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.Metadata (meta data, meta-data, or sometimes metainformation) is “data about data.” The use of metadata is an emerging practice with close ties to information management, information science, information technology, librarianship and GIS.^ Interest in metadata (data about data) is spreading beyond the domain of the federal government to other GIS user communities at the state and local government levels, as well as non-profit organizations and the private sector.
  • NSGIC Metadata Satellite Videoconference 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.lic.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Structural Metadata is used to display and navigate a particular object for a user and includes the information on the internal organization of that object [ Structural metadata could exist in various levels of comple xity.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Manifesto provides guiding principles and practices for anyone who creates, uses, or manages electronic images, as well as those developing digital hardware and software.

.It can be applied to a vast array of objects including both physical and electronic items such as raw data, books, CDs, DVDs, images, maps, database tables, and web pages.^ The content targeted includes web pages, gopher and ftp files, desktop files, email and structured (i.e., relational and object oriented) databases, etc.
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The span or extent of such things as time, culture, geography or region that applies to this learning object.
  • IMS Learning Resource Meta-Data XML Binding 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.imsproject.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A paper version of the document does not even hint at the existence of such data, but even an electronic version does not show commands unless explicitly asked for.

.Since the emergence of the Dublin Core metadata set and the internet, use of metadata has experienced a considerable growth in popularity as businesses and other organisations seek to organise rapidly growing volumes of data and information.^ Many of the standard's metadata elements have counterparts in the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set.
  • Metadata Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.mnhs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To disable dublin-core metadata, use "meta off".
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Assemble information about the data set.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Definition

Metadata has been been around for as long as humans have been writing and is "... the .Internet-age term for information that librarians traditionally have put into catalogues and archivists into archival control systems."^ Text is interpreted in terms of standard character sets, and has traditionally carved memory into 5, 6, 7, 8, 16 or 32-bit chunks.
  • Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.laputan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The METAe software package will be based on a number of standards, including Open Archival Information Systems (OAIS) and eXtensible Markup Language (XML).
  • Metadata Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.mnhs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CNRI. Handles and the Handle System The Handle System® is a distributed computer system which stores names, or handles, of digital items and which can quickly resolve those names into the information necessary to locate and access the items.
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

.[1] The first use of the term “Metadata” has been attributed to Jack E. Myers who subsequently trademarked the word.^ For such purposes, it is advisable to use the same terms/labels in embedded metadata contexts as are defined for use (above) as display metadata labels.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For all DCMI terms, the convention used by the DCMI community is to split the term URI into an expanded name at the right-most '/' (forward slash) character (as in the first example above).
  • Expressing Dublin Core metadata using HTML/XHTML meta and link elements 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC dublincore.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Put this Source_Information into a new metadata record that describes your data; it will thus properly attribute the work of the people who created the source data.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] It has also been attributed to Bo Sundgren.[3] .Since then the fields of information management, information science, information technology, librarianship and GIS have widely adopted the term.^ Presented at the annual meeting of the International Association of Social Science Information Services & Technology, Ottawa, Canada, May 2003.

^ The DOGMA Project at V.U.B. STAR Lab: linking ontologies, database semantics, information systems, corporate knowledge management, agent technology, internet databases, the semantic web.
  • Search MMI References | Marine Metadata Interoperability 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC marinemetadata.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Data and Information Management in the Ecological Sciences.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In these fields the word metadata is defined as “data about data”.^ What about these errors with metadata from ArcCatalog?
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metadata is data about data.
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Metadata is often called data about data or information about information.

[4] .While this is the generally accepted definition, various disciplines have adopted their own more specific explanation and uses of the term.^ It’s information about information…Ok, a better explanation: Metadata is the term used for details about a file.
  • Using Metadata Effectively in OS X 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC theappleblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Following W3C's recommendation for "good practice on namespace adoption" , a prose specification may describe the use of one or more XML namespaces declared in schemas associated with the specification.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, the metadata method uses an mdToken parameter rather than a more specific token type.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

For the purposes of this article, an "object" refers to any of the following:
  • a physical item such as a book, CD, DVD, map, chair, table, flower pot, etc
  • an electronic file such as a digital image, digital photo, document, program file, database table etc

Characteristics

Structured

.Metadata is typically structured in a standardised fashion using a metadata scheme of some sort, including: metadata standards and metadata models.^ Structural Metadata is used to display and navigate a particular object for a user and includes the information on the internal organization of that object [ Structural metadata could exist in various levels of comple xity.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The project testbed proposes to use existing descriptive metadata standards (such as MARC records and the Dublin Core), as well as existing descriptive/structural metadata (like the EAD) to help the user locate a particular digital object.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The basic building block of structural metadata is a model that describes its data entitie s, their characteristics, and how they are related to one another.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Tools such as controlled vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, data dictionaries and metadata registries can be used to apply further standardisation to the metadata.^ Another approach is to create the metadata using a tool that understands the Standard.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary may be used as a tool to label a measurement with information on what it is and how it was obtained or to describe parameters (phenomena in GML terminology) in 'use' metadata.
  • Search MMI References | Marine Metadata Interoperability 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC marinemetadata.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The project testbed proposes to use existing descriptive metadata standards (such as MARC records and the Dublin Core), as well as existing descriptive/structural metadata (like the EAD) to help the user locate a particular digital object.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

