Methadone: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Methadone

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1 : 1 mixture (racemate)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-6-(Dimethylamino)-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one
Identifiers
CAS number 76-99-3
ATC code N02AC52 N07BC02, R05DA06
PubChem 4095
DrugBank APRD00485
ChemSpider 3953
Chemical data
Formula C21H27NO 
Mol. mass 309.445 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 40-90% (oral)
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 24-36 h
Excretion Urine, Test by specific gravity and bilirubin
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. Reduction of oxygen to unborn child due to depression of breathing
Legal status  ? (UK) Schedule II (US)
Dependence Liability Very High
Routes oral, intravenous, insufflation, sublingual, rectal
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Methadone (Symoron, Dolophine, Amidone, Methadose, Physeptone, Heptadon, Phy and many others) is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic, antitussive and a maintenance anti-addictive for use in patients on opioids.^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is a synthetic opioid with potent analgesic effects.
  • Methadone Treatment for Pain States - April 1, 2005 - American Family Physician 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The maintenance methadone is separate from any other opioids prescribed for alleviation of pain.

.It was developed in Germany in 1937. Although chemically unlike morphine or heroin, methadone also acts on the opioid receptors and thus produces many of the same effects.^ It was developed in Germany in 1937.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It is the morphine molecule that then binds with opioid receptors and produces the subjective effects of the heroin high.

^ Morphine also binds to δ - and κ -opioid receptors.

.Methadone is also used in managing chronic pain owing to its long duration of action and very low cost.^ Methadone on the management of cancer pain: a review.

^ Methadone, a long-acting synthetic narcotic analgesic, was first used in the maintenance treatment of drug addiction in the mid-1960s by Drs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ My dad has been on methadone for about 10 years for chronic pain.
  • RoguePundit: Methadone...Pain Management and Abuse (Updated) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC roguepundit.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Methadone is useful in the treatment of opioid dependence.^ Methadone maintenance in the treatment of opioid dependence: A current perspective.

^ It is also used in the treatment of opioid addiction.
  • Methadone Side-Effects, Methadone Interactions and Methadone Patient Reviews- iGuard.org 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.iguard.org [Source type: General]

^ A brief history of methadone in the treatment of opioid dependence: A personal perspective.

.It has cross-tolerance with other opioids including heroin and morphine and a long duration of effect: oral doses of methadone can stabilise patients by mitigating opioid withdrawal syndrome.^ The patient developed withdrawal syndrome for zolpidem.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cross-tolerance may also depend on the previous opioid dose.

.Higher doses of methadone can block the euphoric effects of heroin, morphine, and similar drugs.^ Methadone suppresses withdrawal symptoms, reduces cravings for opioid drugs, and blocks the euphoric effects of opioids for 24 to 36 hours.
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A major drawback is that unlike OxyContin (oxycodone continuous release), methadone is not technologically engineered for sustained release of the drug so blood concentrations will fluctuate greatly between dosing.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A study from Austria indicated that oral morphine provides better results than oral methadone, and studies of heroin maintenance have indicated that a low background dose of methadone combined with heroin maintenance may significantly improve outcomes for less-responsive patients.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, properly dosed methadone patients can reduce or stop altogether their use of these substances.^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The resultant methadone doses ranged from 9.8% to 68% of the calculated equianalgesic dose.

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

Methadone is approved for different indications in different countries. .Common is approval as an analgesic and approval for the treatment of opioid dependence.^ In addition to preventing tolerance and dependence, combining NMDA-receptor antagonists with both opioid and nonopioid analgesics may increase their analgesic potency.

^ As with all opioid drugs, it is necessary to adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's prior analgesic treatment experience.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone maintenance in the treatment of opioid dependence: A current perspective.

.It is not intended to reduce the use of non-narcotic drugs such as cocaine, methamphetamine, or alcohol.^ Methadone, a long-acting synthetic narcotic analgesic, was first used in the maintenance treatment of drug addiction in the mid-1960s by Drs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Often, use of other drugs—including cocaine, (12) sedatives, (13) and even alcohol (14) — also declines when an opiate addict enters methadone treatment, even though methadone has no direct pharmacological effect on non-opiate drug craving.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other factors could impact on the urine-blood amphetamine relationship, such as route of administration, pattern of voiding and time elapsed after use of the drug.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Today a number of pharmaceutical companies produce and distribute methadone.^ Notes: Methadone distribution numbers are in grams.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Today a number of pharmaceutical companies produce and distribute methadone.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ See table 2 for the numbers for methadone distribution to four business types from 2002 through 2007.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The racemic hydrochloride is the only form available in most countries, such as the Netherlands, Belgium, France and in the United States as of March 2008. The tartrate and other salts of the laevorotary form (levomethadone (an NMDA-Antagonist with mild agonism at the Mu-receptor), with trade names like Polamidone, Heptadon etc.^ It is about eight times stronger than the racaemic drug and is marketed especially in continental Europe as an analgesic under the trade names Levo-Polamidone, Polamidone, Heptanone, Heptadone, Heptadon and others.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It is used as the hydrochloride salt almost exclusively with some uncommon pharmaceuticals and research subjects consisting of the tartrate.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone was introduced into the United States in 1947 by Eli Lilly and Company as an analgesic (they gave it the trade name Dolophine®, which is now registered to Roxane Laboratories).
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

) are available in Europe and elsewhere. .These are possibly more potent and lack the cardiac effects like lengthened QT interval caused by the dextrorotary form.^ Also, there is some evidence methadone and other opiods may cause cardiac conduction problems (prolonged QTc interval [17] ) although there are few documented cases of fatalities resulting from this side-effect with methadone.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Coadministration of methadone with CYP inducers of these enzymes may result in a more rapid metabolism and potential for decreased effects of methadone, whereas administration with CYP inhibitors may reduce metabolism and potentiate methadone's effects.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coadministration of Methadone with CYP inducers of these enzymes may result in a more rapid metabolism and potential for decreased effects of Methadone, whereas administration with CYP inhibitors may reduce metabolism and potentiate Methadone's effects.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.The major producer remains Mallinckrodt, who sells bulk methadone to most of the producers of generic preparations, and also distributes its own brand name product in the form of tablets, dispersible tablets and oral concentrate under the name Methadose in the United States.^ However, the major producer remains Mallinckrodt.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mallinckrodt sells bulk methadone to most of the producers of generic preparations and also distributes its own brand name product in the form of tablets, dispersible tablets and oral concentrate under the name Methadose in the United States.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Bulk dextropropoxyphene is in Schedule II of the United States Controlled Substances Act, while preparations containing it are in Schedule IV. More than 100 tons of dextropropoxyphene are produced in the United States annually, and more than 25 million prescriptions are written for the products.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Contents

History

40mg of Methadone
.Methadone was developed in 1939 Germany by scientists working for I.G. Farbenkonzern at the Farbwerke Hoechst (it is synthesised from 1,1-diphenylbutane-2-sulfonic acid and dimethylamino-2-chloropropane) who were looking for an synthetic opioid that could be created with readily available precursors to solve Germany's opium shortage problem.^ Methadone is a potent synthetic opioid agonist that has been available for over 50 years.

^ Methadone was developed in Germany in 1937.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone Hydrochloride is an opioid (a synthetic opiate) that was originally synthesised by German pharmaceutical companies during the second world war.
  • MySpace - METHADONE - 48 - Female - Alabama - myspace.com/xxxmethadone 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.On September 11, 1941 Bockmühl and Ehrhart filed an application for a patent for a synthetic substance they called Hoechst 10820 or polamidon (a name still in regular use in Germany) and whose structure had no relation to morphine or the opiate alkaloids (Bockmühl and Ehrhart, 1949).^ Narcotic analgesics can be grouped into synthetic compounds and those related to an alkaloid found in poppy seeds.
  • Med-Psych Drug-Drug Interactions Update - Health News - redOrbit 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.redorbit.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They compared regular users of prescription opioids to nonusers of opioids and calculated the percentage of individuals within a given demographic or disease state that reported chronic opioid use.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - February, 2009 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the conversion ratio between Methadone and other opiates varies dramatically depending on baseline opiate (morphine equivalent) use as shown in the table below.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

After the war, all German patents, trade names and research records were requisitioned and expropriated by the allied forces. The records on the research work of the I.G. Farbenkonzern at the Farbwerke Hoechst were confiscated by the U.S. Department of Commerce Intelligence, investigated by a Technical Industrial Committee of the U.S. Department of State and then brought to the US.
.The drug was given the trade name Dolophine from the Latin dolor meaning pain (Cf.^ Dolophine was derived from the Latin word dolor (pain) and finis (end).
  • Detox from Methadone 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.harmd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drug was given the trade name Dolophine from the Latin dolor meaning pain (Cf.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The name derives from the Latin dolor which means "pain" and fīnis which means "end".
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Dipidolor for piritramide, Dolantin for pethidine, and the "-dol" or "-phine" ending in so many trade and chemical names for analgesics of all types in German, English, French, and other languages) and was not named either in honour of or personally by Adolf Hitler as explored in greater detail below.^ He either didn't care enough or He thought He knew it all and alot of the time it is the people who take the methadone and mix it with many other drugs and of course it will kill them.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You can open it with MS Word and modify details such Name of the home school, Name of the student, Subject or the type of the diploma.

^ Methadone was said to have been developed in response to an order by Hitler to develop an alternative to morphine, which was in short supply at the end of World War II. The trade name Dolophine was said to have been derived from Hitlers first name Adolph ( Payte , 1991).

.It was only in 1947 that Amidon was given the generic name “methadone” by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association (COUNCIL...1947).^ Copyright 2005, American Medical Association .
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Copyright 2008, American Medical Association .
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, given that only 5 to 10% of the cost of MMT actually pays for the medication itself, (20) methadone could be prescribed and delivered even less expensively, through physicians in general medical practice, low-service clinics, and pharmacies.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since the patent rights of the I.G. Farbenkonzern and Farbwerke Hoechst were no longer protected each pharmaceutical company interested in the formula could purchase the rights for commercial production of methadone for just one dollar (MOLL 1990).^ Methadone is no longer useful or effective.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I just wish there was a disclaimer that we could print out and submit to every doctors office about Methadone.

^ Two people I know claim that they reduced there methadone right down and then just stopped without much discomfort ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

Commercial production was first introduced in 1947 by the US company Eli-Lilly. .Only then methadone was given the trade name Dolophine, derived from the Latin dolor (pain) and finis (end).^ No pain patient goes into pain management thinking they are going to become addicts but some end up that way and what would they have if methadone were not around?
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is completely false that Methadone is a safe drug and only dangerous when given improperly or mixed with other drugs.
  • Methadone Overdose Deaths :: The Scoop 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC blog.thescoop.org [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, the methadone dose is given once per day, and not on a TID to QID format, as for chronic pain patients.

.Methadone was introduced into the United States in 1947 by Eli Lilly and Company as an analgesic (they gave it the trade name Dolophine, which is now registered to Roxane Laboratories).^ Methadone was introduced in the United States in the 1940s, when it was marketed as a painkiller under the trade name Dolophine.
  • Opiate Addiction Treatment Program Finder 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.treatmentfinder.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Brand-name Dolophine is made by Roxane Laboratories.

^ Commercial production was first introduced in 1947 by the US company Eli-Lilly.

.Since then, it has been best known for its use in treating narcotic addiction.^ Since then, it has been best known for its use in treating narcotic addiction.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Commonwealth Journal - Methadone clinic could cause problems 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.somerset-kentucky.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Breakthrough Addiction Recovery: Methadone 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.breakthroughaddictionrecovery.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Buprenorphine has also been used in the treatment of narcotic addiction.
  • Methadone! 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methadone - Drug information from Medic8.com 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of methadone to treat opiate addiction: .
  • Methadone -- AHFS Consumer Medication Information -- NCBI Bookshelf 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: General]

.A great deal of anecdotal evidence was available "on the street" that methadone might prove effective in treating heroin withdrawal and it had even been used in some hospitals.^ Methadone is used to treat addiction to heroin and other drugs.
  • Methadone Clinics: Methadone & Heroin Facts | MethadoneHeroin.Com 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC methadoneheroin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is methadone used for heroin withdrawal?
  • Methadone Clinic and Methadone Treatment Frequently Asked Questions - Methadone Clinics for Opiate Addiction Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.methadone-clinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence for controlled heroin use?

.It was not until studies performed at the Rockefeller University in New York City by Professor Vincent Dole, along with Marie Nyswander and Mary Jeanne Kreek, that methadone was systematically studied as a potential substitution therapy.^ Those of us studying geoengineering, almost universally, do not advocate it as a substitute for emissions reductions, only to give time for the development and deployment of the replacement technologies.
  • RealClimate: Climate change methadone? 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New York: New York State Committee of Methadone Program Administrators; 1995:15.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vincent P. Dole in 1983 As most of the substance abuse community knows by now, Dr. Vincent Dole, "The Father of Methadone Maintenance", passed away at the beginning of the month (August).
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

.Their studies introduced a sweeping change in the notion that drug addiction was not necessarily a simple character flaw, but rather a disorder to be treated in the same way as other diseases.^ Methadone is used to treat addiction to heroin and other drugs.
  • Methadone Clinics: Methadone & Heroin Facts | MethadoneHeroin.Com 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC methadoneheroin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Drug addiction is the same thing as alcohol addiction.
  • Strange Math: methadone? = God 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC doctordeluca.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physical dependency is not the same as drug addiction.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.To date, methadone maintenance therapy has been the most systematically studied and most successful, and most politically polarizing, of any pharmacotherapy for the treatment of drug addiction patients.^ Also, methadone is a treatment only for opioid drug addiction.
  • Methadone - CompDrug 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.compdrug.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard therapy for narcotic addiction during pregnancy is methadone maintenance.

^ Methadone maintenance is a long-term treatment.
  • Do You Know... Methadone-CAMH 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.camh.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methadone (as Dolophine) was first manufactured in the USA by Eli Lilly and Company Pharmacueticals, who first obtained FDA approval on August 14, 1947 for their Dolophine 5 mg and 10 mg Tablets.^ Tablet, as hydrochloride: 5 mg, 10 mg .
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ METHADONE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS USP 5 mg, 10 mg .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Do not take any medicine while using Methadone hydrochloride tablets until you have first talked to your doctor or pharmacist.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

Mallinckrodt Pharmacueticals did not receive approval until December 15, 1947 to manufacture their bulk compounding powder. .Mallinckrodt received approval for their branded generic, Methadose, on April 15, 1993 for their 5 mg and 10 mg Methadose Tablets.^ Tablet, as hydrochloride: 5 mg, 10 mg .
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone 10 mg Tablets .
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ten healthy nonsmoking white male individuals received 5 mg CTHC intravenously over 10 min.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Mallinckrodt who also makes 5 mg, 10 mg and 40 mg generic tablets in addition to their branded generic Methadose received approval for their plain generic tablets on April 27, 2004.[3]
.The results of the early major studies showed methadone could effectively interrupt illicit opioid use and reduce the associated costs to society, findings which have been consistent with later research and backed up by modern knowledge of the psychological, social and pharmacological mechanisms of illicit opioid addiction.^ The idea behind this research was that methadone could be used to manage or maintain heroin addiction.
  • Methadone | CESAR 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.cesar.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The results of the early major studies showed methadone could effectively interrupt illicit opioid use and reduce the associated costs to society, findings which have been consistent with later research and backed up by modern knowledge of the psychological, social and pharmacological mechanisms of illicit opioid addiction.

