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Methamphetamine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-methyl-1-phenyl-propan-2-amine
Identifiers
CAS number 537-46-2
ATC code N06BA03
PubChem 1206
DrugBank DB01577
ChemSpider 1169
Chemical data
Formula C10H15N 
Mol. mass 149.233 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms Desoxyephedrine
Pervitin
Anadrex
Methedrine
Methylamphetamine
Syndrox
Desoxyn
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 62.7% oral; 79% nasal; 90.3% smoked; 99% rectally; 100% IV
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 9–15 hours[1]
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C(US)
Legal status Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule I (CA) Schedule II (US) Class A(NZ)
Schedule 5(SA)
Injectable:Class A, Oral: A(UK)
Routes Medical: Oral
Recreational: Oral, I.V., I.M., Insufflation, Inhalation, Rectal
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Methamphetamine (pronounced /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/ listen) also known as metamfetamine (INN), dextromethamphetamine, methylamphetamine, N-methylamphetamine, and desoxyephedrine) is a psychoactive stimulant drug.^ Methamphetamine (pronounced /ˌmɛθæmˈfɛtəmiːn/ listen ) also known as metamfetamine ( INN ), methylamphetamine , N-methylamphetamine , and desoxyephedrine ) is a psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ METH – USA ‘Ice’ becomes drug enforcement nightmare – MSNBC Ice is a powerful form of the stimulant methamphetamine and is very addictive.

^ Ephedrine Methamphetamine: The Psychological Drug Methamphetamine is a stimulant that affects the central nervos sytem.
  • Methamphetamine - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:28 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.It increases alertness and energy, and in high doses, can induce euphoria, enhance self-esteem, and increase sexual pleasure.^ The association between drug use and increased risk of HIV infection was strongest for drugs used specifically to enhance sexual pleasure, particularly OEM. The risk of infection was substantially increased when both OEM and methamphetamine were used.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the study found that subjects with high self-esteem were more likely than those with low self-esteem to complete treatment.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read about the increased level cap and new high level skills, powerful new transformations, enhanced pets, new hunting areas and raid bosses, and more!
  • Ramón, 9 años después… » | Vale Chumbar | 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC valechumbar.com [Source type: General]

[2][3] .Methamphetamine has high potential for abuse, activating the psychological reward system by increasing levels of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain.^ Methamphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of dopamine , serotonin and norepinephrine .
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^ Like other substances which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system , methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.
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^ High doses of methamphetamine produce losses in several markers of brain dopamine and serotonin neurons.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Methamphetamine is FDA approved in the United States for the treatment of ADHD and exogenous obesity, under the trademark name Desoxyn.^ "As a prescription drug, methamphetamine is currently sold under the name Desoxyn.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ METHODS: Data were obtained from the Treatment Episode Data Set, an administrative data set that captures admissions to federally funded treatment centers in the United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1984 laws were passed in the United States prohibiting possession of precursors and equipment for methamphetamine production; this was followed a month later by a bill passed in Canada enacting similar laws.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[4]

Contents

History

.Methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in Japan in 1893 by chemist Nagayoshi Nagai.^ Methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in Japan in 1893 by chemist Nagayoshi Nagai .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sally Apgar in her article titled "Use of methamphetamine dates to early 1900s in Japan" had this to say: "Crystal methamphetamine, or "ice," is a concentrated derivative of its parent drug, methamphetamine, which was first synthesized in Japan in 1919.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1919 , crystallized methamphetamine was synthesized by Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5] .In 1919, crystallized methamphetamine was synthesized by Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine.^ In 1919 , crystallized methamphetamine was synthesized by Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Sally Apgar in her article titled "Use of methamphetamine dates to early 1900s in Japan" had this to say: "Crystal methamphetamine, or "ice," is a concentrated derivative of its parent drug, methamphetamine, which was first synthesized in Japan in 1919.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus , pseudoephedrine or ephedrine (white), and blue iodine (which is technically a purple color in elemental form), from which hydroiodic acid is formed.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In 1943, Abbott Laboratories requested for its approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of narcolepsy, mild depression, postencephalitic parkinsonism, chronic alcoholism, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and hay fever.^ Off-label treatment may involve use of a medication that has not yet received official FDA approval for use in children or the use of a drug the FDA has approved for children to treat a specific condition for which its use has not been approved.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction: Depression often co-occurs with amphetamine type stimulant use and can negatively impact drug treatment outcomes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several widely used drugs have not received FDA approval for use in young children simply because there are not enough data to support their use.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methamphetamine was approved for all of these indications in December, 1944.[citation needed] All of these indication approvals were eventually removed.^ San Diego, California was described as the "methamphetamine capital of North America" in the December 2, 1989 edition of The Economist [ citation needed ] and again in 2000, also with South Gate, California as the second capital city.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This data indicates that methamphetamine use continues to be a major public health concern in the United States for all segments of the population.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The only two approved marketing indications remaining for methamphetamine are for ADHD and the short-term management of exogenous obesity, although the drug is clinically established as effective in the treatment of narcolepsy.^ Are there any effective treatments for methamphetamine abusers?
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ; [ 50 ] Extreme obesity ; Narcolepsy [ 51 ] 10 mg Desoxyn Because of its social stigma and toxicity, dextromethamphetamine is not generally prescribed for ADHD unless other stimulants, such as methylphenidate , dextroamphetamine , lisdexamphetamine or other stimulant drug treatments have failed.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted by: job7 at January 19, 2008 02:19 AM Monitor phentramine off label dose phentramine micardis phentramine veterinary dogs phentramine drug indications [URL=http://lontof.info/bipolar-phentramine-us-approved-pharmacies.html]bipolar phentramine us approved pharmacies[/URL] [URL=http://lontof.info/phentramine-to-methamphetamine.html]phentramine to methamphetamine[/URL] city .