Syntax

.Metadata syntax refers to the rules created to structure the fields or elements of metadata.^ When a stereo (3D) CineForm file is created, the second stream is stored as Active Metadata, plus other optional fields.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Added a new paragraph and reference to the draft RDDL Template in the section Metadata in Namespace Documents , suggesting required elements in RDDL namespace documents.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ "The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set V1.1 (DCMES) can be represented in many syntax formats.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

[5] .A single metadata scheme may be expressed in a number of different markup or programming languages, each of which requires a different syntax.^ Many metadata schemes use SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language) or XML (Extensible Mark-up Language).

^ This article discusses the use of Xstensible Markup Language (XML) for creating interoperable metadata.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Though the number of metadata fields may at first seem daunting, a high proportion of the fields is likely to be the same for all the images scanned during a particular scanning session.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For example, Dublin Core may be expressed in plain text, HTML, XML and RDF.^ HTML, XML, RDF, RSS etc.

^ Certain HTML elements that may appear in BODY are said to be "block-level" while others are "inline" (also known as "text level").
  • The global structure of an HTML document 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dublin Core Standard Resource Types http://www.roads.lut.ac.uk/Metadata/DC-ObjectTypes.html .
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]

Types

.As the metadata industry is relatively new and crosses several fields of specialisation there is no generally accepted model to describe types of metadata.^ As has been said, 'There are no metadata police.'
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The basic building block of structural metadata is a model that describes its data entitie s, their characteristics, and how they are related to one another.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ "Structural metadata is metadata that describes the types, versions, relationships and other characteristics of digital materials."
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Bretheron & Singley (1994) distinguish between two distinct classes: structural/control metadata and guide metadata.^ In making the distinction between object and sub-object metadata, we acknowledge that the distinction is in some ways artificial.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The table presented here is divided into two primary categories: structural metadata defining the "object," and structural metadata defining the digital sub-objects themselves (e.g., the individual digital pages).
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Current thinking divides digital library metadata into either three categories (descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata) or into two categories (descriptive and structur al metadata, with structural metadata subsuming both administrative and structural metadata).
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

[7] .Structural metadata is used to describe the structure of computer systems such as tables, columns and indexes.^ METADATA is often used to describe SCHEMAS. .
  • Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.laputan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using metadata to describe learning resources.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We might use the TABLE element as follows to structure the information: .
  • The global structure of an HTML document 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

.Guide metadata is used to help humans find specific items and is usually expressed as a set of keywords in a natural language.^ Many metadata schemes use SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language) or XML (Extensible Mark-up Language).

^ This article discusses the use of Xstensible Markup Language (XML) for creating interoperable metadata.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The GUID provides a lookup address into the CineForm Active Metadata Database file used during playback.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Ralph Kimball metadata can be divided into 2 similar categories - Technical metadata and Business metadata.^ But in larger organizations there may already be well-established metadata capabilities that have started to move into what they call "technical metadata."
  • Metadata and ITSM - IT Management Forum 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC forums.datamation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This output format will likely be refined in the near future, but the basic idea is to write the metadata into an HTML file according to a series of plain-language questions.
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The table presented here is divided into two primary categories: structural metadata defining the "object," and structural metadata defining the digital sub-objects themselves (e.g., the individual digital pages).
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Technical metadata correspond to internal metadata, business metadata to external metadata.^ To ignore obvious, simple external filesystem metadata in favor of complex internal ID3 metadata is doing a disservice to the user.
  • Coding Horror: Filesystem Metadata Doesn't Scale 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

Kimball adds a third category named Process metadata. .On the other hand, NISO distinguishes between three types of metadata: descriptive, structural and administrative.^ For our purposes there are three types of metadata: Descriptive, Structural, and Administrative.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Current thinking divides digital library metadata into either three categories (descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata) or into two categories (descriptive and structur al metadata, with structural metadata subsuming both administrative and structural metadata).
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, a single institution may store descriptive met adata in USMARC, portions of structural and administrative data in relational tables, and other portions in SGML. The examples provided here are intended only to illustrate the type of data presented in interactions between repositories and intermediaries .
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.[4] Descriptive metadata is the information used to search and locate an object such as title, author, subjects, keywords, publisher; structural metadata gives a description of how the components of the object are organised; and administrative metadata refers to the technical information including file type.^ For our purposes there are three types of metadata: Descriptive, Structural, and Administrative.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Descriptive metadata is used to discover the object.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ "Structural metadata is used for creation and maintenance of the information warehouse.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Two sub-types of administrative metadata are rights management metadata and preservation metadata.^ Rights management metadata, which deals with intellectual property rights, and .

