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Metalcore
Stylistic origins Crossover thrash[1], hardcore punk, heavy metal, youth crew[2]
Cultural origins Late 1980s, United States
Typical instruments Electric guitar, bass guitar, drums (double kick), vocals
Mainstream popularity Underground throughout the 1990s, mainstream popularity of melodic metalcore in the 2000s
Subgenres
Mathcore
Fusion genres
Melodic metalcore, deathcore
Regional scenes
Massachusetts - New Jersey - New York
Other topics
Breakdown, punk metal

Metalcore is a fusion genre combining elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk, the name of it is a portmanteau of the names of the two genres. The term took on its current meaning in the mid-1990s, describing bands such as Earth Crisis, Deadguy and Integrity.[3] The earliest of these groups, Integrity, began performing in 1988.[4] Metalcore is distinguished from other punk metal fusions by its emphasis on breakdowns:[5] slower, intense passages conducive to moshing.[6]

Contents

History

Precursors (1977–1984)

Black Flag[7] and Bad Brains,[8] among the originators of hardcore, admired and emulated Black Sabbath. British street punk groups such as Discharge and The Exploited also took inspiration from heavy metal.[9] The Misfits put out the Earth A.D. album, becoming a crucial influence on thrash.[10] Nonetheless, punk and metal cultures and music remained separate through the first half of the 1980s.

Crossover thrash (1984–1988)

Cross-pollination between metal and hardcore eventually birthed the crossover thrash scene, which gestated at a Berkeley club called Ruthie's, in 1984.[11] The term "metalcore" was originally used to refer to these crossover groups.[12] Hardcore punk groups Corrosion of Conformity,[13] Dirty Rotten Imbeciles and Suicidal Tendencies[14] played alongside thrash metal groups like Metallica and Slayer. This scene influenced the skinhead wing of New York hardcore, which also began in 1984, and included groups such as Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law, Agnostic Front[15] and Warzone.[16] The Cro-Mags were among the most influential of these bands, drawing equally from Bad Brains, Motörhead, and Black Sabbath.[17] Cro-Mags also embraced straight edge and, surprisingly enough, Krishna consciousness.[18] Other New York straight edge groups included Gorilla Biscuits, Crumbsuckers, and Youth of Today,[19] who inaugurated the youth crew style.[20] 1985 saw the development of the hardcore breakdown, an amalgamation of Bad Brains' reggae and metal backgrounds,[6] which encouraged moshing. Agnostic Front's 1986 album Cause for Alarm, a collaboration with Peter Steele, was a watershed in the intertwining of hardcore and metal.[21]

Converge at Neumo's in Seattle, Washington in 2008.

Metallic hardcore (1989–2000)

Between 1989 and 1995, a new wave of hardcore bands emerged.[4] These included Integrity,[22], Biohazard, Earth Crisis,[22][23] Converge,[23] Shai Hulud,[24][25][26] Starkweather, Judge, Bloodlet,[23] Strife,[22] Rorschach, Cave In,[27] Vision of Disorder,[27] Hatebreed,[22][27] and Candiria.[27] Integrity drew influence primarily from the Japanese hardcore terrorism of G.I.S.M. and the metal of Slayer, with more subtle elements of Septic Death, Samhain, Motörhead, and Joy Division.[28] And Earth Crisis, Converge, and Hatebreed[29] borrowed from death metal.[30] Shai Hulud's Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion[24][25][26] and Earth Crisis's 1995 album Destroy the Machines was particularly influential.[31] In guitarist Scott Crouse's words,

It was a very mixed reaction. I'm often quoted as saying that Earth Crisis was the first hardcore band with a metal sound. Of course we weren't the first, but I think we definitely took it to another level. We heard a lot of, 'These guys are trying to be Pantera,' which we all took as a great compliment![31]

Biohazard, Coalesce,[32] and Overcast were also important early metalcore groups. These groups are sometimes referred to as "metallic hardcore".[33][34]

Melodic metalcore
Stylistic origins Metalcore (metallic hardcore era), melodic death metal, post-hardcore
Cultural origins Late 1990s, North America and United Kingdom
Typical instruments Electric guitar, bass guitar, drums (double kick)
Mainstream popularity High mainstream popularity in the 2000s
Fusion genres
Deathcore
Regional scenes
Australia - Germany - Massachusetts - Russia
Other topics
Breakdown, punk metal

Melodic metalcore (1995–present)

In the early 1990s, a third wave of metalcore groups appeared, who placed significantly greater emphasis on melody. The first bands to have blended such elements such as As I Lay Dying, Killswitch Engage, Shadows Fall, All That Remains, Underoath, Avenged Sevenfold and Atreyu[35][36] emerged and are now the most commercially successful practitioners of metalcore.

