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Metastasis
Classification and external resources
DiseasesDB 28954
MedlinePlus 002260
Cut surface of a liver showing multiple metastatic nodules originating from pancreatic cancer
Cut surface of a humerus sawn lengthwise, showing a large cancerous metastasis (the whitish tumor between the head and the shaft of the bone)
.Metastasis (Greek: displacement, μετά=next + στάσις=placement, plural: metastases), or metastatic disease, sometimes abbreviated mets, is the spread of a disease from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part.^ This process is called "metastasis" and a cancer which has spread to other organs is called "metastatic."
  • CancerGuide: Understanding Cancer Types and Staging 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC cancerguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the cancer or infection was thought to have spread from one organ to another, it was called "metastasis".
  • Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC learninggnm.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastasis is the spreading of a disease from one part of the body to another.

.It had been previously thought that only malignant tumor cells and infections have the capacity to metastasize; however, this is being reconsidered due to new research.^ What leads tumor cells to metastasize?
  • The Scripps Research Institute - Brunhilde Felding-Habermann: Interfering with the Spread of Breast Cancer and Melanoma 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all tumor cells are able to metastasize.
  • Breast Cancer Genes 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.rps.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How do tumor cells metastasize?

[1][2][3]
.Cancer cells can break away, leak, or spill from a primary tumor, enter lymphatic and blood vessels, circulate through the bloodstream, and be deposited within normal tissue elsewhere in the body.^ Tumor cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis .
  • Tumor cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC lmbm.epfl.ch [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastasis ( Greek : change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body" Cancer cells can break away from a primary tumor , penetrate into lymphatic and blood vessels , circulate through the bloodstream, and grow in a distant focus (metastasize) in normal tissues elsewhere in the body.

^ The cancer resulting from the spread of the primary tumor.
  • Metastasis definition - Cancer Information (Cancers, Symptoms, Treatment) on MedicineNet.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: Academic]

.Metastasis is one of three hallmarks of malignancy (contrast benign tumors).^ One way is to focus not on malignancy, but on metastasis.
  • Breast Cancer Genes 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.rps.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastasis is one of three hallmarks of malignancy (contrast benign tumors ).
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tumors can be either benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Most tumors and other neoplasms can metastasize, although in varying degrees (e.g., glioma and basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasize).^ What leads tumor cells to metastasize?
  • The Scripps Research Institute - Brunhilde Felding-Habermann: Interfering with the Spread of Breast Cancer and Melanoma 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all tumor cells are able to metastasize.
  • Breast Cancer Genes 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.rps.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How do tumor cells metastasize?

[4]
.When tumor cells metastasize, the new tumor is called a secondary or metastatic tumor, and its cells are like those in the original tumor.^ What leads tumor cells to metastasize?
  • The Scripps Research Institute - Brunhilde Felding-Habermann: Interfering with the Spread of Breast Cancer and Melanoma 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The original tumor is called the primary cancer or primary tumor.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The original tumor that cells break away from is called the primary tumor The new tumor that the traveling cells create is called the secondary tumor.
  • Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC her2support.org [Source type: Academic]

.This means, for example, that, if breast cancer metastasizes to the lungs, the secondary tumor is made up of abnormal breast cells, not of abnormal lung cells.^ This means, for example, that if breast cancer spreads (metastasizes) to the lung, the secondary tumor is made up of abnormal breast cells (not abnormal lung cells).

^ What leads tumor cells to metastasize?
  • The Scripps Research Institute - Brunhilde Felding-Habermann: Interfering with the Spread of Breast Cancer and Melanoma 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common tumors which account for bone metastases are breast cancer , lung cancer , and prostate cancer .
  • Causes of Bone Cancer | Primary Bone Tumors | Bone Cancer Causes 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.onlinecancerguide.com [Source type: Academic]

.The tumor in the lung is then called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer.^ The original tumor is called the primary cancer or primary tumor.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Next Section Metastatic cancer to the lung .
  • Metastatic cancer to the lung 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stage of the cancer is called metastatic breast cancer.

Contents

Modes and sites of metastatic dispersal

.Metastatic tumors are very common in the late stages of cancer.^ LIPOMA : very common fatty tumor.
  • New Page 1 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.familyvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metastatic tumors are common in the late stages of cancer, and can be prevented with the early detection of cancer cells.
  • Mesothelioma SOS - Glossary - Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.mesotheliomasos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stage of the cancer is called metastatic breast cancer.

.The spread of metastases may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes.^ The spread of metastases may occur via the blood or the lymphatics or through both routes.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two ways of metastasize: through blood and through lymphatics, or through both of them.
  • Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.syl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system .
  • Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.syl.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most common places for the metastases to occur are the lungs, liver, brain, and the bones.^ The 2 most common malignant brain neoplasms are gliomas and metastases.
  • The Solitary Enhancing Cerebral Lesion: Can FLAIR Aid the Differentiation between Glioma and Metastasis? -- Tang et al. 27 (3): 609 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.ajnr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common tumors which account for bone metastases are breast cancer , lung cancer , and prostate cancer .
  • Causes of Bone Cancer | Primary Bone Tumors | Bone Cancer Causes 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.onlinecancerguide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastases may also be found in the liver and lungs.