^ For our purposes there are three types of metadata: Descriptive, Structural, and Administrative.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The table presented here is divided into two primary categories: structural metadata defining the "object," and structural metadata defining the digital sub-objects themselves (e.g., the individual digital pages).
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

Hierarchical vs One Dimensional

.Metadata schemas can be hierarchical in nature where relationships exist between metadata elements and elements are nested so that parent-child relationships exist between the elements.^ Nested forms take the user into hierarchically deep elements of metadata.
  • A Metadata Exercise 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC lagic.lsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relationship between the NOAA FGDC, MARC21, and Dublin Core metadata standards .
  • Search MMI References | Marine Metadata Interoperability 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC marinemetadata.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Where discrepancies exist between the syntactical and semantic descriptions of elements in the Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata, the syntactical descriptions are regarded as authoritative.
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

.They can also be one dimensional, or linear, where each element is completely discrete from other elements.^ Moreover, the element values are not only separated from one another but are clearly related to the corresponding element names, and the element names are clearly related to each other as they are in the standard.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a metadata record has multiple alternative languages, the user should be able to select one and have display of elements in the other languages suppressed.

^ These compound elements are important because they describe the relationships among other elements.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An example of a hierarchical metadata schema is the IEEE LOM schema where metadata elements may belong to a parent metadata element as compared to Dublin Core which is one dimensional.^ Recording qualified Dublin Core metadata in HTML meta elements.

^ Schema for OAI implementation of Dublin Core metadata.

^ For example, the following metadata element .
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]

Granularity

The degree to which metadata is captured is referred to as its granularity. .Metadata with a high granularity contains more information and enables greater levels of technical manipulation however, a lower level of granularity means that metadata can be created for considerably lower costs but will not provide as detailed information.^ The metadata provides that information.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ More details are in How to fix metadata created by DOCUMENT.aml .
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unmanaged API is lower level and provides more information.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

Storage

.Metadata can be stored either internally, in the same file as the data, or externally, in a separate file.^ When a stereo (3D) CineForm file is created, the second stream is stored as Active Metadata, plus other optional fields.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spotlight Metadata — For the purpose of searching, Spotlight under OS X 10.4 (Tiger) centrally stores key-value pairs of metadata about files.

^ The trouble on OS X is mostly related to metadata , i.e., data about files and directories (such as modification date, file creator/type, Unix permissions, etc.

.Metadata that is embedded with content is called embedded metadata.^ A collection object has metadata for the collection, followed by the embedded objects, each with their own metadata and content.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is possible that metadata embedded in content will be extracted automatically by robots that use the MCF to represent the results of their activities.
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Any such embedded metadata corresponding to information presented in the required (title page) display metadata MUST match the display metadata information content.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

.A data repository typically stores the metadata detached from the data.^ To imagine the relationship between administrative and structural metadata in this regard, we can imagine a repository declaring to a tool: "This image is stored in 1200dpi 24bit color, which is administrative data; it is available to you as 72dpi with a 256 color adaptive palette, which is structural metadata."
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ OMG-MOF is Meta Object Facility, a standard that "defines an extensible framework for defining models for metadata and providing tools with programmatic interfaces to store and access metadata in a repository."
  • Metadata Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.mnhs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is important to note that even though the categories defined here are presented in SGML, the data in a repository will not necessarily be stored in an encoded form (such as SGML) or in a table.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

Both ways have advantages and disadvantages:
.
  • Internal storage allows transferring metadata together with the data it describes; thus, metadata is always at hand and can be manipulated easily.^ The basic building block of structural metadata is a model that describes its data entitie s, their characteristics, and how they are related to one another.
    • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Review the content of the metadata, verifying that the information describes the subject data completely and correctly.
    • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In summary, the Attribute component of Range_Domain and Enumerated_Domain allow the metadata to describe data in which some attribute qualifies the value of another attribute.
    • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This method creates high redundancy and does not allow holding metadata together.
  • External storage allows bundling metadata, for example in a database, for more efficient searching.^ Modified check_extension() in syntax.c to provide the same slightly more informative error messages as allow() does when an element is unrecognized.
    • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The following code example demonstrates how to obtain metadata about attributes of a simple database table: .