Second World War

.One of the earliest uses of methamphetamine was during World War II when it was used by Allied and Axis forces.^ One of the earliest uses of methamphetamine was during World War II when it was used by various [ which?
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Allied and Axis forces.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a study by Richard Rawson, associate director of the University of California at Los Angeles Integrated Substance Abuse Program, Japan produced large stockpiles of meth during and after World War II. Rawson said that after World War II, an estimated 3 percent to 4 percent of Japan's population was addicted, before occupying Allies eliminated the drug's use.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The German military dispensed it under the trade name Pervitin.^ The German military dispensed it under the trade name Pervitin .
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is available by prescription under the trade name Desoxyn , manufactured by Ovation Pharma .
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It was widely distributed across rank and division, from elite forces to tank crews and aircraft personnel, with many millions of tablets being distributed throughout the war.^ It was widely distributed across rank and division, from elite forces to tank crews and aircraft personnel.
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^ How far does this treason reach and how many millions of Americans rights have been compromised, how many troops lives and limbs have been sacrificed, how many war crimes were committed?
  • The Democratic Party 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While limits on purchases of precursors have pushed many illicit labs out of our neighborhoods, the drug is still being manufactured -- just now it's across the border.
  • Meth: The Overstated Addiction | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[7] .From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell.^ From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell as a treatment for depression and fatigue.
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^ (Gary & Saidi, 1978) After intravenous injection of an unknown amount of methamphetamine by an adult patient, he was lethargic with restless movements of extremities and hyperresponsive to stimuli.
  • Methamphetamine (PIM 334) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An inmate sentenced as a repeat sex offender under section 20 may not be given conditional release until serving a minimum of 30 years imprisonment.

.It is possible that it was used to treat Hitler's speculated Parkinson's disease, or that his Parkinson-like symptoms that developed from 1940 onwards resulted from using methamphetamine.^ It is possible that it was used to treat Hitler's speculated Parkinson's disease , or that his Parkinson-like symptoms which developed from 1940 onwards resulted from using methamphetamine.
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^ Over time, methamphetamine appears to cause reduced levels of dopamine, which can result in symptoms like those of Parkinsons disease, a severe movement disorder.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suggestions for culturally appropriate strategies for treating both methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among BMSM are discussed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]

Post-war use

.After World War II, a large supply of amphetamine stockpiled by the Japanese military became available in Japan under the street name shabu (also Philopon, pronounced Hiropon, a trade name).^ After World War II, a large supply of amphetamine stockpiled by the Japanese military became available in Japan under the street name shabu (also Philopon, pronounced Hiropon , a tradename) [ 9 ] .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ The German military dispensed it under the trade name Pervitin .
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a study by Richard Rawson, associate director of the University of California at Los Angeles Integrated Substance Abuse Program, Japan produced large stockpiles of meth during and after World War II. Rawson said that after World War II, an estimated 3 percent to 4 percent of Japan's population was addicted, before occupying Allies eliminated the drug's use.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The Japanese Ministry of Health banned it in 1951; since then it has been increasingly produced by the Yakuza criminal organization.^ The Japanese Ministry of Health banned it in 1951; since then it has been increasingly produced by the yakuza criminal organization.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Today methamphetamine is still associated with the Japanese underworld, and its use is discouraged by strong social taboos.^ Today methamphetamine is still associated with the Japanese underworld, and its use is discouraged by strong social taboos.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The objective of this study was to demonstrate an association of methamphetamine use and ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage and to further reveal the underlying vascular pathology using neuroimaging and pathology.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Daily methamphetamine use was not associated with either outcome.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.In the 1950s, there was a rise in the legal prescription of methamphetamine to the American public.^ In the 1950s there was a rise in the legal prescription of methamphetamine to the American public.
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^ No No, I meant what I said, without a prescription methamphetamines are not legally available.
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With a prescription they are, but in the case of your hypothetical he was without a prescription, so the methamphetamine was still not legally available to him.
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1954 edition of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, indications for methamphetamine included "narcolepsy, postencephalitic parkinsonism, alcoholism, ...^ According to the 1951 edition of Pharmacology and Therapeutics by Arthur Grollman, it was to be prescribed for " narcolepsy , post- encephalitic Parkinsonism , alcoholism , ...
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^ Recent research published in the Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics (2007) [ 18 ] indicates that methamphetamine binds to and activates a G protein-coupled receptor called TAAR 1 [ 19 ] .
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certain depressive states ... and in the treatment of obesity."[11]
.The 1960s saw the start of significant use of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine as well as methamphetamine created in users' own homes for personal use.^ The 1960s saw the start of significant use of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine as well as methamphetamine created in users' own homes for personal use.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to use needles for injection or do not want to have to smoke the methamphetamine.
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Kohl explains, "Because the meth-user's brain does not create the feel-good chemicals any more, there is an overwhelming urge to use again."
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The recreational use of methamphetamine continues to this day.^ The recreational use of methamphetamine continued into the 1980s.
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^ African Americans were older when they first used methamphetamine and had used fewer grams in the past 30 days; Caucasians were more likely to inject.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of those who have tried methamphetamine, only 1.5 million have used the drug in the last year; and only 583,000 have used it within the last 30 days.
  • Meth: The Overstated Addiction | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.San Diego, California was described as the "methamphetamine capital of North America" in the December 2, 1989 edition of The Economist[citation needed] and again in 2000, with South Gate, California listed as the second largest meth capital.^ San Diego, California was described as the "methamphetamine capital of North America" in the December 2, 1989 edition of The Economist [ citation needed ] and again in 2000, also with South Gate, California as the second capital city.
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^ "US Crackdown Sends Meth Labs South Of Border" ) that "Methamphetamine production has surged south of the border, from Baja California ranches to the highlands of Michoacan to the industrial parks here in Mexico's second largest city, where authorities in January busted the largest laboratory ever discovered in the Americas.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to a recent San Diego study, methamphetamine users often engage in unsafe sexual activities, and forget to or choose not to use condoms .
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[citation needed]