[5] .There is also a propensity for certain tumors to seed in particular organs.^ There is also a propensity for certain tumors to seed in particular organs.
  • What is Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also a tendency of certain tumors migrate to other organs.
  • Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.syl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certain tumors tend to metastasize preferentially to particular organs.
  • prostate_cancer 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.zetterlab.org [Source type: Academic]

.This was first discussed as the "seed and soil" theory by Stephen Paget over a century ago in 1889. For example, prostate cancer usually metastasizes to the bones.^ Prostate cancer bone metastasis prognosis .

^ Prostate cancer bone metastasis .

^ Prostate cancer bone mets .

.In a similar manner, colon cancer has a tendency to metastasize to the liver.^ Color cancer usually metastasizes to the liver.
  • Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.syl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a similar manner, colon cancer has the tendency to metastasize to the liver.
  • Metastasis inhibition preparations and methods - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Liver metastases from colon cancer may be treated with combination ...
  • Liver Metastasis - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

.Stomach cancer often metastasizes to the ovary in women, then it is called a Krukenberg tumor.^ Stomach cancer has a tendency to metastasize to the ovary in the women's bodies, thus forming there a Krukenberg tumor.
  • Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.syl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These spreading tumors are called metastases.

^ The original tumor is called the primary cancer or primary tumor.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is difficult for cancer cells to survive outside their region of origin, so in order to metastasize they must find a location with similar characteristics.^ Cancer is life-threatening when cells metastasize .
  • Metastasize can spread through blood or through lymph system 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.syl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It occurs when cancer cells at an original site metastasize (travel) to the bone.
  • Metastatic Bone Disease & Metastron FAQ's 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC md.gehealthcare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is difficult for cancer cells to survive outside their region of origin, so in order to metastasize they must find a location with similar characteristics.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metastasis inhibition preparations and methods - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1928 James Ewing challenged the "seed and soil" theory and proposed that metastasis occurs purely by anatomic and mechanical routes.^ The metastasis theory proposes that cancer cells .
  • Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC learninggnm.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, James Ewing, MD, an American pathologist, proposed his circulation theory in 1928.
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Metastatic Bone Disease 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This was first discussed as the "seed and soil" theory by Stephen Paget over a century ago in 1889.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.
Micrograph of thyroid cancer (papillary thyroid carcinoma) in a lymph node of the neck.
^ Carcinoma metastatic to lymph node of No.
  • US Biomax - Breast Cancer Tissue Array With Matched Carcinoma Metastasis To Lymph Nodes, 50 Cases/100 Cores, Replaced By BR1004 - Product Detail 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.biomax.us [Source type: Academic]

^ The number and size of lymph nodes that have cancer in them.
  • Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®) 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Earlier the diagnosis of breast cancer always involved the removal of the breast and the surrounding skin, muscles underneath the breast and the lymph nodes underneath the arm.
  • Metastatic Breast Cancer | Causes and Types | Metastatic Breast Cancer Treatment 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.onlinecancerguide.com [Source type: Academic]

H&E stain
.For example, breast tumor cells, which gather calcium ions from breast milk, metastasize to bone tissue, where they can gather calcium ions from bone.^ What leads tumor cells to metastasize?
  • The Scripps Research Institute - Brunhilde Felding-Habermann: Interfering with the Spread of Breast Cancer and Melanoma 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Not all tumor cells are able to metastasize.
  • Breast Cancer Genes 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.rps.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Disorganized cells of breast tumor on right.
  • Menacing metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC whyfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

.Malignant melanoma spreads to the brain, presumably because neural tissue and melanocytes arise from the same cell line in the embryo.^ Malignant melanoma spreads to the brain, presumably because neural tissue and melanocytes arise from the same cell line in the embryo .
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many tumor or cancer types can spread to the brain, the most common being lung cancer , breast cancer , melanoma , kidney cancer , bladder cancer, certain sarcomas, testicular and germ cell tumors, and a number of others.
  • Metastatic Brain Tumor - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Metastatic Brain Tumor - NY Times Health Information 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two broad categories of brain tumors: tumors which occur elsewhere in the body and metastasize to the brain, and tumors which arise from the tissues of the brain itself and its surrounding membranes.

[6]
.Cancer cells may spread to lymph nodes (regional lymph nodes) near the primary tumor.^ Cancer cells usually spread via the bloodstream or the lymph system .

^ Cancer that spreads to other organs or to lymph nodes far from the primary tumor is called metastatic disease.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells may spread to lymph nodes (regional lymph nodes) near the primary tumor.

.This is called nodal involvement, positive nodes, or regional disease.^ This is called "lymph node involvement" or "regional disease".

^ This is called nodal involvement, positive nodes, or regional disease.

^ This is called lymph node involvement or regional disease.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.("Positive nodes" is a term that would be used by medical specialists to describe a patient's condition, meaning that the patient's lymph nodes near the primary tumor tested positive for malignancy.^ N0 means the lymph nodes are not involved.
  • Prostate Cancer 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.malecare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells may spread to lymph nodes (regional lymph nodes) near the primary tumor.