    ^ Metadata allows overloaded methods (two or more methods with the same name, but different parameters).
    • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

    .There is no redundancy and metadata can be transferred simultaneously when using streaming.^ As has been said, 'There are no metadata police.'
    • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are no fundamental restrictions to the types of resources to which Dublin Core metadata can be assigned.
    • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Extensive use od XML and related W3C standards for representing, transfering and manipulating the metadata.
    • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .However, as most formats use URIs for that purpose, the method of how the metadata is linked to its data should be treated with care.^ How should this data set be cited?
    • The Digital Geologic Map of Colorado in ARC/INFO Format 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geo-nsdi.er.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

    ^ How should I handle data that already has metadata?
    • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How do I handle data that already has metadata?
    • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .What if a resource does not have a URI (resources on a local hard disk or web pages that are created on-the-fly using a content management system)?^ CMS – Content Management System 14 .

    ^ A CMS is frequently a web application used for managing websites and web content.

    ^ The content targeted includes web pages, gopher and ftp files, desktop files, email and structured (i.e., relational and object oriented) databases, etc.
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

    What if metadata can only be evaluated if there is a connection to the Web, especially when using RDF? How to realize that a resource is replaced by another with the same name but different content?
.Moreover, there is the question of data format: storing metadata in a human-readable format such as XML can be useful because users can understand and edit it without specialized tools.^ A host of users on a hosts of hosts will want to use such a program, and the data that go with it.
  • Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.laputan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first questions I had when I encountered metadata were "Where is it stored?"
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Users of this data can use the DNR Upstream .
  • Metadata: DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 08 - All Catchments 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC deli.dnr.state.mn.us [Source type: Reference]

.On the other hand, these formats are not optimized for storage capacity; it may be useful to store metadata in a binary, non-human-readable format instead to speed up transfer and save memory.^ These data may be application domains less frequently encountered, rarer document formats and newer technologies.

^ When a stereo (3D) CineForm file is created, the second stream is stored as Active Metadata, plus other optional fields.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many metadata schemes use SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language) or XML (Extensible Mark-up Language).

Creation

.Metadata can be created either by computer or by humans.^ Human metadata is highly suspect; people aren't capable of creating objective metadata for their own content .
  • Coding Horror: Filesystem Metadata Doesn't Scale 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ Metadata is data that is automatically created and stored by computer programs that is not part of the content of the document.

.Metadata captured by computers can include information about when a file was created, who created it, when it was last updated, file size and file extension.^ Who should create metadata?
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Structural Metadata is used to display and navigate a particular object for a user and includes the information on the internal organization of that object [ Structural metadata could exist in various levels of comple xity.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Metadata is often called data about data or information about information.

.Metadata can also be created by humans to enhance the metadata and provide information that computers are not yet able to interpret including subject, keywords, abstract.^ The metadata provides that information.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Notes: INSPEC (metadata and ecological data); providing descriptions of ecological metadata; Conference Information: Proceedings of Environmental Decision Support Systems and Artificial Intelligence.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Review the content of the metadata, verifying that the information describes the subject data completely and correctly.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Disciplines using Metadata

Library and Information Science

.Metadata is used in libraries as a means of cataloguing resources such as books, CDs, and DVDs.^ For a resource that is a text file including markup, Format.markup identifies the markup system it uses, such as the SGML DTD, the XML Schema, the set of Standard Format markers, and the like.

^ Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as discovery and identification.

^ "Metadata in a digital special library : the Energy and Environmental Information Resources Center in Lafayette, Louisiana".

.This data is stored in an integrated library management system, ILMS, using the MARC metadata standard.^ Effective standards for metadata in the GCMD data access system .
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The project testbed proposes to use existing descriptive metadata standards (such as MARC records and the Dublin Core), as well as existing descriptive/structural metadata (like the EAD) to help the user locate a particular digital object.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Many metadata schemes use SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language) or XML (Extensible Mark-up Language).

.Libraries are also using the ILMS to store information about electronic resources including electronic journals, e-books and websites.^ Information about rights held in and over the resource.

^ For a resource that is a text file including markup, Format.markup identifies the markup system it uses, such as the SGML DTD, the XML Schema, the set of Standard Format markers, and the like.

^ In addition to metadata information stored within specifications, more complete externally stored metadata are used to describe specification production workflow events, additional resource relationships, subject classifications, etc.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

.Digital libraries also employ metadata.^ Alexandria Digital Library schema and scripts for FGDC and USMARC metadata.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS) was developed to fill the need for a standard data structure for describing complex digital library objects.