^ Methadone is cost effective.

Origin of Dolophine name

.A persistent but untrue urban legend claims that the trade name "Dolophine" was coined in tribute to Adolf Hitler by its German creators, and it is sometimes even claimed that the drug was originally named "adolphine" or "adolophine" or "Dolphamine". Typically, the claim is still presented as fact by Church of Scientology literature[4] and was repeated by actor and vocal Scientologist Tom Cruise in a 2005 Entertainment Weekly interview.^ The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime claims in its 2008 World Drug Report that typical US retail prices are US$172 per gram.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methadone was said to have been developed in response to an order by Hitler to develop an alternative to morphine, which was in short supply at the end of World War II. The trade name Dolophine was said to have been derived from Hitlers first name Adolph ( Payte , 1991).

[5] .However, as the magazine pointed out, this is not true: the name "Dolophine" was in fact created after the war by the American branch of Eli Lilly,[6] and the pejorative term "adolphine" (never an actual name of the drug) appeared in the United States in the early 1970s.^ Prohibition has never worked and it is not working now with the Drug Wars.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the United States, heroin is a schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, making it illegal to possess without a DEA license.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Outside the United States, some active drug users are being prescribed heroin, codeine, morphine, and injectable methadone.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]

Pharmacology

.Methadone acts by binding to the µ-opioid receptor, but also has some affinity for the NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptor.^ Morphine also binds to δ - and κ -opioid receptors.

^ Methadone acts by binding to the µ-opioid receptor, but also has some affinity for the NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptor.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some data also indicate that methadone acts as an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is metabolized by the enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, with great variability between individuals.^ The affinity of methadone to aromatase (apparent K-m) did not change with gestation, but the activity of the enzyme (V-max) increased and varied widely between individual placentas.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions Our results indicate that CYP2B6 genetic variation is associated with the metabolism of nicotine and cotinine among individuals with decreased CYP2A6 activity.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This age-old method compensates for metabolic variations between individuals and variations in both the alkaloid profile and strength of the hoasca.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Its main route of administration is oral. .Adverse effects include hypoventilation, constipation and miosis, in addition to tolerance, dependence and withdrawal difficulties.^ During prolonged administration, adverse effects may decrease over several weeks; however, constipation and sweating may persist.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to preventing tolerance and dependence, combining NMDA-receptor antagonists with both opioid and nonopioid analgesics may increase their analgesic potency.

^ Narcotics are drugs derived from opium or opium-like compounds, with potent pain relief effects and with the potential for dependence and tolerance following repeated administration.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The withdrawal can be much more prolonged than with other opiates, spanning anywhere from two weeks to six months.^ Ironically, benzodiazepines are often used in the treatment of heroin addiction while they cause much more severe withdrawal symptomes.

^ Morphine and diacetylmorphine were also much more likely to produce euphoria and other positive subjective effects when compared to these other opioids.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any intravenous opioid will induce rapid, profound effects, but diacetylmorphine produces more euphoria than other opioids upon injection.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mode of action

.Methadone is a full µ-opioid agonist.^ As with other mu-agonists, patients maintained on methadone may experience withdrawal symptoms when given opioid antagonists, mixed agonist/antagonists, and partial agonists.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone hydrochloride tablets contain Methadone, a mu-agonist opioid with an abuse liability similar to other opioid agonists and is a Schedule II controlled substance.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone also binds to the glutamatergic NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, and thus acts as a receptor antagonist against glutamate.^ Methadone acts by binding to the µ-opioid receptor, but also has some affinity for the NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptor.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is a non-competitive N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and mu -receptor agonist.

^ Some data also indicate that methadone acts as an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS.^ Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS .
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. NMDA receptors have a very important role in modulating long term excitation and memory formation.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.NMDA receptors have a very important role in modulating long term excitation and memory formation.^ NMDA receptors have a very important role in modulating long term excitation and memory formation.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. NMDA receptors have a very important role in modulating long term excitation and memory formation.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antagonism to NMDA ( N -methyl- d -aspartate) receptors, known modulators of neuropathic pain and important in the attenuation of the development of morphine tolerance ( 1 ).
  • Use of Methadone for the Treatment of Diabetic Neuropathy — Diabetes Care 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC care.diabetesjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.NMDA antagonists such as dextromethorphan (DXM), ketamine (a dissociative anaesthetic, also M.O.A+.^ NMDA Antagonists Ketamine (Ketalar) is an intravenous induction agent used in anaesthesia, and is also an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dextromethorphan (Robitussin Dry Cough) is an over the counter cough suppressant which has the same but weaker effect as ketamine at NMDA receptors.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential utility of the NMDA-receptor antagonist, dextromethorphan (DEX), to reverse or treat OIH in methadone-maintenance (MM) patients.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

), .tiletamine (a veterinary anaesthetic) and ibogaine (from the African tree Tabernanthe iboga, also M.O.A+.^ There is also a controversial treatment for heroin addiction based on an Iboga-derived African drug, ibogaine.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also a controversial treatment for heroin addiction based on an Iboga -derived African drug, ibogaine .

) are being studied for their role in decreasing the development of tolerance to opioids and as possible for eliminating addiction/tolerance/withdrawal, possibly by disrupting memory circuitry. .Acting as an NMDA antagonist may be one mechanism by which methadone decreases craving for opioids and tolerance, and has been proposed as a possible mechanism for its distinguished efficacy regarding the treatment of neuropathic pain.^ NMDA-receptor antagonists and opioid receptor interactions as related to analgesia and tolerance .

^ Methadone, an opioid narcotic, is approved for pain relief and addiction treatment.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acting as an NMDA antagonist may be one mechanism by which methadone decreases craving for opioids and tolerance, and has been proposed as a possible mechanism for its distinguished efficacy regarding the treatment of neuropathic pain.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone also acts as a potent, noncompetitive α3β4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.^ The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential utility of the NMDA-receptor antagonist, dextromethorphan (DEX), to reverse or treat OIH in methadone-maintenance (MM) patients.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is a non-competitive N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and mu -receptor agonist.

^ Some data also indicate that methadone acts as an antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[8]

Metabolism

.Methadone has a slow metabolism and very high fat solubility, making it longer lasting than morphine-based drugs.^ Methadone does not make you high.
  • Regional Network 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC regionalnetwork.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metabolism Methadone has a slow metabolism and very high fat solubility, making it longer lasting than morphine-based drugs.

^ Methadone has a slow metabolism and very high fat solubility, making it longer lasting than morphine-based drugs.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone has a typical elimination half-life of 15 to 60 hours with a mean of around 22. However, metabolism rates vary greatly between individuals, up to a factor of 100,[9][10] ranging from as few as 4 hours to as many as 130 hours,[11] or even 190 hours.^ Depending on where you read, the half life of Methadone is 15 to 24 hours.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elimination half-life .

^ Peak plasma methadone levels in individuals treated chronically with orally administered methadone occur 2 to 4 hours after a daily oral dose.
  • Methadone Maintenance and Breastfeeding in the Neonatal Period -- Jansson et al. 121 (1): 106 -- Pediatrics 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .This variability is apparently due to genetic variability in the production of the associated enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6.^ The affinity of methadone to aromatase (apparent K-m) did not change with gestation, but the activity of the enzyme (V-max) increased and varied widely between individual placentas.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions Our results indicate that CYP2B6 genetic variation is associated with the metabolism of nicotine and cotinine among individuals with decreased CYP2A6 activity.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic variation in CYP2A6 (the main nicotine metabolizing enzyme) accounts for some, but not all, of the interindividual and interethnic variability in the rates of nicotine metabolism.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.A longer half life frequently allows for administration only once a day in Opioid detoxification and maintenance programs.^ Department of Health and Human Services: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, "Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification of Opiate Addiction; Final Rule," Fed Regist , 2001, 66(11): 4075-102.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note – Outpatient maintenance and outpatient detoxification treatment may be provided only by Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs) certified by the Federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and registered by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note Outpatient maintenance and outpatient detoxification treatment may be provided only by Opioid Treatment Programs (OTPs) certified by the Federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) and registered by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients who metabolize methadone rapidly, on the other hand, may require twice daily dosing to obtain sufficient symptom alleviation while avoiding excessive peaks and troughs in their blood concentrations and associated effects.^ Patients who metabolize methadone rapidly, on the other hand, may require twice daily dosing to obtain sufficient symptom alleviation while avoiding excessive peaks and troughs in their blood concentrations and associated effects.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may interact with methadone and require a methadone dose adjustment.
  • Methadone and HIV Medications: Drug Interactions - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Decrease methadone concentration/effects .
  • Methadone Treatment for Pain States - April 1, 2005 - American Family Physician 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .This can also allow lower total doses in some such patients.^ This can also allow lower total doses in some such patients.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In such individuals, lower doses are advisable.
  • Methadone: 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.ncpainmanagement.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She discovered that at some hospitals MMT patients were only allowed to visit their babies one hour a day.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]
  • Methadone Pregnancy Information - excoboard.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC excoboard.com [Source type: General]

.The analgesic activity is shorter than the pharmacological half-life; dosing for pain control usually requires multiple doses per day.^ When four or more administrations were required per day, the dose was increased.

^ This is no different than an older person taking pain pills for their pain, once they have been on it for awhile the doctor increases their dose because their tolerance goes up and it doesn't help them anymore requiring a higher dosage.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While Methadone's duration of analgesic action (typically 4 to 8 hours) in the setting of single-dose studies approximates that of morphine, Methadone's plasma elimination half-life is substantially longer than that of morphine (typically 8 to 59 hours vs. Methadone's peak respiratory depressant effects typically occur later, and persist longer than its peak analgesic effects.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.The toxic effects of an overdose can be treated with naloxone.^ The toxic effects of an overdose can be treated with naloxone .
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The toxic effects of an overdose can be treated with naloxone.

^ Naloxone is a shorter acting opioid receptor blocker, used to treat cases of overdose."
  • Methadone Maintenance & Buprenorphine Therapy | Drug War Facts 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugwarfacts.org [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Naloxone is preferred to the newer, longer acting antagonist naltrexone.^ Three opioid antagonists are available: naloxone and the longer-acting naltrexone and nalmefene .

^ Three opioid antagonists are available: naloxone and the longer-acting naltrexone and nalmefene.
  • Beating Addiction - Medical Drug - Heroin's Profile 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.beatingaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two opioid antagonists are known: naloxone and the longer-acting naltrexone.

.Despite Methadone's much longer duration of action compared to either heroin and other shorter-acting agonists, and the need for repeat doses of the antagonist naloxone, it is still used for overdose therapy.^ If a dose comparable to their previous use is taken an overdose often results.

^ Two opioid antagonists are known: naloxone and the longer-acting naltrexone.

^ Compared to heroin, methadone is well (but slowly) absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and has a much longer duration of action of approximately 24 hours.

.As naltrexone has a longer half life, it is more difficult to titrate.^ Its longer half-life also effectively eliminates the problem of increased tolerance.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of it's long half-life and risk of accumulation, methadone is difficult to titrate and is not considered a drug of first choice.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.If too large a dose of opioid antagonist is given to a dependent patient, it will result in withdrawl symptoms (possibly severe).^ The severity of this syndrome will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to preventing tolerance and dependence, combining NMDA-receptor antagonists with both opioid and nonopioid analgesics may increase their analgesic potency.

.When using naloxone, the naloxone will be quickly eliminated and the withdrawal will be short lived.^ They do not seek out the drug in the absence of withdrawal symptoms or pain, and their lives do not revolve around drug use.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.Doses of naltrexone take longer to be eliminated from the patient's system.^ As with all opioid drugs, it is necessary to adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's prior analgesic treatment experience.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, patients may feel the need to take more methadone before the previous dose has left the body.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Any patient in comprehensive maintenance treatment may receive a single take-home dose for the day that the OTP is closed.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

Route of administration

.The most common route of administration at a methadone clinic is in a racemic oral solution, though in Germany, only the (R)-methadone enantiomer has traditionally been used, as it is responsible for most of the desired opioid effects.^ The effect of fluconazole on the clinical pharmokinetics of methadone.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Often, use of other drugs—including cocaine, (12) sedatives, (13) and even alcohol (14) — also declines when an opiate addict enters methadone treatment, even though methadone has no direct pharmacological effect on non-opiate drug craving.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone can be used to detoxify heroin addicts, but most heroin addicts who detox—using methadone or any other method—return to heroin use.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

[11] .This is becoming less common due to the higher production costs.^ This is becoming less common due to the higher production costs.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For-profit products were less likely to steer referrals but more likely to use decreased administrative burdens or higher fees than were not-for-profit products.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - February, 2009 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone is available in traditional pill, sublingual tablet, and two different formulations designed for the patient to drink.^ Background: Methadone, a long-acting opioid medication, is available as a liquid, a solid tablet (5 and 10 mg), a rapidly dissolving wafer or diskette (40 mg), or a powder.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The fact that the opioid doses were not significantly different between subjects and controls seems to contradict the experimental evidence that patients on methadone tend to be hyperalgesic.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Surely, we should all want to step back and perhaps take a different look at what we're seeing at the Methadone Clinics as well as the from the Chronic Pain Patients.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

.Drinkable forms include ready-to-dispense liquid, and "Disket" which is a tablet designed to disperse itself in water for oral administration, used in a similar fashion to Alka-Seltzer.^ Dispersible tablet should not be chewed or swallowed; add to liquid and allow to dissolve before administering.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certified treatment programs shall dispense and use methadone in oral form only and according to the treatment requirements stipulated in the Federal Opioid Treatment Standards (42 CFR 8.12).
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Certified treatment programs shall dispense and use Methadone in oral form only and according to the treatment requirements stipulated in the Federal Opioid Treatment Standards (42 CFR 8.12).
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

The liquid form is the most common as it allows for smaller dose changes. .Methadone is almost as effective when administered orally as by injection.^ Methadone can be administered both orally and via injection.
  • Methadone 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.ringsurf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methadone is almost as effective when administered orally as by injection.
  • Methadone! 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Breakthrough Addiction Recovery: Methadone 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.breakthroughaddictionrecovery.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Drug information from Medic8.com 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A.) Methadone is a (synthetic opiate) narcotic that when administered once a day, orally, in adequate doses, can usually suppress a heroin addict’s craving and withdrawal for 24 hours.
  • Methadone Abuse 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugrehab.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, injection of methadone may not result in a "rush" as with most stronger opioids, because its extraordinarily high volume of distribution causes it to diffuse into other tissues in the body, particularly fatty tissue; the peak concentration in the blood is achieved at roughly the same time, whether the drug is injected or ingested.^ Patients tolerant to other opioids may be incompletely tolerant to Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, not all methadone overdose deaths are necessarily caused by illicitly purchased methadone; some are undoubtedly the result of accidental or inappropriate consumption of legally obtained methadone, often in combination with alcohol or other drugs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Federal, and often state, regulations require annual evaluation of patients to determine whether they should continue in MMT. (39) Is methadone a desirable street drug, with high potential for abuse?
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.When injecting Methadone, only pills have the least-dangerous cautions although it can easily cause collapsed veins, bruising, swelling and possibly other harmful effects.^ Among cases receiving methadone therapy, sudden death-associated cardiac abnormalities were identified in only 23% (n = 5), with no clear cause of sudden cardiac death in the remaining 77% (n = 17).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Folks I only WISH there were 100 other websites supporting Methadone Anonymous....and someday....there will be!
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

