This represented one of the four quarters of the world in the early Babylonian view, the other three being Akkad (i.e.

^ When the policy of transporting people from one part of the empire to another was developed, new elements were introduced into Mesopotamia, amongst them Israelites, of whom perhaps traces have been found in the neighbourhood of IIarran at Kannu'.

.According to the Omens text Sargon seems to have settled colonies in Suri, and suggestions of an anticipation of the later Assyrian policy of transportation have been found by King (op.^ According to the Omens text Sargon seems to have settled colonies in Suri, and suggestions of an anticipation of the later Assyrian policy of transportation have been found by King ( op.

^ No personal documents have survived from Sargon's reign; but it seems fair to assume that phraseologies uncommon in the inscriptions of other Assyrian kings, found in his texts, must have met with his approval, even though it is uncertain whether such phrases--sometimes turning into what is obviously poetry--were in fact conceived by Sargon himself or ascribed to him by his historiographers.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sargonic texts in the Louvre Museum", Materials for the Assyrian dictionary, no.

cit.
) under the rulers of this time, and there are evidences of lively intercommunication. .Mesopotamia certainly felt the Sumero-Babylonian civilization early.^ Mesopotamia; the Babylonian and Assyrian civilization.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Mesopotamia certainly felt the Sumero-Babylonian civilization early.

^ Commonly known as the “Cradle of civilization”, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian , Babylonian , Assyrian Empires.

.It was from the special type of cuneiform developed there, apparently, that the later Assyrian forms were derived (Winckler, Altorient.^ The standardized form of each cuneiform sign appear to have been developed from pictograms.

^ It would be interesting to compare the work with that in the ships of the Middle Ages and see if there is a definite [Pg 26] development of type from East to West via the Mediterranean.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Forsch.
i. 86 seq.). .What the "revolt of all lands" ascribed to the later part of Sargon's reign means is not yet clear; but he or his son quickly suppressed it.^ The access to the top was by means of a triple monumental staircase, which all converges at a portal that opened on a landing between the first and second stages.

^ A later Babylonian legend says that "all the Land" revolted against him late in his reign and besieged him in Agade, but he was victorious.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter part of his reign was troubled with rebellions, which later literature ascribes, predictably enough, to sacrilegious acts that he is supposed to have committed; but this can be discounted as the standard cause assigned to all disasters by Sumerians and Akkadians alike.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Mesopotamia would naturally share in the wide trade relations of the time, probably reaching as far as Egypt.^ This trade route was probably already established by the time Genesis 2 was written, so the location of the Pishon River (and Eden) was identified for the reader of Genesis by citing these commodities.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is a rash man who would prophesy concerning the future of Mesopotamia as far as our empire is concerned.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Over time, a substantial incense trade developed between south Arabia and Mesopotamia, Egypt, and other parts of the Middle East, such as Israel and Jordan.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The importance of IIarran was doubtless due not only to its fame as a seat of the Moon-god Sin, honoured also west of the Euphrates, and to its political position, but also to its trade relations.^ The importance of IIarran was doubtless due not only to its fame as a seat of the Moon -god Sin , honoured also west of the Euphrates, and to its political position, but also to its trade relations.

^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

^ The god of the moon rewarded her piety with a long life--she lived to be 103--and she was buried in Harran with all the honours of a queen in 547.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Contemporary records of sales of slaves from Amurru are known.^ Contemporary records of sales of slaves from Amurru are known.

.When the Semitic settlers of the age of Sargon, whom it is now common with some justice to call Akkadians (see Sumer), had become thoroughly merged in the population, there appeared a new immigrant element, the Amurru, whose advance as far as Babylonia is to be traced in the troubled history of the postGudean period, out of the confusion of which there ultimately emerged the Khammurabi dynasty.^ A history of Sumer and Akkad; an account of the early races of Babylonia from prehistoric times to the foundation of the Babylonian monarchy.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, some description does appear in written form: recorded by the Sumerians and later by the Akkadians.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Mesanepada, king of Ur (2670 BC), founded the so-called 1st Dynasty of Ur and made Ur the capital of Sumer.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.That the Amurru passed through Mesopotamia, and that some remained, seems most probable.^ That the Amurru passed through Mesopotamia, and that some remained, seems most probable.

^ Mesopotamia housed some of the world’s most ancient states with highly developed social complexity.

^ To reach the throne of Ereshkigal, Innana has to pass through seven gates, at each of which she is required by the gatekeepers to give up some items of clothing and adornment.

.Their god Dagan had a temple at Tirqa (near `Ishara, a little below Circesium), the capital of Khana (several kings of which we now know by name), probably taking the place of an earlier deity.^ Their god Dagan had a temple at Tirqa (near `Ishara, a little below Circesium), the capital of Khana (several kings of which we now know by name), probably taking the place of an earlier deity.

^ The monsoonal rains now watering the southernmost margins of the Near East, are retracted to lower latitudes and mid-latitude westerly storms carry little moisture.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ He has heard of an ancestor of his named Utnapishtim who once won perpetual life as a gift from the gods and who now dwells at the end of the earth.

.At Tirqa they had month names of a peculiar type.^ At Tirqa they had month names of a peculiar type.

.It is not improbable that the incorporation of this Mesopotamian kingdom with Babylon was the work of Khammurabi himself.^ It is not improbable that the incorporation of this Mesopotamian kingdom with Babylon was the work of Khammurabi himself.

.Not quite so successful eventually was the similar enterprise farther north at Asshur [or Assur (q.v.^ Not quite so successful eventually was the similar enterprise farther north at Asshur [or Assur (q.v.

)] on the east margin of .Mesopotamia, although we do not know the immediate outcome of the struggle between Asshur and the first Babylonian king, Sumu-abi.^ Mesopotamia, although we do not know the immediate outcome of the struggle between Asshur and the first Babylonian king, Sumu-abi.

^ When Mitanni fell Babylon no doubt adhered to its older claims on Mesopotamia; but the Kassite kings could do little to contest the advance of Assyria, although several rectifications of the boundary between their spheres are reported.

^ To conclude the first part: Mesopotamia is in between Lybia and Asia, it is facing the Gibraltar, and is situated and has expanded to Arabia (a peninsula).
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

.Possibly the rulers of Babylon had a freer hand in a city that they apparently raised to a dominant position than the Semitic rulers of Asshur, who seem to have succeeded to men of the stock which we have hitherto called Mitanni, if we may judge ' On the theory that it was climatic changes in Arabia that drove the Semites to seek new homes along the route mentioned above, see L. W. King, History of Sumer and Akkad (1910), which appeared after this article was written.^ These theories are called climate determinism.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ They even called their city Athanait.
  • Lost Continent of Atlantis: Myth or Reality? (Mesopotamia) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC atlantis.haktanir.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Possibly the rulers of Babylon had a freer hand in a city that they apparently raised to a dominant position than the Semitic rulers of Asshur, who seem to have succeeded to men of the stock which we have hitherto called Mitanni, if we may judge ' On the theory that it was climatic changes in Arabia that drove the Semites to seek new homes along the route mentioned above, see L. W. King, History of Sumer and Akkad (1910), which appeared after this article was written.

.2 See the preceding note.^ See the preceding note.

from the names of .Ushpia who, according to Shalmaneser I.^ Ushpia who, according to Shalmaneser I .

and .Esarhaddon, built the temple, and Kikia who, according to Ashur-rem-nisheshu, built the city wa11.3 The considerable number of such names already found in First Dynasty records seems to show that people of this race were to be found at home as far south as Babylonia.^ Esarhaddon, built the temple, and Kikia who, according to Ashur-rem-nisheshu, built the city wa 11.3 The considerable number of such names already found in First Dynasty records seems to show that people of this race were to be found at home as far south as Babylonia.

^ Although music and songs amused kings , they were also enjoyed by ordinary people who liked to sing and dance in their homes or in the marketplaces.

^ The smallest rooms may not have coincided with the poorest people; in fact it could be that the poorest people built houses out of perishable materials such as reeds on the outside of the city, but there is very little direct evidence for this.

.Whether they were really called Shubaru, as Ungnad suggests, we may know later.^ Whether they were really called Shubaru, as Ungnad suggests, we may know later.

^ When Khammurabi's fifth successor saw the fall of the Amorite dynasty in consequence of an inroad of " Hittites ," these may have been Mesopotamian Shubaru-Mitanni; but they may, as Ungnad suggests, represent rather an- Timee Times.

^ Whether SharruGI, Manishtusu and Remush (often called Uru-mush) really preceded, and to some extent anticipated, " Sargon " i.e.

.When Khammurabi's fifth successor saw the fall of the Amorite dynasty in consequence of an inroad of "Hittites," these may have been Mesopotamian Shubaru-Mitanni; but they may, as Ungnad suggests, represent rather an- Timee Times. cestors of the Hittites of later times.^ The effects of the influx of Europeans in the time of the Crusades were not sufficient to produce any marked change, and the same may be said of all later invasions of Turks and Kurds.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This instrument appears hundreds of times throughout Mesopotamian history and again in ancient Egypt from the 18th dynasty onwards in long- and short-neck varieties.

^ Akkadians , speaking a Semitic language, may have been present in Mesopotamia since the time the Sumerians arrived, or they may have diffused into the region later.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.It is difficult in any case not to connect with this catastrophe the carrying away to Khani of the Marduk statue afterwards recovered by Agum, one of the earlier kings of the Kassite dynasty.^ It is difficult in any case not to connect with this catastrophe the carrying away to Khani of the Marduk statue afterwards recovered by Agum, one of the earlier kings of the Kassite dynasty.

^ At this time Babylonia was subject to the Kassites, an alien race of kings, and when they fell, about 1100 BC, they gave place to a number of dynasties of short duration.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meyer are right, it belongs to a time not many generations after Agum recovered the Marduk statue.

.Whether Hittites were still resident at Khana we do not know.^ Whether Hittites were still resident at Khana we do not know.

^ Hittite culture and language were Indo-European, but scholars do not know whether the Hittites came from Europe or from central Asia.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The earlier Kassite kings of Babylon still maintained the Amorite claim to "the four quarters;" but it is improbable that there was much force behind the claim, although we have a document from Khana dated under Kashtiliash.^ The earlier Kassite kings of Babylon still maintained the Amorite claim to "the four quarters;" but it is improbable that there was much force behind the claim, although we have a document from Khana dated under Kashtiliash.

^ When Mitanni fell Babylon no doubt adhered to its older claims on Mesopotamia; but the Kassite kings could do little to contest the advance of Assyria, although several rectifications of the boundary between their spheres are reported.

^ In Babylonian documents dates can be found for all three kings.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is just as uncertain how long Asshur remained under the Babylonian suzerainty of which there is evidence in the time of Khammurabi, and what the relation of Asshur to western Mesopotamia was under the early kings whose names have lately been recovered.^ It is just as uncertain how long Asshur remained under the Babylonian suzerainty of which there is evidence in the time of Khammurabi, and what the relation of Asshur to western Mesopotamia was under the early kings whose names have lately been recovered.

^ In Seleucid and Parthian times, the astronomical reports were of a thoroughly scientific character; how much earlier their advanced knowledge and methods were developed is uncertain.

^ In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah , Ishmael ; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.

.All these matters will no doubt be cleared up when more of the many tells of Mesopotamia are excavated.^ All these matters will no doubt be cleared up when more of the many tells of Mesopotamia are excavated.

^ I very much regret leaving you for foreign parts, but some day I shall return to you and go over all the ground again; no doubt it will recall many sad recollections.
  • First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries - France, Egypt, Mesopotamia 1915-1916 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.firstworldwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are all in the Osroene district; but Nasibin became an Antioch, and as its district was known as Mygdonia (from Macedon) there were doubtless many other Greek settlements.

.Only two have been touched: `Arban on the Khabur, where remains of a palace of uncertain date, among other things an XVIII. dynasty scarab, were found by Layard in 1851, and Tell Khalaf, where the confluents join, and remains of the palace of a certain Kapar, son of Hanpan of "Hittite" affinities but uncertain date, were found by von Oppenheim in 1899. A long inscription of a certain Shamshi-Adad [Samsi-], extracts from which are quoted by Delitzsch (Mitt.^ Only two have been touched: `Arban on the Khabur, where remains of a palace of uncertain date, among other things an XVIII. dynasty scarab , were found by Layard in 1851, and Tell Khalaf, where the confluents join, and remains of the palace of a certain Kapar, son of Hanpan of "Hittite" affinities but uncertain date, were found by von Oppenheim in 1899.

^ A long inscription of a certain Shamshi- Adad [Samsi- ] , extracts from which are quoted by Delitzsch ( Mitt.

^ The Arameans formed the next wave of Semitic stock, but there were others, like the Hittites, who were not Semitic, and the Philistines, whose race affinity is doubtful.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

d. .Deutsch Or.-Gesellschaft
No.^ Deutsch Or.-Gesellschaft No.

21 p. .so), unfortunately cannot be dated exactly, or with certainty even approximately; but if Delitzsch and Ed.^ The beginning of Kassite rule in Babylonia cannot be dated exactly.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Meyer are right, it belongs to a time not many generations after Agum recovered the Marduk statue.^ Meyer are right, it belongs to a time not many generations after Agum recovered the Marduk statue.

^ It is difficult in any case not to connect with this catastrophe the carrying away to Khani of the Marduk statue afterwards recovered by Agum, one of the earlier kings of the Kassite dynasty.

.Shamshi-Adad's claims extend over the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates, and he says that he erected memorials of himself on the shore of the Great Sea.^ MESOPOTAMIA The country between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shamshi-Adad's claims extend over the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates, and he says that he erected memorials of himself on the shore of the Great Sea.

^ Mesopotamia (from the Greek meaning “The land between the two rivers”) is an area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey , and the Khūzestān Province of southwestern Iran .

.The mystery of the Hyksos has not yet been solved; but it is not impossible that they had relations with Mesopotamia.^ The mystery of the Hyksos has not yet been solved; but it is not impossible that they had relations with Mesopotamia.

^ They must have had established trade relations with places where these metals were being mined, since Mesopotamia itself is devoid of metal deposits.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After they had been driven out of Egypt (q.v.^ After they had been driven out of Egypt (q.v.