^ Current thinking divides digital library metadata into either three categories (descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata) or into two categories (descriptive and structur al metadata, with structural metadata subsuming both administrative and structural metadata).
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Standards for metadata in digital libraries include Dublin Core, METS, MODS, DDI, PREMIS schema, and OAI-PMH.^ Alexandria Digital Library schema and scripts for FGDC and USMARC metadata.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It supports Dublin Core and AGLS standards.
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The project testbed proposes to use existing descriptive metadata standards (such as MARC records and the Dublin Core), as well as existing descriptive/structural metadata (like the EAD) to help the user locate a particular digital object.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

Information Technology

Database Management

.Each relational database system has its own mechanisms for storing metadata.^ Metadata: Stored in a database.
  • External Metadata Indexing Guide 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC code.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chapter 6 merges this extracted metadata with an Object Relational Mapping (ORM) view of your database.
  • Extracting Metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.aspfree.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, most well-managed archives have collected their metadata and stored it in a structured way, most typically in a database.
  • A Gentle Introduction to Metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC linguistics.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples of relational-database metadata include:
  • Tables of all tables in a database, their names, sizes and number of rows in each table.
  • Tables of columns in each database, what tables they are used in, and the type of data stored in each column.
.In database terminology, this set of metadata is referred to as the catalog.^ For the rest of this Tech Note we will refer to the Set Active Metadata application as ‘SAM’.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: Reference Description P http://purl.org/DC/documents/rec-dces-19990702.htm .
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "This document is the reference description, version 1.1 of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

.The SQL standard specifies a uniform means to access the catalog, called the INFORMATION_SCHEMA, but not all databases implement it, even if they implement other aspects of the SQL standard.^ I refer to this as the FGDC standard even though FGDC deals with other standards as well, such as the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS).
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After all, they're not simple things like a human-readable string, an enum, or even a bitfield.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The next tier down (and it’s clearly down, in this categorization) is called the “Blue” or “opportunistic” tier, including by the author’s definition “ … non-OCLC libraries and underfunded libraries without adequate cataloging capacity.” More interestingly, this tier “ … is also home to open database providers, and the pervasive (did they mean to say “pernicious”?
  • Metadata Matters | It's all about the services 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC managemetadata.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For an example of database-specific metadata access methods, see Oracle metadata.^ SOFIA - Development of a Digitial Library of Biological Information (project metadata) - SOFIA - Geospatial Interface (project metadata) - SOFIA Environmental Database Development and Maintenance (project metadata) - SOFIA Metadata (project metadata) - South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) Website (project metadata)   .
  • South Florida Information Access - Metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC sofia.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ And I can also customize the listings with what specific metadata I want to see in the list and what I want to leave behind the curtain of the Show Information command.
  • Coding Horror: Filesystem Metadata Doesn't Scale 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

^ Tools themselves will have methods and therefore, will need access to the metadata and content of the objects.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Programmatic access to metadata is possible using APIs such as JDBC, or SchemaCrawler.^ Instead, Microsoft has provided not one, but two different APIs for accessing the metadata, and I'll go into detail about these later.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When managed code calls an unmanaged API such as CreateProcess or a COM interface, it uses the Platform Invoke (PInvoke) mechanism.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Reflection API uses metadata in much the same way as COM Automation uses type libraries.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

[9]
.Data warehouse (DW) is a repository of an organization's electronically stored data.^ It is important to note that even though the categories defined here are presented in SGML, the data in a repository will not necessarily be stored in an encoded form (such as SGML) or in a table.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The data resources are stored in many file systems and databases, physically distributed throughout the organization with no common way of accessing or searching them.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a desktop application (software) that allows the ecologist to create and organize metadata and data and to store that information, so that it can be searched.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Data warehouses are designed to manage and store the data whereas the Business Intelligence (BI) focuses on the usage of data to facilitate reporting and analysis.^ Also part on intelligent data analysis literature.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Notes: INSPEC (metadata and scientific data); Conference Information: Proceedings of 4th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis (IDA 2001).
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10]
.The purpose of a data warehouse is to house standardized, structured, consistent, integrated, correct, cleansed and timely data, extracted from various operational systems in an organization.^ Structural Metadata is used to display and navigate a particular object for a user and includes the information on the internal organization of that object [ Structural metadata could exist in various levels of comple xity.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Another standard for geographical information system data.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The paper proposes a 'hybrid' information model that integrates structured and semistructured data.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The extracted data is integrated in the data warehouse environment in order to provide an enterprise wide perspective, one version of the truth.^ One editor of the TEI Guidelines has been centrally involved in th e writing of the XML specifications and the TEI editors have declared their intention to create XML-compliant versions of the widely used TEI DTDs.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ They review technologies that are available for wide-area distributed data warehousing, and what capabilities they provide for supporting active data archives.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An Visible Advantage information warehouse data model provides a means of documenting and identifying both strategic and operational uses of enterprise measures.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Data is structured in a way to specifically address the reporting and analytic requirements.^ Extent is in many ways analogous to the extent statement in a MARC record, and for structural data provides information specific to the number and levels of component types.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Wherever possible, we will attempt to describe methods i n ways that are sufficiently generic to be applicable to a wide variety of objects; in some cases, we will describe methods specific to some data types.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, data management for ecology requires that one address 3 primary characteristics of ecological data: heterogeneity, dispersion, and autonomy.
  • Information/Data/Metadata Management – Resources 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.cens.ucla.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An essential component of a data warehouse/business intelligence system is the metadata and tools to manage and retrieve metadata.^ It supports a high degree of platform independence and data and metadata interoperability each of which is an essential component of long-term data interoperability.
  • Search MMI References | Marine Metadata Interoperability 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC marinemetadata.org [Source type: Academic]