Legal restrictions

.In 1983, laws were passed in the United States prohibiting possession of precursors and equipment for methamphetamine production.^ Methamphetamine produced in foreign source areas, predominantly Mexico and, to a lesser extent, Canada and Southeast Asia, is available to varying degrees in the United States as well."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ OBJECTIVE: To estimate trends in the prevalence of methamphetamine treatment during pregnancy in the United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You might not like the idea of the state government having authority to pass laws telling consenting adults what they can do in private.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was followed a month later by a bill passed in Canada enacting similar laws.^ In 1984 laws were passed in the United States prohibiting possession of precursors and equipment for methamphetamine production; this was followed a month later by a bill passed in Canada enacting similar laws.
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^ PRESCRIPTION – USA Parents, Check Your Medicine Cabinet – If it passes later this month, a bill introduced by Suffolk County Legis.

^ Oklahoma and Tennessee have enacted similar laws and have seen methamphetamine production drop as much as 80 percent.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.In 1986, the U.S. government passed the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act in an attempt to curb the growing use of designer drugs.^ In 1986 the U.S. government passed the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act in an attempt to curb the growing use of designer drugs .
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^ R equires restitution from persons convicted of manufacturing or attempting to manufacture a controlled substance or of illegal activities involving precursors where the response to the crime involved an emergency response.

^ DRUGS – USA Substance Use Among Young Military Personnel Differs From Civilians – Join Together Young adults in the military report substantially different patterns of substance use than their civilian counterparts.

.Despite this, use of methamphetamine expanded throughout rural United States, especially through the Midwest and South.^ Despite this, use of methamphetamine expanded throughout rural United States, especially through the Midwest and South.
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^ In 1984 laws were passed in the United States prohibiting possession of precursors and equipment for methamphetamine production; this was followed a month later by a bill passed in Canada enacting similar laws.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine produced in foreign source areas, predominantly Mexico and, to a lesser extent, Canada and Southeast Asia, is available to varying degrees in the United States as well."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[12]
.Since 1989, five U.S. federal laws and dozens of state laws have been imposed in an attempt to curb the production of methamphetamine.^ Since 1989 five U.S. federal laws and dozens of state laws have been imposed in an attempt to curb the production of methamphetamine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A growing number of authorities around the US are becoming aware that Mexican methamphetamine production has been increasing dramatically in the past few years since states and the federal government have been cracking down on domestic US production.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In 1984 laws were passed in the United States prohibiting possession of precursors and equipment for methamphetamine production; this was followed a month later by a bill passed in Canada enacting similar laws.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Methamphetamine can be produced in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, which at the time were the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as Sudafed and Contac.^ The key ingredient is ephedrine or its cousin, pseudoephedrine.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methamphetamine can be produced in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, which at the time were the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as Sudafed and Contac .
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Home / Most used drugs / Methamphetamine .
  • Methamphetamine - Euphoric Stimulant; Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Crank, Tweak, Yaba, Desoxyn� 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC detoxland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Preventative legal strategies of the past 17 years have steadily increased restrictions to the distribution of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine-containing products.^ Preventative legal strategies of the past 17 years have steadily increased restrictions to the distribution of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine-containing products.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result of the U.S. Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 , a subsection of the PATRIOT Act , there are restrictions on the amount of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine one may purchase in a specified time period, and further requirements that these products must be stored in order to prevent theft.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A growing number of authorities around the US are becoming aware that Mexican methamphetamine production has been increasing dramatically in the past few years since states and the federal government have been cracking down on domestic US production.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.As a result of the U.S. Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, a subsection of the PATRIOT Act, there are restrictions on the amount of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine one may purchase in a specified time period, and further requirements that these products must be stored in order to prevent theft.^ In 2005, the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 was passed as part of the USA PATRIOT Act , putting restrictions on the sale of methamphetamine precursors.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result of the U.S. Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 , a subsection of the PATRIOT Act , there are restrictions on the amount of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine one may purchase in a specified time period, and further requirements that these products must be stored in order to prevent theft.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "New State Law Aimed To Curb Meth Cookers" ) that "In an effort to crack down on the manufacture of methamphetamine ( meth ), some local merchants have moved their products containing ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine behind the counter.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[13] .Increasingly strict restrictions have resulted in the reformulation of many over-the-counter drugs, and some such as Actifed have been discontinued entirely in the United States.^ Increasingly burdensome restrictions have resulted in the reformulation of many over-the-counter drugs, and some such as Actifed have been discontinued entirely in the United States.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine use is a particularly serious problem in some rural areas, many of which lack the infrastructures necessary to deal with a major drug problem.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Take advantage of special opportunities that exist outside the United States - such as unusual talent, resources, populations, or environmental conditions.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Pharmacology