), when .Ahmose, the officer of Tethmosis (Thutmose) I., mentions Naharin (late 16th century), he does not say anything about the inhabitants.^ Ahmose, the officer of Tethmosis (Thutmose) I., mentions Naharin (late 16th century), he does not say anything about the inhabitants.

^ Semitic name of this kind is in the last paragraph of the biography of Alhmose of el-Kab, the aged officer of Tethmosis (Thutmose) I. As early therefore as the late 16th century B.C. the name Naharin ( N'h'ryn ) was in use.

^ Where to Find It in the Bible, Abridged By Ken Anderson / Thomas Nelson / W What does the Bible say about modern concerns such as stress, nutrition, or computers?
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He seems to imply, however, that there was more than one state.^ He seems to imply, however, that there was more than one state.

^ More than 15 centuries after its fall, the Roman Empire remains one of the most formative influences on the history of Europe.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the dawn a new age on more ways than one.
  • TheFood Timeline: history notes--Mesopotamia through Shakespeare 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.foodtimeline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first mention of Mitanni, as we saw, is under Tethmosis III., who clearly crossed the Euphrates.^ The first mention of Mitanni, as we saw, is under Tethmosis III., who clearly crossed the Euphrates.

^ Metan is clearly the same as Mitanni, over against Khatti, mentioned e.g.

.It is at least possible that common enmity to Mitanni led to a treaty with Assyria (under Ashur-nadin-akhe).^ It is at least possible that common enmity to Mitanni led to a treaty with Assyria (under Ashur-nadin-akhe).

.4 Victorious expeditions into Naharin are claimed for Amenophis II., Tethmosis IV. and Amenophis III. The Egyptian references are too contemptuous to name the rulers; but Shaushatar may have begun his reign during the lifetime of Tethmosis III., and from cuneiform sources we know the names of six other Mitanni rulers.^ Victorious expeditions into Naharin are claimed for Amenophis II., Tethmosis IV. and Amenophis III. The Egyptian references are too contemptuous to name the rulers; but Shaushatar may have begun his reign during the lifetime of Tethmosis III., and from cuneiform sources we know the names of six other Mitanni rulers.

^ During the reign of Kashtiliash IV ( c.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bitumen is found at Hit, whence perhaps its name (Babylonian Id in Tukulti Ninib II.'s inscription referred to above), and near the Tigris.2 Climate.

.As they all bear Aryan names, and in some of their treaties appear Aryan deities (Indra, Varuna, Mithra, &c.^ In addition, there are numerous local variations of these deities names which, in the next section, such 'optional' names appear in parentheses after the more prevalent name.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I have yet to find any secondary (or for that matter primary) source which lists Kutu as a Mesopotamian deity, or for that matter lists any name resembling Cthulhu at all.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is noteworthy that after the Achaemenian empire the name does not appear again in sources relating to Iran, which may indicate some special sense of the name.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

), it is clear that .Mesopotamia had now a further new element in its population, bearing apparently the name Kharri.^ Mesopotamia had now a further new element in its population, bearing apparently the name Kharri.

^ Elsewhere the Aramean wave has become the predominant Semitic element of population, the Canaanitic now occupying the coast towns (Phoenicians) and the Canaan of the Old Testament.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The name now applies to a much wider field: the study of all the civilizations in Mesopotamia and all related questions.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.5 Many of the dynasts in North Syria and Palestine in the time of Tushratta bear names of the same type.^ Many of the dynasts in North Syria and Palestine in the time of Tushratta bear names of the same type.

^ The Hyksos who were driven from Egypt to Palestine and Syria were of the same race, as would appear from the Egyptian records.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Syria proper was bounded by Amanus and Taurus on the north by the Euphrates and the Arabian desert on the east, by Palestine on the south, by the Mediterranean near the mouth of the Orontes, and then by Phoenicia on the west.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most natural explanation is that Aryans had made their way into the highlands east of Assyria, and thence bands had penetrated into Mesopotamia, peacefully or otherwise, and then, like the Turks in the days of the Caliphate, founded dynasties.^ Mesanepada, king of Ur (2670 BC), founded the so-called 1st Dynasty of Ur and made Ur the capital of Sumer.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We plunged into a covered way, arched overhead like a cloister.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most certainly these rivers would have flowed into the Gulf somewhere east of the Tigris River, or they would have joined in confluence with the Tigris at the Persian Gulf.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The language of the Mitanni state, however, was neither Aryan nor Semitic, and may very well be that of the mysterious "Hittite" hieroglyphic inscriptions (see Hittites).^ The language of the Mitanni state, however, was neither Aryan nor Semitic, and may very well be that of the mysterious "Hittite" hieroglyphic inscriptions (see Hittites ).

^ The Mitanni, a Hittite people, the remains of whose language are to be found in the still undeciphered inscriptions at Carchemish, Marash, Aleppo and Hamath, are now masters of North Syria.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Akkadians , speaking a Semitic language, may have been present in Mesopotamia since the time the Sumerians arrived, or they may have diffused into the region later.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.Mitanni was one of the great powers, alongside of Egypt and Babylonia, able to send to Egypt the Ninevite 'Ishtar; and at this time as much as at any Ungnad, Beitr. z.^ Mitanni was one of the great powers, alongside of Egypt and Babylonia, able to send to Egypt the Ninevite ' Ishtar ; and at this time as much as at any Ungnad, Beitr.

^ In 568/567 he attacked Egypt, again without much success, but from that time on the Egyptians refrained from further attacks on Palestine.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The widow of an Egyptian pharaoh, probably Tutankhamen, asked the Hittite emperor to send one of his sons to be her husband and pharaoh of Egypt.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Assyr. VI. v. 13.
See e.q. P. Schnabel, Stud. z. bab.-ass. Chron. p. 25 (1908).
.5 Winckler has identified the Kharri with the Aryans, to whom he assigns a state in Armenia (Or.^ Winckler has identified the Kharri with the Aryans, to whom he assigns a state in Armenia ( Or.

.Lit.-Zeit.,
July 1910).^ Lit.-Zeit., July 1910).

other, we must think of common political relations binding the districts east and west of the Euphrates. .The king mentioned above (Shaushatar) conquered Asshur (Assur), and Assyria remained subordinate to Mitanni till near the middle of the 14th century, when, on the death of Tushratta, it overthrew Mitanni with the help of Alshe, a north Mesopotamian state, the allies dividing the territory between them.^ The king mentioned above (Shaushatar) conquered Asshur (Assur), and Assyria remained subordinate to Mitanni till near the middle of the 14th century, when, on the death of Tushratta, it overthrew Mitanni with the help of Alshe, a north Mesopotamian state, the allies dividing the territory between them.

^ When Mitanni fell Babylon no doubt adhered to its older claims on Mesopotamia; but the Kassite kings could do little to contest the advance of Assyria, although several rectifications of the boundary between their spheres are reported.

^ The remaining Semitic states, such as the state of Ashur, became minor states within the sphere of influence of the new states of the Kassites and the Hurrians/Mitanni.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Hittite king's interference restored the Mitannite state as a protectorate, but with a smaller territory, probably in the north-west, where it may have survived long.^ The Hittite king's interference restored the Mitannite state as a protectorate , but with a smaller territory, probably in the north-west, where it may have survived long.

^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

.Assyria was now free, and Ashur-uballit [Assur-yuballidh acc.^ Assyria was now free, and Ashur-uballit [Assur-yuballidh acc.

^ Ashur (A-sir, Arusar, A-shar, Assur) god of Assyria and war.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

to .Sayce] knew how to make use of his opportunities, and, in the words of his great grandson, "broke up the forces of the widespread Shubari" (AKA, p.^ Sayce] knew how to make use of his opportunities, and, in the words of his great grandson, "broke up the forces of the widespread Shubari" ( AKA, p.

^ Each word is coded to Strong's, thus allowing even those who do not know Hebrew the opportunity to use this work.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The index makes it much easier for someone who doesn't know the original languages to use this rich resource, because you can look up the English word to find the corresponding Greek one.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

7,1. 32 seq.). .Knowing what we know of the colonizing power of the Assyrians, we may assume that among the "Mitanni" and other elements in the Mesopotamian population there would now be an increase of people of "Assyrian" origin.^ Knowing what we know of the colonizing power of the Assyrians, we may assume that among the "Mitanni" and other elements in the Mesopotamian population there would now be an increase of people of "Assyrian" origin.

^ Elsewhere the Aramean wave has become the predominant Semitic element of population, the Canaanitic now occupying the coast towns (Phoenicians) and the Canaan of the Old Testament.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mesopotamia had now a further new element in its population, bearing apparently the name Kharri.

.On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

^ The importance of IIarran was doubtless due not only to its fame as a seat of the Moon -god Sin , honoured also west of the Euphrates, and to its political position, but also to its trade relations.

^ The Hittite king's interference restored the Mitannite state as a protectorate , but with a smaller territory, probably in the north-west, where it may have survived long.

.We know already a little more of the chequered history of the Amorites in the Naharin district, beset by great powers on three sides.^ We know already a little more of the chequered history of the Amorites in the Naharin district, beset by great powers on three sides.

.When Mitanni fell Babylon no doubt adhered to its older claims on Mesopotamia; but the Kassite kings could do little to contest the advance of Assyria, although several rectifications of the boundary between their spheres are reported.^ At this time Babylonia was subject to the Kassites, an alien race of kings, and when they fell, about 1100 BC, they gave place to a number of dynasties of short duration.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He lost Assyria and erected a huge wall between the Tigris and the Euphrates a little north of Babylon in order to help contain the Amorites.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A breakthrough somewhat more north in the plains of Mesopotamia could drain several river arms and render a network of irrigation channels useless.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

Mitanni's fall, however, had opened the way for others also. Hence when Ashur-uballit's grandson, Arik-den-ili (written. .PU.DI.ili), carried on the work of enforcing Assyria's claim to the heirship of Mitanni, he is described as conquering the warriors 1 (?) of the Akhlame and the Suti.^ PU.DI.ili), carried on the work of enforcing Assyria's claim to the heirship of Mitanni, he is described as conquering the warriors 1 (?

.The references to these people, who practically make their first appearance in the Amarna correspondence, 2 show that they were unsettled bands who took advantage of the loosening of authority to introduce themselves into various parts of the country, in this case Mesopotamia.^ The references to these people, who practically make their first appearance in the Amarna correspondence, 2 show that they were unsettled bands who took advantage of the loosening of authority to introduce themselves into various parts of the country, in this case Mesopotamia.

^ The Kurds are an Indo-European people who have lived in northern Mesopotamia for ages; their language is most closely related to Iranian, although the people do not strongly resemble Iranians.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Shapur's cruel victories in Syria, however, he was defeated by Odaenathus , who relieved Edessa, and Mesopotamia became for ten years practically part of an Arabian Empire (see Palmmyra ), as it was to be four centuries later.

.Gradually settlements were made, the names of many of which are given by the various Assyrian kings who had at one time or another to assert or reassert supremacy over them - such as Chindanu, Laqe, Sulhi along the South Euphrates boundary of Mesopotamia, and various districts bearing names compounded with Bit = settlement (see above), such as Bit-Adini (nearly equal the later Osroene; see Edessa), or Bit-Zamani in the north near Diarbekr.^ Gradually settlements were made, the names of many of which are given by the various Assyrian kings who had at one time or another to assert or reassert supremacy over them - such as Chindanu, Laqe, Sulhi along the South Euphrates boundary of Mesopotamia, and various districts bearing names compounded with Bit = settlement (see above), such as Bit-Adini (nearly equal the later Osroene; see Edessa ), or Bit-Zamani in the north near Diarbekr.

^ Two later Assyrian kings were named in his honor.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile Mesopotamia continued to be crossed and recrossed by the endless marches of the Assyrian kings (such as Adad-nirari, Shalmaneser I. and his son), building and rebuilding the Assyrian empire (see Babylonia g Y P (AND Assyria ), and eventually pushing their conquests towards Asia Minor at the expense of the Hittite domain.

.The specific name Aramaean first appears in the annals of Tiglath-pileser I., unless we identify the Arimi of Shalmaneser I. in Tur `Abdin with the Aramu; 3 but the name may probably with fitness be applied to a very large number of the communities mentioned from time to time.^ The specific name Aramaean first appears in the annals of Tiglath-pileser I., unless we identify the Arimi of Shalmaneser I. in Tur `Abdin with the Aramu; 3 but the name may probably with fitness be applied to a very large number of the communities mentioned from time to time.

^ When the god Enlil is mentioned for the first time in a text, one writes e.g.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ Our first experience of Arabs and Gipos was funny: to see them walking, carrying huge bundles and large water carriers on their heads, all the time shouting to us.
  • First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries - France, Egypt, Mesopotamia 1915-1916 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.firstworldwar.com [Source type: Original source]

.Their position in Mesopotamia must have been very like that of the Shammar at the present time (see ad fin.^ Their position in Mesopotamia must have been very like that of the Shammar at the present time (see ad fin.

^ Akkadians , speaking a Semitic language, may have been present in Mesopotamia since the time the Sumerians arrived, or they may have diffused into the region later.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

).
.As they gradually adopted settled life in various parts of the country the use of Aramaic spread more and more (see below, § "Persians").^ They were not rivers that flowed in other parts of the world as has been suggested by various authors.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cylinder seals are important to historians: they literally give First Impressions (title of a book by D. Collon, see literature below) Purpose.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ They are, however, more powerful, freed from human miseries and mishaps and they live endless lifes.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile Mesopotamia continued to be crossed and recrossed by the endless marches of the Assyrian kings (such as Adad-nirari, Shalmaneser I. and his son), building and rebuilding the Assyrian empire (see Babylonia g Y P (AND Assyria), and eventually pushing their conquests towards Asia Minor at the expense of the Hittite domain.^ Assyria 1995: The glory and fall of the Assyrian Empire: Report on 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, Helsinki, September 7-11, 1995.

^ They survived the collapse of their empire, though, and even today there are Assyrian people living both in Mesopotamia and abroad.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king's magnates : a study of the highest officials of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If, on the fall of the Kassites, Nebuchadrezzar I. established more direct relations between Mesopotamia and Babylon, his work was presently undone by the vigorous campaigns of Tiglath-pileser I., who seems to have even won Egypt's sanction of his succession to the Hittite claims.^ If, on the fall of the Kassites , Nebuchadrezzar I. established more direct relations between Mesopotamia and Babylon, his work was presently undone by the vigorous campaigns of Tiglath-pileser I., who seems to have even won Egypt's sanction of his succession to the Hittite claims.