^ L-31N Seepage Management Pilot (project metadata) L-31N Lithological and Geophysical Data (data set metadata)   .
  • South Florida Information Access - Metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC sofia.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Structural metadata identifies the system of record for all information warehouse data entities.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Ralph Kimball[11] describes metadata as the DNA of the data warehouse as metadata defines the elements of the data warehouse and how they work together.^ How do I handle data that already has metadata?
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary may be used as a tool to label a measurement with information on what it is and how it was obtained or to describe parameters (phenomena in GML terminology) in 'use' metadata.
  • Search MMI References | Marine Metadata Interoperability 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC marinemetadata.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The basic building block of structural metadata is a model that describes its data entitie s, their characteristics, and how they are related to one another.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

The Internet

.The HTML format used to define web pages allows for the inclusion of a variety of types of metadata, from basic descriptive text, dates and keywords to further advanced metadata schemes such as the Dublin Core, e-GMS, and AGLS[12] standards.^ "This document specifies an XML format for representing a Dublin Core metadata description set.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ED. We call such use advanced .

^ To disable dublin-core metadata, use "meta off".
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

Pages can also be geotagged with coordinates. .Metadata may be included in the page's header or in a separate file.^ Process_Date: 20021001 Process_Step: Process_Description: Modified write_html() and write_faq_html() in html.c to remove carriage returns from included script files and included style files (it already did this to included header files.
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In the past, certain administrative metadata (such as file formats) resided in file headers, while others resided in accompanying databases.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As with the creation of any CineForm file, stereo Active Metadata may be inserted into the source stream based on user preference.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microformats allow metadata to be added to on-page data in a way that users don't see, but computers can readily access.^ In summary, the Attribute component of Range_Domain and Enumerated_Domain allow the metadata to describe data in which some attribute qualifies the value of another attribute.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Clearinghouse is a distributed network of internet sites providing metadata (information about geospatial data) to users in approximately the same way.
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The long names can be pasted into your metadata using the dynamic data exchange of your window system, so you don't have to type them.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Interestingly, many search engines are cautious about using metadata in their ranking algorithms due to exploitation of metadata and the practice of search engine optimization, SEO, to improve rankings, see Meta element article for further discussion.^ Avoid tricks intended to improve search engine rankings.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since assertions made in "META" empty elements (for example) cannot be trusted [see Metacrap ], the popular public search engines (apparently, typically) do not index such content, nor do they otherwise attempt to weigh it independently as reliable information.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of these META markup elements is no longer required as of 2006-09-29.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

Geospatial Metadata

.Metadata that describe geographic objects (such as datasets, maps, features, or simply documents with a geospatial component) have a history going back to at least 1994 (refer MIT Library page on FGDC Metadata).^ The standard referred to in this document is the Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata .
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SOFIA - Development of a Digitial Library of Biological Information (project metadata) - SOFIA - Geospatial Interface (project metadata) - SOFIA Environmental Database Development and Maintenance (project metadata) - SOFIA Metadata (project metadata) - South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) Website (project metadata)   .
  • South Florida Information Access - Metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC sofia.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When XML namespaces are declared/described in schemas and prose, these namespaces should be referenced as display metadata on the title "page" of the prose specification.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

.This class of metadata is described more fully on the Geospatial metadata page.^ When XML namespaces are declared/described in schemas and prose, these namespaces should be referenced as display metadata on the title "page" of the prose specification.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It describes the hierarchical structure of the metadata using indentation, in which the members of compound elements are indented more than their parent element and all of the elements at the same level in the hierarchy are indented alike.
  • MP: A compiler for formal metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The metadata for that type would completely describe the class, including the methods and their parameters, their calling conventions, the class's data members, and the visibility of all class members.
  • Avoiding DLL Hell: Introducing Application Metadata in the Microsoft .NET Framework 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

Metadata and the Law

United States

Problems involving metadata in litigation in the United States are becoming widespread. .Courts have looked at various questions involving metadata, including the discoverability of metadata by parties.^ Again, these are structured docume nts, with the further possibility of additional metadata in the form of partial text (dates and other markers) included for additional navigation.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Although the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure have only specified rules about electronic documents, subsequent case law has elaborated on the requirement of parties to reveal metadata.^ Added a new paragraph and reference to the draft RDDL Template in the section Metadata in Namespace Documents , suggesting required elements in RDDL namespace documents.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The ability to coordinate the annotations of the second institution with the page image from the firs t institution will require carefully controlled metadata about coordinates that stay constant with the cropped portion.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ XHTML authoring templates and guidelines for Document Template Usage prepared by OASIS Staff in the 2004-2005 timeframe specified a few required metadata elements for use in embedded contexts; see for example XHTML Template with Legacy IPR Notices .
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