^ There's NO WAY any politician would attempt to introduce something of this nature without being at least minimally aware of methadone and it's effects.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Methadone pills often contain talc[14][15] that, when injected, produces a swarm of tiny solid particles in the blood, causing numerous minor blood clots.^ Methadone is a good medication that works very well for pain, and is only $15 to $20 for 100, 10mg pills.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Methadone hydrochloride tablets can cause your blood pressure to drop.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The reduced methadone levels are caused by the lopinavir in Kaletra rather than by the small amount of ritonavir Kaletra contains.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

.These particles cannot be filtered out before injection, and will accumulate in the body over time, especially in the lungs and eyes, producing various complications such as pulmonary hypertension, an irreversible and progressive disease.^ Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors).
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since coming off the medication in late August of 2005 I have tested negative for the disease and I have been feeling progressively better as time passes.
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This could certainly mean that cocaine use speeds up HIV disease progression in people, although what actually happens in the human body isn't clear.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

[16][17][18] .Methadose/Methadone should not be injected either.^ Recommendation 5 [Drug Interactions]: Clinicians should be aware of interactions between methadone and other drugs that either prolong the QT interval or reduce methadone elimination.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] .While it has been done in extremely diluted concentrations, instances of cardiac arrest have been reported as well as damaged veins from sugar and other ingredients (Sugar-Free syrups also should not be injected).^ Deaths, cardiac and respiratory, have been reported during initiation and conversion of pain patients to methadone treatment from treatment with other opioid agonists.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ THE MAJOR HAZARDS OF METHADONE AS OF OTHER NARCOTIC ANALGESICS, ARE RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND TO A LESSER DEGREE, CIRCULATORY DEPRESSION. RESPIRATORY ARREST SHOCK, AND CARDIAC ARREST HAVE OCCURRED. .

.Oral medication offers safety, simplicity and represents a step away from injection-based drug abuse in those recovering from addiction.^ Before starting methadone hydrochloride tablets, tell your doctor about all your medical and mental conditions including a history of drug or alcohol abuse or addiction.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of the established utility of this drug and with the eventual goal of enhancing safety of use, we performed a community- based study to evaluate this association.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This eMedTV segment takes a closer look at the benefits and downsides of using this medication to treat abuse of heroin or other morphine-like drugs.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.U.S. federal regulations require the oral form in addiction treatment programs.^ For addiction treatment, however, federal and state laws and regulations impose additional requirements that are specific to the use of methadone in opioid treatment programs (OTP), which treat and rehabilitate people addicted to heroin or other opioids.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ [Footnote 34] When Used for Addiction Treatment, Methadone Is Subject to Additional Requirements under Federal and State Laws and Regulations: Although methadone is subject to federal and state requirements that apply to controlled substances, there are additional requirements specific to methadone when used for addiction treatment.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ FDA considers methadone safe and effective for both pain management and addiction treatment, although not all forms of methadone are FDA approved for both of these purposes.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

[20]

Adverse effects

Adverse effects of methadone include:[13][21][22][23][24]

Mortality

.According to the National Center for Health Statistics,[25] as well as a 2006 series in the Charleston (WV) Gazette,[26] medical examiners listed methadone as contributing to 3,849 deaths in 2004; up from 790 in 1999. Approximately 82% of those deaths were listed as accidental, and most deaths involved combinations of methadone with other drugs (especially benzodiazepines).^ Most of these deaths are related to methadone prescribed with other medications that react as additives with methadone.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He said the deaths weren't so much from Methadone by itself, but combinations where Methadone was involved.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

^ Compare Methadone with other medications for the treatment of: .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

Although deaths from methadone are on the rise, methadone-associated deaths are not being caused primarily by methadone intended for methadone treatment programs according to a panel of experts convened by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration which released a report titled "Methadone-Associated Mortality, Report of a National Assessment". The consensus report concludes that "although the data remain incomplete, National Assessment meeting participants concurred that methadone tablets and/or diskettes distributed through channels other than opioid treatment programs most likely are the central factor in methadone-associated mortality."[27] Methadone treatment can impair driving ability.[28] .Patients are demonstrated to have extremely high involvement in serious crashes, as a study by Queensland University showed that 220 patients had been involved in crashes killing 17 people between them versus a control group of other patients randomly selected having no involvement in fatal crashes.^ This pilot case-control study (n=40) retrospectively assessed between-groups differences in subjective opioid effects in patients treated for the first time with opioids for chronic pain.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - February, 2009 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugabuse.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients submitted to methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment compared to untreated heroin addicts and healthy controls.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interestingly, none of the patients in this report demonstrated similar variability in analgesic response when switched to other opioids.

[29] .However, there have been multiple studies verifying the ability of methadone maintenance patients to drive.^ Countless studies have been done involving methadone maintenance patients and driving ability--and they all show that patients who are on chronic, long term opioid therapy are tolerant of the effects of their medication and can drive as well as those NOT on medication, and that there is NO medical reason to restrict driving privileges beased on this.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Results: Sixty-eight of the 401 interviewees had commenced an episode of methadone-maintenance treatment at the start of the study.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Though this study concluded that minimal service methadone treatment was ineffective, patients who received minimal services did substantially reduce their heroin use.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

[30]

Tolerance and dependence

.As with other opioid medications, tolerance and dependence usually develop with repeated doses.^ As with other opioid medications, tolerance and dependence usually develop with repeated doses.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cross-tolerance may also depend on the previous opioid dose.
  • American Pain Society – Methadone: History and Recommendations for Use in Analgesia 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.ampainsoc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.ncpainmanagement.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with heroin, tolerance and dependence usually develop with repeated doses.

.Tolerance to the different physiological effects of methadone varies.^ Tolerance to the different physiological effects of methadone varies.
  • Methadone! 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Breakthrough Addiction Recovery: Methadone 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.breakthroughaddictionrecovery.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the tolerance factor as well as the effects (physiological) differs.
  • Methadone To Take Or Not To Take This AntiNarcotic Drug 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC article.dietforumlive.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Medicine: Methadone: To Take Or Not To Take This Anti-Narcotic Drug - Methadone, Anti-Narcotic Drug 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC health.holplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Constant doses will maintain the concentration of methadone in the range between the dependence and the tolerance levels, and thus neither withdrawal symptoms nor narcotic effects will be experienced.

.Tolerance to analgesia usually occurs during the first few weeks of use; whereas with respiratory depression, sedation, and nausea it is seen within approximately 5–7 days.^ The benzodiazepine family of depressants is used therapeutically to produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Within a few days, your article could be reprinted by hundreds of other sites.

^ Tolerance, psychological and physical dependence may occur with prolonged use.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] .There is no tolerance formed to constipation produced by methadone or other opioids; however, effects may be less severe after time and can often be alleviated through increase intake of dietary fiber (fruits and vegetables, high-fiber cereals, etc.^ Methadone may work the same, but it may increase or decrease the effects of other medications.
  • Methadone and HIV Medications: Drug Interactions - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, there were times when I had no choice.

^ There is no tolerance formed to constipation produced by methadone or other opioids; however, effects may be less severe after time and can often be alleviated through dietary fiber supplements.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

) or fiber supplements.[citation needed]

Withdrawal symptoms

Physical symptoms[citation needed]
Cognitive symptoms[citation needed]
.Withdrawal symptoms are generally slightly less severe than those of morphine or heroin at equivalent doses but are significantly more prolonged; methadone withdrawal symptoms can last for several weeks or more.^ ULTRAM for Methadone withdraw symptoms.
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is methadone more addictive than heroin?

^ Is methadone more likely to kill you than heroin?
  • Methadone, Methadone Addiction & Methadone Side Effects By Narconon Arrowhead & Heroin Addiction .com - Heroin Addiction Drug Rehab 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.heroinaddiction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methadone Treatment for Pain and Addiction 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonetreatmentfor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Drug-rehab.org is a non-profit drug & alcohol rehab referral service 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drug-rehab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • methadone abuse by drug rehab america.net 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugrehabamerica.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methadone & Methadone Addiction - Addiction Treatment Center ~ Call 1-800-468-6933 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.addiction2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At high maintenance doses, sudden cessation of therapy can result in withdrawal symptoms described as "the worst withdrawal imaginable," lasting from weeks to months.^ At high maintenance doses, sudden cessation of therapy can result in methadone withdrawal symptoms described as "the worst withdrawal imaginable," lasting from weeks to months.  So in summary, methadone withdrawal symptoms are VERY severe.

^ Methadone withdrawal symptoms can last for several weeks or more.

^ At high maintenance doses, sudden cessation of therapy can result in withdrawal symptoms described as "the worst withdrawal imaginable," lasting from weeks to months.

[31]
.There is a trend in the management of opiate addiction towards the reduction of a patient's methadone dosage to a point where they can be switched to buprenorphine or another opiate with an easier withdrawal profile.^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ QD for 3 to 4 days) resulted in an approximately 50% reduction in methadone exposure and withdrawal symptoms occurred concurrently.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone's long half-life and minimal side-effect profile makes it ideal for maintenance, but is not considered to be a desirable opiate to withdraw from when attempting to become completely opiate-free.^ Is methadone maintenance treatment for life?
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For one, unlike heroin, methadone has a very long half life.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Methadone, a long-acting synthetic narcotic analgesic, was first used in the maintenance treatment of drug addiction in the mid-1960s by Drs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.October 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, when detoxing at a recommended rate (typically 1-2 mgs per week), withdrawal is either minimal or nonexistent, as the patient's body has time to adjust to each reduction in dose.^ Dose reduction of Methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction of methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

Methadone maintenance treatment

.MMT (Methadone Maintenance Treatment), a form of opiate replacement therapy, reduces and/or eliminates the use of illicit opiates, the criminality associated with opiate use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity.^ Patients should be apprised of the high risk of relapse to illicit drug use associated with discontinuation of Methadone maintenance treatment.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical maintenance: A new model for continuing treatment of socially rehabilitated methadone maintenance patients.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients should be apprised of the high risk of relapse to illicit drug use associated with discontinuation of methadone maintenance treatment.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[32] .In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with opiate injection, such as hepatitis and HIV.[32] The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with opiates.^ Methadone can cause several effects on the body, such as reduced cravings for other opioids.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV. .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone has a similar effect to that of opiates but not as intense.

.Methadone maintenance has been found to be medically safe and non-sedating.^ Is methadone medically safe?
  • Methadone Clinic and Methadone Treatment Frequently Asked Questions - Methadone Clinics for Opiate Addiction Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.methadone-clinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methadone maintenance has been found to be medically safe and non-sedating.

^ Methadone maintenance has been found to be medically safe and non-sedating .
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

[32] It is also indicated for pregnant women addicted to opiates.[32]
.In Russia, methadone treatment is illegal.^ The goal of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is to reduce illegal heroin use and the crime, death, and disease associated with heroin addiction.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

Health officials are not convinced of the treatment's efficacy. .Instead, doctors encourage immediate abstinence from drug use, rather than the gradual process that methadone substitution therapy entails.^ The above difficulties, combined with the fact it is not a patent drug and therefore is not marketed to prescribers, have prevented methadone from being widely used as an analgesic.

^ Methadone, a long-acting synthetic narcotic analgesic, was first used in the maintenance treatment of drug addiction in the mid-1960s by Drs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, drugs administered concomitantly with methadone should be evaluated for interaction potential; clinicians are advised to evaluate individual response to drug therapy before making a dosage adjustment.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients are often given sedatives and painkillers to cope with withdrawal symptoms.^ The patient would probably be experiencing withdrawal symptoms late in the day.

^ Rifampin In patients well-stabilized on methadone, concomitant administration of rifampin resulted in a marked reduction in serum methadone levels and a concurrent appearance of withdrawal symptoms.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevirapine-induced withdrawal symptoms in HIV patients on methadone maintenance programme: an alert.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

[33]

Effect

.Methadone maintenance treatment significantly decreases the rate of HIV infection for those patients participating in MMT programs (Firshein, 1998).^ The rate at which Methadone is decreased should be determined separately for each patient.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Objective: Most patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) complain of poor sleep.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The rate at which methadone is decreased should be determined separately for each patient.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.At proper dosing, methadone usually reduces the appetite for and need to take opiates, and also block the euphoric effects of them, thus greatly reducing the motivation of patients to use.^ I got on a blocking dose so I would not be tempted to use opiates.
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone offers patients the freedom from active addiction and use of mind-altering drug use and in turn allows them to seek psychological, psychiatric and self-help based therapies for both the disease of addiction and other concurrent illnesses, which would not be possible when experiencing severe ongoing withdrawal and/or cravings.^ The patient would probably be experiencing withdrawal symptoms late in the day.

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The above difficulties, combined with the fact it is not a patent drug and therefore is not marketed to prescribers, have prevented methadone from being widely used as an analgesic.

.In addition, and perhaps most importantly, methadone allows addicts to become productive members of society.^ Contrary to the belief of most on this site, methadone DOES cause many of the patients to "nod off", become drowsy, and drive erratically.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And if your anti-HIV drug is at low levels, it won't work as well and could allow your virus to become resistant to that drug and, perhaps, others as well.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is specific to opiate addicts, and methadone allows one to live without that pain, and allows your brain to heal at the same time.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Freed from the need to obtain money through often illicit means, opiate addicts can return to their normal lives, or develop skills, further their education, and (re)join the workforce.^ To do that, you need the information and the skills to take the Internet by storm, and the biggest piece of the big money pie is driving a ton of targ...

^ You still have a lot of questions about what information you need to obtain from your clients, the best way to present a Loan Modification Proposal Re...