^ The Kurds are an Indo-European people who have lived in northern Mesopotamia for ages; their language is most closely related to Iranian, although the people do not strongly resemble Iranians.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The next incident is the defeat of Galerius , between Carrhae and Callinicus, where he had entered Mesopotamia (about 296), in the war provoked by Narses in consequence of his relations with Armenia.

.The newly recovered (1909) tablet of Tukulti-Ninib, the grandfather of Shalmaneser II., is interesting from its account of an expedition down the course of the Tharthar to Hit = Id (river and town now first mentioned in cuneiform sources) and up the Euphrates to the Khabur district.^ The newly recovered (1909) tablet of Tukulti-Ninib, the grandfather of Shalmaneser II ., is interesting from its account of an expedition down the course of the Tharthar to Hit = Id (river and town now first mentioned in cuneiform sources) and up the Euphrates to the Khabur district.

^ The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar , in Tukulti- Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.

^ Bitumen is found at Hit, whence perhaps its name (Babylonian Id in Tukulti Ninib II.'s inscription referred to above), and near the Tigris.2 Climate.

.1 See M. Streck, Zeit.^ See M. Streck, Zeit.

Assyr.,
18, 157.
.2 On a wrongly supposed much earlier occurrence of the name Achlamu, see Klio, vi.^ On a wrongly supposed much earlier occurrence of the name Achlamu, see Klio, vi.

193 n. 3.
.3 So for example A. Sanda, Die Aramaer, 5 (1902).^ P. Schnabel, Studien zur bab.-assyrischen Chronologie (1908); A. Sanda, Die Aramder (1902) in the Der Alte.

^ So for example A. Sanda, Die Aramaer, 5 (1902).

.Now that Mesopotamia had passed out of the hands of Babylon, all that the later kings could do was to encourage local Mesopotamian rulers in their desire for independence (Nabuapluiddin).^ Now that Mesopotamia had passed out of the hands of Babylon, all that the later kings could do was to encourage local Mesopotamian rulers in their desire for independence (Nabuapluiddin).

^ When Mitanni fell Babylon no doubt adhered to its older claims on Mesopotamia; but the Kassite kings could do little to contest the advance of Assyria, although several rectifications of the boundary between their spheres are reported.

^ In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah , Ishmael ; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.

.These were convinced that Assyria was master, but refused their tribute when they thought they dared.^ These were convinced that Assyria was master, but refused their tribute when they thought they dared.

.To thoroughly overpower the troublesome Bit-Adini (see above, § 3, viii.^ Beth is probably the Syriac equivalent of the Assyrian Bit as in Bit-Adini (see below, § 3 viii.

^ To thoroughly overpower the troublesome Bit-Adini (see above, § 3, viii.

), which had naturally been aided by the states west of the .Euphrates, Shalmaneser II. (860-825) settled Assyrians in their midst.^ Euphrates, Shalmaneser II. (860-825) settled Assyrians in their midst.

^ Shalmaneser II. In the 9th century Asshur-nazirpal crossed the Euphrates and overran the recently established state of Patin in the Plain of Antioch.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ilarran was one of the few places that remained on his side during the great insurrection that darkened his last days.^ Ilarran was one of the few places that remained on his side during the great insurrection that darkened his last days.

^ Enquiries revealed the fact that we were in great luck about trains, which appeared at intervals of several days, as one was due in a few hours that would reach Baghdad the same night.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a few days among the waterways of Mesopotamia one can get hardened against surprises.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Similarly the province of Guzanu (Heb. Gozan,I'au? avirLs), on the .Kahbur, held with the capital Asshur in the insurrection that occurred in 763 (the year of the eclipse), when evidently some one (an Adad-nirari ?^ Ls), on the Kahbur, held with the capital Asshur in the insurrection that occurred in 763 (the year of the eclipse ), when evidently some one (an Adad-nirari ?

) wore the crown, at least for a time. .Harran was clearly closely associated with Asshur in the rights and institutions that were the subject of so much party struggle in the new Assyrian empire that began with Tiglath-pileser IV.^ Harran was clearly closely associated with Asshur in the rights and institutions that were the subject of so much party struggle in the new Assyrian empire that began with Tiglath-pileser IV .

^ Tiglath-Pileser III (745-727); king of Assyria who inaugurated the last and greatest phase of Assyrian expansion.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This empire is now known as the New Assyrian empire in the first millennium BCE. .
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.(see Babylonia And Assyria).^ Early period : besides the histories of Babylonia and Assyria see Winckler, various essays in his Altor.

.When the policy of transporting people from one part of the empire to another was developed, new elements were introduced into Mesopotamia, amongst them Israelites, of whom perhaps traces have been found in the neighbourhood of IIarran at Kannu'. 4 These new elements may have been more organically attached to the Assyrian state as such than the older inhabitants, to whom the affairs of state at Nineveh would be of little interest.^ He seems to imply, however, that there was more than one state.

^ These new elements may have been more organically attached to the Assyrian state as such than the older inhabitants, to whom the affairs of state at Nineveh would be of little interest.

^ When the policy of transporting people from one part of the empire to another was developed, new elements were introduced into Mesopotamia, amongst them Israelites, of whom perhaps traces have been found in the neighbourhood of IIarran at Kannu'.

.On the conditions at Ilarran some light is thrown by the census partly preserved in Ashurbanipal's library.'^ On the conditions at Ilarran some light is thrown by the census partly preserved in Ashurbanipal's library.'

.The governors of several Mesopotamian cities, such as Nasibin, Amid, took their turn as eponyms; but this would not have much significance for the people.^ The governors of several Mesopotamian cities, such as Nasibin, Amid, took their turn as eponyms; but this would not have much significance for the people.

^ Knowing what we know of the colonizing power of the Assyrians, we may assume that among the "Mitanni" and other elements in the Mesopotamian population there would now be an increase of people of "Assyrian" origin.

.Hence even the fall of Nineveh (607 B. e.^ Hence even the fall of Nineveh (607 B. e.

), apart from what such cities in .Mesopotamia as held by its last kings suffered through the invasion, first perhaps of Nabopolassar, who in 609 B.C. claims to be lord of Shubaru, and then of the Medes, would be a matter of comparative indifference; tribute paid to Babylon was just as hard to find as if it were going to Nineveh.^ Mesopotamia as held by its last kings suffered through the invasion, first perhaps of Nabopolassar, who in 609 B.C. claims to be lord of Shubaru, and then of the Medes, would be a matter of comparative indifference; tribute paid to Babylon was just as hard to find as if it were going to Nineveh.

^ When Mitanni fell Babylon no doubt adhered to its older claims on Mesopotamia; but the Kassite kings could do little to contest the advance of Assyria, although several rectifications of the boundary between their spheres are reported.

^ Ashurbanipal (668-626 BC), the last of the great Assyrian kings, subdued Elam, east of Mesopotamia, and extended the empire to its greatest size.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Necho did not succeed, like his great XVIIIth dynasty predecessor, in crossing the Euphrates.^ Necho did not succeed, like his great XVIIIth dynasty predecessor, in crossing the Euphrates.

.He was defeated by Nebuchadrezzar at Carchemish (605 B.C.), and Mesopotamia was confirmed to Babylon.^ When the father died in 605, Nebuchadrezzar was with his army in Syria; he had just crushed the Egyptians near Carchemish in a cruel, bloody battle and pursued them into the south.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was defeated by Nebuchadrezzar at Carchemish (605 B.C.), and Mesopotamia was confirmed to Babylon.

.Its troubles began again shortly after Nebuchadrezzar's death; the Medes seized Mesopotamia and besieged IIarran.^ It began as territory seized by Seleucus I in Mesopotamia from 312 BCE, and quickly expanded to include most of what is now Iran and Afghanistan.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before long, however, the overthrow of Astyages by Cyrus cleared Mesopotamia, and Nabonidus (Nabu-naid) was able, drawing on the resources of the whole of Syria for the purpose, to restore the famous temple of Sin at Harran, where a few years later he erected in memory of his mother, who seems to have been a priestess there, the stele published in 1907 by Pognon.^ When he was 10 years old, Cyrus, because of his outstanding qualities, was discovered by Astyages, who, in spite of the dream, was persuaded to allow the boy to live.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His mother, Addagoppe, was a priestess of the god Sin in Harran; she came to Babylon and managed to secure responsible offices for her son at court.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 519 BC he attacked the Scythians east of the Caspian Sea and a few years later conquered the Indus Valley.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The fragmentary nature of the records does not enable us to follow the steps by which Cyrus became master of Mesopotamia, .in which he probably met with little or no resistance.^ The fragmentary nature of the records does not enable us to follow the steps by which Cyrus became master of Mesopotamia, .in which he probably met with little or no resistance.

^ Nor does it appear with certainty to which of the twenty satrapies into which, according to Herodotus , the Persian empire was divided, Mesopotamia belonged; probably it was included in ' Abar nahara.

^ Mesopotamia would naturally share in the wide trade relations of the time, probably reaching as far as Egypt .

.'How much of Mesopotamia was involved in the revolt of what the Persian inscription calls Assyria (Athur) is not clear.^ 'How much of Mesopotamia was involved in the revolt of what the Persian inscription calls Assyria ( Athur ) is not clear.

^ How Mesopotamia was affected by the passing of Persian armies on their way to suppress revolts in Syria or Egypt, or to conquer Greece , we do not know; on the whole it probably enjoyed unwonted peace.

.Nor does it appear with certainty to which of the twenty satrapies into which, according to Herodotus, the Persian empire was divided, Mesopotamia belonged; probably it was included in 'Abar nahara. The fact is, we have no information from native sources.^ Nor does it appear with certainty to which of the twenty satrapies into which, according to Herodotus , the Persian empire was divided, Mesopotamia belonged; probably it was included in ' Abar nahara.

^ The fact is, we have no information from native sources.

^ In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah , Ishmael ; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.

.6 The probability is that conditions remained very much what they had been; except that the policy of transportation was not continued.^ The probability is that conditions remained very much what they had been; except that the policy of transportation was not continued.

^ They burned Hattusas in about 1200 B.C. Hittite city-states continued to exist for another 500 years, but they were not very powerful.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The satraps and other high officials would naturally be of Persian extraction; but local affairs were probably managed in the old way, and there was no important shift of population.^ The satraps and other high officials would naturally be of Persian extraction; but local affairs were probably managed in the old way, and there was no important shift of population.

^ Mesopotamia would naturally share in the wide trade relations of the time, probably reaching as far as Egypt .

^ It does, however, indicate the high esteem in which Cyrus was held, not only by his own people, the Persians, but by the Greeks and others.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The large Aramaic infusion had by this time been merged in the general body of the people.^ Even at the time that a large part of the population in Mesopotamia had a sedentary (non-migratory) life in settlements, large groups of people (nomads) at the same time are migrating.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.These settlers doubtless influenced the "Assyrian" language; but gradually, especially in the west, their own language more 4 S. Schiffer, Keilinschriftliche Spuren der in der zweiten Halfte des 8. Jahrhunderts von den Assyrern nach Mesopotamien deportierten Samarier (to Stamme) (1907); C. H. W. Johns in Proc.^ These settlers doubtless influenced the "Assyrian" language; but gradually, especially in the west, their own language more 4 S. Schiffer, Keilinschriftliche Spuren der in der zweiten Halfte des 8.

^ Jahrhunderts von den Assyrern nach Mesopotamien deportierten Samarier (to Stamme ) (1907); C. H. W. Johns in Proc.

^ Der Aufstieg Marduks : die Stellung Marduks in der babylonischen Religion des zweiten Jahrtausends v.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Soc. Bib. .Arch.
(March, May, 1908).^ (March, May, 1908).

.5 C. H. W. Johns, An Assyrian Doomsday Book (1901).^ C. H. W. Johns, An Assyrian Doomsday Book (1901).

e For the history from the time of Herodotus onwards, see Ritter, Erdkunde, 6-284.
.7 M. Streck, Klio, seq.^ M. Streck, Klio, seq.

and more prevailed. .Although Aramaic inscriptions of the Assyrian period, like those of Zanjirli or that of King ZKR of Hamath, have not been found in Mesopotamia, already in the time of Shalmaneser II. mention is made of an Aramaean letter (Harper, Ass.^ Although Aramaic inscriptions of the Assyrian period, like those of Zanjirli or that of King ZKR of Hamath, have not been found in Mesopotamia, already in the time of Shalmaneser II. mention is made of an Aramaean letter (Harper, Ass.

^ The most natural explanation is that Aryans had made their way into the highlands east of Assyria, and thence bands had penetrated into Mesopotamia, peacefully or otherwise, and then, like the Turks in the days of the Caliphate, founded dynasties.

^ The Tharthar (Assyrian Tartar , in Tukulti- Ninib II.'s inscription) begins in the Sinjar range and runs southwards, to lose itself in the desert a little above the latitude of Hit.

Bab. Letters,
No. 872, obv. .1.10), and Aramaic notes on cuneiform documents begin to appear.^ Aramaic notes on cuneiform documents begin to appear.

.Weights with Aramaic inscriptions (the oldest from the reign of Shalmaneser IV., 727-22) were found at Calah.^ Weights with Aramaic inscriptions (the oldest from the reign of Shalmaneser IV., 727-22) were found at Calah .

^ The details of his reign are known almost entirely from his own inscriptions and the splendid reliefs in the ruins of his palace at Calah (now Nimrud, Iraq).
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ashurnasirpal used the captives from his campaigns to rebuild the city of Calah, which had been founded by Shalmaneser I (reigned c.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.By the Achaemenian period Aramaic had become the international language, and was adopted officially.^ By the Achaemenian period Aramaic had become the international language, and was adopted officially.

.How Mesopotamia was affected by the passing of Persian armies on their way to suppress revolts in Syria or Egypt, or to conquer Greece, we do not know; on the whole it probably enjoyed unwonted peace.^ How Mesopotamia was affected by the passing of Persian armies on their way to suppress revolts in Syria or Egypt, or to conquer Greece , we do not know; on the whole it probably enjoyed unwonted peace.