[13] .In October 2009, the Arizona Supreme Court has ruled that metadata records are public record.^ [R2] Study (for the Library of Congress) of the North American MARC Records Marketplace, October 2009, R2 Consulting LLC, Ruth Fischer, Rick Lugg.
  • Metadata Matters | It's all about the services 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC managemetadata.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.Document Metadata is particularly important in legal environments where litigation can request this sensitive information (metadata) which can include many elements of private detrimental data.^ Metadata consist of information that characterizes data.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Structural Metadata is used to display and navigate a particular object for a user and includes the information on the internal organization of that object [ Structural metadata could exist in various levels of comple xity.
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Added a new paragraph and reference to the draft RDDL Template in the section Metadata in Namespace Documents , suggesting required elements in RDDL namespace documents.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

.This data has been linked to multiple lawsuits that have got corporations into legal complications.^ [Miller] Mainstream entitles like the New York Times are moving aggressively into the linked data space, seeking to merge their data with the likes of DBpedia and FreeBase.
  • Metadata Matters | It's all about the services 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC managemetadata.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using metadata removal tools can mitigate the risks associated with metadata.^ That tool takes as its input an ASCII file in which the element names are spelled out explicitly and the hierarchical structure of the metadata are expressed using consistent indentation.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metadata Software Tools A set of PERL scripts used to facilitate the creation of metadata records.
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You then use some tool to enter information into this disk file so that the metadata conform to the standard.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These clean documents before they are sent outside of the firm.^ Many of these methods are explored in great detail in the research applications developed by Robert Wilensky a nd his team as they pursue notions of "multivalent documents."
  • Making of America II White Paper 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC sunsite.berkeley.edu [Source type: Reference]

This process partially protects law firms from potentially unsafe leaking of sensitive data through Electronic Discovery. .Removal of metadata alone is only one aspect of redaction, a technique for which it's infamously necessary to perform thoroughly and completely.^ Technique : You may find that while performing cuts on the timeline you want to turn all Active Metadata OFF using the SetActiveMetadata panel.
  • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This shouldn't be necessary, since metadata are best printed from one of the HTML formats, and the web browser will wrap the text to fit the screen and page.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a metadata record lists only one language, then all elements should be displayed (regardless of their individual languages), unless the user has requested to suppress all records in that language.

See also

References

  1. ^ National Archives of Australia (2002). "AGLS Metadata Element Set - Part 2: Usage Guide - A non-technical guide to using AGLS metadata for describing resources". http://www.naa.gov.au/records-management/publications/agls-element.aspx. Retrieved 17 March 2010. 
  2. ^ Howe, Denis (1997-04-06). Metadata "Metadata". Free Online Dictionary of Computing. http://foldoc.org/Metadata Metadata. Retrieved 05 January 2010. 
  3. ^ Sundgren, Bo, An infological approach to Data Bases. Doctoral thesis, Sweden: University of Stockholm, Department of Administrative Information Processing. Central Bureau of Statistics 
  4. ^ a b NISO. "Understanding Metadata". NISO Press. http://www.niso.org/publications/press/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf. Retrieved 05 January 2010. 
  5. ^ Cathro, Warwick (1997). "Metadata: an overview". http://www.nla.gov.au/nla/staffpaper/cathro3.html. Retrieved 06 January 2010. 
  6. ^ DCMI (5 Oct 2009). "Semantic Recommendations". http://dublincore.org/specifications/. Retrieved 06 January 2010. 
  7. ^ Bretherton, F. P.; Singley, P.T. (1994). "Metadata: A User's View, Proceedings of the International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB)". pp. 1091-1094. 
  8. ^ "Types of Metadata". University of Melbourne. 15 August 2006. http://www.infodiv.unimelb.edu.au/metadata/add_info.html. Retrieved 06 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Sualeh Fatehi. "SchemaCrawler". SourceForge. http://schemacrawler.sourceforge.net/. 
  10. ^ Inmon, W.H. Tech Topic: What is a Data Warehouse? Prism Solutions. Volume 1. 1995. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_warehouse)
  11. ^ Ralph Kimball,The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit, Second Edition. New York, Wiley, 2008, ISBN 978-0-470-14977-5, page 10, 115-117,131-132, 140, 154-155
  12. ^ National Archives of Australia, AGLS Metadata Standard, accessed 07 January 2010, [1]
  13. ^ Gelzer, Reed D. (February 2008). "Metadata, Law, and the Real World: Slowly, the Three Are Merging". Journal of AHIMA (American Health Information Management Association) 79 (2): 56-57,64. http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok1_036537.hcsp?dDocName=bok1_036537. Retrieved 8 January 2010. 
  14. ^ Walsh, Jim (30 October 2009). "Ariz. Supreme Court rules electronic data is public record". The Arizona Republic (Arizona, United States). http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/local/articles/2009/10/30/20091030metadata1030.html. Retrieved 08 January 2010. 