^ Tumor involvement / lymph node involvement .
  • http://www.researchvegf.com/researchvegf/tumors/crc/prognosis/metastasis/index.m 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.researchvegf.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is common medical practice to test by biopsy at least two lymph nodes near a tumor site when doing surgery to examine or remove a tumor.^ Staging may be done by physical examination, medical testing, or surgery.

^ Testing can involve removal of a lymph node, needle puncture of a tumor, or examination of a bone marrow sample.
  • Metastasis Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Emergency surgery can remove the tumor or obstruction.
  • Brain Metastases (Mets, Secondary Brain Tumors) 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.virtualtrials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .Localized spread to regional lymph nodes near the primary tumor is not normally counted as metastasis, although this is a sign of worse prognosis.^ The cancer resulting from the spread of the primary tumor.
  • Metastasis definition - Cancer Information (Cancers, Symptoms, Treatment) on MedicineNet.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells may spread to lymph nodes (regional lymph nodes) near the primary tumor.

^ Local lymph node metastasis is designated by clinical stage N1 .
  • Advanced Prostate Cancer: Understanding Prostate Cancer Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.prostate-cancer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Transport through lymphatics is the most common pathway for the initial dissemination of carcinomas.^ The most common way for cancer to spread is through the lymphatic system.
  • Metastases (mets) or how cancer spreads 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.phoenix5.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • metastasis metatstases 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.e-radiography.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Localized spread to regional lymph nodes near the primary tumor is not normally counted as metastasis, although this is a sign of worse prognosis .Transport through lymphatics is the most common pathway for the initial dissemination of carcinomas.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Intraperitoneal dissemination is the most common and recognized characteristic of ovarian cancer.
  • Ovarian Metastasis, El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal Video Endoscopy 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.gastrointestinalatlas.com [Source type: Academic]

[4]
.In addition to the above routes, metastasis may occur by direct seeding, called transcoelomic spread.^ If this happens, metastasis, or tumor spreading may occur.

^ The spread of cancer is called metastasis.
  • Metastasis | Oncology and Neuroscience Blog from Elekta 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC blog.elekta.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This spread is called metastasis.
  • Prostate cancer 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is generally only seen in the peritoneal or pleural cavities by ovarian tumours and mesotheliomas respectively.^ In addition to the above routes, metastasis may occur by direct seeding, e.g., in the peritoneal cavity or pleural cavity .
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pleural Mesothelioma/Peritoneal .

[7]

Factors involved

.Metastasis is a complex series of steps in which cancer cells leave the original tumor site and migrate to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or the lymphatic system.^ Metastasis most commonly occurs by way of the bloodstream or the lymphatic system.

^ A molecule that stimulates cell migration and promotes metastasis in prostate cancer cells.

^ Metastasis is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body.

.To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which separates the tumor from adjoining tissue.^ To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix, which separates the tumor from adjoining tissue.
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malignant mesothelioma cells in the tumor break off and make their way to the extracellular matrix.

^ Isolated cancer cells that break away from the primary tumor must first breach the connective tissue immediately surrounding the cancer.
  • Preventing Surgery-Induced Cancer Metastasis - Life Extension 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Preventing Surgery-Induced Cancer Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.oasisadvancedwellness.com [Source type: Academic]

.By degrading these proteins, cancer cells are able to breach the ECM and escape.^ By degrading these proteins, cancer cells are able to breach the extracellular matrix .
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By degrading these proteins, cancer cells are able to breach the ECM and escape.
  • What is Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metastasis inhibition preparations and methods - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix, which separates the tumor from adjoining tissue.
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When oral cancers metastasize, they commonly travel through the lymph system to the lymph nodes in the neck.^ Cancer cells can also travel through the lymph system.
  • ACS :: What Is Bone Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important to review the staging system of lymph node metastases.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Management of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis with an Unknown Primary 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.bcm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells usually spread through the bloodstream or the lymph system .

.The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors, of which about a dozen are known.^ The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors, of which about a dozen are known.
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors of which about a dozen are known.
  • Metastasis inhibition preparations and methods - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The body resists metastasis by a variety of mechanisms through the actions of a class of proteins known as metastasis suppressors , of which about a dozen are known.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.Cancer researchers studying the conditions necessary for cancer metastasis have discovered that one of the critical events required is the growth of a new network of blood vessels, called tumor angiogenesis.^ The original tumor is called the primary cancer or primary tumor.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the best studied is in bone metastasis.

^ This spread of cancer to a new part of the body is called metastasis.
  • ACS :: What Is Bone Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .It has been found that angiogenesis inhibitors would therefore prevent the growth of metastases.^ Angiogenesis inhibitors have therefore been proposed in preventing the growth of metastases.
  • Metastasis inhibition preparations and methods - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been found that angiogenesis inhibitors would therefore prevent the growth of metastases.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 induces progression of melanoma brain metastases without induction of sprouting angiogenesis.
  • PLoS ONE: The Vascular Basement Membrane as “Soil” in Brain Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Metastasis and primary cancer

.It is theorized that metastasis always coincides with a primary cancer, and, as such, is a tumor that started from a cancer cell or cells in another part of the body.^ Metastasis is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body.