Other notable metalcore bands include Miss May I, Haste The Day, Parkway Drive, Bring Me The Horizon, Darkest Hour, Caliban, Bleeding Through, August Burns Red, Texas In July, Demon Hunter, The Dead Lay Waiting, It Dies Today, The Devil Wears Prada, Unearth, and The Autumn Offering.[37] These groups took major influence, cues, and writing styles from Swedish melodic death metal bands, particularly In Flames, Dark Tranquility and At the Gates.[35][37] Melodic metalcore frequently makes use of clean vocals,[38][39][40] and is significantly less dissonant than other metalcore. Some of these groups, such as Shadows Fall, have voiced an affection for '80s glam metal.[41] Melodic metalcore groups have been described as "embrac[ing] '80s metal clichés", such as "inordinate amounts of smoke machines, rippin' solos, [and] three bass drums".[36]

In the mid-2000s, metalcore emerged as a commercial force, with several independent metal labels, including Century Media and Metal Blade, signing metalcore bands. By 2004, melodic metalcore had become popular enough that Killswitch Engage's The End of Heartache,[42] and Shadows Fall's The War Within[43] debuted at numbers 21 and 20, respectively, on the Billboard album chart. All That Remains' single "Two Weeks" peaked at number nine at the Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in the U.S. The song peaked on the Modern Rock Tracks chart at number 38. Welsh metalcore band Bullet for My Valentine's second album, Scream Aim Fire, went straight to #4 on the Billboard 200.[44] Underoath's fifth album Define the Great Line, released in 2006, peaked at #2 on the Billboard 200 charts, selling 98,000 copies in its first week.[45] Trivium has met with very strong success, making top 25 positions on the charts in several countries, including the USA, and top 10 positions in both Australia and the UK, even making Gold status in the UK. Hatebreed, God Forbid, and As I Lay Dying have also charted.[46][47][48] Underoath's most recent album Lost in the Sound of Separation has reached #8 on the Billboard 200 and has sold 56,000 copies in its first week of sales in the U.S. alone. Killswitch Engage's self-titled fifth album has reached #7 on the Billboard 200. The Devil Wears Prada's third studio album, With Roots Above and Branches Below, debuted at number 11 on the Billboard 200.

Characteristics

Instrumentation

Metalcore bands generally feature two lead and rhythm electric guitarists who often play fast riffs with dual leads.[citation needed] The guitars are usually drop-tuned anywhere between D and even down to A in some bands, although usually drop-C tuning is used. The drop-tuning achieves a perfect-fifth between the lowest two strings of a guitar, and an octave between the lowest string and the third lowest. This makes the root and fifth of chords quite easy to play together.
Bassists usually follow the rhythm guitar, with cues from the drums.[citation needed] Sometimes keyboards are added.

Vocals

Metalcore vocalists often make use of screaming and the death growl, particularly common among many 1990s metalcore groups. Today many metalcore bands combine growled vocals with clean vocals.[38]

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

Music

The vast majority of songs are in minor keys, usually in keys corresponding to the tuning of the guitars (c minor for guitars in drop-C, b-flat minor for guitars in drop-B-flat, etc.). The melodies can range anywhere to simple motives consisting of conjuct scalar motion to complex chord outlines. The harmonies often consist of a third played over or under a simple melodic line in the minor scale on the guitar. Keyboards, if used, usually play chords or intervals to give the music a more dense sound.

A defining characteristic of the genre is the breakdown. This is part of a song that focuses almost entirely on rhythm.

Ideologies

Metalcore emerged from the milieu surrounding youth crew hardcore punk subculture, with many of the groups adhering to straight edge beliefs (abstention from drugs and alcohol), although Integrity was a notable exception.[4] Converge was notable for their focus on personal anguish and experiences of failed romantic love.[49][50] Dwid Hellion, frontman of Integrity, advocated the "Holy Terror Church of Final Judgment", an apocalyptic belief system related to Gnosticism and Catharism.[1] Several members of contemporary metalcore bands are practicing Christians, including members of Zao,[51] Demon Hunter, As I Lay Dying,[52] Underoath[53] and Norma Jean.[54]

Subgenres

Mathcore

Mathcore began with the mid-'90s work of Converge[55], Botch[56][57] and The Dillinger Escape Plan[58]. The term mathcore is suggested by analogy with math rock. Mathcore is characterized by speed, technical riffing, and unusual time signatures.[59][60] Bands such as Protest the Hero, Ion Dissonance,[61] and Fear Before,[62] are bands that incorporate metalcore standards along with time signatures and progressive elements.