^ The Vancouver Area Network of Drugs Users (VANDU) is a group of users and former users who work to improve the lives of people who use illicit drugs through user-based peer support and education.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

.A proper dose used in methadone maintenance therapy will block or greatly reduce cravings for illicit opioids, while not inducing any euphoric feelings or other subjective sense of being high, and if dose is high enough, will actively prevent the patient from experiencing any high if they do use other opioids.^ Methadone and other opioids used in analgesia have the potential for being abused and are subject to criminal diversion.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone can cause several effects on the body, such as reduced cravings for other opioids.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone-based treatment is significantly more effective clinically and more cost effective than no-drug treatment modalities for opiate-dependent patients.^ No treatment, no methadone, nothing.
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Methadone is no longer useful or effective.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[34]

Dosage

.A majority of patients require 80–120 mg/d of methadone, or more, to achieve these effects and require treatment for an indefinite period of time, since methadone maintenance is a corrective but not a curative treatment for opiate addiction.^ Length of time in comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment; 7.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hospitals may also dispense or administer methadone for addiction treatment when patients are admitted to the hospital for another condition but require treatment for opiate addiction during their stay.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

[32] .Lower doses are sometimes not as effective, or do not provide an equivalent blockade effect as higher dosages can.^ Dosage adjustment using higher doses or administering the daily dose in divided doses may be necessary in pregnant women treated with Methadone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone accumulates with repeated doses and dosage may need reduction after 3-5 days to prevent CNS depressant effects.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After dosage titration over 3 days, the average dose on Day 3 was higher than on Day 0 for patients receiving less than 90 mg of morphine daily, whereas the average dose on Day 3 was lower for patients receiving more than 90 mg of morphine.

.Some patients will be prescribed as much as 500 mg of methadone a day, though a person without a methadone tolerance may get sick from a dose as low as 20 mg.^ Methadone dose may range 10-200 mg q8h .

^ Patients tolerant to other opioids may be incompletely tolerant to Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction of Methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States clinics typically start patients at a low dose, generally only starting patients on methadone when they are in withdrawal and providing a small test dose, after which the patients are observed for possible adverse effects.^ Generally you get methadone in the pill form from a pain clinic.Only the methadone ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In my case, with the proof of peak and trouphs (which is something in which you get your blood drawn 24 hrs after you dose and 4 hr after you dose to test the levels of methadone in your system).
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Assuming there are no complications, the remaining portion of the first day's dose is then given.^ I had my first one night stand with a guy that I thought was ugly when I first got there but got more attractive after drinking all day.
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, while a single dose suppresses opioid withdrawal symptoms for a day or more, it generally relieves pain for 4 to 8 hours despite remaining in the body much longer.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In this day and age there is no excuse to be confused...

.After this the doses are titrated until they reach either a clinically sufficient level that prevents withdrawal, cravings and possible continued use of illicit opioids, or until they reach a maximum dose set by clinic policy.^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One clinic modified its routine care to an adaptive stepped care model in response to the presentations, and 3 of the 5 clinics used MMM levels of treatment intensity at the end of the project.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir), a protease inhibitor, reduces methadone levels significantly enough to require an increase in some people's methadone dose to avoid withdrawal.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, a clinic may start patients at 30 mg and raise the dosage 5 mg a day until the patient feels at a comfortable level, or will stop at 80 mg and allowing the patient to move up by 5 mg or 10 mg every 2 or 3 days, free from withdrawal symptoms and intense cravings.^ Withdrawal symptoms in the neonate may be observed up to 2-4 weeks after delivery.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An additional 5 to 10 mg of methadone may be provided if withdrawal symptoms have not been suppressed or if symptoms reappear.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An additional 5 to 10 mg of Methadone may be provided if withdrawal symptoms have not been suppressed or if symptoms reappear.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Once stabilized patients may require occasional dose adjustments as their clinical or subjective tolerance changes.^ This is no different than an older person taking pain pills for their pain, once they have been on it for awhile the doctor increases their dose because their tolerance goes up and it doesn't help them anymore requiring a higher dosage.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Tim Bohman, regional manager for the health care corporation that owns that clinic, told the committee patients have a high tolerance for opioids and can function normally after treatment.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It has predictable (linear) absorption from the gut, with a rapid onset of action, and shows less inter-patient variability in terms of dose requirements.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common and traditional dosing regimens, however, tend to fall far short of providing optimum or even sufficient results for a number of patients.^ The most common physical and psychological symptoms however, include: Abdominal bloating/cramps Breast tenderness or swelling Stress or anxiety Troubl...

^ As with all opioid drugs, it is necessary to adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's prior analgesic treatment experience.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result, patients may feel the need to take more methadone before the previous dose has left the body.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is due to the ceilings many clinics place on dose levels.^ As many of you know, the state of Indiana is at risk of having HORRIBLE restrictions placed on it's clinics....and Pennsylvania might be soon to follow, sigh.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

[35][36]
.Until recently a 100-mg/d dose was regarded as a 'glass ceiling,' rarely to be penetrated.^ QT c interval prolongation and torsade de pointes may be associated with doses > 100 mg/day, but have also been observed with lower doses.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Forty-four percent of patients receive doses of at least 80 mg/day-the threshold identified as recommended practice in recent work.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction is necessary in the elderly, with the usual dose being 100 mg twice a day.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice much lower thresholds were maintained even though the optimal dose varies greatly between patients, often quite higher than this and with no inherent threshold in the possible dose, as the toxic dose for patients with very high tolerance can exceed this ten-fold or more.^ Do not take a higher dose of methadone hydrochloride tablets or take it more often than prescribed.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Do not take a higher dose of Methadone hydrochloride tablets or take it more often than prescribed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.The blood concentrations of patients on an equivalent dose (when adjusted for body weight) can vary as much as 17-fold, or up to 41-fold when influenced by other medications, leading to a vast range of potentially required doses.^ When combined with some anti-HIV medications, Special K can lead to "chemical hepatitis," inflammation of the liver that could require hospitalization.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In some of the deaths the concentrations in heart blood were much higher than in venous blood.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[37][38]
.In the United States, federal law was changed in 2001 to eliminate some restrictions imposed on patients dosed on more than 100 mg per day.^ Dose titration is necessary from 100 mg per day upwards.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should not stop taking Methadone hydrochloride tablets all at once if you have been taking it for more than a few days.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Depressed adolescent smokers may take in smaller doses of nicotine than nondepressed smokers; alternatively, depressed adolescents may metabolize nicotine more rapidly.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Duration

.While there is much debate generally over treatment schedules and duration, patients can often obtain indefinite treatment at their methadone clinic—lasting as long as the patient requires it.^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Footnote 34] When Used for Addiction Treatment, Methadone Is Subject to Additional Requirements under Federal and State Laws and Regulations: Although methadone is subject to federal and state requirements that apply to controlled substances, there are additional requirements specific to methadone when used for addiction treatment.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But Tim Bohman, regional manager for the health care corporation that owns that clinic, told the committee patients have a high tolerance for opioids and can function normally after treatment.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many factors determine the treatment schedule, including specific clinic policies which sometimes require patients to taper regardless of their desire to do so.^ Objective: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with untreated chronic HCV infection and to determine the clinical factors that predict HRQOL. Method: HRQOL was measured in 100 MMT patients entering an HCV treatment trial.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Enhanced schedules of counseling can improve response to routine opioid-agonist treatment, although it is associated with increased time demands that enhance patient resistance and non-adherence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This means that for addiction treatment, patients cannot obtain prescriptions from their physicians for Schedule II drugs.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In general, methadone maintenance is seen as ongoing symptom management rather than a curative treatment.^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: Sixty-eight of the 401 interviewees had commenced an episode of methadone-maintenance treatment at the start of the study.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The aims of this study was to assess the prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling (pathological gambling) and current obsessive compulsive disorder among former heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.This has buttressed the arguments of those who view methadone as just another prescription drug taken for a long-term, chronic condition.^ Ultram for long term chronic pain.

^ From what I can tell, methadone is just another drug - every bit as addicting as opiates ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hospitals may also dispense or administer methadone for addiction treatment when patients are admitted to the hospital for another condition but require treatment for opiate addiction during their stay.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

Dosage reduction

.A patient's dose of methadone may be reduced by a slow taper with minimal discomfort.^ Dose reduction of Methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction of methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients undergoing MMT at a clinic where they are given a daily dose have the opportunity to attempt a dose reduction and return to the previous dose if they are feeling discomfort.^ Alternatively, MMT patients may be hyperalgesic, and statistically equal levels of opioid analgesia given to both groups may indicate an effective under-treatment of pain in the hyperalgesic MMT group.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If you start a new medication and find that your methadone dose isn't "holding" you or that it makes you feel drowsy or over-medicated, talk to the provider at your clinic.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a retrospective study of MMT in-patients and controls matched for medical condition, age and gender, comparing the analgesia given and pain stated in hospital notes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Policies on dose reduction vary from clinic to clinic, from a focus on eventually tapering the patient off of methadone altogether to a focus on maintaining a high dose to prevent the use of illicit opiods.^ Dose reduction of Methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction of methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone doesn't deliver the same degree of buzz as heroin but it is addictive and so when coming off the drug the dose will need to be slowly reduced.

.Many methadone clinics will adjust doses upon personal evaluation of the correct care for the individual patient.^ The dosage may need to be increased or the dosing interval decreased in pregnant patients receiving methadone (see PRECAUTIONS , Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, drugs administered concomitantly with methadone should be evaluated for interaction potential; clinicians are advised to evaluate individual response to drug therapy before making a dosage adjustment.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is metabolized in the liver and patients with liver impairment may be at risk of accumulating Methadone after multiple dosing.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.A higher methadone dose may be considered preferable by a clinic treating patients addicted to illicit opiods, in order to discourage the use of illegal opiods.^ Dose reduction of Methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction of methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.This can be due to the large increase in tolerance, a chemical blocking effect caused by methadone above certain doses, or by filling a psychological or physical need that illicit opiods were previously being used for.^ Tolerance, psychological and physical dependence may occur with prolonged use.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone blocks the opiod receptors, so detoxing from it with ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May cause physical and/or psychological dependence.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.To minimize or prevent patient discomfort, the methadone dose must be decreased slowly.^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Well, methadone does NOT occupy all of the receptors, so your brain can slowly begin to heal, and the patient isn't constantly assailed with unreasonable depression and cravings.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Typical reduction rates vary and should be adjusted based on patient response.^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The rate at which Methadone is decreased should be determined separately for each patient.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doses may need to be adjusted according to patient response and side effects.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Frequently this adjustment is monitored on a daily basis. .Most of the literature focuses on methadone maintenance patients visiting clinics daily, focused on heroin substitution.^ The aims of this study was to assess the prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling (pathological gambling) and current obsessive compulsive disorder among former heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors sought to identify the functional neuroanatomy of the brain response to visual heroin-related stimuli in methadone maintenance patients.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Objective: To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients with untreated chronic HCV infection and to determine the clinical factors that predict HRQOL. Method: HRQOL was measured in 100 MMT patients entering an HCV treatment trial.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Chronic pain patients wishing to decrease their methadone dose must follow similar titration regimens.^ Patients with a chronic pain condition were excluded.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The dosage may need to be increased or the dosing interval decreased in pregnant patients receiving methadone (see PRECAUTIONS , Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.However their doctor may substitute alternative opiods during this period, altering what rate is compatible with patient comfort when compared with complete detoxification.^ During prolonged administration, adverse effects may decrease over several weeks; however, constipation and sweating may persist.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Citigroup reported a $4.3 billion profit, reversing a loss during the comparable period last year of $2.5 billion.

^ Concerns that treatment for heroin dependence using naltrexone may increase suicide rates during treatment and fatal overdoses posttreatment have been expressed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health has this recommendation: [39]
.Methadone tapering works best when done as a slow and gradual reduction in dose, dropping 5 mg every three to 14 days.^ The usual adult dose is 200 mg three times a day.
  • Pain Clinic - About Pain - Medication Types - Pain relief advice using drugs, medications, pain medicines, pain killers 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.painclinic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stabilization can be continued for 2 to 3 days, after which the dose of methadone should be gradually decreased.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal: Dose reductions should be <10% of the maintenance dose, every 10-14 days .
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.At this rate there should be very few, if any, physical symptoms during the taper.^ Nicotine craving, withdrawal symptoms and ratings of product effects and liking were measured during product use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Physicians should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is considerable variability in the appropriate rate of Methadone taper in patients choosing medically supervised withdrawal from Methadone treatment.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Once the dose is lowered to around 20 mg, the tapering may be slowed down to an even more gradual reduction, to reduce or eliminate any symptoms.^ QT c interval prolongation and torsade de pointes may be associated with doses > 100 mg/day, but have also been observed with lower doses.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The results from this study also suggest a behavioral mechanism that may account for reduced cancer risk in slow metabolizers.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Coadministration of methadone with CYP inducers of these enzymes may result in a more rapid metabolism and potential for decreased effects of methadone, whereas administration with CYP inhibitors may reduce metabolism and potentiate methadone's effects.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Nowadays, most methadone providers will allow you to choose the rate at which your dose is reduced.^ In my case, with the proof of peak and trouphs (which is something in which you get your blood drawn 24 hrs after you dose and 4 hr after you dose to test the levels of methadone in your system).
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If your dose isn't comfortable for you, it isn't "addictive behavior" to want one that is.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If they refuse to adjust your methadone to meet your needs, ask your HIV care provider to discuss it with them.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

Aegis Medical Systems Tapering Off of Methadone Maintenance: Evidence-Based Guidelines [40]
recommends regular evaluation of the patient's withdrawal symptoms, counseling where needed, and a generally slow rate, noting:
Dr. J. Thomas Payte, a highly experienced clinician and researcher, has suggested that a 7-10 day period between dose decreases should be adequate time to adjust before the next drop.
Clinical experience reminds us of an important rule in tapering, “THE SLOWER, THE BETTER,”
The College Of BC Pharmacists discusses more specific rates on page 19 of a slide presentation:[41]
Stopping Methadone
  • Greater detox. completion rates with greater time spent in MMT & slower taper.
  • Taper rate
    • < 10 mg or 10% per week.
    • Slower taper below 20-30 mg.
Mallinckrodt, the primary manufacturer of methadone in the US, has guidelines [42] that include
.For Medically Supervised Withdrawal After a Period of Maintenance Treatment There is considerable variability in the appropriate rate of methadone taper in patients choosing medically supervised withdrawal from methadone treatment.^ There is considerable variability in the appropriate rate of Methadone taper in patients choosing medically supervised withdrawal from Methadone treatment.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is considerable variability in the appropriate rate of methadone taper in patients choosing medically supervised withdrawal from methadone treatment.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Compare Methadone with other medications for the treatment of: .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is generally suggested that dose reductions should be less than 10% of the established tolerance or maintenance dose, and that 10 to 14-day intervals should elapse between dose reductions.^ It is generally suggested that dose reductions should be less than 10% of the established tolerance or maintenance dose, and that 10 to 14-day intervals should elapse between dose reductions.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of methadone.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You should not stop taking Methadone hydrochloride tablets all at once if you have been taking it for more than a few days.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Patients should be apprised of the high risk of relapse to illicit drug use associated with discontinuation of methadone maintenance treatment.^ Presentation of these symptoms have been associated with an increased risk of susceptible patients to relapse to illicit drug use and should be considered when assessing the risks and benefit of methadone use.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients seeking to discontinue Methadone maintenance treatment of opioid dependence should be apprised of the high risk of relapse to illicit drug use associated with discontinuation of Methadone maintenance treatment.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles of illicit drug use and treatment of illicit drug users.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