.A member of the family of phenethylamines, methamphetamine is chiral, with two isomers, levorotary and dextrorotatory.^ A member of the family of phenylethylamines , methamphetamine is chiral , with two isomers , levorotary and dextrorotatory .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the phenethylamine phentermine is a constitutional isomer of methamphetamine, it has been speculated that it may be effective in treating methamphetamine addiction.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The levorotary form, called levomethamphetamine, is an over-the-counter drug used in inhalers for nasal decongestion.^ The levorotary form, called levomethamphetamine , is an over-the-counter drug used in inhalers for nasal decongestion.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Methamphetamine can be produced in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, which at the time were the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as Sudafed and Contac .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As early as 1932, meth was used as a nasal decongestant and was one of the first antidepressants.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Levomethamphetamine does not possess any significant central nervous system activity or addictive properties.^ Levomethamphetamine does not possess any significant central nervous system activity or addictive properties.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The central nervous system (CNS) actions that result from taking even small amounts of methamphetamine include increased wakefulness, increased physical activity, decreased appetite, increased respiration, hyperthermia, and euphoria.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Amphetamine-Type Central Nervous System Potently than they Release Dopamine and Serotonin."
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This article deals only with the dextrorotatory form, called dextromethamphetamine, and the racemic form.^ This article deals only with the dextrorotatory form, called dextromethamphetamine , and the racemic form.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This article is about the psychostimulant drug, methamphetamine, in both racemic and dextrorotatory forms.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant that affects neurochemical mechanisms responsible for regulating heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, appetite, attention, mood and responses associated with alertness or alarm conditions.^ Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant which affects neurochemical mechanisms responsible for regulating heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, appetite, attention, mood and responses associated with alertness or alarm conditions.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The acute physical effects of the drug closely resemble the physiological and psychological effects of an epinephrine -provoked fight-or-flight response , including increased heart rate and blood pressure, vasoconstriction (constriction of the arterial walls), bronchodilation , and hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like other substances which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system , methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.The acute physical effects of the drug closely resemble the physiological and psychological effects of an epinephrine-provoked fight-or-flight response, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, vasoconstriction (constriction of the arterial walls), bronchodilation, and hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar).^ The acute physical effects of the drug closely resemble the physiological and psychological effects of an epinephrine -provoked fight-or-flight response , including increased heart rate and blood pressure, vasoconstriction (constriction of the arterial walls), bronchodilation , and hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ During the rush, the user's heartbeat increases and metabolism, blood pressure, and pulse sore.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DRUGS – CANADA Thinking outside the hot box – The Gazette Ritalin and alcohol, while legal, have potentially deadly side-effects on the heart and liver, respectively.

.Users experience an increase in focus, increased mental alertness, and the elimination of fatigue, as well as a decrease in appetite.^ Users experience an increase in focus, increased mental alertness, and the elimination of fatigue, as well as a decrease in appetite.
  • Methamphetamine Structure and Chemistry 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • MeThAmPhEtAmInE!?!?!?!? - Yahoo! Answers 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased attention and decreased fatigue .
  • Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Increased attention and decreased fatigue Increased activity .