^ Metastasis is the spreading of a disease from one part of the body to another.

^ Metastatic cancer is cancer that has spread from the part of the body where it started (called its primary site) to other parts of the body.
  • ACS :: What Is Bone Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, over 10% of patients presenting to oncology units will have metastases without a primary tumor found.^ In about 10% of adults, the primary tumor is never found .
  • Brain-surgery.us ~ Brain surgery, Brain surgeon, Neurosurgery, Neurosurgeon, Brain tumor, Brain tumour, Brain aneurysm, Brain aneurism 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.brain-surgery.us [Source type: Academic]

^ However, over 10% of patients presenting to oncology units will have metastases without a primary tumour found.

^ Metastases have also been found in the absence of clinically detectable primary tumors [ 24 ].
  • A Molecular Signature of Metastasis in Primary Solid Tumors. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.euchromatin.net [Source type: Academic]

.In these cases, doctors refer to the primary tumor as "unknown" or "occult," and the patient is said to have cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) or Unknown Primary Tumors (UPT).^ Early metastatic cancer of unknown primary origin at presentation.
  • Choroidal Metastasis from an Occult Primary Kaushik S, Arya SK J Postgrad Med 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When doctors can't figure out where the primary cancer site is, it is called cancer of unknown primary .
  • ACS :: What Is Bone Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not the primary tumor that kills most cancer patients, but the metastases which arise from it.
  • News: Metastasis formation revealed in detail and real time. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: News]
  • Metastasis formation revealed in detail and real time | Science Blog 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is estimated that 3% of all cancers are of unknown primary origin.^ Early metastatic cancer of unknown primary origin at presentation.
  • Choroidal Metastasis from an Occult Primary Kaushik S, Arya SK J Postgrad Med 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.jpgmonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is estimated that 3% of all cancers are of unknown primary origin.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary Tumor Tumor at the original cancer site.

[10] .Studies have shown that, if simple questioning does not reveal the cancer's source (coughing up blood—"probably lung", urinating blood—"probably bladder"), complex imaging will not either.^ Coughing up blood.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have shown that if simple questioning does not reveal the cancer's source (coughing up blood -'probably lung', urinating blood - 'probably bladder'), complex imaging will not either.

^ Studies have shown that, if simple questioning does not reveal the cancer's source (coughing up blood -'probably lung ', urinating blood - 'probably bladder '), complex imaging will not either.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .In some of these cases a primary tumor may appear later.^ These primary tumors may be benign or malignant.

^ In some of these cases a primary may appear later.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, it may metastasize.
  • Spinal Tumors (Primary, Metastatic) - New York Presbyterian Hospital 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.nyp.org [Source type: Academic]

.The use of immunohistochemistry has permitted pathologists to give an identity to many of these metastases.^ The use of immunohistochemistry has permitted pathologists to give an identity to many of these metastases.
  • What is Metastasis? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Termed palliative radiotherapy, it is possible to give pain relief to isolated painful metastases by directing the radiation to these spots in the body.
  • Prostate cancer 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the new MR imaging techniques currently used to differentiate glioma from a solitary metastasis are based on detecting these differences in the peritumoral area.
  • The Solitary Enhancing Cerebral Lesion: Can FLAIR Aid the Differentiation between Glioma and Metastasis? -- Tang et al. 27 (3): 609 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.ajnr.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, imaging of the indicated area only occasionally reveals a primary.^ However, imaging of the indicated area only occasionally reveals a primary.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, if any darkly pigmented areas are actually raised above the normal surface or seem thickened or ulcerated or inflamed, an exam is indicated.
  • Skin cancer in dogs 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.caninecancer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, patients with brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma commonly have no lung metastasis and the most recent reports have indicated that only 15-30% of patients had lung metastasis at the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis.
  • Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma Saeid Almasi, Mohammad Bashashati, Nima Rezaei, Nader Markazi-Moghaddam Neurol India 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.neurologyindia.com [Source type: Academic]

.In rare cases (e.g., of melanoma), no primary tumor is found, even on autopsy.^ In the case of solid tumors, the recovery rate for advanced cancer is only 10% even today.
  • Cancer metastasis inhibitory composition - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiographs of the chest will sometimes show evidence of metastatic disease, even before the primary tumor has been discovered.
  • Metastatic Neoplasia (Cancer) in Dogs 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

^ However, in a small number of cases, a metastatic tumor is diagnosed but the primary tumor cannot be found, in spite of extensive tests.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is therefore thought that some primary tumors can regress completely, but leave their metastases behind.^ It is therefore thought that some primary tumors can regress completely, but leave their metastases behind.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In breast cancer the primary tumor can readily be removed but once the tumor has metastasized it becomes very difficult to eradicate.
  • Saskatchewan Cancer Agency - Dr. Svein Carlsen (Vice-President, Research) 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.saskcancer.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost 10% of patients presenting to oncology units will have metastases without a primary tumor found.
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Common sites of origin