^ They conquered Persia, Mesopotamia, and Syria.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor does it appear with certainty to which of the twenty satrapies into which, according to Herodotus , the Persian empire was divided, Mesopotamia belonged; probably it was included in ' Abar nahara.

.The expedition of Cyrus the Younger, with which Xenophon has made us so familar, only skirted the left bank of the Euphrates.^ The expedition of Cyrus the Younger, with which Xenophon has made us so familar, only skirted the left bank of the Euphrates.

^ All this drainage, collected into two rivers, the Belikh and the Khabur, is towards the left bank of the Euphrates, for the Mesopotamian watershed seems to be only some 15 m.

.The route followed by Alexander, though he also crossed at Thapsacus, took him unresisted across the northern parts; but the poor people of Mesopotamia suffered from the measures taken by their satrap Mazaeus to impede Alexander's progress.^ The route followed by Alexander, though he also crossed at Thapsacus, took him unresisted across the northern parts; but the poor people of Mesopotamia suffered from the measures taken by their satrap Mazaeus to impede Alexander's progress.

^ It was a change of political power, with more emphasis on the northern parts in the plains of Mesopotamia.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (I) An obvious series of routes followed the course of the rivers: from Thapsacus (Dibse) down the Euphrates, from Jeziret ibn `Omar down the Tigris, from Circesium up the Khabur.

.In spite of this, where Cyrus failed Alexander succeeded.^ In spite of this, where Cyrus failed Alexander succeeded.

.What would have happened had Alexander lived we can only guess.^ What would have happened had Alexander lived we can only guess.

.Under the Seleucids Babylon was moved across the Hellenism. plain to Seleucia; but before long the central authority was transferred to the other side of Mesopotamia, Antioch or elsewhere - a fateful move.^ Under the Seleucids Babylon was moved across the Hellenism .

^ Seleucia ; but before long the central authority was transferred to the other side of Mesopotamia, Antioch or elsewhere - a fateful move.

^ However, other scholars cite evidence which places camel domestication long before this--perhaps as early as 2000-3000 B.C. or before.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is improbable that cuneiform and the Babylonion language continued to be used in Mesopotamia during the Hellenistic period, as it did in Babylonia, where it was certainly written as late as the last century B.C.;1 and may have been a learned language till the second Christian century.^ The Hittites used the Akkadian language written in cuneiform for their international correspondence.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is improbable that cuneiform and the Babylonion language continued to be used in Mesopotamia during the Hellenistic period, as it did in Babylonia, where it was certainly written as late as the last century B.C.;1 and may have been a learned language till the second Christian century.

^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

.2 Unfortunately there are no native documents from the pre-Christian Hellenistic period.^ Unfortunately there are no native documents from the pre-Christian Hellenistic period.

^ Samsuditana (1625-1595 BC) There are no documents from his reign except for a list of year names.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.That the Hellenizing process went as far as it did in Syria is unlikely; and even there Aramaic remained the language of the people, even in the towns (cf.^ That the Hellenizing process went as far as it did in Syria is unlikely; and even there Aramaic remained the language of the people, even in the towns (cf.

^ Under Nabatheans and Palmyrenes: The Aramaic peoples became prominent again under the Nabateans and Palmyrenes, both of whom were of this stock, as their language is clearly Aramaic.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After an existence as a people for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly disappeared, and their language even is forgotten for ever.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

Edessa). .Still, Greek influence was considerable.^ Still, Greek influence was considerable.

.This would be mainly in the towns, the growth of which was quite a feature of the Macedonian rule in Mesopotamia (Pliny, vi.^ This would be mainly in the towns, the growth of which was quite a feature of the Macedonian rule in Mesopotamia (Pliny, vi.

^ The Amara from which we embark for Kut, a day's journey in a fast boat, is a large camp, and quite a town for Mesopotamia, captured from the Turks, early in the war, by sheer bluff.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

30, § 117). .3 This is seen in the Greek names which now appear: such are Seleucia opposite Samosata, Apamea (= Birejik) opposite 'Zeugma, Hierapolis (= Membij), Europos, Nicatoris, Amphipolis (= Thapsacus, or near it), Nicephorium (er-Rakka,) Zenodotium (stormed by Crassus), all on or by the Euphrates; Edessa (q.v.^ Such are Samsat (see Samosata ), Rakka (Nicephorium) above the mouth of the Belikh, Der ez-Zor, a rising town on the right bank, where there is (since 1897) a stone bridge, 'Ana (on an island; see ANA), Hit ( Is, Bab.

^ When in 638 he made another ca attempt, it is said at the entreaty of the Mesopotamian Christians, Arab forces appeared before Rakka, Edessa, Nasibin and other places, and all Mesopotamia was soon in the hands of the Arabs.

^ This is seen in the Greek names which now appear: such are Seleucia opposite Samosata, Apamea (= Birejik) opposite 'Zeugma, Hierapolis (= Membij), Europos, Nicatoris, Amphipolis (= Thapsacus, or near it), Nicephorium (er-Rakka,) Zenodotium (stormed by Crassus ), all on or by the Euphrates; Edessa (q.v.

) on the upper waters of the .Belikh, Ichnae (perhaps Khnes, above the junction of the Qaramuch with the Belikh).^ Belikh, Ichnae (perhaps Khnes, above the junction of the Qaramuch with the Belikh).

.These are all in the Osroene district; but Nasibin became an Antioch, and as its district was known as Mygdonia (from Macedon) there were doubtless many other Greek settlements.^ These are all in the Osroene district; but Nasibin became an Antioch, and as its district was known as Mygdonia (from Macedon) there were doubtless many other Greek settlements.

^ CE Garamaea Under the Parthians, Kirkuk became known as Beth-Garmai or, in Greek, Garmakan.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC my.raex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of all of these ancient mounds, Eridu is archaeologically one of the oldest settlements known in southern Mesopotamia, dating to about 4800 B.C. 62 According to ancient Mesopotamian tradition, Eridu ranks as the oldest city in the world, and it was also regarded as a sacred city.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To a less extent the same influences would be at work in towns called even by Western writers by their real names, such as Batnae, Carrhae (Charran), Rhesaena.^ To a less extent the same influences would be at work in towns called even by Western writers by their real names, such as Batnae, Carrhae (Charran), Rhesaena.

^ Since a Mitanni princess of these letters is called in Egyptian scarabs a princess of Naharin, it is clear that Mitanni and Naharin are more or less equivalent, whilst in the Amarna letters, even Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, seems to use in the same way the name Khanigalbat.

.Mesopotamia naturally had its share of suffering in the struggles that disturbed the time, when Eumenes or Seleucus traversed it or wintered there.^ Mesopotamia naturally had its share of suffering in the struggles that disturbed the time, when Eumenes or Seleucus traversed it or wintered there.

^ Mesopotamia would naturally share in the wide trade relations of the time, probably reaching as far as Egypt .

^ There was only one subject of conversation in Mesopotamia in the winter of 1918-1919, and that was the chances of getting back home.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was invaded and temporarily annexed in 245 by Ptolemy III.^ It was invaded and temporarily annexed in 245 by Ptolemy III .

.Euergetes in his rapid expedition to beyond the Tigris.^ Euergetes in his rapid expedition to beyond the Tigris.

.When Molon revolted on the accession of the youthful Antiochus III. (224 B.C.) he entered Mesopotamia from the south.^ When Molon revolted on the accession of the youthful Antiochus III. (224 B.C.) he entered Mesopotamia from the south.

.Antiochus skirted the northern highlands by way of Nasibin.^ Antiochus skirted the northern highlands by way of Nasibin.

.How far the natives of Mesopotamia shared the desire of the Greek settlers (Joseph.^ How far the natives of Mesopotamia shared the desire of the Greek settlers (Joseph.

^ Mesopotamia would naturally share in the wide trade relations of the time, probably reaching as far as Egypt .

Antiq. xiii. 5, 11, § 184-186) to help Demetrius II. .Nicator in checking the aggressions of the rising power of Parthia under Mithradates I. we do not know.^ Nicator in checking the aggressions of the rising power of Parthia under Mithradates I. we do not know.

.It was in Mesopotamia that a large part of the army of Antiochus VII. Sidetes was destroyed in 130 B.C., and the Syrian kings did not again seriously attempt to assert their rule beyond the Euphrates.^ It was in Mesopotamia that a large part of the army of Antiochus VII. Sidetes was destroyed in 130 B.C., and the Syrian kings did not again seriously attempt to assert their rule beyond the Euphrates.

^ The Euphrates drains the western part of Mesopotamia.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.

.When Phraates II. turned the Scythians against himself, however, even Mesopotamia suffered from the plunderers (Joh.^ When Phraates II. turned the Scythians against himself, however, even Mesopotamia suffered from the plunderers ( Joh.

^ The lost territory, however, was recovered by Phraates III., and Mesopotamia was guaranteed to Parthia by the treaties of Lucullus and Pompey (66 B.C.).

^ Mesopotamia naturally suffered during the time of confusion that preceded and followed the accession of Chosroes II., and the Romans recovered their old frontier (591).

.Antioch,
in Miller iv.^ Antioch, in Miller iv.

561). .The immigration of Arabs 1 Probably the latest cuneiform document of certain date is a contract of 68 B.C. (cf.^ The immigration of Arabs 1 Probably the latest cuneiform document of certain date is a contract of 68 B.C. (cf.

Klio, vi. 223 n. 3).
See G. J. F. Gutbrod, Zeitsch. f. Assyr. vi. 26-33; cf. .M. Streck, Klio, vi.^ M. Streck, Klio, vi.

^ Orient series; M. Streck, "Ober die alteste Geschichte der Aramaer" in Klio, vi.

22 3 n. 1.
.See E. R. Bevan, House of Seleucus, i.^ See E. R. Bevan, House of Seleucus, i.

219-222, and references given there.
must have been going on for long. .About this time they even founded a dynasty in Aramaean Osroene (see Edessa).^ About this time they even founded a dynasty in Aramaean Osroene (see Edessa ).

^ In times of political or economical crisis they may do so by force, but they adapt quickly to the current civilization and even to the dominant language.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time Babylonia was subject to the Kassites, an alien race of kings, and when they fell, about 1100 BC, they gave place to a number of dynasties of short duration.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under Mithradates II.^ Under Mithradates II .

.Mesopotamia was a definite part of the Parthian empire, of which the Euphrates became the western boundary; but in 92 B.C. on that river his P: o h c r ambassador met Sulla, though the long duel did not begin immediately.^ The Euphrates drains the western part of Mesopotamia.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mesopotamia was a definite part of the Parthian empire, of which the Euphrates became the western boundary; but in 92 B.C. on that river his P: o h c r ambassador met Sulla, though the long duel did not begin immediately.

^ After Shapur's cruel victories in Syria, however, he was defeated by Odaenathus , who relieved Edessa, and Mesopotamia became for ten years practically part of an Arabian Empire (see Palmmyra ), as it was to be four centuries later.

.It was perhaps a Parthian governor of Mesopotamia that was called in to help Strato of Beroea against Demetrius III.; but before long Mesopotamia (especially the district of Nisibis) was attached to the growing dominions of Armenia under its ambitious king Tigranes, perhaps with the consent of Sinatruces (Sanatruces).^ It was perhaps a Parthian governor of Mesopotamia that was called in to help Strato of Beroea against Demetrius III .; but before long Mesopotamia (especially the district of Nisibis) was attached to the growing dominions of Armenia under its ambitious king Tigranes , perhaps with the consent of Sinatruces (Sanatruces).

^ Seleucia ; but before long the central authority was transferred to the other side of Mesopotamia, Antioch or elsewhere - a fateful move.

^ However, other scholars cite evidence which places camel domestication long before this--perhaps as early as 2000-3000 B.C. or before.
  • The Garden of Eden 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lost territory, however, was recovered by Phraates III., and Mesopotamia was guaranteed to Parthia by the treaties of Lucullus and Pompey (66 B.C.).^ The lost territory, however, was recovered by Phraates III., and Mesopotamia was guaranteed to Parthia by the treaties of Lucullus and Pompey (66 B.C.).

^ When Phraates II. turned the Scythians against himself, however, even Mesopotamia suffered from the plunderers ( Joh.

.It was traversed, however, several times by Roman troops crossing from Armenia to Syria, and Parthia's declaration of war against Armenia involved it with Rome.^ It was traversed, however, several times by Roman troops crossing from Armenia to Syria, and Parthia's declaration of war against Armenia involved it with Rome .

^ Having survived all the dangers and privations of the war in Mesopotamia and Syria Edwin was sent home in a troop ship in the clothes that he wore in the desert.
  • First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries - France, Egypt, Mesopotamia 1915-1916 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.firstworldwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The affairs of Armenia continued to be the source of friction between Parthia and Rome, and Nisibis changed hands several times.

.Gabinius crossed the' Euphrates (54); but the command was assumed by Crassus, who, though he seized Ichnae, &c., and Raqqa (Rakka), fell near Carrhae (53), and the Parthian dominion was confirmed.^ The first mention of Mitanni, as we saw, is under Tethmosis III., who clearly crossed the Euphrates.

^ Gabinius crossed the' Euphrates (54); but the command was assumed by Crassus, who, though he seized Ichnae, &c., and Raqqa (Rakka), fell near Carrhae (53), and the Parthian dominion was confirmed.

^ On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.

.The tragedy of the Ides of March saved Mesopatamia and the East from a great campaign by Julius Caesar, and it was at the hands of Ventidius Bassus, and west of the Euphrates, at Gindarus (north east of Antioch), that the Parthians received the check that put an end to any real rivalry with Rome.^ Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west ( Ps.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The tragedy of the Ides of March saved Mesopatamia and the East from a great campaign by Julius Caesar, and it was at the hands of Ventidius Bassus, and west of the Euphrates, at Gindarus (north east of Antioch), that the Parthians received the check that put an end to any real rivalry with Rome.

^ On the tangled politics of this period, especially Mesopotamia's relations with the north-west, the Boghaz-Keui documents may be expected to throw a great deal of light.

.Mesopotamia narrowly escaped being the scene of the struggle when Antonius in 36 finally decided to make his disastrous attempt against Phraates IV. by way of Armenia.^ Mesopotamia narrowly escaped being the scene of the struggle when Antonius in 36 finally decided to make his disastrous attempt against Phraates IV. by way of Armenia.