Other documents discussing the recommended rate of dose reduction can be found from Health Canada[43] and the Canadian Department Of Health And Human Services [44]

Visits to clinics

.Methadone has traditionally been provided to people who are opiate dependent in a highly regulated methadone clinic, generally associated with an outpatient department of a hospital, though this varies country by country.^ I have seen many methadone clinics and the people who are going to them are not bad people.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I would've never said that anyone at the methadone clinic was low class, and I think anyone who's ever ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Treating alcoholism, crack addiction and people that take 5 or 6 loratabs a day with methadone, is the bigest mistake these counselors, doctors and clinics make.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example in Australia, Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is delivered by private pharmacies for a nominal fee to the client (regardless of the fact it is free as it is subsidised by the Federal government).^ Results: Sixty-eight of the 401 interviewees had commenced an episode of methadone-maintenance treatment at the start of the study.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The aims of this study was to assess the prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling (pathological gambling) and current obsessive compulsive disorder among former heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Length of time in comprehensive methadone maintenance treatment; 7.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This nominal fee covers the costs of providing the service, such as purchase and maintenance of supplies and equipment like dosing cups and precision measuring devices, supply costs involved in transporting a highly regulated drug from supplier to the pharmacy, extensive record-keeping as per government requirements, and compensation to the pharmacy staff for the time involved in preparing for and dosing a client (none of which are funded by the Federal government).^ Such instruments need to be brief, acceptable to staff and clients, easy to use, provide immediate feedback, and meet adequate psychometric requirements.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ None of these drugs was a substrate for transport by P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is particularly important for clients receiving long-term treatment such as methadone maintenance treatment, as fluctuations in substance use, functioning, and health are to be expected.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In many Western countries, new patients are required to visit the clinic daily so that they may be observed taking their dose by the dispensing nurse, but may be allowed to leave the clinic with increasing supplies of "take home doses" or "carries" after several months of adherence to the clinic's regulations, including consistent negative drug-screen results.^ See if they are taking new patients ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe the clinic should be very strict in take homes and dosing.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a few months, they may become eligible for unsupervised take-home doses.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The way that MMT is delivered in some countries create barriers to scaling up access to the treatment.^ That is patently ridiculous, and is an obvious ploy to make treatment so difficult to access that the patients will give up trying--that is what commissioner Moore wants.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How to find and access online genealogy databases (this is a great way to simplify as well as speed up your family tree research!

^ ENTER - My Ebook Master My eBook Master is the simplest and most effective way to create, market, and deliver your ebook.

.For example, in Australia, people who are on MMT are dosed in a designated area in front of other pharmacy customers.^ Acute Pain – Maintenance patients on a stable dose of Methadone who experience physical trauma, postoperative pain or other acute pain cannot be expected to derive analgesia from their existing dose of Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I along with thousands of others will be there standing up for all of the people who cannot be there.
  • “Freedom Rally” Money Bomb: Granny Needs Our Help!! | Ron Paul War Room 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.ronpaulwarroom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would like to see more MA meetings in the Philadelphia area because we have so many people who want to go to meetings, but are not willing to be judged and discriminated against at other"fellowships".
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] This can inhibit people's willingness to access treatment due to a lack of confidentiality and anonymity. .In most well-designed pharmacies in Australia, however, dosing occurs in a discreet location away from other customers, and may even take place in a room specially designed for this purpose.^ Depressed adolescent smokers may take in smaller doses of nicotine than nondepressed smokers; alternatively, depressed adolescents may metabolize nicotine more rapidly.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After a few months, they may become eligible for unsupervised take-home doses.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone- associated overdose deaths can occur under several different scenarios, including improper dosing levels by practitioners, misuse by patients who may combine methadone with other drugs, or abuseusing the drug for nontherapeutic purposes.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In some countries or regions, law stipulates that clinics may provide at most one week's worth of methadone (up to 30 days in the USA but states may allow as few as three), except for patients unable to visit the clinic without undue hardship due to a medical disability or infrequent exceptions made for necessary travel to areas without clinics, and this level is only reached after a few years of proper results.^ May 23rd it will be one year, so I'm dreading that day for us.
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New Mexico: * A patient in comprehensive maintenance treatment may receive a single dose of take-home medication for each day that a provider is closed; * During the first 90 days, One take-home dose per week maximum; * 91-180 days: Two take-home doses per week maximum; * 181-270 days: Three take-home doses per week maximum; * For the remaining months of the year, 6 days of medication maximum per week; * After 1 year of continuous treatment, maximum 2-week take-home supply; * After 2 years, maximum of 1-month take-home supply, but must make monthly visits; * Exceptions made only as provided by federal OTP regulations and as approved by the state methadone authority ( 7.32.8.23(C), (D)).
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ West Virginia[A]: * For the first 90 days of treatment: A single take-home dose for the week of each holiday that the clinic is closed; * First 30 days of treatment: No take-home doses except the holiday dose; * 31-90 days: One take-home dose per week plus the holiday dose; * 91-180 days: Two take-home doses per week; * 181-270 days: Three take-home doses per week; * Remainder of the first year: Maximum 6-day supply; * Second year of treatment: Maximum 13-day supply; * After 2 years of continuous treatment: Maximum 1-month supply with monthly visits; * State authority may approve exceptional unsupervised doses on a case- by-case basis if the program physician applies ( 64-90-41.6, 41.7).
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the U.S., MMT patients generally receive psycho-social support (i.e. "counseling"), which is provided on site. .Although laws vary, this is required in many states and countries regardless of whether a person needs or wants to engage in that kind of intervention (for example, recent changes in Taiwan).^ [Footnote 34] When Used for Addiction Treatment, Methadone Is Subject to Additional Requirements under Federal and State Laws and Regulations: Although methadone is subject to federal and state requirements that apply to controlled substances, there are additional requirements specific to methadone when used for addiction treatment.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, data from Florida distinguish whether methadone was simply present or was the cause of death, but not all states make this distinction.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, these states require, in general, that Schedule II controlled substances may only be dispensed by pharmacists upon a written prescription of a practitioner.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Patients are often forced to attend 10 hours or more of therapy per week, having their daily dose withheld (thereby inducing withdrawal) for failure to comply.^ Its slow onset allows patients to be monitored as the drug takes effect, and its 24-to 36-hour duration of action suppresses opioid withdrawal symptoms with one daily dose.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Your methadone dose may need to be raised gradually -- 5-10 mg daily -- in order to be effective.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This explosive information : 6 powerful rules & 20 targeted exercises to force your muscles to grow Fast Results based on only 1 Hour a week (3 x 20 m...

.Methadone maintenance is rarely covered by private insurance and patients are encouraged to enroll in public welfare programs or face upwards of $500USD per month.^ Gordon MS; Kinlock TW; Schwartz RP; O'Grady KE. A randomized clinical trial of methadone maintenance for prisoners: Findings at 6 months post-release.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The combined cost of methadone maintenance and the therapeutic workplace was estimated at US$362 per week.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CBT for medication adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-Infected patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since a supervised dose costs more than a take-home dose, and the risk of diversion, clinics are reluctant to provide take-home privileges.^ I believe the clinic should be very strict in take homes and dosing.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You should not stop taking Methadone hydrochloride tablets all at once if you have been taking it for more than a few days.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Depressed adolescent smokers may take in smaller doses of nicotine than nondepressed smokers; alternatively, depressed adolescents may metabolize nicotine more rapidly.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Cost

.Methadone clinics in the Netherlands are free for Dutch patients as methadone treatment (as well as most other common methods of addiction treatment) it's fully covered under the basic health insurance claus, and since every person over the age of 18 is obliged to have health insurance in the Netherlands, everyone is insured against any such costs.^ I have an addiction problem, and I get the methadone from a pain clinic, will I still have to go every ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I had no were else to go other then the methadone clinic.
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Compare Methadone with other medications for the treatment of: .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.For opioid dependent homeless people, all treatment costs are covered by the government subsidization in the Netherlands.^ As with all opioid drugs, it is necessary to adjust the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's prior analgesic treatment experience.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We surveyed 293 opioid dependent individuals seeking methadone maintenance treatment about their pain experiences and their substance-related pain reduction behaviors.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Interindividual variability of the clinical pharmacokinetics of methadone: implication for the treatment of opioid dependence.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone clinics in the U.S. charge anywhere from $50–300 per week, which may be covered by private insurance or Medicaid.^ The combined cost of methadone maintenance and the therapeutic workplace was estimated at US$362 per week.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carolene Mays (D-Indianapolis), worried the measure could push patients away from the methadone clinics.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Participants: A clinic sample of 140 adult methadone patients over the age of 50 was recruited for face-to-face interviews.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the many "cash-only" clinics do not accept insurance, forcing patients to pay up front and then seek reimbursement from their carrier, a process which is fraught with difficulty and a long history of denied claims.^ The following dosing recommendations should only be considered as suggested approaches to what is actually a series of clinical decisions over time in the management of the pain of each individual patient.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some claimed the plans in Congress would eliminate Medicare or force seniors to accept euthanasia.

^ Many people might be put off by the methadone clinic cause they think its a long process and takes ...
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

Patients are often encouraged to enroll in public welfare for the Medicaid insurance.
.Those patients who lack insurance often struggle to pay the fees.^ Such a finding should be read in the context of a high-threshold setting, and accounts only for those patients, who had been retained in treatment over the first year.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These effects seem to be more prominent in ambulatory patients and in those who are not suffering severe pain.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of these patients are just looking for a way to get a legal perscription and supply of stronger drugs, that they can sell to pay their fees or just to make money and get high.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals who fall behind usually face an administrative discharge dubbed the "fee-tox" (a rapid decrease in dose lasting a week or two), or even refusal to dose (which is medically unapproved).^ Coadministration of methadone with CYP inducers of these enzymes may result in a more rapid metabolism and potential for decreased effects of methadone, whereas administration with CYP inhibitors may reduce metabolism and potentiate methadone's effects.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I get two weeks take homes and so I am suppose to get a driver for the day that I go to the clinic and then it is ok to take my dose at home the rest of the time and get out on the street and drive?
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Coadministration of Methadone with CYP inducers of these enzymes may result in a more rapid metabolism and potential for decreased effects of Methadone, whereas administration with CYP inhibitors may reduce metabolism and potentiate Methadone's effects.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Re-admission to programs is usually contingent upon paying all back balances plus an intake fee (which can be up to $1000 in the US, but is generally much less).^ Why pay $1000's of dollars to the energy company each year, when you can build a free energy generator for only a fraction of that price?!

^ So even if you re not generating this much, you can definitely triple or ...

^ Minor metabolites were detected much less frequently for up to 32 h, with peak concentrations of 18 ng/mL for all analytes except pOHBE (up to 57.7 ng/mL).
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cost analyses of methadone clinics often compare the cost of clinic visits versus the overall societal costs of illicit opiod use.^ Deaths associated with illicit use of Methadone frequently have involved concomitant benzodiazepine abuse.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dosage adjustment using higher doses or administering the daily dose in divided doses may be necessary in pregnant women treated with Methadone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Presentation of these symptoms have been associated with an increased risk of susceptible patients to relapse to illicit drug use and should be considered when assessing the risks and benefit of methadone use.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[45][46]

Analgesic

.In recent years, methadone has gained popularity among physicians for the treatment of other medical problems, such as an analgesic in chronic pain.^ Compare Methadone with other medications for the treatment of: .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Educational efforts include physician training on the appropriate use of methadone to treat pain and opioid addiction, and public education campaigns about the dangers of methadone and other prescription drugs.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A disaster for ALL victims of Hurricane Katrina, but add to that being a patient that is on Medication Assisted Treatment...or taking medication for pain.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

.The increased usage comes as doctors search for an opioid drug that can be dosed less frequently than short-acting drugs like morphine or hydrocodone.^ The increased usage comes as doctors search for an opioid drug that can be dosed less frequently than short-acting drugs like morphine or hydrocodone .
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The increased usage comes as doctors search for an opioid drug that can be dosed less frequently than short-acting drugs like morphine or hydrocodone.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Morphine stronger than hydrocodone.

.Another factor in the increased usage is the low cost of methadone.^ Another factor in the increased usage is the low cost of methadone.

^ The low cost of methadone as well as its effectiveness over a long period of time made it rather popular too.
  • Medicine: Methadone: To Take Or Not To Take This Anti-Narcotic Drug - Methadone, Anti-Narcotic Drug 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC health.holplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methadone is also used in managing chronic pain due to its long duration of action and very low cost.

[47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] [60] [61] [62] [63]
While the cost for pain patients varies based on many factors, leading to few specifics in the literature, one source[64] states:
.Prices vary; however, in some cases monthly costs to patients for oral methadone can be more than 30-fold less than equianalgesic doses of other generic or brand-name opioid analgesics.^ Note Equianalgesic methadone dosing varies not only between patients, but also within the same patient, depending on baseline morphine (or other opioid) dose.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Note – Equianalgesic Methadone dosing varies not only between patients, but also within the same patient, depending on baseline morphine (or other opioid) dose.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.A week's supply will typically have a retail cost of $50–$70 in the United States, compared to hundreds of dollars for alternative opioids.^ Submit Methadone Side Effect   Discuss   Ask a Doctor   Compare Methadone Side Effects   Read More Methadone Side Effects Report #5236134-1 Physician from UNITED STATES reported Methadone side effect on Feb 06, 2007.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Overdose Death Investigation and Reporting: Death investigations in the United States are typically conducted by a county, district, or state coroner system or a medical examiner system.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Submit Methadone Side Effect   Discuss   Ask a Doctor   Compare Methadone Side Effects   Read More Methadone Side Effects Report #5315063-9 Methadone side effect was reported by a Physician from UNITED STATES on Apr 13, 2007.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methadone, with its long half-life (and thus long duration of effect) and good oral bioavailability, is a common second-choice drug for pain that does not respond to weaker agonists.^ How long does the effect last?
  • Methadone Detox Treatment Withdrawal Symptoms | Methadone Orange County Treatment Program | Opiate Withdrawal 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.suboxone-subutex-detox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methadone, with its long half-life (and thus long duration of effect) and good oral bioavailability, is a common second-choice drug for pain that does not respond to weaker agonists.

^ Methadone, with its long half-life (and thus long duration of effect) and good oral bioavailability , is a common second-choice drug for pain that does not respond to weaker agonists.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.A major drawback is that unlike OxyContin (oxycodone continuous release), methadone is not technologically engineered for sustained release of the drug so blood concentrations will fluctuate greatly between dosing.^ A major drawback is that unlike OxyContin ( oxycodone continuous release), methadone is not technologically engineered for sustained release of the drug so blood concentrations will fluctuate greatly between dosing.
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A major drawback is that unlike OxyContin (oxycodone continuous release), methadone is not technologically engineered for sustained release of the drug so blood concentrations will fluctuate greatly between dosing.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A major drawback is that unlike Oxycontin methadone is not technologically engineered for sustained release of the drug so blood concentrations will fluctuate greatly between dosing.