Symptoms

Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend location of the tumor.
.The symptoms of metastasis varies with location of the tumors.^ Symptoms Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend location of the tumor.
  • What, Why and how of Metastasis | Bone and Spine 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC boneandspine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fidler, I.J. & Kripke, M.L. Metastasis results from pre-existing variant cells within a malignant tumor.
  • A Molecular Signature of Metastasis in Primary Solid Tumors. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.euchromatin.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Fidler IJ, Kripke ML. Metastasis results from preexisting variant cells within a malignant tumor.
  • H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute - H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.moffitt.org [Source type: Academic]

.Initially, nearby lymph nodes are struck early.^ When the early 1998 gingival squamous cell carcinoma is evaluated as the primary tumor for the lymph node metastasis, all lymph node deposit LOH is accounted for by the primary tumor.
  • Case 287 -- Molecular Diagnostics Case 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC path.upmc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Only in one lung and in nearby lymph nodes, Cancer is found.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Will spread to lymph nodes and other parts of the digestive system if not treated early.
  • New Page 1 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.familyvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .Lungs, bones, liver, and brain are the most common metastasis locations from solid tumors.^ Lung cancer is the most common primary tumor that metastasizes to the hand.
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Metastatic Bone Disease 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Common sites of metastasis are lung, pleura and other bones.
  • Ewing's sarcoma with cutaneous metastasis - a rare entity: Report of three cases Biswas G, Khadwal A, Kulkarni P, Bakshi A, Nair C, Kurkure P, Muckaden M, Parikh P - Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.ijdvl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bones are a common site of metastasis.
  • Bone Metastasis - OrganizedWisdom Health 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: Academic]

[11]
.Although advanced cancer may cause pain, it is often not the first symptom.^ Often, the first symptoms are vague.
  • Metastatic Liver Cancer: Tumors of the Liver: Merck Manual Home Edition 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone pain is often the first symptom of cancer that has spread to the bone.
  • ACS :: How Is Bone Metastasis Diagnosed? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC ww2.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pain often comes and goes at first.
  • ACS :: How Is Bone Metastasis Diagnosed? 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC ww2.cancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some patients, however, don't show any symptoms.^ Some tumors may not show symptoms until they are very large.
  • Metastatic Brain Tumor - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Metastatic Brain Tumor - NY Times Health Information 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, none of the patients had clinical signs or symptoms of leptomeningeal metastasis at the time of surgery.
  • Leptomeningeal metastasis after surgical resection of brain metastases -- van der Ree et al. 66 (2): 225 -- Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC jnnp.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, with a little understanding and patience, some of the embarrassments and difficulties can be overcome and the ways you achieve an erection can be used in foreplay.
  • Prostate cancer 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Diagnosis of primary and secondary tumors

CT image of multiple liver metastases
CT image of a lung metastasis
.
Metastasis proven by liver biopsy (tumor (adenocarcinoma) - lower two-thirds of image).
^ However, a liver biopsy is necessary to distinguish between cancerous tumors and other abnormalities.
  • Imaginis - Advanced (Metastatic) Breast Cancer 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.imaginis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hierarchical clustering of 62 primary lung adenocarcinomas using 128 metastases-derived genes defined two predominant primary-tumor groups in the resulting dendrogram.
  • A Molecular Signature of Metastasis in Primary Solid Tumors. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.euchromatin.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A —Stage T1 adenocarcinoma in 54-year-old woman with left lower paratracheal lymph node metastasis on histopathologic examination.
  • Do Hemodynamic Studies of Stage T1 Lung Cancer Enable the Prediction of Hilar or Mediastinal Nodal Metastasis? -- Shim et al. 186 (4): 981 -- American Journal of Roentgenology 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.ajronline.org [Source type: Academic]

H&E stain.
.The cells in a metastatic tumor resemble those in the primary tumor.^ The cells in a metastatic tumor resemble those in the primary tumor.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cells in the metastatic tumor come from the original tumor.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the metastatic process that is lethal, not the primary tumor.
  • Green Tea, White Tea: Health Cancer 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC greentealovers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Once the cancerous tissue is examined under a microscope to determine the cell type, a doctor can usually tell whether that type of cell is normally found in the part of the body from which the tissue sample was taken.^ Small cell lung cancer is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of the lungs.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Biopsy The removal of a sample of tissue followed by microscopic examination by a pathologist to see whether cancer cells are present.

^ In addition, a tissue sample may be taken prior to surgery for examination under a microscope.
  • Spinal Tumors (Primary, Metastatic) - New York Presbyterian Hospital 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.nyp.org [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, breast cancer cells look the same whether they are found in the breast or have spread to another part of the body.^ Metastasis is the spreading of a disease from one part of the body to another.

^ The term is particularly applied to the spread ofcancer cells from one part of the body to another.

^ This allows the medicine to reach cancer cells that have spread throughout the body.

.So, if a tissue sample taken from a tumor in the lung contains cells that look like breast cells, the doctor determines that the lung tumor is a secondary tumor.^ Needle Biopsy A sample of tissue is taken with a needle and looked at under a microscope.