^ Then Mesopotamia enjoyed two short rests (separated by a sharp struggle) while the rivals were engaged elsewhere, when in 363 Julian made his disastrous attempt, and Jovian bought peace at the price, among other things, of Singara and Nisibis - i.e.

^ When Phraates II. turned the Scythians against himself, however, even Mesopotamia suffered from the plunderers ( Joh.

.In A.D. 36, Tiridates found support in his attempt to secure the throne of Artabanus III. in Mesopatamia, and it was there that he saw his army melt away.^ In A.D. 36, Tiridates found support in his attempt to secure the throne of Artabanus III. in Mesopatamia, and it was there that he saw his army melt away.

^ During the collapse of Ur III, Ishbi-Erra established himself in Isin and founded a dynasty there that lasted from 2017 to 1794.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The affairs of Armenia continued to be the source of friction between Parthia and Rome, and Nisibis changed hands several times.^ The affairs of Armenia continued to be the source of friction between Parthia and Rome, and Nisibis changed hands several times.

^ It was traversed, however, several times by Roman troops crossing from Armenia to Syria, and Parthia's declaration of war against Armenia involved it with Rome .

.The expedition against Rome of Vologaeses I. (q.v.^ The expedition against Rome of Vologaeses I. (q.v.

) of .A.D. 62 reached no further westwards than Nisibis, and in 66 a peaceable arrangement was come to.^ A.D. 62 reached no further westwards than Nisibis, and in 66 a peaceable arrangement was come to.

^ Brown says [Pg 62] that, as no one has got any better explanation of this fire than he has, he will stick to his furnace theory.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Of the half-century that preceded Trajan's great oriental undertaking not much is known.^ Of the half-century that preceded Trajan's great oriental undertaking not much is known.

^ Again for half a century there is not much to relate.

.When in 115 Trajan entered Mesopotamia from the north no serious resistance was offered, and it became a province as far as Singara.^ When in 115 Trajan entered Mesopotamia from the north no serious resistance was offered, and it became a province as far as Singara.

^ He kept to the far north of Mesopotamia to avoid his brother Ferhan; but finally half-sedentary tribes on the Khabur and the Belikh became tributary to him, and a more or less active warfare sprang up between the brothers, which ended in a partition of Mesopotamia.

^ The fragmentary nature of the records does not enable us to follow the steps by which Cyrus became master of Mesopotamia, .in which he probably met with little or no resistance.

.The woods at Nisibis, the headquarters, provided material for the boats with which in 116 he crossed the Tigris.^ The woods at Nisibis, the headquarters, provided material for the boats with which in 116 he crossed the Tigris.

.Hatra, an interesting fortress which seems to have been Aramaean, fell, and the army advanced to Hit, where it found the fleet that was subsequently transferred to the Tigris.^ Hatra, an interesting fortress which seems to have been Aramaean, fell, and the army advanced to Hit, where it found the fleet that was subsequently transferred to the Tigris.

^ Bitumen is found at Hit, whence perhaps its name (Babylonian Id in Tukulti Ninib II.'s inscription referred to above), and near the Tigris.2 Climate.

.For the revolt that occurred while Trajan was on the Persian Gulf, in which the Jews had an important hand, Nisibis and Edessa suffered capture and destruction.^ For the revolt that occurred while Trajan was on the Persian Gulf, in which the Jews had an important hand, Nisibis and Edessa suffered capture and destruction.

.Hatra successfully withstood siege, however, and Hadrian abandoned Mesopotamia, setting the boundary at the Euphrates.^ Hatra successfully withstood siege , however, and Hadrian abandoned Mesopotamia, setting the boundary at the Euphrates.

.Again for half a century there is not much to relate.^ Again for half a century there is not much to relate.

^ Of the half-century that preceded Trajan's great oriental undertaking not much is known.

.Then, when Vologaeses, yielding to his growing discontent, took advantage of the death of Antoninus to invade Armenia the Romans were victorious (164), and after the storming of places such as Nicephorium, Edessa, Nisibis, western Mesopotamia was once more Roman as far as the Khabur, Carrhae becoming a free city and Osroene a dependency.^ Then, when Vologaeses, yielding to his growing discontent, took advantage of the death of Antoninus to invade Armenia the Romans were victorious (164), and after the storming of places such as Nicephorium, Edessa, Nisibis, western Mesopotamia was once more Roman as far as the Khabur, Carrhae becoming a free city and Osroene a dependency.

^ He kept to the far north of Mesopotamia to avoid his brother Ferhan; but finally half-sedentary tribes on the Khabur and the Belikh became tributary to him, and a more or less active warfare sprang up between the brothers, which ended in a partition of Mesopotamia.

^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

.By this time Christianity had secured a foothold, perhaps first among the Jews (see Edessa), and we enter upon the earliest period from which documents in the Edessan dialect of Aramaic, known as Syriac, have been preserved.^ By this time Christianity had secured a foothold, perhaps first among the Jews (see Edessa ), and we enter upon the earliest period from which documents in the Edessan dialect of Aramaic, known as Syriac, have been preserved.

^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

^ About this time they even founded a dynasty in Aramaean Osroene (see Edessa ).

.Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis, raising it to the rank of a colony, the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.^ Rome; but Mesopotamia was overrun, Nisibis and Carrhae being taken (233).

^ Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis , raising it to the rank of a colony , the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.

^ A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).

.On his retiring everything was undone, only Nisibis holding out; but on his reappearance in 198 the Parthians withdrew.^ On his retiring everything was undone, only Nisibis holding out; but on his reappearance in 198 the Parthians withdrew.

.Again the Euphrates bore a Roman fleet.^ Again the Euphrates bore a Roman fleet.

.Hatra, however, was besieged twice in vain.^ Hatra, however, was besieged twice in vain.

Peace then prevailed till Carcalla's unprovoked attack on Parthia in 216, after he had reduced Osroene to a province. On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.
.The power of Ardashir, the Sassanian, however, was already rising, and the Parthian Artabanus died in battle in 22 4 (or 227); and Ardashir proposed to prove himself the successor of the Achaemenidae.^ He may have died in a disastrous battle, because he was succeeded by his brother, and Lagash was never again a great power.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hatra resisted the first Persian attack as it 4 The earliest inscription in Syriac yet known dates from A.D. 77, and was found at Serrin (opposite Karat en-Najm) by von Oppenheim.^ Hatra resisted the first Persian attack as it 4 The earliest inscription in Syriac yet known dates from A.D. 77, and was found at Serrin (opposite Karat en-Najm) by von Oppenheim.

^ The earliest layer of Semitic population was the Amorite which was found in Syria when the first Babylonian empire extended its authority over the land.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On Sumerian clay tablets dated around 2900-2800 BCE found in Fara, Semitic (Akkadian) names are attested for the first time.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

had resisted .Rome; but Mesopotamia was overrun, Nisibis and Carrhae being taken (233).^ Rome; but Mesopotamia was overrun, Nisibis and Carrhae being taken (233).

^ On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.

^ When it was retrieved by a signal victory, Diocletian advanced to Nisibis and thence dictated terms of peace by which Mesopotamia to the Tigris was definitely ceded to Rome (298).

.It was immediately, indeed, recovered by Alexander Severus, and retained, whatever was the precise success of the war; but Nisibis and Period. p ?^ It was immediately, indeed, recovered by Alexander Severus , and retained, whatever was the precise success of the war; but Nisibis and Period.

.Carrhae were retaken by the Persians in the reign of Maximin.^ Carrhae were retaken by the Persians in the reign of Maximin.

.Under Gordian III. in 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I. Whatever they were, the Roman garrisons seem not to have been really withdrawn.^ Under Gordian III. in 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I. Whatever they were, the Roman garrisons seem not to have been really withdrawn.

^ The next incident is the defeat of Galerius , between Carrhae and Callinicus, where he had entered Mesopotamia (about 296), in the war provoked by Narses in consequence of his relations with Armenia.

^ A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).

.A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).^ A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).

^ Under Gordian III. in 242 Mesopotamia was entered by a great Roman army which recovered Carrhae and Nisibis, and defeated the Persians at Rhesaena; but when Gordian, after a difficult march down the Khabur, was murdered at Zaitha below Circesium, Philip the Arabian (244) made the best terms he could with Shapur I. Whatever they were, the Roman garrisons seem not to have been really withdrawn.

^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

.After Shapur's cruel victories in Syria, however, he was defeated by Odaenathus, who relieved Edessa, and Mesopotamia became for ten years practically part of an Arabian Empire (see Palmmyra), as it was to be four centuries later.^ After Shapur's cruel victories in Syria, however, he was defeated by Odaenathus , who relieved Edessa, and Mesopotamia became for ten years practically part of an Arabian Empire (see Palmmyra ), as it was to be four centuries later.

^ Two of his sons became involved in a quarrel with the government, in consequence of which for years all Mesopotamia was in danger, till the second was put to death in 1868, and Ferhan, the eldest son, a peaceable man who had been made pasha, became supreme.

^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

.In consequence of the revolt of Zenobia Mesopotamia was lost to Rome, and the Euphrates became the frontier.^ In consequence of the revolt of Zenobia Mesopotamia was lost to Rome, and the Euphrates became the frontier.

.Aurelian overthrew the Palmyran rule; but he was assassinated before he could carry out his intended expedition against Persia, Probus was assassinated before he was able to do anything (or much), and although Carus easily overran Mesopotamia, which became Roman again, and even took Ctesiphon, the Romans retreated on his death (283-4).^ Aurelian overthrew the Palmyran rule; but he was assassinated before he could carry out his intended expedition against Persia, Probus was assassinated before he was able to do anything (or much), and although Carus easily overran Mesopotamia, which became Roman again, and even took Ctesiphon , the Romans retreated on his death (283-4).

^ On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.

^ In 672 Esarhaddon had proclaimed detailed instructions for the succession of two of his sons to the thrones of Assyria and Babylonia, and at his death the successions were carried out smoothly.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The next incident is the defeat of Galerius, between Carrhae and Callinicus, where he had entered Mesopotamia (about 296), in the war provoked by Narses in consequence of his relations with Armenia.^ The next incident is the defeat of Galerius , between Carrhae and Callinicus, where he had entered Mesopotamia (about 296), in the war provoked by Narses in consequence of his relations with Armenia.

^ They began to control the area about 1900 B.C. During the next several hundred years, they conquered parts of Mesopotamia and Syria.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.When it was retrieved by a signal victory, Diocletian advanced to Nisibis and thence dictated terms of peace by which Mesopotamia to the Tigris was definitely ceded to Rome (298).^ When it was retrieved by a signal victory, Diocletian advanced to Nisibis and thence dictated terms of peace by which Mesopotamia to the Tigris was definitely ceded to Rome (298).

^ On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.

^ First, some definitions: Mesopotamia, in general, refers to the area of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

.One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa: § Sassanian Period).^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

^ After Shapur's cruel victories in Syria, however, he was defeated by Odaenathus , who relieved Edessa, and Mesopotamia became for ten years practically part of an Arabian Empire (see Palmmyra ), as it was to be four centuries later.

^ For the later periods see PERSIA: History; HELLENISM; ROME: History; PARTHIA; SYRIAC LITERATURE; CALIPHATE and authorities there given.

.At the Nicene Council there were bishops from Nisibis (Jacob), Rhesaena, Macedonopolis (on the Euphrates, west of Edessa), and Persia (Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii. 146; see generally 142-152).^ At the Nicene Council there were bishops from Nisibis (Jacob), Rhesaena, Macedonopolis (on the Euphrates, west of Edessa), and Persia (Harnack, Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii.

^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

^ Matters were still more complicated when the Western Christians of Edessa found themselves unable to accept the ruling of Chalcedon against Monophysitism in 451 (see Monophysites ), and there came to be three parties: Nestorians (q.v.

.After a forty years' peace the struggle was resumed by Shapur II. Nisibis thrice endured unsuccessful siege (33 8, 346, 35 o), although meanwhile Constantine had suffered defeat at Singara (348).^ After a forty years' peace the struggle was resumed by Shapur II. Nisibis thrice endured unsuccessful siege (33 8, 346, 35 o), although meanwhile Constantine had suffered defeat at Singara (348).

^ The peace begun by Chosroes I. (532) was not long kept, and Roman Mesopotamia, except the pagan Harran, suffered severely (540), Edessa undergoing a trying siege (544) The fifty years' peace also (562) was short lived; the Romans again failed in an attempt to recover Nisibis (573), whilst Chosroes' siege of Dara was successful.

^ Then Mesopotamia enjoyed two short rests (separated by a sharp struggle) while the rivals were engaged elsewhere, when in 363 Julian made his disastrous attempt, and Jovian bought peace at the price, among other things, of Singara and Nisibis - i.e.

Then Mesopotamia enjoyed two short rests (separated by a sharp struggle) while the rivals were engaged elsewhere, when in 363 Julian made his disastrous attempt, and Jovian bought peace at the price, among other things, of Singara and Nisibis - i.e. practically all eastern Mesopotamia.
.The surrender of Nisibis, which had been in the possession of Rome for so many generations, caused consternation among the Christians, and Ephraem (q.v.^ The surrender of Nisibis, which had been in the possession of Rome for so many generations, caused consternation among the Christians, and Ephraem (q.v.

) moved to .Edessa, where his "school of the Persians" soon became famous (see Edessa).^ Edessa, where his "school of the Persians" soon became famous (see Edessa ).

.In the war of 421, in which the north-east of Mesopotamia was chiefly concerned, the Romans failed to take Nisibis, and it became a natural rallying point for the Nestorians after the decision of Ephesus (431).^ In the war of 421, in which the north-east of Mesopotamia was chiefly concerned, the Romans failed to take Nisibis, and it became a natural rallying point for the Nestorians after the decision of Ephesus (431).

^ A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).

^ On his assassination near Carrhae (217), Macrinus was defeated at Nisibis and had to purchase peace, though he retained Roman Mesopotamia, reinstating the princely house in Osroene.

.Matters were still more complicated when the Western Christians of Edessa found themselves unable to accept the ruling of Chalcedon against Monophysitism in 451 (see Monophysites), and there came to be three parties: Nestorians (q.v.^ Matters were still more complicated when the Western Christians of Edessa found themselves unable to accept the ruling of Chalcedon against Monophysitism in 451 (see Monophysites ), and there came to be three parties: Nestorians (q.v.