.The methyl group is responsible for the potentiation of effects as compared to the related compound amphetamine, rendering the substance on the one hand more lipid-soluble and easing transport across the blood-brain barrier, and on the other hand more stable against enzymatic degradation by MAO.^ The methyl group is responsible for the potentiation of effects as compared to the related compound amphetamine , rendering the substance on the one hand more lipid soluble and easing transport across the blood brain barrier , and on the other hand more stable against enzymatic degradation by MAO .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the first amphetamine usages took place during WWII when the Nazi military authorities spread the substance under the brand Pervitin to servicemen.
  • Methamphetamine - Euphoric Stimulant; Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Crank, Tweak, Yaba, Desoxyn� 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC detoxland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He slowly reached in again, undoing one more button; even more slowly, she removed his hand again.
  • Topic : 0563 - ลูกจ้างชั่วคราวเฮ! เงินเดือนเพิ่ม 4% - - adnormal : [13/09/2007] Powered by : 212cafe.com 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC ubon.nfe.go.th [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methamphetamine causes the norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin (5HT) transporters to reverse their direction of flow.^ Methamphetamine causes the norepinephrine , dopamine and serotonin (5HT) transporters to reverse their direction of flow.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine quickly reaches the brain and becomes the reason of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin discharge.
  • Methamphetamine - Euphoric Stimulant; Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Crank, Tweak, Yaba, Desoxyn� 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC detoxland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methamphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of dopamine , serotonin and norepinephrine .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This inversion leads to a release of these transmitters from the vesicles to the cytoplasm and from the cytoplasm to the synapse (releasing monoamines in rats with ratios of about NE:DA = 1:2, NE:5HT= 1:60), causing increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors.^ This inversion leads to a release of these transmitters from the vesicles to the cytoplasm and from the cytoplasm to the synapse (releasing monoamines in rats with ratios of about NE : DA = 1:2, NE: 5HT = 1:60), causing increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine also indirectly prevents the reuptake of these neurotransmitters, causing them to remain in the synaptic cleft for a prolonged period (inhibiting monoamine reuptake in rats with ratios of about: NE:DA = 1:2.35, NE:5HT = 1:44.5 [ 13 ] ).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Prolonged overstimulation of dopamine receptors caused by methamphetamine may eventually cause the receptors to downregulate in order to compensate for increased levels of dopamine within the synaptic cleft.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Methamphetamine also indirectly prevents the reuptake of these neurotransmitters, causing them to remain in the synaptic cleft for a prolonged period (inhibiting monoamine reuptake in rats with ratios of about: NE:DA = 1:2.35, NE:5HT = 1:44.5).^ This inversion leads to a release of these transmitters from the vesicles to the cytoplasm and from the cytoplasm to the synapse (releasing monoamines in rats with ratios of about NE : DA = 1:2, NE: 5HT = 1:60), causing increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine also indirectly prevents the reuptake of these neurotransmitters, causing them to remain in the synaptic cleft for a prolonged period (inhibiting monoamine reuptake in rats with ratios of about: NE:DA = 1:2.35, NE:5HT = 1:44.5 [ 13 ] ).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Short term tolerance can be caused by depleted levels of neurotransmitters within the vesicles available for release into the synaptic cleft following subsequent reuse ( tachyphylaxis ).
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.Methamphetamine is a potent neurotoxin, shown to cause dopaminergic degeneration.^ Methamphetamine is a potent neurotoxin, shown to cause dopaminergic degeneration.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Scientific research has shown that methamphetamine releases high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, causing enhanced mood and increased body movement.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15][16] .High doses of methamphetamine produce losses in several markers of brain dopamine and serotonin neurons.^ High doses of methamphetamine produce losses in several markers of brain dopamine and serotonin neurons.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine quickly reaches the brain and becomes the reason of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin discharge.
  • Methamphetamine - Euphoric Stimulant; Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Crank, Tweak, Yaba, Desoxyn� 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC detoxland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methamphetamine releases high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and body movement.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dopamine and serotonin concentrations, dopamine and 5HT uptake sites, and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase activities are reduced after the administration of methamphetamine.^ Dopamine and serotonin concentrations, dopamine and 5HT uptake sites, and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase activities are reduced after the administration of methamphetamine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine quickly reaches the brain and becomes the reason of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin discharge.
  • Methamphetamine - Euphoric Stimulant; Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Crank, Tweak, Yaba, Desoxyn� 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC detoxland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People having ADHD have a higher possibility to addict to methamphetamine, as the substance enhances the addict's ability to concentrate his attention and reduce impulsivity.
  • Methamphetamine - Euphoric Stimulant; Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Crank, Tweak, Yaba, Desoxyn� 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC detoxland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been proposed that dopamine plays a role in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity because experiments that reduce dopamine production or block the release of dopamine decrease the toxic effects of methamphetamine administration.^ It has been proposed that dopamine plays a role in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity because experiments which reduce dopamine production or block the release of dopamine decrease the toxic effects of methamphetamine administration.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine releases high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and body movement.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Short term tolerance typically lasts until neurotransmitter levels are fully replenished, because of the toxic effects on dopaminergic neurons, this can be greater than 2–3 days.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.When dopamine breaks down it produces reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide.^ When dopamine breaks down it produces reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I believe all you would need would be electricity and a catalyst to break down the water into its components of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
  • The Democratic Party 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is likely that the approximate 1200% increase in dopamine levels and subsequent oxidative stress that occurs after taking methamphetamine mediates its neurotoxicity.^ It is likely that the approximate 1200% increase in dopamine levels and subsequent oxidative stress that occurs after taking methamphetamine mediates its neurotoxicity .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine releases high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and body movement.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prolonged overstimulation of dopamine receptors caused by methamphetamine may eventually cause the receptors to downregulate in order to compensate for increased levels of dopamine within the synaptic cleft.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.Recent research published in the Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics (2007)[18] indicates that methamphetamine binds to and activates a G protein-coupled receptor called TAAR1.[19] TAARs are a newly discovered receptor family[20][21] whose members are activated by a number of amphetamine-like molecules[21] called trace amines, thyronamines,[22] and certain volatile odorants.^ Recent research published in the Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics (2007) [ 18 ] indicates that methamphetamine binds to and activates a G protein-coupled receptor called TAAR 1 [ 19 ] .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ TAARs are a newly discovered receptor family [ 20 ] [ 21 ] whose members are activated by a number of amphetamine -like molecules [ 21 ] called trace amines , thyronamines [ 22 ] and certain volatile odorants.
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^ The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 287 (1): 107–114.
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[23]
.It has been demonstrated that a high ambient temperature increases the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.^ It has been demonstrated that a high ambient temperature increases the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been proposed that dopamine plays a role in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity because experiments which reduce dopamine production or block the release of dopamine decrease the toxic effects of methamphetamine administration.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Background: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is associated with neurotoxicity to frontostriatal brain regions with deleterious effects on cognitive processes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[24]

Effects

.
Short- and long-term adverse (negative) physical and mental effects that may appear in methamphetamine use, including rare effects.
^ Short and long term adverse (negative) physical and mental effects that may appear in methamphetamine use, including rare effects.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lung damage has been reported with long-term use, but manifests in forms independent of route (pulmonary hypertension and associated complications), or limited to injection users (pulmonary emboli).
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^ It would appear, then, that the long-term method we had been using for tracking methamphetamine use probably yielded an understatement of the absolute prevalence level, perhaps because some proportion of methamphetamine users did not correctly categorize themselves initially as amphetamine users (even though methamphetamine was given as one of the examples of the amphetamines).
  • Meth: The Overstated Addiction | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[25]