^ So, if a tissue sample taken from a tumor in the lung contains cells that look like breast cells, the doctor determines that the lung tumor is a secondary tumor.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastatic (secondary) brain tumor occurs when there is a tumor in an area of the body, most commonly the lungs or the breast , and cells from that tumor break off, travel in the bloodstream (metastasize), and lodge in the brain.
  • AllRefer Health - Metastatic Brain Tumor (Brain Tumor - Metastatic, Brain Tumor - Secondary, Cancer - Brain Tumor (Secondary)) 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Still, the determination of the primary tumor can often be very difficult, and the pathologist may have to use several adjuvant techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization), and others.^ Cancer that spreads to other organs or to lymph nodes far from the primary tumor is called metastatic disease.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A CT scan is useful for determining the extent of a tumor within the abdomen and for evaluating the possible spread of tumor tissue into lymph nodes or other structures .

^ Still, whatever classification scheme is used to interpret LOH results, many lung lesions clinically interpreted as metastasis are second primary tumors when classified after LOH analysis, justifying a surgical approach with curative intent in these cases.
  • Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma following Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Metastasis or Second Primary? — Clinical Cancer Research 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC clincancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Despite the use of techniques, in some cases the primary tumor remains unidentified.^ Freezing of the tumor has also been used with some success.
  • New Page 1 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.familyvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the use of techniques, in some cases the primary tumor remains unidentified.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Still, the determination of the primary tumor can often be very difficult, and the pathologist may have to use several adjuvant techniques, such as immunohistochemistry , FISH ( fluorescent in situ hybridization ), and others.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.Metastatic cancers may be found at the same time as the primary tumor, or months or years later.^ In most cases, when a metastatic tumor is found first, the primary tumor can be found.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary Tumor Tumor at the original cancer site.

^ A woman may be found to have a distant metastasis of her breast cancer at the time when her initial breast cancer is found, or months to years later.
  • Breast Cancer Metastasis - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

.When a second tumor is found in a patient that has been treated for cancer in the past, it is more often a metastasis than another primary tumor.^ (It is common for more than one metastasis to be found.
  • Bone Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC her2support.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not the primary tumor that kills most cancer patients, but the metastases which arise from it.
  • News: Metastasis formation revealed in detail and real time. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.genengnews.com [Source type: News]

^ But the fact is that the metastatic tumor is often more dangerous than the original, or primary, tumor.
  • The FULL Cycle Of Cancer -- Normal Cell To Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.oxygentimerelease.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was previously thought that most cancer cells have a low metastatic potential and that there are rare cells that develop the ability to metastasize through the development of somatic mutations.^ There are a few cancers that rarely spread.
  • Metastasis Information - Health Articles From ActiveForever.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.activeforever.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Are there symptoms of metastatic cancer?
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastatic (secondary) brain tumor occurs when there is a tumor in an area of the body, most commonly the lungs or the breast , and cells from that tumor break off, travel in the bloodstream (metastasize), and lodge in the brain.
  • AllRefer Health - Metastatic Brain Tumor (Brain Tumor - Metastatic, Brain Tumor - Secondary, Cancer - Brain Tumor (Secondary)) 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

[12] .According to this theory, diagnosis of metastatic cancers is only possible after the event of metastasis.^ The metastasis theory proposes that cancer cells .
  • Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC learninggnm.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Diagnosis of cancer usually is performed late into the disease, when most patients already present occult metastasis.
  • Overview of Metastasis Assays | Current Protocols 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.currentprotocols.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We conclude that nodal metastasis is not only a marker of diagnosis at a later point in the natural history of breast cancer but also a marker of an aggressive phenotype.
  • Significance of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Breast Cancer -- Jatoi et al. 17 (8): 2334 -- Journal of Clinical Oncology 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC jco.ascopubs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Traditional means of diagnosing cancer (e.g.^ A biopsy means that a small amount of tissue is removed from the prostate to help diagnose whether there are any cancerous cells in it.
  • Prostate cancer 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a .biopsy) would only investigate a subpopulation of the cancer cells and would very likely not sample from the subpopulation with metastatic potential.^ In these cases, cancer cells in the new tumor are still melanoma cells and the disease is called metastatic melanoma rather than liver, lung or brain cancer.
  • Melanoma - Signs and Symptoms 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fraught with peril, very few free-standing cancer cells survive this arduous journey.
  • Preventing Surgery-Induced Cancer Metastasis - Life Extension 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Preventing Surgery-Induced Cancer Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.oasisadvancedwellness.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Talmadge JE, Fidler IJ. Enhanced metastatic potential of tumor cells harvested from spontaneous metastases of heterogeneous murine tumors.
  • H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute - H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.moffitt.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.The somatic mutation theory of metastasis development has not been substantiated in human cancers.^ The metastasis theory proposes that cancer cells .
  • Metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC learninggnm.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Overexpression of AKT2/protein kinase Bb leads to up-regulation of b1 integrins, increased invasion, and metastasis of human breast and ovarian cancer cells.
  • Metastasis Suppression by Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 Involves Reduction of Phosphoinositide Signaling in MDA-MB-435 Breast Carcinoma Cells -- DeWald et al. 65 (3): 713 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A new model for lymphatic metastasis: development of a variant of the MDA-MB-468 human breast cancer cell line that aggressively metastasizes to lymph nodes.
  • PLoS ONE: Multi-Platform Whole-Genome Microarray Analyses Refine the Epigenetic Signature of Breast Cancer Metastasis with Gene Expression and Copy Number 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Rather, it seems that the genetic state of the primary tumor reflects the ability of that cancer to metastasize.^ Lung cancer is the most common primary tumor that metastasizes to the hand.
  • Your Orthopaedic Connection: Metastatic Bone Disease 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC orthoinfo.aaos.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary Tumor Tumor at the original cancer site.