External links

.
  • Mercury: Metadata Management, Data Discovery and Access, managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center
  • Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopiaCory Doctorow's opinion on the limitations of metadata on the Internet, 2001
  • Retrieving Meta Data from Documents and Pictures Online - AnonWatch
  • Understanding Metadata - NISO, 2004
  • Journal of Library Metadata (Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group).^ Attachment D: Using the Z39.50 Information Retrieval Protocol in the Internet Environment http://archive.ifla.org/documents/libraries/cataloging/metadata/gils-d.txt .
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Attachment A: Expanding Research and Development on the NISO Z39.50 Search and Retrieval Standard, Project Abstract http://archive.ifla.org/documents/libraries/cataloging/metadata/gils-a.txt .
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Managing Active Metadata : Located in the /Applications/CineForm directory is a utility called SetActiveMetadata .
    • Cineform Tech Blog » active metadata 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC techblog.cineform.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISSN 1937-5034. .http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=journal&issn=1938-6389.^ In a separate file (http://www.myVocabulary.com/taxonomy): Medical Subject Headings A Anatomy A01 Body Regions A01.047 Abdomen ...
    • IMS Learning Resource Meta-Data XML Binding 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.imsproject.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ One such systems is the Caterpillar Financial Modeling Framework ( http://www.joeyoder.com/financial_framework/ ).
    • Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.laputan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ BC: Search Engine and Web Directory for British Columbia, Canada http://www.searchbc.com/ .
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC www.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Digital Libraries: Metadata Resources 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC archive.ifla.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 8 January 2010.
     
  • International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies (IJMSO) (Inderscience Publishers).^ A collection of references on matters of Subject Classification, Taxonomies, Ontologies, Indexing, Metadata, Metadata Registries, Controlled Vocabularies, Terminology, Thesauri, Business Semantics.

    ISSN 1744-263X. .http://www.inderscience.com/ijmso.^ In a separate file (http://www.myVocabulary.com/taxonomy): Medical Subject Headings A Anatomy A01 Body Regions A01.047 Abdomen ...
    • IMS Learning Resource Meta-Data XML Binding 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.imsproject.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Trang : multi-format schema converter based on RELAX NG. http://www.thaiopensource.com/relaxng/trang.html Heery, Rachel; Manjula Patel.

    ^ One such systems is the Caterpillar Financial Modeling Framework ( http://www.joeyoder.com/financial_framework/ ).
    • Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.laputan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 8 January 2010
    . 

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

.Metadata is data that describes the Digital Photograph in terms of identification, camera, ISO, Date and Time, location information, subject and other data to help with quick retrieval on demand.^ Review the content of the metadata, verifying that the information describes the subject data completely and correctly.
  • Frequently Asked Questions on Metadata 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC geology.usgs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or helps to retrieve, use, or manage an information resource.

^ ISO 8601 describes a large number of date/time formats.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

.Keywording is also a type of Metadata that uses standard terms or vocabulary to assist in speedy retrieval of files.^ The BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary may be used as a tool to label a measurement with information on what it is and how it was obtained or to describe parameters (phenomena in GML terminology) in 'use' metadata.
  • Search MMI References | Marine Metadata Interoperability 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC marinemetadata.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using Metadata Effectively in OS X – The Apple Blog This article covers how to organize your filing system using spotlight and metadata, effectively ditching hierarchical filing.
  • Using Metadata Effectively in OS X 16 January 2010 20:57 UTC theappleblog.com [Source type: General]

^ For such purposes, it is advisable to use the same terms/labels in embedded metadata contexts as are defined for use (above) as display metadata labels.
  • OASIS Naming Guidelines: Metadata and Versioning 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC docs.oasis-open.org [Source type: Reference]

See Also

  • Exif - a common format for adding metadata to photographs.
  • Geotag - a metadata tag that shows the photographers location when the photo is taken.

Simple English

Metadata (also Meta data) is data about data, that is information about other information. This is often useful. Libraries usually group books by subject. In that context the metadata about the book is the subject it is classified under. Digital cameras allow people to take pictures. In that context the data is the picture taken and the metadata is information about the picture taken like when (the date and time), where (perhaps using information from GPS), or how it was taken, For example, the photographic exposure details are also metadata about a picture taken by a digital camera.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Metadata, which are similar to those in the above article.








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