.This problem is overcome to a great extent by the practice of dosing methadone two or three times a day in pain patients.^ Methadone a day for pain.
  • Methadone discussions (experiences, side effects, dosages, etc...) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugtalk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Female patient was diagnosed with pain  , breakthrough pain and was treated with Methadone.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone-maintained patients beginning treatment with these antiretroviral drugs should be monitored for evidence of withdrawal effects and methadone dose should be adjusted accordingly.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some physicians also choose methadone for treating chronic pain in patients who are thought to have a propensity for addiction, because it causes less of an intoxicated or euphoric "high". The effect is of morphine-equivalent origin.^ The effect is of morphine-equivalent origin.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Of late, methadone has been widely recommended for patients suffering from chronic pain.
  • Medicine: Methadone: To Take Or Not To Take This Anti-Narcotic Drug - Methadone, Anti-Narcotic Drug 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC health.holplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some physicians also choose methadone for treating chronic pain in patients who are thought to have a propensity for addiction, because it causes less of an intoxicated or euphoric "high".
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

On November 29, 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a Public Health Advisory about methadone titled "Methadone Use for Pain Control May Result in Death and Life-Threatening Changes in Breathing and Heart Beat." The advisory went on to say that "the FDA has received reports of death and life-threatening side effects in patients taking methadone. .These deaths and life-threatening side effects have occurred in patients newly starting methadone for pain control and in patients who have switched to methadone after being treated for pain with other strong narcotic pain relievers.^ Methadone Side Effects reported to FDA .
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone does not possess any extra-strong pain relieving effects compared to the other opiates.
  • Medicine: Methadone: To Take Or Not To Take This Anti-Narcotic Drug - Methadone, Anti-Narcotic Drug 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC health.holplus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dangerous side effects or death can occur when alcohol is combined with methadone.
  • Methadone Information from Drugs.com 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methadone can cause slow or shallow breathing and dangerous changes in heart beat that may not be felt by the patient."^ The revised label states that methadone can cause slow or shallow breathing and dangerous changes in heartbeat that may not be felt by the patient.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Slow, shallow breathing (respiratory depression).

^ Methadone can cause slow or shallow breathing and dangerous changes in heart beat that may not be felt by the patient."
  • Methadone! 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Breakthrough Addiction Recovery: Methadone 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.breakthroughaddictionrecovery.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.The advisory urged that physicians use caution when prescribing methadone to patients who are not used to the drug, and that patients take the drug exactly as directed.^ What happens to a patient who stops taking the methadone?

^ The advisory stated: "Prescribing methadone is complex.
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thyroid dysfunction: Use with caution in patients with thyroid dysfunction.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] .As with any strong medication that can be fatal in large doses, methadone must be taken properly and with due care.^ Review your medical conditions regularly with your doctor to determine if you still need Methadone hydrochloride tablets, or if the dose needs to be adjusted.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These can be symptoms that you have taken too much (overdose of) methadone hydrochloride tablets, or the dose is too high for you.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These can be symptoms that you have taken too much (overdose of) Methadone hydrochloride tablets, or the dose is too high for you.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Otherwise, the accumulation of methadone could potentially reach a level of toxicity if the dose is too high or if the user's metabolism of the drug is slow.^ The low levels of Videx could also potentially lead to development of resistance.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In my case, with the proof of peak and trouphs (which is something in which you get your blood drawn 24 hrs after you dose and 4 hr after you dose to test the levels of methadone in your system).
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Grapefruit juice could increase levels of Cialis in your blood, so avoid it if you take that drug.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

.In such a situation, a patient who fared fine after the first few doses could reach high levels of the drug in his body without ever taking more than was prescribed.^ In such a situation, a patient who fared fine after the first few doses could reach high levels of the drug in his body without ever taking more than was prescribed.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking more opioids won’t get you high, but you could overdose.
  • SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Treatment - Publication: Know Your Rights; 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC csat.samhsa.gov [Source type: General]

^ Do not take more or less than the dose you have been prescribed.
  • Methadone | Medicine | Patient UK 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

.For this reason, it is reasonable to make sure that patients who do not have a tolerance to opiates be prescribed methadone in initially small doses, and that when sent home, patients and their families are made very aware of the symptoms characteristic of opiate overdose.^ Who prescribes methadone, and when?
  • Methadone Replacement for Heroin | Health | Patient UK 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ What are the symptoms of methadone overdose?
  • MySpace - METHADONE - 48 - Female - Alabama - myspace.com/xxxmethadone 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

^ The initial methadone dose is determined by the presenting signs and symptoms.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Management of Opiate Withdrawal 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Also, there is some evidence that methadone and other opioids may cause cardiac conduction problems (prolonged QTc interval[66]) although there are few documented cases of fatalities resulting from this side-effect with methadone.^ Methadone Side Effects reported to FDA .
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There may be others.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The expected clinical results would be increased or prolonged opioid effects.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.In an effort to turn the tide on reported increases in methadone-related adverse events, the DEA announced in a recent advisory that manufacturers of methadone hydrochloride 40-mg tablets have agreed to restrict their distribution of that particular formulation of the drug.^ Do not take Methadone hydrochloride tablets if you: .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tablet, as hydrochloride: 5 mg, 10 mg .
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tablet, dispersible, as hydrochloride: 40 mg .
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.As of 1. January 2008, manufacturers will ship the methadone hydrochloride 40-mg formulation only to hospitals and facilities that have been authorized for detoxification and maintenance treatment of patients with opioid addiction.^ The DEA advisory stresses that the 40-mg formulation of methadone hydrochloride is indicated only for the detoxification and maintenance treatment of opioid-addicted patients and is not FDA-approved for use in pain management.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is usually for the treatment of drug addiction.
  • Methadone | Medicine | Patient UK 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Treatment of addiction to opioids such as heroin .

.In addition, manufacturers of the drug will instruct their wholesale distributors to stop supplying the formulation to any facility that doesn't meet the criteria.^ In addition, manufacturers of the drug will instruct their wholesale distributors to stop supplying the formulation to any facility that doesn't meet the criteria.

^ Upon entering the facility he was drug tested and did not come up positive for opiates (he had stopped taking the percocet 4 days before entering the facility).
  • Methadone Deaths - Legal Forum 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC chat.lawinfo.com [Source type: News]

^ DEA regulates transactions involving the sale and distribution of Schedule II controlled substances by manufacturers and wholesale distributors.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The DEA advisory stresses that the 40-mg formulation of methadone hydrochloride is indicated only for the detoxification and maintenance treatment of opioid-addicted patients and is not FDA-approved for use in pain management.^ The DEA advisory stresses that the 40-mg formulation of methadone hydrochloride is indicated only for the detoxification and maintenance treatment of opioid-addicted patients and is not FDA-approved for use in pain management.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Management of severe pain; detoxification and maintenance treatment of narcotic addiction (if used for detoxification and maintenance treatment of narcotic addiction, it must be part of an FDA-approved program) Restrictions: .
  • Methadone 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the 40-milligram methadone tablet (also known as a "diskette") for use in NTPs, but not for the management of pain.
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Federal law does not restrict the prescribing, dispensing or administration of methadone for the treatment of pain, and the 5-mg and 10-mg methadone formulations will continue to be available as a tool that family physicians can use to treat patients for pain.^ Female patient was diagnosed with pain  , breakthrough pain and was treated with Methadone.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Female patient was treated with Methadone.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone dosage: 10 MG TID PO. Patient was hospitalized .
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

.Despite the FDA directive, many doctors continue to prescribe Methadone as a pain killer, but only to patients which have shown to be responsible in their use of previous pain killers.^ Doctors prescribing methadone.

^ Female patient was diagnosed with pain  , breakthrough pain and was treated with Methadone.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common indication for methadone use was pain control (n = 12, 55%).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.One reason for use of Methadone is its advantages for opioid rotation.^ Despite the widespread use of methadone in maintenance treatment for opioid dependence in many countries, it is a controversial treatment whose effectiveness has been disputed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternative, non-opioid analgesics should be considered, and Methadone should be used at the lowest effective dose and only under careful medical supervision.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been a primary treatment response to illicit opioid use in Canada for decades, analytical treatment data are scarce.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Patients with long-term pain will sometimes have to perform so-called opioid rotation.^ Such patients should be administered analgesics, including opioids, in doses that would otherwise be indicated for non-Methadone-treated patients with similar painful conditions.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, MMT patients may be hyperalgesic, and statistically equal levels of opioid analgesia given to both groups may indicate an effective under-treatment of pain in the hyperalgesic MMT group.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[67] .By this is meant switching from one opioid to another, usually at intervals of between a few weeks and, more commonly, several months.^ Particular vigilance is necessary during treatment initiation, during conversion from one opioid to another, and during dose titration.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The current scientific consensus is that opioid dependence is a chronic and severe medical disorder, and withdrawal alone is usually followed by rapid relapse.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Read more I had chest pain twice in one week.
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

.Opioid rotation is good because switching to another opioid gives lower dose, and because of this less side effects, to achieve the desired effect.^ Particular vigilance is necessary during treatment initiation, during conversion from one opioid to another, and during dose titration.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors).
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a patient develops intolerable opioid related side effects, the Methadone dose, or dosing interval, may need to be adjusted.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Then, with the new opioid, tolerance grows, higher doses are needed, and toxicity in relation to analgesic effects increase.^ This is no different than an older person taking pain pills for their pain, once they have been on it for awhile the doctor increases their dose because their tolerance goes up and it doesn't help them anymore requiring a higher dosage.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients in maintenance treatment should be titrated to a dose at which opioid symptoms are prevented for 24 hours, drug hunger or craving is reduced, the euphoric effects of self-administered opioids are blocked or attenuated, and the patient is tolerant to the sedative effects of Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acute effect of methadone maintenance dose on brain fMRI response to heroin-related cues.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

So then it is time rotate again to another opioid. .Such opioid rotation is standard practice for managing patients with tolerance development problems.^ But Tim Bohman, regional manager for the health care corporation that owns that clinic, told the committee patients have a high tolerance for opioids and can function normally after treatment.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors).
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methods: A survey, developed by the authors, was administered to 25 counselors with a combined caseload of 956 patients at 3 opioid agonist treatment programs.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Usually, when doing opioid rotation, one cannot go down to a completely naive dose, because there is cross-tolerance, so some of the high tolerance is brought over to the new opioid.^ But Tim Bohman, regional manager for the health care corporation that owns that clinic, told the committee patients have a high tolerance for opioids and can function normally after treatment.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Incomplete cross-tolerance is of particular concern for patients tolerant to other mu-opioid agonists who are being converted to treatment with Methadone, thus making determination of dosing during opioid treatment conversion complex.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In my opinion there is different types of people who have drug problems, one is the ones who really want help and aren't looking for a high and then the ones who can't get enough no matter what their methadone dose is.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, Methadone has much lower cross-tolerance, when switching to it from other opioids, than other opioids[68].^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients tolerant to other opioids may be incompletely tolerant to Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other animal studies have reported that perinatal exposure to opioids including Methadone alters neuronal development and behavior in the offspring.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.This means that Methadone can start at a low dose, and the time for the next switch will be longer.^ Methadone's peak respiratory depressant effects typically occur later, and persist longer than its peak analgesic effects, particularly in the early dosing period.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with Sustiva, your methadone dose may need to be raised 5-10 mg daily to be effective after starting a combination that includes Viramune.
  • Drug Interactions: HIV Medications, Street Drugs and Methadone - The Body 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I was on MMT at the time--had only been on it for a few months and at a very low dose, and I had never stopped using.
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

.All opioids have as a major side effect tiredness, which can go to an almost half-awake stage (=sedation, in medical terms).^ Effects from long side term xanax.

^ Long term side effects of propecia.

^ JSQwFUVgIIVHXSQJw , le mardi 24 février 2009 à 03:53 side effects of taking sleeping pills go www.videocodezone.com/use...
  • Difficile de faire face à un changement de style de vie? - Mon premier weblogue 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.londonmacadam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many patients report that Methadone's sedation effect is often less pronounced than with other opioids and cite this as a major argument for preferring Methadone as an analgesic.^ Methadone Side Effects reported to FDA .
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Switching Patients to Methadone from other Chronic Opioids .
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients tolerant to other opioids may be incompletely tolerant to Methadone.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[69]

Antitussive

.Methadone linctus, which is about one-third the concentration of the liquid methadone used for opioid maintenance, is used where available and approved for such use as a cough syrup for violent coughing.^ One final point needs to made about the use of methadone.
  • Drug Policy Education Group - Methadone Withdrawal Treatment Method 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.dpeg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methadone linctus, which is about one-third the concentration of the liquid methadone used for opioid maintenance, is used where available and approved for such use as a cough syrup for violent coughing.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is useful in the treatment of opioid dependence.

.Narcotic cough suppressants are very useful against dry, unproductive coughing, especially that which persists after an illness has otherwise resolved and/or is a manifestation of recurring bronchitis, causes pain in the chest, and/or prevents the patient from sleeping.^ Narcotic cough suppressants are very useful against dry, unproductive coughing, especially that which persists after an illness has otherwise resolved and/or is a manifestation of recurring bronchitis, causes pain in the chest, and/or prevents the patient from sleeping.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone tablets, marketed as Physeptone and used by cancer patients and those suffering extreme chronic pain from back injuries or ...
  • Methadone Wire - Topix 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ The benzodiazepine family of depressants is used therapeutically to produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These drugs work directly on the coughing centre in the brain, and several branches of the opioid family contain effective cough suppressants.^ These drugs work directly on the coughing centre in the brain, and several branches of the opioid family contain effective cough suppressants.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This eMedTV page covers other metoclopramide uses and explains how the drug works for these conditions.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It also works as a substitute for opiate drugs of abuse by producing similar effects and preventing withdrawal symptoms in people who have stopped using these drugs.
  • Methadone | LIVESTRONG.COM 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Natural and semi-synthetic opiates with antitussive effects include codeine, ethylmorphine (also known as dionine or codethyline), dihydrocodeine, benzylmorphine, laudanum, dihydroisocodeine, nicocodeine, nicodicodeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, acetyldihydrocodeine, thebacon, diamorphine (heroin), acetylmorphone, noscapine and pholcodine and others.^ Other side effects include weakness, headache, constipation, itching, and dry mouth.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I feel no up and down effect that is so pronounced with short acting opiates like heroin, morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, etc...
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Heroin occupies all of them, so your body stops producing the normal endorphins/natural opiates because it is getting them from an outside source.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Amongst other synthetics are dimemorfan and dextromethorphan in the morphinan group, tipepidine of the thiambutenes, and other drugs of the open-chain (methadone) type with antitussive efficacy include levomethadone, normethadone and levopropoxyphene.^ Educational efforts include physician training on the appropriate use of methadone to treat pain and opioid addiction, and public education campaigns about the dangers of methadone and other prescription drugs.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When the law was amended in 1962 to impose additional requirements for the approval of new drugs, FDA retrospectively reviewed the efficacy of methadone for the treatment of pain.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone may be expected to have additive effects when used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

There is also the newer synthetic Zipeprol, classified as 'Other'(not available in the U.S. or CA).