Physical effects

.Physical effects can include anorexia,[26] hyperactivity,[26] dilated pupils,[27] flushing,[28] restlessness,[29] dry mouth,[28] headache,[29] tachycardia,[28] bradycardia,[30] tachypnea,[28] hypertension,[28] hypotension,[30] hyperthermia,[31] diaphoresis,[26] diarrhea,[26] constipation,[29] blurred vision,[29] dizziness,[29] twitching,[29] insomnia,[29] numbness,[29] palpitations,[27] arrhythmias,[32] tremors,[29] dry and/or itchy skin,[26] acne,[31] pallor,[28] and with chronic and/or high doses, convulsions,[33] heart attack,[34] stroke,[26] and death can occur.^ Users may experience physical side effects including tremors, convulsions, high blood pressure, a dangerously high body temperature, breathing problems, irregular heartbeat and extreme anorexia.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Psychological effects can include euphoria , anxiety , increased libido , alertness , concentration , energy , self-esteem , self-confidence , excitation , increased sociability , increased irritability , increased aggression , psychomotor agitation , hubris , excessive feelings of power and/or superiority , repetitive and/or obsessive behaviors, paranoia , and with chronic and/or high doses, amphetamine psychosis can occur.
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^ The first few seperate doses make one high, however, it made the true account of the 27 year old man above hostile, aggressive, and dangerous.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]

Psychological effects

.Psychological effects can include euphoria, anxiety, increased libido, alertness, concentration, energy, self-esteem, self-confidence, sociability, irritability, aggression, psychosomatic disorders, psychomotor agitation, hubris, excessive feelings of power and invincibility, repetitive and obsessive behaviors, paranoia, and with chronic and/or high doses, amphetamine psychosis can occur.^ Psychological effects can include euphoria , anxiety , increased libido , alertness , concentration , energy , self-esteem , self-confidence , excitation , increased sociability , increased irritability , increased aggression , psychomotor agitation , hubris , excessive feelings of power and/or superiority , repetitive and/or obsessive behaviors, paranoia , and with chronic and/or high doses, amphetamine psychosis can occur.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine addiction typically occurs when a person begins to use the drug as a stimulant, for its powerful enhancing effects on sex, mood and energy, alertness and ability to concentrate, and weight loss and appetite suppression, among its other psychological and physical effects.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ African Americans reported lower levels of social stigma, and Caucasians reported lower self-esteem.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[26]

Withdrawal effects

.Withdrawal is characterized by excessive sleeping, increased appetite and depression, often accompanied by anxiety and drug-craving.^ Withdrawal is characterized by excessive sleeping, eating, and depression , often accompanied by anxiety and drug-craving.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal is characterized by excessive sleeping, [ 25 ] excessive eating, [ 25 ] and depression , [ 25 ] often accompanied by anxiety and drug-craving.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ METH – USA An edgy, honest look at meth addiction – KTVA News With prolonged meth use, a person will experience drug cravings, severe weight loss, withdrawal-related depression, rapid tooth decay or meth mouth.

Pharmacokinetics

.The half-life of methamphetamine is 9–15 hours.^ The half life of methamphetamine is 9–15 hours.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is excreted by the kidneys and its half life depends on urinary pH. Main metabolites of methamphetamine are amphetamine [ 1 ] , 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine and some of the methamphetamine remains unchanged until excretion.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The mean elimination half-life for methamphetamine is approximately 10 hours, with considerable inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is excreted by the kidneys, and its half-life depends on urinary pH. Main metabolites of methamphetamine are amphetamine[35], 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, 4-hydroxyamphetamine and some of the methamphetamine remains unchanged until excretion.^ The mean elimination half-life for methamphetamine is approximately 10 hours, with considerable inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine (MAMP) and amphetamine (AMP) have previously been observed in meconium of MAMP-exposed neonates; the presence of other metabolites has not been investigated.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[36]

Detection in biological fluids

.Methamphetamine and amphetamine are often measured in urine as part of a drug abuse testing program, in plasma or serum to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized victims, or in whole blood to assist in a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a case of sudden death.^ But drugs, especially methamphetamine, are often a factor.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ DEA's Methamphetamine News Releases Poison Information Monograph (PIM 334: Methamphetamine) Chronic Amphetamine Use and Abuse - a thorough review on the effects of chronic use (American College of Neuropsychopharmacology) Documentaries .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We need more treatment - if meth users respond better than other typical drugs of abuse - that's great !
  • Meth: The Overstated Addiction | | AlterNet 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Chiral techniques may be employed to help distinguish the source of the drug, whether obtained legally(via perscription) or illicit or possibly as a result of formation from a prodrug such as famprofazone or selegiline.^ You said: "In the ADHD it's still wrong because the Meth is still illegal, if you can't or won't go to a doctor to get the legal prescription, your recourse is not to resort to illicit drugs."
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DRUGS – USA Teens and drugs – Hometown Life Parents can play a bigger role than they may think in whether their children become drug users.

^ The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[37]

Tolerance

.As with other amphetamines, tolerance to methamphetamine is not completely understood, but known to be sufficiently complex that it cannot be explained by any single mechanism.^ Tolerance As with other amphetamines, tolerance to methamphetamine is not completely understood, but known to be sufficiently complex that it cannot be explained by any single mechanism.