^ In the primary tumor itself, only certain cancer cells can metastasize.

[13] Research comparing gene expression between primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas identified a subset of genes whose expression could distinguish primary tumors from metastatic tumors, dubbed a "metastatic signature."[13] Up-regulated genes in the signature include: SNRPF, HNRPAB, DHPS and securin. .Actin, myosin and MHC class II down-regulation was also associated with the signature.^ RUNX1 is also downregulated in metastasis-prone tumors and is both a putative tumor suppressor [ 21 ] and regulator of MHC class II expression in hematopoietic cells (T.R.G., unpublished data).
  • A Molecular Signature of Metastasis in Primary Solid Tumors. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.euchromatin.net [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, the metastatic-associated expression of these genes was also observed in some primary tumors, indicating that cells with the potential to metastasize could be identified concurrently with diagnosis of the primary tumor.^ Targeting gene expression to hypoxic tumor cells.

^ The cells in the metastatic tumor come from the original tumor.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Multiclass cancer diagnosis using tumor gene-expression signatures.
  • A Molecular Signature of Metastasis in Primary Solid Tumors. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.euchromatin.net [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.Expression of this metastatic signature has been correlated with a poor prognosis and has been shown to be consistent in several types of cancer.^ This type of cancer in the lungs is called the Metastatic lung cancer.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastatic cancers are discovered in several ways.

^ Expression patterns of alpha-, beta- and gamma-catenin in pancreatic cancer: correlation with E-cadherin expression, pathological features and prognosis.
  • Invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Prognosis was shown to be worse for individuals whose primary tumors expressed the metastatic signature.^ It is the metastatic process that is lethal, not the primary tumor.
  • Green Tea, White Tea: Health Cancer 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC greentealovers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Localized spread to regional lymph nodes near the primary tumor is not normally counted as metastasis, although this is a sign of worse prognosis .Transport through lymphatics is the most common pathway for the initial dissemination of carcinomas.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer that spreads to other organs or to lymph nodes far from the primary tumor is called metastatic disease.
  • Metastatic Cancer: Q&A - National Cancer Institute 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Additionally, the expression of these metastatic-associated genes was shown to apply to other cancer types in addition to adenocarcinoma.^ The cancer may be one of these types: .
  • Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This type of cancer in the lungs is called the Metastatic lung cancer.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Classification of metastatic brain tumors depends on the exact site of the tumor within the brain, type of tissue involved, original location of the tumor, and other factors.
  • AllRefer Health - Metastatic Brain Tumor (Brain Tumor - Metastatic, Brain Tumor - Secondary, Cancer - Brain Tumor (Secondary)) 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Metastases of breast cancer, medulloblastoma and prostate cancer all had similar expression patterns of these metastasis-associated genes.^ Prostate cancer bone metastasis prognosis .

^ Breast cancer metastasis models .
  • Breast Cancer Research | Full text | Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC breast-cancer-research.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prostate cancer bone metastasis .

[13]
.The identification of this metastasis-associated signature provides promise for identifying cells with metastatic potential with the primary tumor and hope for improving the prognosis of these metastatic-associated cancers.^ The cells in a metastatic tumor resemble those in the primary tumor.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary Tumor Tumor at the original cancer site.

^ The dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor is apparently not infrequent.
  • Metastasis Suppression by Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 Involves Reduction of Phosphoinositide Signaling in MDA-MB-435 Breast Carcinoma Cells -- DeWald et al. 65 (3): 713 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, by identifying the genes whose expression is changed in metastasis offers potential targets to inhibit metastasis.^ A number of metastasis-associated genes have been identified through gene expression profiling.
  • Identify Metastasis-associated Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Clonality Delineation for Multinodular Tumor -- Cheung et al. 62 (16): 4711 -- Cancer Research 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC cancerres.aacrjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such studies, though useful in predicting outcomes, have perplexingly offered up differing gene "signatures," making it difficult to identify overlapping, functionally relevant genes that might be important targets for therapeutic intervention.
  • Metadherin gene linked to metastasis of breast cancer 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Rather than focusing on the roles of individual genes, current research seeks to identify common pathways that regulate expression of groups of metastasis-associated genes, notably those mediating tumor-stromal interactions.
  • Research in Cancer Biology - Metastasis - MD Anderson Cancer Center 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.mdanderson.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Treatments for metastatic cancer

.Treatment and survival is determined by whether or not a cancer is local or has spread to other locations.^ Should any other tests be done to determine whether my cancer has metastasized?