Methadone as treatment for leukemia

.Researchers in Germany have discovered that methadone has surprising killing power against leukemia cells, including treatment-resistant forms of the cancer.^ PHILADELPHIA – Researchers in Germany have discovered that methadone, an agent used to break addiction to opioid drugs, has surprising killing power against leukemia cells, including treatment resistant forms of the cancer.
  • Methadone | LIVESTRONG.COM 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Methadone as treatment for leukemia .
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Researchers in Germany have discovered that methadone has surprising killing power against leukemia cells, including treatment-resistant forms of the cancer.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Their laboratory study, published in the 1 August 2008 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, suggests that methadone holds promise as a new therapy for leukemia, especially in patients whose cancer no longer responds to chemotherapy and radiation.^ Their laboratory study, published in the 1 August 2008 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, suggests that methadone holds promise as a new therapy for leukemia, especially in patients whose cancer no longer responds to chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Copyright 2008, American Association for Cancer Research .
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Copyright 2008, American Medical Association .
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[70]

Similar drugs

.Of methadone, there are two different forms, or more specifically, isomeres available.^ There were no significant differences in whether participants were arrested for a more severe crime but frequency of severe crime was relatively low in both groups.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To make matters worse, there is a ton of confusion about the different choices available to small business owners.

^ There are certain distinctions in requirements that apply to methadone as a controlled substance when used for different purposes.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

The racemic version is by far the most common, as it is the cheapest to produce. .The laevorotary or left-handed stereoisomer of methadone, which is obtained after several recrystalisations of racemic methadone, is more expensive to produce and for that reason much less commonly used.^ Conversion ratios in many commonly used equianalgesic dosing tables do not apply in the setting of repeated Methadone dosing.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conclusions: Methadone-maintained drug users are not more likely to achieve abstinence than drug users receiving other forms of treatment, but they are significantly more likely to achieve a reduction in the frequency of their illicit drug use; they 'top up' on methadone, but the frequency of their illicit drug use is less than that of drug users in other treatment modalities.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Well....what started out as a chatroom for Methadone Anonymous meetings has turned into so much more!
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

.It is stronger than the racemic drug and is marketed especially in continental Europe as an analgesic under the trade names Levo-Polamidone, Polamidone, Heptanone, Heptadone, Heptadon and others.^ It is about eight times stronger than the racaemic drug and is marketed especially in continental Europe as an analgesic under the trade names Levo-Polamidone, Polamidone, Heptanone, Heptadone, Heptadon and others.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Other than tapering down the drug.
  • home detoxing from Oxy's please help - SoberRecovery : Alcoholism Drug Addiction Help and Information 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.soberrecovery.com [Source type: General]

^ It is stronger than the racemic drug and is marketed especially in continental Europe as an analgesic under the trade names Levo-Polamidone, Polamidone, Heptanone, Heptadone, Heptadon and others.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is used as the hydrochloride salt almost exclusively with some uncommon pharmaceuticals and research subjects consisting of the tartrate.^ It is used as the hydrochloride salt almost exclusively with some uncommon pharmaceuticals and research subjects consisting of the tartrate.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some heartbeat problems have happened in people using smaller doses of Methadone hydrochloride tablets for treatment of narcotic drug addiction.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some heartbeat problems have happened in people using smaller doses of methadone hydrochloride tablets for treatment of narcotic drug addiction.
  • Methadone Hydrochloride (Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.The closest chemical relative of methadone in clinical use is levo-α-acetylmethadol.^ Dosage adjustment using higher doses or administering the daily dose in divided doses may be necessary in pregnant women treated with Methadone (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical safeguards and further prospective studies specifically designed to enhance safety of methadone use are warranted.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Standard overlay and proximity analytical functions are used to delineate altogether 20 accessible zones around each methadone clinic at a fixed 1.5 km Euclidean distance.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Related to methadone, the synthetic compound levo-α-acetylmethadol (or LAAM) has an even longer duration of action (from 48 to 72 hours), permitting a reduction in frequency of use.^ Deaths associated with illicit use of Methadone frequently have involved concomitant benzodiazepine abuse.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While Methadone's duration of analgesic action (typically 4 to 8 hours) in the setting of single-dose studies approximates that of morphine, Methadone's plasma elimination half-life is substantially longer than that of morphine (typically 8 to 59 hours vs. Methadone's peak respiratory depressant effects typically occur later, and persist longer than its peak analgesic effects.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone is not recommended for obstetric analgesia because its long duration of action increases the probability of respiratory depression in the newborn.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1994 it was approved as a treatment of narcotic addiction.^ Methadone, an opioid narcotic, is approved for pain relief and addiction treatment.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1994 it was approved as a treatment of narcotic addiction.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone, a long-acting synthetic narcotic analgesic, was first used in the maintenance treatment of drug addiction in the mid-1960s by Drs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the Netherlands, like methadone and all other strong opioids, LAAM is a List I drug of the Opium Law, and in Schedule II of the United States Controlled Substances Act.^ Methadone is a mu-agonist opioid with an abuse liability similar to that of morphine and is a Schedule II controlled substance.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone, like other opioids, has been diverted for non-medical use.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone contains Methadone, a mu-agonist opioid with an abuse liability similar to other opioid agonists and is a Schedule II controlled substance.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.LAAM has since been removed from the US and European markets due to reports of rare cardiac side effects.^ Methadone Side Effects reported to FDA .
  • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

^ LAAM has since been removed from the US and European markets due to reports of rare cardiac side effects.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dry mouth is a side effect that has been reported in up to 22 percent of people taking maprotiline.
  • Manic Depression Symptoms - Methamphetamine Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC mental-health.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other drugs which are not structurally related to methadone are also used in maintenance treatment, particularly Subutex (buprenorphine) and Suboxone (buprenorphine combined with naloxone).^ Other drugs which are not structurally related to methadone are also used in maintenance treatment, particularly Subutex (buprenorphine) and Suboxone (buprenorphine combined with naloxone).

^ This drug should not be used as a maintenance program.
  • The Methadone Perspective from 18 Recovering Addicts 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC intervention.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other drugs which are not structurally related to methadone are also used in maintenance treatment, particularly Subutex® ( buprenorphine ) and Suboxone® (buprenorphine combined with naloxone ).
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.In the NL, Switzerland, the UK and a few other European countries, however, not only buprenorphine and oral methadone but also injectable methadone and pharmaceutical diamorphine (heroin) or other opioids may be used for outpatient maintenance treatment of opiate addiction, and treatment is generally provided in much less heavily regulated environments than in the United States.^ Using methadone to treat anything other than narcotic addiction is also wrong.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have noticed a trend towards people using Methadone and other opiates for pain treatment.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

^ The principal therapeutic uses for Methadone are for analgesia and for detoxification or maintenance in opioid addiction.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.A study from Austria indicated that oral morphine (in the form of MS-Contin) provides better results than oral methadone, and studies of heroin maintenance have indicated that a low background dose of methadone combined with heroin maintenance may significantly improve outcomes for less-responsive patients.^ Patients were studied before and after administration of their regular daily methadone dose.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We included 209 patients in methadone maintenance treatment on the basis of their response to treatment and their daily methadone dose.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dose reduction of Methadone may be needed.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[71] .Other opiates such as dihydrocodeine in both extended-release and immediate-release form are also sometimes used for maintenance treatment as an alternative to methadone or buprenorphine in some European countries.^ Compare Methadone with other medications for the treatment of: .
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We have noticed a trend towards people using Methadone and other opiates for pain treatment.
  • Methadone Anonymous Support - Methadone Support Org.(MSO) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC methadonesupport.org [Source type: General]

^ Conclusions: Methadone maintenance, initiated prior to or immediately after release from prison, increases treatment entry and reduces heroin use at 6 months post-release compared to counseling only.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[72]
.Another close relative of methadone is dextropropoxyphene, first marketed in 1957 under the trade name of Darvon.^ Another close relative of methadone is dextropropoxyphene , first marketed in 1957 under the trade name of Darvon.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another close relative of methadone is dextropropoxyphene, first marketed in 1957 under the trade name of Darvon.

^ It is about eight times stronger than the racaemic drug and is marketed especially in continental Europe as an analgesic under the trade names Levo-Polamidone, Polamidone, Heptanone, Heptadone, Heptadon and others.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Oral analgesic potency is one-half to one-third that of codeine, with 65 mg approximately equivalent to about 600 mg of aspirin.^ Oral analgesic potency is one-half to one-third that of codeine, with 65 mg approximately equivalent to about 600 mg of aspirin.

^ Day 1 > 600 mg oral MS/day (or equivalent) .

^ Oral analgesic potency is one-half to one-third that of codeine , with 65 mg approximately equivalent to about 600 mg of aspirin.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Dextropropoxyphene is prescribed for relief of mild to moderate pain.^ Dextropropoxyphene is prescribed for relief of mild to moderate pain.
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As this eMedTV page explains, methadone 40 mg can be prescribed for pain relief or addiction treatment.
  • Metformin - Mevacor and Weight Gain Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Manic Depression Symptoms - Methamphetamine Articles 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC mental-health.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone should only be prescribed for patients with moderate to severe pain when their pain is not improved with other non-narcotic pain relievers.
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Diversion, Abuse, and Misuse: Deaths Increasing at Alarming Rate 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Bulk dextropropoxyphene is in Schedule II of the United States Controlled Substances Act, while preparations containing it are in Schedule IV. More than 100 tons of dextropropoxyphene are produced in the United States annually, and more than 25 million prescriptions are written for the products.^ Methadone is listed on schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Methadone Treatment for Pain States - April 1, 2005 - American Family Physician 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methadone hydrochloride ( a narcotic) is a Schedule II controlled substance under the Federal Controlled Substances Act.

^ Bulk dextropropoxyphene is in Schedule II of the United States Controlled Substances Act, while preparations containing it are in Schedule IV. More than 100 tons of dextropropoxyphene are produced in the United States annually, and more than 25 million prescriptions are written for the products.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since dextropropoxyphene produces relatively modest pain relief compared to other opioids but still produces severe respiratory depression at high doses, it is particularly dangerous when abused, as drug users may take dangerously high doses in an attempt to achieve narcotic effects.^ Sedatives: Effects may be potentiated when used with other sedative drugs or ethanol.
  • Methadone: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since dextropropoxyphene produces relatively modest pain relief compared to other opioids but still produces severe respiratory depression at high doses, it is particularly dangerous when abused, as drug users may take dangerously high doses in an attempt to achieve narcotic effects.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Respiratory depressions are dangerous.
  • MySpace - METHADONE - 48 - Female - Alabama - myspace.com/xxxmethadone 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

.This narcotic is among the top 10 drugs reported by medical examiners in recreational drug use deaths.^ This narcotic is among the top 10 drugs reported by medical examiners in recreational drug use deaths.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The government did take notice after the 2003 record number of deaths associated with methadone and the Bush administration responded by gathering the top experts on drug overdoses, doctors, researchers, and medical examiners, as well as representatives from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration, Food and Drug Administration, and Substance Abuse and Mental Health Association.
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network Discussion ~ View topic - Methadone Crisis 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC forums.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Methadone, a long-acting synthetic narcotic analgesic, was first used in the maintenance treatment of drug addiction in the mid-1960s by Drs.
  • Methadone Maintenance Treatment 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, dextropropoxyphene is still prescribed for the short term relief of opiate withdrawal symptoms, particularly when the aim of treatment is to smooth detoxification to a drug free state rather than a switch to maintenance treatment.^ However, spectrophotometric detection is still used for this purpose and can grant sufficient selectivity and sensitivity when coupled to suitable sample pre-treatment procedures.
  • CORK Bibliography: Drug Metabolism 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pharmacists, however, may dispense Schedule II drugs upon an oral prescription in emergency situations, with the prescribing practitioner providing a written prescription within 7 days of the oral prescription.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The aims of this study was to assess the prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling (pathological gambling) and current obsessive compulsive disorder among former heroin addicts currently in methadone maintenance treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methadone Maintenance 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other analogues of methadone which are still in clinical use are dipipanone (Diconal) and dextromoramide (Palfium) which are shorter-lasting than methadone but considerably more effective as analgesics.^ Methadone is no longer useful or effective.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You should not stop taking Methadone hydrochloride tablets all at once if you have been taking it for more than a few days.
  • Methadone Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I continued to drink methadone for another 24 years, still using almost daily.
  • Methadone Personal Recovery Stories 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.methadonesupport.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the 80's and beginning of the 90's, before pharmaceutical grade IV Heroin treatment became available to Heroin addicts, as either single drug replacement for street Heroin, or to be used alongside prescribed Methadone, oral dextromoramide was prescribed to Heroin addicts instead, because even when taken orally it still produces a strong, so called "rush", without the need of IV administration and any of the risks involved with it.^ This is because they are using other drugs or getting more methadone off the street.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To improve safety, in 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a revised label for methadone tablets that included new safety information regarding the use of methadone for pain and modified dosage instructions for those beginning pain management treatment with methadone.
  • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients that choose to get on methadone who are not addicted to heroin, or have not been using for a year or longer, and who have not tried every other form of treatment available, are really doing themselves a dis-service, and so is the clinic.
  • Opiate Maintenance: Open Season on Methadone Clinics and Clients in the Indiana Legislature | Stop the Drug War (DRCNet) 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC stopthedrugwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.These drugs have a high potential for abuse and dependence and were notorious for being widely abused and sought after by drug addicts in the 1970s.^ General problems of drug abuse and drug dependence.
  • Virtual Hospital: Clinical Psychopharmacology Seminar : Management of Opiate Withdrawal 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.tu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Yes, we are drug addicts, but we are also human beings!
  • People For The Use Of Methadone - The Petition Site 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These drugs have a high potential for abuse and dependence and were notorious for being widely abused and sought after by drug addicts in the 1970s.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are still rarely used for the relief of severe pain in the treatment of terminal cancer or other serious medical conditions.^ They are still rarely used for the relief of severe pain in the treatment of terminal cancer or other serious medical conditions.
  • Methadone encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone - Psychology Wiki 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methadone Addiction 17 September 2009 0:43 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This product is used for the treatment of severe pain.
  • Methadone Side-Effects, Methadone Interactions and Methadone Patient Reviews- iGuard.org 17 September 2009 12:44 UTC www.iguard.org [Source type: General]

^ Principles of analgesic use in the treatment of acute pain and cancer pain.
  • Methadone Treatment for Pain States - April 1, 2005 - American Family Physician 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Notes