Deathcore

Deathcore is an amalgamation of metalcore and death metal.[63] While remaining a subgenre of metalcore, deathcore is heavily influenced by death metal in its speed, heaviness, and approach to chromatic, heavily palm muted riffing, dissonance, and frequent key changes.[citation needed] Deathcore often features breakdowns and melodic riffs.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped the Scene". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. pp. 110. 
  2. ^ Christopher Pearson, "Beer and Loathing in New Jersey: Earth Crisis in Concert", January 20, 1999 [1] Access date: June 20, 2008
  3. ^ "Shai Hulud, interview with Punknews.org - 05/28/08". http://www.ruleeverymoment.com/media/interviews/interview.php?id=43. Retrieved 2008-09-21. ""As far as coining the term “metalcore” or coining a sound, I don’t think we did. There were bands before Shai Hulud started that my friends and I were referring to as “metalcore”. Bands like Burn, Deadguy, Earth Crisis, even Integrity. These bands that were heavier than the average hardcore bands. These bands that were more progressive than the average hardcore band. My friends and I would always refer to them as “metalcore” because it wasn’t purely hardcore and it wasn’t purely metal. It was like a heavier hardcore band with hardcore ethics and attitude but clearly a metal influence. So we would joke around and say “Hey, it’s metalcore. Cool!” But it was definitely a tongue-in-cheek term."" 
  4. ^ a b c "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped the Scene". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. pp. 110, 118. 
  5. ^ "The best part of every metalcore song is the breakdown, the part where the drums drop out and the guitars slow their frantic gallop to a devastating, precise crunch-riff and everyone in the moshpit goes extra nuts." - Tom Breihan. "Status Ain't Hood". "Live: Trivium, the Jackson 5 of Underground Metal". The Village Voice Daily Voice. October 11, 2006. [2] Access date: July 21, 2008.
  6. ^ a b "Mosh style was slower, very tribal – like a Reggae beat adapted to Hardcore. [...] It was an outbreak of dancing with a mid-tempo beat driven by floor tom and snare." - Howie Abrams, Blush, p. 193
  7. ^ Blush, American Hardcore, part 2, "Thirsty and Miserable", p. 63, 66
  8. ^ Andersen, Mark and Mark Jenkins (2003). Dance of Days: Two Decades of Punk in the Nation's Capital. "Postive Mental Attitude". p. 27. Akashic Books. ISBN 1888451440
  9. ^ Glasper, Ian (2004). Burning Britain: The History of UK Punk 1980-1984. Cherry Red Books. p. 5. ISBN 1901447243
  10. ^ Blush, "Hits from Hell", American Hardcore, p. 204
  11. ^ Blush, p. 115
  12. ^ Felix von Havoc, Maximum Rock'n'Roll #198 [3] Access date: June 20, 2008
  13. ^ Blush, p. 193
  14. ^ Christe, Ian: Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal (2003), p. 184
  15. ^ Blush, p. 186
  16. ^ Blush, p. 188
  17. ^ Blush, p. 189
  18. ^ "Cro-Mags were the first band to attract both Skinheads and Metalheads audiences; their music at the point where Hardcore nihilism met Metal power." Blush, p. 189
  19. ^ Blush, p. 194
  20. ^ Alternative Press, July 7, 2008, p. 109
  21. ^ Blush, p. 192
  22. ^ a b c d "here the term (metalcore) is used in its original context, referencing the likes of Strife, Earth Crisis, and Integrity ...", Ian Glasper, Terrorizer no. 171, June 2008, p. 78
  23. ^ a b c Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 193259504X. p. 222-223
  24. ^ a b "Kill Your Stereo - Reviews: Shai Hulud - Misanthropy Pure". http://www.killyourstereo.com/reviews/169/shai-hulud-misanthropy-pure/. "Shai Hulud, a name that is synonymous (in heavy music circles at least) with intelligent, provocative and most importantly unique metallic hardcore. The band’s earliest release is widely credited with influencing an entire generation of musicians" 
  25. ^ a b "Shai Hulud - Hearts Once Nourished With Hope And Co Review - sputnikmusic". http://www.sputnikmusic.com/album.php?albumid=24083. "Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion is pretty much the prime in early melodic metalcore. So many bands in both the modern metalcore and hardcore scene have drawn vast influence from them, because of how perfect they blend hardcore and metal." 