^ Treatment and survival is determined by whether or not a cancer is local or has spread to other locations.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other parts of the body have been spread with cancer.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

.If the cancer spreads to other tissues and organs, it may decrease a patient's likelihood of survival.^ This process is called "metastasis" and a cancer which has spread to other organs is called "metastatic."
  • CancerGuide: Understanding Cancer Types and Staging 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC cancerguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metastasis is the movement or spreading of cancer cells from one organ or tissue ...
  • Liver Metastasis - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other parts of the body have been spread with cancer.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, there are some cancers (i.e., leukemia, cancer of the blood) that can kill without spreading at all.^ However, there are some cancers (i.e., leukemia , brain) that can kill without spreading at all.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the risk increases steadily with age and by the time they are 80, more than half of all men will have some cancerous growth, mostly without noticing it.
  • Bupa Health Insurance: Health Gallery - A - Z of health 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.bupa.com.hk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are few different cancers that can spread to the lungs, including breast cancer and bowel cancer.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

.When cancer has metastasized, it may be treated with radiosurgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy, hormone therapy, surgery or a combination of these.^ Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and biological therapy are treatments that may be used alone or in conjunction with surgery.
  • Tumor Removal - Definition, Purpose, Demographics, Description, Diagnosis/Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Morbidity and mortality rates, Alternatives 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Locally advanced prostate cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy.
  • Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Quite rare, may be treatable with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
  • New Page 1 25 September 2009 6:15 UTC www.familyvet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The choice of treatment generally depends on the type of primary cancer, the size and location of the metastasis, the patient's age and general health, and the types of treatments used previously.^ After previous treatment, cancer has been recurred.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Metastasis and primary cancer .
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The treatment of metastatic cancer depends on where the cancer started.

.In patients diagnosed with CUP, it is still possible to treat the disease even when the primary tumor cannot be located.^ Patients who still have tumor that cannot be removed are removed from study therapy.
  • Nanotechnology applications in surgical oncology. 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.nano-biology.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients diagnosed with CUP , it is still possible to treat the disease even when the primary tumor cannot be located.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The choice of treatment generally depends on the type of primary cancer , the size and location of the metastasis, the patient's age and general health, and the types of treatments used previously.
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

.The treatment options currently available are rarely able to cure metastatic cancer, though some tumors, such as testicular cancer and thyroid cancer, are usually still curable.^ Unfortunately, current treatment options are rarely able to cure metastatic cancer.
  • Metastasis inhibition preparations and methods - Patent application 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments for metastatic cancer .
  • Metastasis encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 17 January 2010 8:31 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Using chemotherapy, the treatment for Metastatic lung cancer is usually possible.
  • Types of Lung Cancer | Small Cell Lung Cancer | Non Small Cell Lung Cancer 12 September 2009 15:015 UTC www.lung-cancer-info-guide.com [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ Podsypanina K, Du YC, Jechlinger M, Beverly LJ, Hambardzumyan D, Varmus H (September 2008). "Seeding and propagation of untransformed mouse mammary cells in the lung". Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5897): 1841–4. doi:10.1126/science.1161621. PMID 18755941.  
  2. ^ Klein CA (September 2008). "Cancer. The metastasis cascade". Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5897): 1785–7. doi:10.1126/science.1164853. PMID 18818347.  
  3. ^ Chiang AC, Massagué J (December 2008). "Molecular basis of metastasis". The New England Journal of Medicine 359 (26): 2814–23. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0805239. PMID 19109576.  
  4. ^ a b c d Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K; Fausto, Nelson; Robbins, Stanley L; Cotran, Ramzi S (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-0187-8.  
  5. ^ "Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers". National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/metastatic. Retrieved 2008-08-28.  
  6. ^ Robert Weinberg, The Biology of Cancer, cited in Basics: A mutinous group of cells on a greedy, destructive task, by Natalie Angier, New York Times, April 3, 2007
  7. ^ Bacac, M; Stamenkovic, I (February 2008). "Metastatic cancer cell". Annual Review of Pathology. doi:10.1146/annurev.pathmechdis.3.121806.151523.  
  8. ^ Yoshida BA, Sokoloff MM, Welch DR, Rinker-Schaeffer CW (Nov 2000). "Metastasis-suppressor genes: a review and perspective on an emerging field". J Natl Cancer Inst. 92 (21): 1717–30. doi:10.1093/jnci/92.21.1717. PMID 11058615. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/21/1717.  
  9. ^ Weidner N, Semple JP, Welch WR, Folkman J (Jan 1991). "Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis—correlation in invasive breast carcinoma". N Engl J Med. 324 (1): 1–8. PMID 1701519. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/324/1/1.  
  10. ^ a b Briasoulis E, Pavlidis N (1997). "Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin". Oncologist 2 (3): 142–152. PMID 10388044. http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10388044.  
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k National Cancer Institute: Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers. Retrieved on 2008-11-01
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External links

Medical information about metastatic cancer
Charities and advocacy groups dealing with metastatic cancer
Not specifically about metastatic cancer
Research

Simple English

Metastasis is what happens when cancer spreads from its original place to another part of the body. Cancer cells spread from the original site to other places in the body by traveling through the bloodstream. When the cancer cells stick to a new place in the body, they grow and form another tumor there.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Metastasis, which are similar to those in the above article.








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