  1. ^ Pharmaceuticals.Mallinckrodt.com
  2. ^ M. Bockmuhl, Über eine neue Klasse von analgetisch wirkenden Verbindungen Ann. Chem. 561, 52 (1948)
  3. ^ Accessdata.FDA.gov
  4. ^ Buttnor, Al. "The Drug Problem: How It CAN be Solved". Freedom Magazine (vol. 4, iss. 1) p. 15. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
  5. ^ Tom Responds, Entertainment Weekly, May 11, 2005
  6. ^ "Methadone Briefing". Archived from the original on 2003-11-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20031120200050/http://www.exchangesupplies.org/publications/methadone_briefing/section1.html. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  7. ^ Indro-Online.de (PDF format)
  8. ^ "Blockade of Rat α3β4 Nicotinic Receptor Function by Methadone, Its Metabolites, and Structural Analogs — JPET". http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/299/1/366.abstract. 
  9. ^ Kell MJ (1994). "Utilization of plasma and urine methadone concentrations to optimize treatment in maintenance clinics: I. Measurement techniques for a clinical setting". Journal of addictive diseases: the official journal of the ASAM, American Society of Addiction Medicine 13 (1): 5–26. PMID 8018740. 
  10. ^ Eap CB, DeglonJ-J, Boumann P. (1999). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of methadone: Clinical relevance". Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems: the official journal of EUROPAD, European Opiate Addiction Treatment Association 1 (1): 19–34. 
  11. ^ a b c Eap CB, Buclin T, Baumann P (2002). "Interindividual variability of the clinical pharmacokinetics of methadone: implications for the treatment of opioid dependence". Clinical pharmacokinetics 41 (14): 1153–93. PMID 12405865. 
  12. ^ Manfredonia, John (2005-03-18). "Prescribing Methadone for Pain Management in End-of-Life Care". JAOA The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. http://www.jaoa.org/cgi/content/full/105/3_suppl/18S. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  13. ^ a b Public Health Issue: Methadone Maintenance Therapy RICHARD SADOVSKY, M.D. - Anderson IB, Kearney TE. Use of methadone. West J Med January 2000;172:43-6.
  14. ^ "Methadone Hydrochloride Tablets, USP". VistaPharm. http://www.vistapharm.com/methadone_tablets.pdf. 
  15. ^ "Talc retinopathy.". Can J Ophthalmol.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/698886. 
  16. ^ "Talc lung in a drug abuser". Springer London. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p4n0q25732v4g620/. 
  17. ^ "Pulmonary Hypertension and Risk of Death in Cardiomyopathy". Circulation. http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/circulationaha;105/14/1663. 
  18. ^ "Improving survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension". European Respiratory Journal. http://www.erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/25/2/218. 
  19. ^ Nicholas Lintzeris, Michael Lenne, Alison Ritter (1999). "Methadone injecting in Australia: A Tale of Two Cities". Addiction 94 (8): 1175–1178. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.94811757.x. 
  20. ^ Code of Federal Regulations, Title 42, Sec 8.
  21. ^ "Dolophine Drug Description". RxList. http://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/methdone.htm. 
  22. ^ "Methadone". MedlinePlus. Archived from the original on 2008-02-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20080227025738/http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682134.html. 
  23. ^ "Methadone". Drugs.com. http://www.drugs.com/methadone.html. 
  24. ^ "Methadone". MedicineNet. http://www.medicinenet.com/methadone-dispersible_tablet/article.htm. 
  25. ^ "Increases in Methadone-Related Deaths:1999-2004". http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/methadone1999-04/methadone1999-04.htm. 
  26. ^ "The Killer Cure" The Charleston Gazette 2006
  27. ^ "Methadone-Associated Mortality, Report of a National Assessment". http://alcoholism.about.com/cs/heroin/a/blsam040209.htm. 
  28. ^ Giacomuzzi SM, Ertl M, Vigl A, et al. 2005. Driving capacity of patients treated with methadone and slow-release oral morphine. Addiction 100 (7): 1027.
  29. ^ Reece AS. 2008. Experience of road and other trauma by the opiate dependent patient: a survey report. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 3: 10.
  30. ^ MethadoneSupport.org
  31. ^ "Methadone, Methadone Addiction & Methadone Side Effects By Narconon Arrowhead & Heroin Addiction". http://www.heroinaddiction.com/heroin_methadone.html. Retrieved 31 October 2008. 
  32. ^ a b c d e Joseph H, Stancliff S, Langrod J (2000). "Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): a review of historical and clinical issues". Mt. Sinai J. Med. 67 (5-6): 347–64. PMID 11064485. 
  33. ^ M Schwirtz. "Russia Scorns Methadone for Heroin Addiction." The New York Times. July 22, 2008.
  34. ^ Connock M, Juarez-Garcia A, Jowett S, et al. (2007). "Methadone and buprenorphine for the management of opioid dependence: a systematic review and economic evaluation". Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) 11 (9): 1–171, iii–iv. PMID 17313907. 
  35. ^ Donny EC, Brasser SM, Bigelow GE, Stitzer ML, Walsh SL (2005). "Methadone doses of 100 mg or greater are more effective than lower doses at suppressing heroin self-administration in opioid-dependent volunteers". Addiction 100 (10): 1496–509. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01232.x. PMID 16185211. 
  36. ^ Latowsky M (2006). "Methadone death, dosage and torsade de pointes: risk-benefit policy implications". Journal of psychoactive drugs 38 (4): 513–9. PMID 17373567. 
  37. ^ Leavitt SB, Shinderman M, Maxwell S, Eap CB, Paris P (2000). "When "Enough" Is Not Enough: New Perspectives on Optimal Methadone Maintenance Dose". Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 67 (5&6): 404–411. 
  38. ^ Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti F, Versino E, Lemma P (2003). "Methadone maintenance at different dosages for opioid dependence". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD002208. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002208. PMID 12917925. 
  39. ^ "Centre for Addiction and Mental Health". The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. http://www.camh.net/Care_Treatment/Resources_clients_families_friends/Methadone_Maintenance_Treatment/mmt_clienthndbk_ch8.html. 
  40. ^ "Tapering Off of Methadone Maintenance: Evidence-Based Guidelines". "Aegis Medical Systems". http://www.aegisuniversity.com/Aegis%20Documents/Tapering%20off%20of%20Methadone%20Maintenance%205-24-02.pdf. 
  41. ^ "Methadone Maintenance Program Overview". "The College Of BC Pharmacists". http://www.bcpharmacists.org/library/H-Resources/H-4_Pharmacy_Resources/5058-Methadone_Maintenance_Program_Overview.pdf. 
  42. ^ "METHADONE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS USP Prescribing Information". Mallinckrodt. http://pharmaceuticals.mallinckrodt.com/_attachments/PackageInserts/18_Methadone%20Hydrochloride%20Tab_REV011309.pdf. 
  43. ^ "Best Practices Methadone Maintenance Treatment". Office of Canada’s Drug Strategy Health Canada. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/adp-apd/methadone-bp-mp/methadone-bp-mp-eng.pdf. 
  44. ^ "Methadone Maintenance Treatment Translating Research Into Policy". Canadian Department Of Health And Human Services. http://edocs.lib.sfu.ca/projects/chodarr/documents/chodarr1448.pdf. 
  45. ^ "Methadone Maintenance Treatment". Drug Policy Alliance Lindesmith Library. http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/research/methadone.cfm. 
  46. ^ "Methadone Research Web Guide". NIDA. http://international.drugabuse.gov/collaboration/guide_methadone/partb_question15.html. 
  47. ^ Leppert, W. (2009). "The role of methadone in cancer pain treatment--a review". International journal of clinical practice 63 (7): 1095–1109. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2008.01990.x. PMID 19570126.  edit
  48. ^ Shelton, BW; Deynes-Romero, J; Tofani-Montalvo, M; Ramírez-Rivera, J; Jaumne-Anselmi, F (2008). "Methadone: an effective alternative to morphine for pain relief in cancer patients". Boletin de la Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico 100 (3): 7–10. PMID 19227708.  edit
  49. ^ Yennurajalingam, S.; Peuckmann, V.; Bruera, E. (2004). "Recent developments in cancer pain assessment and management". Supportive cancer therapy 1 (2): 97–110. doi:10.3816/SCT.2004.n.003. PMID 18628186.  edit
  50. ^ Mercadante, S.; Porzio, G.; Ferrera, P.; Fulfaro, F.; Aielli, F.; Verna, L.; Villari, P.; Ficorella, C. et al. (2008). "Sustained-release oral morphine versus transdermal fentanyl and oral methadone in cancer pain management". European journal of pain (London, England) 12 (8): 1040–1046. doi:10.1016/j.ejpain.2008.01.013. PMID 18353696.  edit
  51. ^ Swegle, J.; Wensel, D. (2008). "The safety of methadone hydrochloride". Expert opinion on drug safety 7 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1517/14740338.7.1.5. PMID 18171310.  edit
  52. ^ Lynch, ME (2005). "A review of the use of methadone for the treatment of chronic noncancer pain". Pain research & management : the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la societe canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur 10 (3): 133–44. PMID 16175249.  edit
  53. ^ Juver, JP; Figueiredo, NV; Barrucand, L; Tostes Mde, A (2005). "Methadone to treat non-oncologic neuropathic pain. Case reports". Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 55 (4): 450–9. PMID 19468634.  edit
  54. ^ Toombs, JD; Kral, LA (2005). "Methadone treatment for pain states". American family physician 71 (7): 1353–8. PMID 15832538.  edit
  55. ^ Ribeiro, S; Schmidt, AP; Schmidt, SR (2002). "Opioids for treating non malignant chronic pain: the role of methadone". Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 52 (5): 644–51. PMID 19475235.  edit
  56. ^ Ripamonti, C; Bianchi, M (2002). "The use of methadone for cancer pain". Hematology/oncology clinics of North America 16 (3): 543–55. doi:10.1016/S0889-8588(02)00017-5. PMID 12170567.  edit
  57. ^ Rischitelli, DG; Karbowicz, SH (2002). "Safety and efficacy of controlled-release oxycodone: a systematic literature review". Pharmacotherapy 22 (7): 898–904. doi:10.1592/phco.22.11.898.33628. PMID 12126222.  edit
  58. ^ Bruera, E.; Sweeney, C. (2002). "Methadone use in cancer patients with pain: a review". Journal of palliative medicine 5 (1): 127–138. doi:10.1089/10966210252785097. PMID 11839235.  edit
  59. ^ Hagen, NA; Wasylenko, E (1999). "Methadone: outpatient titration and monitoring strategies in cancer patients". Journal of pain and symptom management 18 (5): 369–75. doi:10.1016/S0885-3924(99)00083-4. PMID 10584461.  edit
  60. ^ Bruera, E; Neumann, CM (1999). "Role of methadone in the management of pain in cancer patients". Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 13 (9): 1275–82; discussion 1285–8, 1291. PMID 10509323.  edit
  61. ^ Gardner-Nix, JS (1996). "Oral methadone for managing chronic nonmalignant pain". Journal of pain and symptom management 11 (5): 321–8. doi:10.1016/0885-3924(95)00191-3. PMID 8636630.  edit
  62. ^ Watanabe, S; Belzile, M; Kuehn, N; Hanson, J; Bruera, E (1996). "Capsules and suppositories of methadone for patients on high-dose opioids for cancer pain: clinical and economic considerations". Cancer treatment reviews 22 Suppl A: 131–6. PMID 8625339.  edit
  63. ^ Thomas, Z.; Bruera, E. (1995). "Use of methadone in a highly tolerant patient receiving parenteral hydromorphone". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 10 (4): 315. doi:10.1016/0885-3924(95)00011-M. PMID 7541438.  edit
  64. ^ "Oral Methadone Dosing For Pain". Pain Treatment Topics. http://pain-topics.org/pdf/OralMethadoneDosing.pdf. 
  65. ^ "2006 Safety Alerts for Drugs, Biologics, Medical Devices, and Dietary Supplements". MedWatch. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2006/safety06.htm#Methadone. 
  66. ^ Maremmani I, Pacini M, Cesaroni C, Lovrecic M, Perugi G, Tagliamonte A (2005). "QTc interval prolongation in patients on long-term methadone maintenance therapy". European addiction research 11 (1): 44–9. doi:10.1159/000081416. PMID 15608471. 
  67. ^ "Opioid rotation for toxicity reduction in terminal cancer patients". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Volume 10, Issue 5, July 1995, Pages 378-384. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8R-3XY2J9W-11&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=54eb39149b9c23a294574034d3527cb2. 
  68. ^ "Individualized use of methadone and opioid rotation in the comprehensive management of cancer pain associated with poor prognostic indicators". <pain. Elsevier, Amsterdam, PAYS-BAS, 1996, vol. 67, no1, pp. 115-119 (30 ref.). http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3220887. 
  69. ^ "Pitfalls of opioid rotation: substituting another opioid for methadone in patients with cancer pain". <pain. 96 (2002) 325–328). http://www.schmerzkrank.de/images/opioid_rotation.pdf. 
  70. ^ Claudia Friesen, Mareike Roscher, Andreas Alt and Erich Miltner (2008). "Methadone, Commonly Used as Maintenance Medication for Outpatient Treatment of Opioid Dependence, Kills Leukemia Cells and Overcomes Chemoresistance". Cancer Research 68 (15): 6059–6064. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1227. 
  71. ^ Michels II, Stover H, Gerlach R. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany. Harm Reduction Journal. 2007 February 2;4:5.
  72. ^ Robertson JR, Raab GM, Bruce M, McKenzie JS, Storkey HR, Salter A. Addressing the efficacy of dihydrocodeine versus methadone as an alternative maintenance treatment for opiate dependence: A randomized controlled trial. Addiction. 2006 December;101(12):1752-9.

External links

.
  • ONDCP Fact Sheet
  • Clinic Locator, United States
  • DHHS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • Methadone.org
  • Methadone Support
  • Methadone Pharmacokinetics - PubPK
  • HARMD Inc.^ To determine steps taken to prevent methadone-associated overdose deaths, we interviewed officials at relevant federal agencies, including CDC, DEA, FDA, ONDCP, and SAMHSA. We also interviewed officials from relevant national associations, including the Federation of State Medical Boards, National Association of Medical Examiners, and National Association of State Controlled Substances Authorities, and experts in pain management, addiction treatment, and forensic science.
    • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ When we made our state selection for this study, 2004 CDC data on methadone-associated overdose deaths were the most current data available.
    • GAO-09-341, Methadone-Associated Overdose Deaths: Factors Contributing to Increased Deaths and Efforts to Prevent Them 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC www.gao.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Submit Methadone Side Effect   Discuss   Ask a Doctor   Compare Methadone Side Effects   Read More Methadone Side Effects Report #5236134-1 Physician from UNITED STATES reported Methadone side effect on Feb 06, 2007.
    • Methadone Side Effects - Methadone reviews, compare Methadone side effects, FDA Methadone reports, Methadone on Twitter, Methadone posts, Methadone questions. Methadone safety polls, Methadone problems, Methadone symptoms, 1 7 January 2010 14:41 UTC patientsville.com [Source type: Academic]

    Helping America Reduce Methadone Deaths
  • St. Petersburg Times Investigation: Deadly Combinations
  • [1]
  • [2]
  • [3]
  • [4]
  • [5]
  • [6]
  • [7]

Simple English

Methadone is a synthetic opioid. It is used as an analgesic. Besides relieving pain, it is also used to treat addiction to certain narcotics, and some illegal drugs. Methadone can also lead to: memory loss, short of breath, throat pains, stomach aches and even anxiety attacks.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Methadone, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message