  26. ^ a b "In At The Deep End Records". http://www.iatde.alivewww.co.uk/zombieapocalypse.htm. "Regardless of whether or not you liked Shai Hulud, it is undeniable that Hearts Once Nourished with Hope and Compassion was an oft-imitated and highly influential release in the mid-to-late nineties." 
  27. ^ a b c d Ross Haenfler, Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813538521 p. 87-88
  28. ^ "It was this simple formula that's single-handedly responsible for every band you hear combining heavy metal and hardcore today." "Blood Runs Deep: 23 Bands Who Shaped the Scene". Alternative Press. July 7, 2008. pp. 110. 
  29. ^ Hatebreed cites Entombed and Bolt Thrower. Q&A with Jamey Jasta, Miami New Times, May 27, 2008. [4] Access date: June 22, 2008
  30. ^ Karl Buechner of Earth Crisis cites Napalm Death, Bolt Thrower, and Obituary as prime influences. Mudrian also discusses Converge and Bloodlet and their relationship to death metal. See Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 193259504X. p. 222-223
  31. ^ a b Gabriel Cardenas Salas, "Blasts from the Past," Terrorizer 180, February 2009, p. 96.
  32. ^ The History of Rock Music: 1990-1999
  33. ^ "EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH SHAI HULUD GUITARIST MATT FOX". http://www.metalsucks.net/?p=5504. Retrieved 2008-10-09. ""When we used to joke with the term, it was just a clever (or not so clever) way of describing a metallic hardcore, metal-influenced hardcore, or hardcore-influenced metal band."" 
  34. ^ J. Bennett, "Converge's Jane Doe, Revolver, June 2008
  35. ^ a b Allmusic Review, Atreyu, Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses [5] Access date: June 24, 2008
  36. ^ a b "Taste of Chaos", Revolver, June 2008. p. 110.
  37. ^ a b Metal Injection, August 28, 2007 [6] Access date: June 24, 2008
  38. ^ a b Suicide Notes and Butterfly Kisses review
  39. ^ Metalrage, 12/30/07 [7] Access date: June 24, 2008
  40. ^ El Paisano, 9/12/07 [8] Access date: June 24, 2008
  41. ^ Dan Epstein, "The Brewtal Truth", Revolver, Nov. 2004, p. 65
  42. ^ The End of Heartache at Billboard.com
  43. ^ [9] at Blabbermouth.net
  44. ^ Scream Aim Fire at Billboard.com
  45. ^ [10] at Billboard.com
  46. ^ Supremacy at Billboard.com
  47. ^ Perseverance at Billboard.com
  48. ^ Sacrament at Billboard.com
  49. ^ Interview with My Penis, Revolver, June 2008. p. 114
  50. ^ Ferris, D.X.. "The Godfather of Cleveland Hardcore". Cleveland Scene. http://www.clevescene.com/2005-04-27/news/the-godfather-of-cleveland-hardcore/3. Retrieved June 8, 2008. 
  51. ^ Cogdale, Russ. Interview. Zao's music abrasive yet spiritual. Deseret News. 2005-01-28. Retrieved on 2008-07-08.
  52. ^ FAQ - As I Lay Dying
  53. ^ Chamberlain, Spencer & Gillespie, Aaron. Interview. Interview With Underoath. Europunk.net. 2006-07-17. Retrieved on 2008-01-28.
  54. ^ Style, Justin (August 2003). "Blessing the Martyrs". Cross Rhythms (76). http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/music/Blessing_the_Martyrs/8026/p1/. 
  55. ^ "Converge biography". Rockdetector.com. http://www.rockdetector.com/officialbio,1883.sm. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  56. ^ Botch - We Are The Romans Review
  57. ^ San Francisco Bay Guardian : Article : The Gap's attack on kids
  58. ^ TV3 > News > Story > Mathcore band the 'Dillinger Escape Plan' visit NZ
  59. ^ Events for this weekend in New York
  60. ^ http://www.thebatt.com/home/index.cfm?event=displayArticle&ustory_id=57c9a7c1-3b7d-4def-97f1-3783659abe8c
  61. ^ http://www.mtv.com/news/articles/1543586/20061019/index.jhtml?headlines=true
  62. ^ "Fear Before The March Of Flames Bio" The Gauntlet. Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  63. ^ lambgoat.com "This is deathcore. This is what happens when death metal and hardcore, along with healthy doses of other heavy music styles, are so smoothly blended..."

Bibliography

  • Haenfler, Ross. Straight Edge: Clean-living Youth, Hardcore Punk, and Social Change, Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0813538521
  • Mudrian, Albert (2000). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House. ISBN 193259504X
  • Sharpe-Young, Garry (2005). New Wave of American Heavy Metal. Zonda Books. ISBN 0958268401







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