^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

), .Jacobites (see Jacobite Church) and Melchites.^ Jacobites (see Jacobite Church ) and Melchites .

.In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

^ After Shapur's cruel victories in Syria, however, he was defeated by Odaenathus , who relieved Edessa, and Mesopotamia became for ten years practically part of an Arabian Empire (see Palmmyra ), as it was to be four centuries later.

.The Persian invasion of Syria under Kavadh I. (q.v.^ The Persian invasion of Syria under Kavadh I. (q.v.

) was driven back by .Belisarius; but the latter was defeated in his pursuit at Rakka (531).^ Belisarius ; but the latter was defeated in his pursuit at Rakka (531).

.The peace begun by Chosroes I. (532) was not long kept, and Roman Mesopotamia, except the pagan Harran, suffered severely (540), Edessa undergoing a trying siege (544) The fifty years' peace also (562) was short lived; the Romans again failed in an attempt to recover Nisibis (573), whilst Chosroes' siege of Dara was successful.^ The peace begun by Chosroes I. (532) was not long kept, and Roman Mesopotamia, except the pagan Harran, suffered severely (540), Edessa undergoing a trying siege (544) The fifty years' peace also (562) was short lived; the Romans again failed in an attempt to recover Nisibis (573), whilst Chosroes' siege of Dara was successful.

^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

^ A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).

.Mesopotamia naturally suffered during the time of confusion that preceded and followed the accession of Chosroes II., and the Romans recovered their old frontier (591).^ Mesopotamia naturally suffered during the time of confusion that preceded and followed the accession of Chosroes II., and the Romans recovered their old frontier (591).

^ In the confusion that followed, when men of letters had to live and work in exile, Nisibis set up for a time (631-632) a grandson of Chosroes II. Finally all agreed on Yazdegerd III.; but, while Chosroes II. and Heraclius had been at death grips with each other a great invasion had been preparing in Arabia.

^ The peace begun by Chosroes I. (532) was not long kept, and Roman Mesopotamia, except the pagan Harran, suffered severely (540), Edessa undergoing a trying siege (544) The fifty years' peace also (562) was short lived; the Romans again failed in an attempt to recover Nisibis (573), whilst Chosroes' siege of Dara was successful.

.With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms.^ With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms.

^ Kings 11:23-25 ) On the separation of the two kingdoms, soon after the accession of Rehoboam, the remainder of Syria no doubt shook off the yoke.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege (c. 605); Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.^ Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.

^ The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege ( c.

^ A rest for Mesopotamia seems to have followed; but in 258 Shapur, tempted by the troubles in the Roman empire, overran the country taking Nisibis and Carrhae, and investing Edessa, and .vhen Valerian invaded Mesopotamia he was eventually made prisoner, by Edessa (260).

.Finally Heraclius turned the tide, and Kavadh II. restored the conquests of his predecessor.^ Finally Heraclius turned the tide , and Kavadh II. restored the conquests of his predecessor.

.The Syrian Christians, however, found that they had only exchanged the domination of a Zoroastrian monarch for an unsympathetic ecclesiastical despotism.^ The Syrian Christians, however, found that they had only exchanged the domination of a Zoroastrian monarch for an unsympathetic ecclesiastical despotism.

.In the confusion that followed, when men of letters had to live and work in exile, Nisibis set up for a time (631-632) a grandson of Chosroes II. Finally all agreed on Yazdegerd III.; but, while Chosroes II. and Heraclius had been at death grips with each other a great invasion had been preparing in Arabia.^ In the confusion that followed, when men of letters had to live and work in exile, Nisibis set up for a time (631-632) a grandson of Chosroes II. Finally all agreed on Yazdegerd III.; but, while Chosroes II. and Heraclius had been at death grips with each other a great invasion had been preparing in Arabia.

^ One of Sufug's widows had fled to her Tai kindred in Central Arabia with her youngest son Faris; but when he grew up she brought him back in the seventies, and he immediately attracted a great following.

^ An ancient prophecy foretells that the great river Euphrates shall be dried up that the way of the kings of the East shall be prepared.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Arab tribes in Mesopotamia were Christian, and Heraclius at Edessa hoped for their support; but Karkisiya and Hit succumbed (636), and then Tekrit; and Heraclius retired to Samosata.^ The Arab tribes in Mesopotamia were Christian, and Heraclius at Edessa hoped for their support; but Karkisiya and Hit succumbed (636), and then Tekrit; and Heraclius retired to Samosata.

^ When in 638 he made another ca attempt, it is said at the entreaty of the Mesopotamian Christians, Arab forces appeared before Rakka, Edessa, Nasibin and other places, and all Mesopotamia was soon in the hands of the Arabs.

.When in 638 he made another ca attempt, it is said at the entreaty of the Mesopotamian Christians, Arab forces appeared before Rakka, Edessa, Nasibin and other places, and all Mesopotamia was soon in the hands of the Arabs.^ When in 638 he made another ca attempt, it is said at the entreaty of the Mesopotamian Christians, Arab forces appeared before Rakka, Edessa, Nasibin and other places, and all Mesopotamia was soon in the hands of the Arabs.

^ Then Mesopotamia enjoyed two short rests (separated by a sharp struggle) while the rivals were engaged elsewhere, when in 363 Julian made his disastrous attempt, and Jovian bought peace at the price, among other things, of Singara and Nisibis - i.e.

^ By1185-1186 Saladin had made Egypt supreme over all these principalities, thus achieving what the XVIIIth and XIXth Egyptian dynasties had attempted in vain.

Henceforth it looked to Damascus and to Kufa and Basra, instead of to Constantinople or Ctesiphon. .The new regime brought welcome relief to the Christian part of the population, for the Arabs took no note of their orthodoxies or heterodoxies.^ The new regime brought welcome relief to the Christian part of the population, for the Arabs took no note of their orthodoxies or heterodoxies.

.(Moawiya is said to have rebuilt the dome of the great church at Edessa after an earthquake in 678.) Fortunately for Mesopotamia the seats of the factions which immediately broke the peace of Islam were elsewhere; but it could not escape the fate of its geographical position.^ (Moawiya is said to have rebuilt the dome of the great church at Edessa after an earthquake in 678.

^ Fortunately for Mesopotamia the seats of the factions which immediately broke the peace of Islam were elsewhere; but it could not escape the fate of its geographical position.

^ Seleucia ; but before long the central authority was transferred to the other side of Mesopotamia, Antioch or elsewhere - a fateful move.

.The men of Rak k a were compelled to help `Ali, after his march across Mesopotamia from near Mosul, in getting a bridge made at Rakka to convey his men to Siffin.^ The men of Rak k a were compelled to help ` Ali , after his march across Mesopotamia from near Mosul, in getting a bridge made at Rakka to convey his men to Siffin.

.Not long afterwards there was a new excitement in Moawiya's incursion across to the Tigris.^ Not long afterwards there was a new excitement in Moawiya's incursion across to the Tigris.

.Tie discontent under Yazid III. was keen in Mesopotamia, where M erwan in fact got a footing, and when the troubles increased after he became caliph he abandoned Damascus in favour of his seat at Harran.^ Tie discontent under Yazid III. was keen in Mesopotamia, where M erwan in fact got a footing, and when the troubles increased after he became caliph he abandoned Damascus in favour of his seat at Harran.

^ Damascus became at length the capital of the several smaller kingdoms comprehended under the designation "Aram" or "Syria."
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.His son was besieged by Dahhak and his Kharijites and Saffarids in Nasibin; but a fierce battle at Mardin ended in Merwan's favour (745).^ His son was besieged by Dahhak and his Kharijites and Saffarids in Nasibin; but a fierce battle at Mardin ended in Merwan's favour (745).

^ It was next besieged by al-Mansur's brother; but the battle between the brothers was fought at Nasibin.

.The cruelties that accompanied the overthrow of the Omayyad dynasty excited a revolt, which spread to Mesopotamia, and Harran had to undergo a siege by one of Merwan's generals.^ The cruelties that accompanied the overthrow of the Omayyad dynasty excited a revolt, which spread to Mesopotamia, and Harran had to undergo a siege by one of Merwan's generals.

^ Therefor Sîn is one of the more important general deities in Mesopotamia.
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]
  • Mesopotamia (geography, climate, people, religion, trade,Assyriology and Archeology) 17 September 2009 0:42 UTC www.sron.nl [Source type: Original source]

.It was next besieged by al-Mansur's brother; but the battle between the brothers was fought at Nasibin.^ It was next besieged by al-Mansur's brother; but the battle between the brothers was fought at Nasibin.

.It was decisive, but there were further risings, involving Mesopotamia.'^ It was decisive, but there were further risings, involving Mesopotamia.'

.An inevitable effect of the reign of Islam had been that the kindred language of the Arabs gradually killed the vernacular Syriac of Mesopotamia (see Edessa) as the alien Greek and Persian had shown no tendency to do, and the classical period (4th to 8th centuries) of the only Mesopotamian literature we know, such as it is, useful but uninviting, came to an end (see Syriac Literature).^ An inevitable effect of the reign of Islam had been that the kindred language of the Arabs gradually killed the vernacular Syriac of Mesopotamia (see Edessa ) as the alien Greek and Persian had shown no tendency to do, and the classical period (4th to 8th centuries) of the only Mesopotamian literature we know, such as it is, useful but uninviting, came to an end (see Syriac Literature ).

^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

^ In the beginning of the 6th century there was another severe struggle in Mesopotamia, which found an anonymous Syriac historian (see Edessa ), and in infringement of agreement the Romans strongly fortified Dara against Nisibis.

.This naturally encouraged grammatical study.^ This naturally encouraged grammatical study.

.Among the Aramaic-speaking people the revolution which displaced the Arabian court of Damascus in favour of a cosmopolitan world centred at the Babylonian seat of the civilizations dealt with in the preceding paragraphs naturally gave an impulse to the wider scholarship.^ Among the Aramaic-speaking people the revolution which displaced the Arabian court of Damascus in favour of a cosmopolitan world centred at the Babylonian seat of the civilizations dealt with in the preceding paragraphs naturally gave an impulse to the wider scholarship.

^ Bible People and Places: A Guide to Who's Who and Key Locations in the Bible By World Publishing Do you know the difference between Damascus and Damaris?
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Translations were made from Greek, as, e.g. by Thabit b.^ Translations were made from Greek, as, e.g.

Qurra of Harran (d. 901), and from Pahlavi.
.Mansur built a castle at Rafiqa opposite Rakka to control the country round, and his son Harun al-Rashid actually resided during most of his reign, not at Bagdad but at Rakka, where two generations later al-Battani of Harran was making the astronomical observations on which his tables were based (see Albategnius) Abu Qurra, bishop of Harran, and acquaintance of the caliph Ma'mun, who was one of the earlier Aramaean Christians to use Arabic, has been thought to have contributed to the influences For this and following section see further Caliphate and Persia: History. that developed the Mu`tazilite (Motazilite) sect.^ Mansur built a castle at Rafiqa opposite Rakka to control the country round, and his son Harun al-Rashid actually resided during most of his reign, not at Bagdad but at Rakka, where two generations later al-Battani of Harran was making the astronomical observations on which his tables were based (see Albategnius ) Abu Qurra, bishop of Harran, and acquaintance of the caliph Ma'mun , who was one of the earlier Aramaean Christians to use Arabic, has been thought to have contributed to the influences For this and following section see further Caliphate and Persia : History.

^ At the beginning of his reign most of the south of Mesopotamia (Sumer) was under control by Lugalzaggesi.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some generations later Aram-Naharim is used of the district including Pethor, a town on the west bank of the Euphrates' (Deut.

.Nasibin was the scene of another revolt (793) under a Kharijite leader.^ Nasibin was the scene of another revolt (793) under a Kharijite leader.

.Harun's son Motasim displeased the people by creating a bodyguard of Turks, and therefore transferred his seat to Samarra.^ Harun's son Motasim displeased the people by creating a bodyguard of Turks, and therefore transferred his seat to Samarra.

.This put the caliphs fatally at the mercy of their guards.^ This put the caliphs fatally at the mercy of their guards.

.Mesopotamia fell partly under the power of Ahmad ibn Tulun of Egypt and his son; but before the end of the 9th century the Hamdanids, descendants of the Arab tribe of Taghlib,.^ Mesopotamia fell partly under the power of Ahmad ibn Tulun of Egypt and his son; but before the end of the 9th century the Hamdanids, descendants of the Arab tribe of Taghlib,.

^ Mesopotamia fell to one of his sons, Saif ad-Din, and branches sprang up at Sinjar and Jezira.

^ The Arab tribes in Mesopotamia were Christian, and Heraclius at Edessa hoped for their support; but Karkisiya and Hit succumbed (636), and then Tekrit; and Heraclius retired to Samosata.

were in possession of .Mardin, and in 919 one of them was governor of Diar Rabi`a.^ Mardin, and in 919 one of them was governor of Diar Rabi`a.

.Later the brothers Nasir ad-Daula and Saif ad-Daula ruled over Mesopotamia and North Syria respectively.^ Later the brothers Nasir ad-Daula and Saif ad-Daula ruled over Mesopotamia and North Syria respectively.

^ He subjected Syria and Palestine to his rule, and later (729 or 728) he merged the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylonia.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mesopotamia fell to one of his sons, Saif ad-Din, and branches sprang up at Sinjar and Jezira.

.Meanhwile the caliph Mottaqi appeared as a fugitive at Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka (944).^ Meanhwile the caliph Mottaqi appeared as a fugitive at Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka (944).

^ The Hamdanids were followed by the `Ogaylids, who had their seats at various places, such as Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka, Harran, between 996 and 1096.

.The Hamdanids were followed by the `Ogaylids, who had their seats at various places, such as Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka, Harran, between 996 and 1096. By 1055 the Seljuks had taken the caliph under their charge.^ The Hamdanids were followed by the `Ogaylids, who had their seats at various places, such as Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka, Harran, between 996 and 1096.

^ By 1055 the Seljuks had taken the caliph under their charge.

^ Tie discontent under Yazid III. was keen in Mesopotamia, where M erwan in fact got a footing, and when the troubles increased after he became caliph he abandoned Damascus in favour of his seat at Harran.