^ Methamphetamine/amphetamine and other stimulants.
  • Methamphetamine Use and Risk for HIV/AIDS | Factsheets | CDC HIV/AIDS 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other amphetamines, tolerance to methamphetamine is not completely understood, but known to be sufficiently complex that it cannot be explained by any single mechanism.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.The extent of tolerance and the rate at which it develops vary widely between individuals, and even within one person it is highly dependent on dosage, duration of use, and frequency of administration.^ The extent of tolerance and the rate at which it develops varies widely between individuals, and even within one person it is highly dependent on dosage, duration of use and frequency of administration.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Within individual units, usage varied from 3% to 96%, with higher usage in units tasked for sustained combat patrol (CAP) missions.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The present research was designed to investigate putative mediating and moderating variables between MA dependence and hostility in a sample of injecting MA users (N=237).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Tolerance to the awakening effect of amphetamines does not readily develop, making them suitable for the treatment of narcolepsy.^ On March 22, 2007, NIDA issued a PA entitled Medications Development for the Treatment of Amphetamine and Amphetamine-Like Related Disorders (R21) (PA-07-334) .
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ On March 22, 2007, NIDA issued a PA entitled Medications Development for the Treatment of Amphetamine and Amphetamine-Like Related Disorders (R01) (PA-07-333) .
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[38]
.Short-term tolerance can be caused by depleted levels of neurotransmitters within the synaptic vesicles available for release into the synaptic cleft following subsequent reuse (tachyphylaxis).^ Short term tolerance can be caused by depleted levels of neurotransmitters within the vesicles available for release into the synaptic cleft following subsequent reuse ( tachyphylaxis ).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine releases high levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells, enhancing mood and body movement.
  • Facts About Meth Report by Kraig J Rice 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.breadonthewaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This inversion leads to a release of these transmitters from the vesicles to the cytoplasm and from the cytoplasm to the synapse (releasing monoamines in rats with ratios of about NE : DA = 1:2, NE: 5HT = 1:60), causing increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Short-term tolerance typically lasts until neurotransmitter levels are fully replenished; because of the toxic effects on dopaminergic neurons, this can be greater than 2–3 days.^ Short term tolerance typically lasts until neurotransmitter levels are fully replenished, because of the toxic effects on dopaminergic neurons, this can be greater than 2–3 days.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Over time tolerance develops, and users have greater difficulty functioning and experiencing pleasure than they did before, which persists indefinitely due to neurotoxicity produced by methamphetamine in long-term recovered addicts.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There is little evidence that methamphetamine inhalation results in greater toxicity than any other route of administration.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Prolonged overstimulation of dopamine receptors caused by methamphetamine may eventually cause the receptors to downregulate in order to compensate for increased levels of dopamine within the synaptic cleft.^ Prolonged overstimulation of dopamine receptors caused by methamphetamine may eventually cause the receptors to downregulate in order to compensate for increased levels of dopamine within the synaptic cleft.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This inversion leads to a release of these transmitters from the vesicles to the cytoplasm and from the cytoplasm to the synapse (releasing monoamines in rats with ratios of about NE : DA = 1:2, NE: 5HT = 1:60), causing increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to increasing the need for sex and enabling the user to engage in prolonged sexual activity, methamphetamine lowers inhibitions and may cause users to behave recklessly or to become forgetful.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[39] .To compensate, larger quantities of the drug are needed in order to achieve the same level of effects.^ To compensate, larger quantities of the drug are needed in order to achieve the same level of effects.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-term use of crystal meth increases the user's tolerance such that larger and more frequent doses are necessary to achieve the desired effect.
  • The burden and management of crystal meth use -- Buxton and Dove 178 (12): 1537 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Public health: The burden and management of crystal meth use 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As you raise the quantity of drug consumption, you begin to put toxic levels of the drug into your bloodstream which eventually changes your body's own chemistry.
  • THE SOLUTION to QUITTING Methamphetamines! 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.quitmeth.com [Source type: General]

Reverse tolerance or sensitization can also occur.[38] .The effect is well established but the mechanism is not well understood.^ The effect is well established but the mechanism is not well understood.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Addiction

Methamphetamine is addictive.[40] .While not dangerous, withdrawal symptoms are common with heavy use and relapse is common.^ Heather January 31, 2009 at 8:09 pm “Do not stop using methylprednisolone suddenly, or you could have unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.” from yahoo health .
  • UPDATED: By the time you read this I will be addicted to Meth — TheBloggess.com 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC thebloggess.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various organizations, such as Crystal Meth Anonymous, are available to combat relapse.^ Step meetings, such as Crystal Meth Anonymous are available to combat relapse.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine • Desoxyn • Yaba (drug) • Meth mouth • Party and play • Rolling meth lab • Montana Meth Project • Levomethamphetamine • Amphetamine • Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 • Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act • Crystal Meth Anonymous .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ METH – USA Campaign Launched to Combat Crystal Meth Use – ABC 7 News West Hollywood is launching a campaign to combat the use of crystal meth in the gay community.

.Methamphetamine-induced hyperstimulation of pleasure pathways leads to anhedonia.^ Methamphetamine-induced hyperstimulation of pleasure pathways leads to anhedonia .
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine-induced hyperstimulation of pleasure pathways leads to anhedonia.