.They arrived at Jerusalem in 1076, the first crusaders reached Asia in 1097, and Bit Adini became the countship of Edessa (q.v.^ They arrived at Jerusalem in 1076, the first crusaders reached Asia in 1097, and Bit Adini became the countship of Edessa (q.v.

). .The power of the Seljuks quickly disintegrated.^ The power of the Seljuks quickly disintegrated.

.The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144. Mesopotamia fell to one of his sons, Saif ad-Din, and branches sprang up at Sinjar and Jezira.^ Mesopotamia fell to one of his sons, Saif ad-Din, and branches sprang up at Sinjar and Jezira.

^ The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan , Zangi, governor of ` Irak , made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.

^ One result of the connexion with Rome was, naturally, that Mesopotamia came within the range of the Decian, and later the Diocletian persecutions (see Edessa : § Sassanian Period).

.To the same period belong other Atabeg dynasties; Begtiginids at Harran, Tekrit, &c.; Ortokids at Edessa, 'Ana, &c., with Mardin as their headquarters.^ To the same period belong other Atabeg dynasties; Begtiginids at Harran, Tekrit, &c.; Ortokids at Edessa, 'Ana, &c., with Mardin as their headquarters.

.By1185-1186Saladin had made Egypt supreme over all these principalities, thus achieving what the XVIIIth and XIXth Egyptian dynasties had attempted in vain.^ By1185-1186 Saladin had made Egypt supreme over all these principalities, thus achieving what the XVIIIth and XIXth Egyptian dynasties had attempted in vain.

.Mesopotamia remained in the hands of the Ayyubite family till the appearance of the Mongols.^ Mesopotamia remained in the hands of the Ayyubite family till the appearance of the Mongols .

.The petty principalities were unable to unite to resist the terrible attack, and Jezira, Edessa, Nasibin, Maridin, &c., fell in 1259-60. The leading men of Harran emigrated into Syria, the rest were carried into slavery, and the ancient town was laid in ruins.^ The leading men of Harran emigrated into Syria, the rest were carried into slavery , and the ancient town was laid in ruins.

^ The petty principalities were unable to unite to resist the terrible attack, and Jezira, Edessa, Nasibin, Maridin, &c., fell in 1259-60.

^ Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.

.It was the Mamluk rulers of Egypt that checked the death-bringing flood.^ It was the Mamluk rulers of Egypt that checked the death-bringing flood.

.Near Bira was the scene of one of their victories (in 1273), and their authority extended to Karkisiya.^ Near Bira was the scene of one of their victories (in 1273), and their authority extended to Karkisiya.

.The Ortokid dynasty survived the Mongol inundation, and it was in the 14th century that its laureate Safiy ad-Din al-Hilli flourished.^ The Ortokid dynasty survived the Mongol inundation, and it was in the 14th century that its laureate Safiy ad-Din al-Hilli flourished.

.From the Mongol invasions of the 13th century western Asia has never recovered.^ From the Mongol invasions of the 13th century western Asia has never recovered.

^ This was to be expected from the known prevalence of Babylonian culture throughout Western Asia for centuries.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Palmyrenes did not come into prominence until the 3rd century AD, but became, for a short time, the leading power in Western Asia.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then, before the next century was out, came the invasion of Timur (1393-94).^ Then, before the next century was out, came the invasion of Timur (1393-94).

The Ortokids were followed by the Karakuyunli. .In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah, Ishmael; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.^ In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah , Ishmael ; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.

^ Nor does it appear with certainty to which of the twenty satrapies into which, according to Herodotus , the Persian empire was divided, Mesopotamia belonged; probably it was included in ' Abar nahara.

^ Now that Mesopotamia had passed out of the hands of Babylon, all that the later kings could do was to encourage local Mesopotamian rulers in their desire for independence (Nabuapluiddin).

.The inroad of the Persians in the 17th century was confined to the south.^ The inroad of the Persians in the 17th century was confined to the south.

.Since Mesopotamia finally came into the power of the Ottoman sultans considerable changes in the population have occurred.^ By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC we find considerable change in the population.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He finally succeeded in turning the northern area, with its Hurrian, Subartian, and Assyrian populations into a province in 2051 after twenty years of war.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.About that time parts of a confederation of tribes which had taken the name of Shammar from a moun tain in their neighbourhood, moved northwards from Central Arabia in search of better pasture, &c.^ About that time parts of a confederation of tribes which had taken the name of Shammar from a moun tain in their neighbourhood, moved northwards from Central Arabia in search of better pasture, &c.

^ The Shammar have been in undisputed mastery from Urfa to the neighbourhood of Bagdad, practically all tribes paying khuwwa to them, and even the towns, till the government garrisoned them.

^ It is an open question as to whether Ram should be taken as a purely fictitious name, invented by the author of the Elihu speeches, or whether it is that of some obscure Arab tribe.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Successfully displacing their forerunners, they made themselves at home in the Syrian steppe - until their possession was in turn disputed by a later emigrant from Arabia, for whom they finally made room by moving on into Mesopotamia, over which they spread, driving before them their predecessors the Tai (whose name the Mesopotamian Aramaeans had adopted as a designation for Arab in general), partly north of the Sinjar, partly over the Tigris.^ Arabs designated Mesopotamia as an island.

^ Successfully displacing their forerunners, they made themselves at home in the Syrian steppe - until their possession was in turn disputed by a later emigrant from Arabia, for whom they finally made room by moving on into Mesopotamia, over which they spread, driving before them their predecessors the Tai (whose name the Mesopotamian Aramaeans had adopted as a designation for Arab in general), partly north of the Sinjar, partly over the Tigris.

^ Assyria, was the northern portion of Mesopotamia, who's capital was Ashur (until 883 BCE, when it was moved to Calah/Nimrud) and whose reach included the major city of Nineveh (Ninua).
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

.Others they forced to abandon the nomadic life, and settle by the Khabur (e.g.^ In 513, after subduing eastern Thrace and the Getae, he crossed the Danube River into European Scythia, but the Scythian nomads devastated the country as they retreated from him, and he was forced, for lack of supplies, to abandon the campaign.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

the Jebur) or the Euphrates. .These adjustments, it is supposed, had been effected by 170o.^ These adjustments, it is supposed, had been effected by 170o.

.In 1831 `Ali, a newly appointed Turkish governor of Bagdad, induced Sufug the chief of the Jerba, the more important division of the Shammar, to help him to dislodge his predecessor, Mild, who would not vacate his position, but then refused them the promised payment.^ In 1831 `Ali, a newly appointed Turkish governor of Bagdad, induced Sufug the chief of the Jerba , the more important division of the Shammar, to help him to dislodge his predecessor, Mild, who would not vacate his position, but then refused them the promised payment.

^ Judea occupied a peculiar position; a special procurator was therefore appointed to rule it, who was subordinate to the governor of Syria, but within his own province had the power of a legatus.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he was a younger son, Esarhaddon had already been proclaimed successor to the throne by his father, Sennacherib , who had appointed him governor of Babylon some time after Sennacherib sacked that city in 689.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

To defend himself from the enraged Shammar `Ali summoned the `Anaza from across the Euphrates. .Having also succeeded in detaching part of the Shammar under Shlosh, he told the `Anaza he no longer needed their help.^ Having also succeeded in detaching part of the Shammar under Shlosh, he told the `Anaza he no longer needed their help.

^ In the futile attempt of the three parties to dislodge the `Anaza Shlosh lost his life; but with the help of the Zubeid the other two succeeded, and Sufug was now supreme "King of the Steppe," levying blackmail as he pleased.

^ The year of a release date is no longer part of the directory path.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the futile attempt of the three parties to dislodge the `Anaza Shlosh lost his life; but with the help of the Zubeid the other two succeeded, and Sufug was now supreme "King of the Steppe," levying blackmail as he pleased.^ A tailor, whose technical training would help him to penetrate the disguise of thick slime, might have been able to recognize by the cut of their clothes that the first of the three figures was an R.A.F. driver and the other two were naval officers.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He had two sons, one of whom, Cambyses , succeeded him; the other, Bardiya ( Smerdis of the Greeks), was probably secretly put to death by Cambyses after he became ruler.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Eannatum was now recognized as supreme King and took the title of King of Kish.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

Other methods of disposing of him having failed, the Porte made his nephew a rival sheikh; but he basely assassinated him. Siff-fig then suffered the same fate himself at the hands of the pasha, but has since become a hero. .Two of his sons became involved in a quarrel with the government, in consequence of which for years all Mesopotamia was in danger, till the second was put to death in 1868, and Ferhan, the eldest son, a peaceable man who had been made pasha, became supreme.^ He put blood and bones together as and made early man to bear the work of the gods, as in Atrahasis.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Having survived all the dangers and privations of the war in Mesopotamia and Syria Edwin was sent home in a troop ship in the clothes that he wore in the desert.
  • First World War.com - Memoirs & Diaries - France, Egypt, Mesopotamia 1915-1916 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.firstworldwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is a rash man who would prophesy concerning the future of Mesopotamia as far as our empire is concerned.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of Sufug's widows had fled to her Tai kindred in Central Arabia with her youngest son Faris; but when he grew up she brought him back in the seventies, and he immediately attracted a great following.^ After Gilgamesh cleans himself up, following his defeat of Humbaba , she asks him to be her lover and husband, and offers him many gifts and the homage of earthly rulers and kingdoms.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Keep in mind that both this atlas and the one immediately following concern all of archaeology, not just that which relates to a biblical text.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The widow of an Egyptian pharaoh, probably Tutankhamen, asked the Hittite emperor to send one of his sons to be her husband and pharaoh of Egypt.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He kept to the far north of Mesopotamia to avoid his brother Ferhan; but finally half-sedentary tribes on the Khabur and the Belikh became tributary to him, and a more or less active warfare sprang up between the brothers, which ended in a partition of Mesopotamia.^ He kept to the far north of Mesopotamia to avoid his brother Ferhan; but finally half-sedentary tribes on the Khabur and the Belikh became tributary to him, and a more or less active warfare sprang up between the brothers, which ended in a partition of Mesopotamia.

^ In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.

^ Mesopotamia fell to one of his sons, Saif ad-Din, and branches sprang up at Sinjar and Jezira.

Ferhan and the South Shammar claimed the steppe south-east of a line from Mosul to Mayadin (just below Karl isiya), and Faris and the North Shammar the north-west. .Since Ferhan's death the Porte has favoured one after another of his many sons, hoping to keep the South Shammar disunited, especially as they are more than the others.^ Since Ferhan's death the Porte has favoured one after another of his many sons, hoping to keep the South Shammar disunited, especially as they are more than the others.

^ More than 15 centuries after its fall, the Roman Empire remains one of the most formative influences on the history of Europe.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The entries are subdivided and defined when words have more than one meaning.
  • DeeperStudy Bookstore: Bible Study Reference Books 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC deeperstudy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Shammar have been in undisputed mastery from Urfa to the neighbourhood of Bagdad, practically all tribes paying khuwwa to them, and even the towns, till the government garrisoned them.^ The Shammar have been in undisputed mastery from Urfa to the neighbourhood of Bagdad, practically all tribes paying khuwwa to them, and even the towns, till the government garrisoned them.

^ Urfa is a town of J5,000; Mosul, 61,000, Bagdad, 145,000.

.Some 60 of these more or less nomadic communities, of one or two thousand tents (or houses) each, representing a population of several hundred thousands are described by Oppenheim.^ Some 60 of these more or less nomadic communities, of one or two thousand tents (or houses) each, representing a population of several hundred thousands are described by Oppenheim.

^ These craft are propelled by two men standing one at each end like gondoliers and punting the boat along by poles.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is to be supposed that the type of ship that has survived in the East to the present day, like the mahaila and the goufa, is very much unchanged like everything else, and tells us faithfully what sort of ships there were in these waters some two thousand years ago or more.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each has its recognized camping ground, usually one for summer and another for winter.^ Each has its recognized camping ground, usually one for summer and another for winter.

.Most of them are Arab and Mahommedan.^ Most of them are Arab and Mahommedan.

Some are Christian and some are not Arab: viz. .Kurds, Turkomans or Circassians.^ Kurds, Turkomans or Circassians.

.For some years the Porte has been applying steady pressure on the nomads to induce them to settle, by increasing the number of military posts, by introducing Circassian colonies, as at Ras al-`Ain, sometimes by forcible settlement.^ For some years the Porte has been applying steady pressure on the nomads to induce them to settle, by increasing the number of military posts, by introducing Circassian colonies, as at Ras al-`Ain, sometimes by forcible settlement.

^ Ras al-`Ain in the northwest, after flowing 50 m.

^ The same is doubtless true of the route from Osroene by Ras al-`Ain and Nasibin, and that by Veranshehr and Mardin to the Tigris.

.More land is thus being brought under cultivation, the disturbing elements are being slowly brought under control, and life and property are becoming more secure.^ Thus, the approaches to Greece were in Persian hands, as was control of the Black Sea grain trade through the straits, the latter being of major importance to the Greek economy.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She was kept in Egalgina and brought forth by Namtar after being sprinkled with the water of life, and after 'His appearance is bright' has been cursed.
  • The Assyro-Babylonian Mythology FAQ 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The conquests of Cyrus brought it wholly under the Persian yoke; and thus it continued to the time of Alexander.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

Security is what the country chiefly needs. Hence its primary interest in the railway scheme, with a view to agricultural development and perhaps the growth of cotton; Sir W. Willcocks' irrigation schemes had not up to 1910 affected "Mesopotamia" directly. Apparently the real problem is one of population adequate to effect the improvements demanded. .The new regime introduced in 1908 seems to justify a hopeful attitude.^ The new regime introduced in 1908 seems to justify a hopeful attitude.

.Apart from the disturbing effects of recent events in Persia, an exposition of present conditions would show progress.^ Apart from the disturbing effects of recent events in Persia, an exposition of present conditions would show progress.

.Exact statistics are not available because the vilayet of Mo ul (35,130 sq.^ Exact statistics are not available because the vilayet of Mo ul (35,130 sq.

m., 351, 200 pop.) takes in on the east territory with which we are not concerned, and omits the .Osroene district, which goes with Aleppo.^ Osroene district, which goes with Aleppo .

.Urfa is a town of J5,000; Mosul, 61,000, Bagdad, 145,000. The exports of Mosul for 1908 were (in thousands of pounds sterling): United Kingdom 195, India 42, other countries 52, parts of Turkey 218; the imports: United Kingdom 56, India 16, other countries 35, parts of Turkey 24. The language is in most parts Arabic; but Turkish is spoken in Birejik and Urfa, Kurdish and Armenian south of Diarbekr, and some Syriac in Tar `Abdin.^ Some of the tribes brought in by the Assyrians may have been non-Semitic, but most of them were evidently of cognate race ( 2 Ki 17:24 ), and the racial characteristics of the Syrians were not changed.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The crew proceed back by road to Diarbekr or some up-river town to bring down another raft.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are Christian missionary institutions of European origin in various places, such as Urfa, Mardin, Mosul.^ There are Christian missionary institutions of European origin in various places, such as Urfa, Mardin, Mosul.

^ Some of the stones of this road are in their original [Pg 63] places, and there are pieces of brick pavement, each bearing cuneiform characters.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hamdanids were followed by the `Ogaylids, who had their seats at various places, such as Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka, Harran, between 996 and 1096.

An interesting survival of early faiths is to be found in the Yezidis of the Sinjar district.
.Authorities - Land and People: full references to Greek, Latin,.^ Authorities - Land and People: full references to Greek, Latin,.

Arabic and other writers are given in Ritter, Erdkunde x. 6-284, 921-1149; xi. .247-510, 660-762; for the conditions since the Arab conquest, Guy le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (1905), chiefly pp.^ Arab conquest, Guy le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (1905), chiefly pp.

86-114, is especially useful. .Of recent works the following are valuable: E. Sachau, Reise in Syrien u.^ Of recent works the following are valuable: E. Sachau, Reise in Syrien u.

Mesopotamien
(1883); M. v. .Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, vol.^ Botanical lists have been published by von Oppenheim ( Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf , ii.

^ Oppenheim, Vom Mittelmeer zum Persischen Golf, vol.

ii (1889). .We may mention further D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East (1902), passim; K. Regling, "Zur historischen Geographie des mesopotamischen Parallelograms" (Sarug district), in Klio, I. 443-476; M. Sykes, "Journeys in North Mesopotamia" in Geog.^ Division of Aram: Aram was divided into several districts, comprising, in general, the region to the East of the Jordan, but extending in the North over most of Northern Syria, or from the Orontes eastward, and Northern Mesopotamia.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

Journal,
xxx. 2 372 54, 384-395; "The Western Bend of the Euphrates," op. cit. xxxiv. 61-65 (plans of two castles); D. Fraser, Short Cut to India (1909); W. Kurz, "Beurteilung der Aussichten auf eine Wiederbelebung der Kultur der Euphratand Tigrisniederung," in Deutsche geographische Blotter, xxxi. 147-179 (1908); E. Pears,. "The Bagdad Railway," in Contemp. Rev., 1908, 570-591; K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria (1906), pp. 389-412. The annual Consular Reports most nearly bearing on Mesopotamia are those for Aleppo, Mosul, Bagdad and Basra.

Maps

The following deserve special mention: v. Oppenheim,. op. cit., a most valuable large scale folding map in pockets of volumes; Sachau. op. cit.; M. Sykes, Geog. Journ. xxx. opp. p. 356, and xxxiv. opp. p. 120; Hogarth, op. cit., orographic, &c.
Excavations at `Arban: A. H. Layard, Nineveh and Babylon (1849-1851), pp. 230-242; at Tell Khalaf: M. v. .Oppenheim, Der Tell Halaf (1908), in the Der alte Orient series (see an account by J. L. Myres in Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, ii.^ The preliminary account may be found in OLZ, December 15, 1906, and the Mitteilungen der deutschen orient.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

139-144; at Asshur: Sendschriften der deutsch. or. Gesellsch., and W. Andrae, Der Anu Adad Tempel (1909). See also D. G. Hogarth, "Carchemesh and its Neighbourhood" (Annals, &c. ii. 165-184), and W. Andrae's Die Ruinen von Hatra (1908).

History

.Early period: besides the histories of Babylonia and Assyria see Winckler, various essays in his Altor.^ A history of Sumer and Akkad; an account of the early races of Babylonia from prehistoric times to the foundation of the Babylonian monarchy.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The civilization of Babylonia and Assyria; its remains, language, history, religion, commerce, law, art, and literature.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

Forschungen, "
Vorl,ufige Nachrichten fiber die Ausgrabungen in Boghaz-koi im Sommer, 1907," in Mitteilungen der Deutsch. Orient. Gesellschaft, No. 35, and "Suri" in Oriental. Lit.-Zeit, x. 281-2 99, 345-357, 401-412, 643; 0. Weber, the notes to Knudtzon's Die El-Amarna Tafeln; A. Ungnad, Untersuchungen zu den. .. Urkunden aus Dilbat (1909), pp. 8-21; P. Schnabel, Studien zur bab.-assyrischen Chronologie (1908); A. Sanda, Die Aramder (1902) in the Der Alte. .Orient series; M. Streck, "Ober die alteste Geschichte der Aramaer" in Klio, vi.^ Die Aramaer Sudbabyloniens in der Sargonidenzeit (700-648).
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Die Ma'dan; Kultur und Geschichte der Marschenbewohner im Sud- Iraq, von Sigrid Westphal-Hellbusch und Heinz Westphal.
  • Ancient Mesopotamian History, Culture, Literature, etc 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.lib.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

185-225. For the later periods see PERSIA: History; HELLENISM; ROME: History; PARTHIA; SYRIAC LITERATURE; CALIPHATE and authorities there given. (H. W. H.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

.From Ancient Greek Μεσοποταμία (Mesopotamía) < μέσος (mésos), between) + ποταμός (potamós), river), because Mesopotamia is located between rivers Euphrates and Tigris.^ Food of Mesopotamia Food of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia was one of the earliest centers of urban civilization in the area of modern Iraq and eastern Syria between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

^ In ancient times, the area where these groups settled was called Mesopotamia, meaning "the land between the rivers."
  • Chapter 3, Chapter Overview, Human Heritage: A World History, Glencoe, 2004 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.glencoe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With the Euphrates River, the Tigris supplies water to the dry plain formerly called Mesopotamia.
  • Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Mesopotamia
Plural
-
Mesopotamia
  1. A region in Southwest Asia spanning from the rivers Euphrates and Tigris that is the site of one of the most ancient civilizations in the history of man.
  2. The British Mandate of Mesopotamia, a League of Nations mandate from 1920 to 1932 that was the precursor to the independent state of Iraq.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
the country between the two rivers (Heb.
^ Aram-naharaim; i.e., "Syria of the two rivers"), the name given by the Greeks and Romans to the region between the Euphrates and the Tigris ( Gen.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mesopotamia = "between two rivers" 1) the entire country between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates 3318 Mesopotamia mes-op-ot-am-ee'-ah .
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Aram-naharaim; i.e., "Syria of the two rivers"), the name given by the Greeks and Romans to the region between the Euphrates and the Tigris (Gen 24:10; Deut 23:4; Jdg 3:8, 10).^ Edom the country between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers the region between (and around) the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers a son of Hezron; father of Amminadab; an ancestor of Jesus son of Hezron son of Perez son of Judah son of Jerahmeel of Judah a clan of the people of Buz (probably of Nahor) the country to the north of Palestine a country of north western Mesopotamia members of the nation of Syria .
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ MESOPOTAMIA The country between the Tigris and the Euphrates.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ARAM NAHARAIM Gen.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the Old Testament it is mentioned also under the name "Padan-aram;" i.e., the plain of Aram, or Syria (Gen 25:20).^ According to the Old Testament, Judah rebelled again in 589, and Jerusalem was placed under siege.
  • Etana, king of Kish (flourished about 2800 BC), was described in adocument written centuries later as the"man who stabilized 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Padan-aram, Gen.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The northern portion of this fertile plateau was the original home of the ancestors of the Hebrews (Gen.^ The northern portion of this fertile plateau was the original home of the ancestors of the Hebrews ( Gen.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

11; Acts 7:2). .From this region Isaac obtained his wife Rebecca (Gen 24:10, 15), and here also Jacob sojourned (28:2-7) and obtained his wives, and here most of his sons were born (35:26; 46:15).^ Jacob sojourned ( 28:2-7 ) and obtained his wives, and here most of his sons were born ( 35:26; 46:15 ).
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From this region Isaac obtained his wife Rebecca ( Gen.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Israelites were taught to say "A Syrian (Ara-maean) ready to perish was my father" ( Dt 26:5 ), and the kinship of the Hebrews and Arameans was further cemented by the marriage of Isaac with Rebekah, the sister of Laban the Syrian, and of Jacob with his daughters ( Gen 24 ; 29).
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The petty, independent tribes of this region, each under its own prince, were warlike, and used chariots in battle.^ The petty, independent tribes of this region, each under its own prince, were warlike, and used chariots in battle.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chronicles 19:6 ) According to the Assyrian inscriptions Mesopotamia was inhabited in the early times of the empire, B.C. 1200-1100, by a vast number of petty tribes, each under its own prince, and all quite independent of one another.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.They maintained their independence till after the time of David, when they fell under the dominion of Assyria, and were absorbed into the empire (2Kg 19:13).^ They maintained their independence till after the time of David, when they fell under the dominion of Assyria, and were absorbed into the empire ( 2 Kings 19:13 ).
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time Babylonia was subject to the Kassites, an alien race of kings, and when they fell, about 1100 BC, they gave place to a number of dynasties of short duration.
  • NETBible: Mesopotamia 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The civilizations of Babylon and Assyria owed their very life to the science of watering the land, and even in the later times of Haroun Alraschid their great systems had been well maintained.
  • The Project Gutenberg eBook of A Dweller in Mesopotamia, by Donald Maxwell 14 January 2010 2:32 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with MESOPOTAMIA (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|230px|The two rivers of Mesopotamia]] Mesopotamia, from the Greek language, means 'between the rivers'. It includes the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, and the fertile land which surrounds them. It is part of the Fertile Crescent. Mesopotamia is today is split. Most of it is in Iraq, but parts are in Syria, Turkey and Iran.

The area is often called the 'Cradle of Civilization'. The ancient writing called cuneiform was first used around 3000 BC by the Sumerians. They lived in city-states (a city and the land around it). According to Genesis in the Old Testament, Abraham lived in Mesopotamia before moving to Canaan.

Historically important cities in Mesopotamia included Uruk, Nippur, Nineveh, and Babylon, as well as major territorial states such as the city of Ma-asesblu, the Akkadian kingdom, the Third Dynasty of Ur, and the Assyrian empire. Some of the important historical Mesopotamian leaders were Ur-Nammu (king of Ur), Sargon (who started the Akkadian Kingdom), Hammurabi (who established the Old Babylonian state), and Tiglath-Pileser I (who started the Assyrian Empire).

Many advances in technology were made by the ancient Sumerians and Mesopotamians, such as irrigation,[1] and trade by river, and flood control. Mesopotamians had agriculture and domesticated animals, or livestock, from the earliest records. Babylon is probably the first city built by settled people. Mesopotamia also was the place where the wheel was first used. First it was a pottery wheel that was used to make clay pots, then Sumerians adapted it for transport.

Contents

Geography

Mesopotamia is made up of different regions. Northern Mesopotamia is made up of hills and plains. Seasonal rains, and the rivers and streams come from the mountains. Early settlers farmed the land and used timber, metals and stone. Southern Mesopotamia is made up of marshy areas and wide, flat, plains. Cities developed along the rivers which flow through the region. Early settlers had to irrigate the land along the banks of the rivers in order for their crops to grow.[2]

Peoples of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia has been conquered many times, by many different peoples. It was the heartland of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires. As each new group moved into the region they adopted some of the culture, traditions and beliefs of the people who had come before. It was conquered by Alexander the Great (332 BC), the Parthians (150 BC), the Romans, the Persian Empire, the Arabs (7th century). It is still one of the most fertile (and therefore valuable) parts of the Middle East.

Ancient Mesopotamia begins in the late 6th millennium BC, and ends with either the rise of the Achaemenid Persians in the 6th century BC or the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia in the 7th century CE. This long period may be divided as follows:

  • Pre-Pottery Neolithic:
    • Jarmo (~7000 BC– ~6000 BC)[3]
  • Pottery Neolithic:
    • Hassuna (~6000 BC–? BC), Samarra (~5700 BC–4900 BC) and Halaf (~6000 BC–5300 BC) cultures
  • Chalcolithic or Copper Age:
    • Ubaid period (~5900 BC–4400 BC)
    • Uruk period (~4400 BC–3200 BC)
    • Jemdet Nasr period (~3100 BC–2900 BC)
  • Early Bronze Age
    • Early Dynastic Sumerian city-states (~2900 BC–2350 BC)
    • Elam 2700 (BC–570 BC).
    • Akkadian Empire (~2350 BC–2193 BC).
    • Third Dynasty of Ur ('Sumerian Renaissance' or 'Neo-Sumerian Period') (~2119 BC–2004 BC)
  • Middle Bronze Age
  • Late Bronze Age
  • Iron Age
  • Classical Antiquity
  • Late Antiquity
    • Sassanid Asuristan (3rd–7th century AD)
    • Arab conquest of Mesopotamia (7th century AD)

Epic of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is an ancient story about a relationship between Gilgamesh and his close companion, Enkidu. Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh's equal to distract him from oppressing the citizens of Uruk. Together they undertake dangerous quests that incur the displeasure of the gods. Firstly, they journey to the Cedar Mountain to defeat Humbaba, its monstrous guardian. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven that the goddess Ishtar has sent to punish Gilgamesh for turning down her advances.

The second part of the epic is about Gilgamesh's distressed reaction to Enkidu's death, which takes the form of a quest for immortality. Gilgamesh attempts to learn the secret of eternal life by undertaking a long and perilous journey to meet the immortal flood hero, Utnapishtim. The words addressed to Gilgamesh in the midst of his quest foreshadow the end result:

"The life that you are seeking you will never find. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping".

Other pages

Other websites

References

  1. The use of small canals in order to move water through fields.
  2. British Museum [1]
  3. ~ means 'about'.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mesopotamia, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message