^ This is thought to be due to the neurotoxic effects of chronic methamphetamine use, which leads to the reduction of axonal dopamine transporters, vesicular monoamine transporters, and synthesis pathways in dopaminergic neurons.
  • Methamphetamine: Important Clinical Guidance for HCWs: Methamphetamine -- The Scope of the Problem 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is possible that daily administration of the amino acids L-Tyrosine and L-5HTP/Tryptophan can aid in the recovery process by making it easier for the body to reverse the depletion of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.^ It is possible that daily administration of the amino acids L- Tyrosine and L-5HTP / Tryptophan can aid in the recovery process by making it easier for the body to reverse the depletion of dopamine , norepinephrine , and serotonin .
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dopamine and serotonin concentrations, dopamine and 5HT uptake sites, and tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylase activities are reduced after the administration of methamphetamine.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of dopamine , serotonin and norepinephrine .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Although studies involving the use of these amino acids have shown some success, this method of recovery has not been shown to be consistently effective.^ Although studies involving the use of these amino acids have shown some success, this method of recovery has not been shown to be consistently effective.
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some people have had success with using it in moderation.
  • Is Meth a ‘Smart Drug’? | Wired Science | Wired.com 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]
  • Is Meth a ‘Smart Drug’? | Wired Science | Wired.com 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ The heating of reducing sugars with amino acids yields a brown solution; studies of this reaction were originally applied to food chemistry for the production of distinct flavors and aromas.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.It is shown that taking ascorbic acid prior to using methamphetamine may help reduce acute toxicity to the brain, as rats given the human equivalent of 5–10 grams of ascorbic acid 30 minutes prior to methamphetamine dosage had toxicity mediated[41][42], yet this will likely be of little avail in solving the other serious behavioral problems associated with methamphetamine use and addiction that many users experience.^ It is shown that taking ascorbic acid prior to using methamphetamine may help reduce acute toxicity to the brain, as rats given the human equivalent of 5-10 grams of ascorbic acid 30 minutes prior to methamphetamine dosage had toxicity mediated [ 39 ] [ 40 ] , yet this will likely be of little avail in solving the other serious behavioral problems associated with methamphetamine use and addiction that many users experience.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This disregard for the potential dangers of unprotected sex or other reckless sexual behavior may contribute to the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) ( sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell as a treatment for depression and fatigue.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Large doses of ascorbic acid also lower urinary pH, reducing methamphetamine's elimination half-life and thus decreasing the duration of its actions.^ Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025-0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mean elimination half-life for methamphetamine is approximately 10 hours, with considerable inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[43]
.To combat addiction, doctors are beginning to use other forms of amphetamine such as dextroamphetamine to break the addiction cycle in a method similar to the use of methadone in the treatment of heroin addicts.^ To combat addiction, doctors are beginning to use other forms of amphetamine such as dextroamphetamine to break the addiction cycle in a method similar to the use of methadone in the treatment of heroin addicts.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Of methadone treatment in pregnant women, methadone treatment when pregnant, methadone use while pregnant from methadone while pregnant .
  • meth ruins sex drive, met art hairy; mexicali strip clubs, methadone drug use teens, mesh and aertex underwear, metal sludge penis sizes 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.comedyxp.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gazette Extra Heroin used to be the drug of choice for "experienced" addicts, Patek said.

.There are no publicly available drugs comparable to naloxone, which blocks opiate receptors and is therefore used in treating opiate dependence, for use with methamphetamine problems.^ As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This study tested components of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Risk Reduction Model (ARRM) for a sample of methamphetamine-using offenders in drug treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggestions for culturally appropriate strategies for treating both methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among BMSM are discussed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] .However, experiments with some monoamine reuptake inhibitors such as indatraline have been successful in blocking the action of methamphetamine.^ However, experiments with some monoamine reuptake inhibitors such as indatraline have been successful in blocking the action of methamphetamine.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been proposed that dopamine plays a role in methamphetamine induced neurotoxicity because experiments which reduce dopamine production or block the release of dopamine decrease the toxic effects of methamphetamine administration.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To a lesser extent, methamphetamine acts as a dopaminergic and adrenergic reuptake inhibitor with high concentrations serving as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[45] .There are studies indicating that fluoxetine, bupropion and imipramine may reduce craving and improve adherence to treatment.^ Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025-0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[46] .Research has also suggested that modafinil can help addicts quit methamphetamine use.^ Research has also suggested that modafinil can help addicts quit methamphetamine use.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Suggestions for culturally appropriate strategies for treating both methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among BMSM are discussed.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results support recent clinical studies that suggest methamphetamine use is different than other drug use in its effects on violence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[47][48]
.Methamphetamine addiction is one of the most difficult forms of addictions to treat.^ The most important factor in treating the oral effects of methamphetamine is for the patient to stop using the drug.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ METH – USA Montana Fights Meth, and Pulls No Punches – ABC News Montana is one of the worst states in the nation when it comes to methamphetamine addiction, and it's one of the best at coping with it.

^ The most common form is dysthymic disorder (dysthymia), a less severe but chronic form of depression that by definition lasts at least two years in adults or one year in children.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bupropion, aripiprazole, and baclofen have been employed to treat post-withdrawal cravings, although the success rate is low.^ Bupropion , aripiprazole , and baclofen have been employed to treat post-withdrawal cravings, although the success rate is low.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Modafinil is somewhat more successful, but this is a Class IV scheduled drug.^ Modafinil is somewhat more successful, but this is a Class IV scheduled drug.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ibogaine has been used with success in Europe, but is a Class I drug and available only for research use.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is a Class "A" or Schedule 1 controlled drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ibogaine has been used with success in Europe, but is a Class I drug and available only for research use.^ Ibogaine has been used with success in Europe, but is a Class I drug and available only for research use.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even at condoms-only Tina parties, men don't always use protection as the drug kicks in and the night wears on, he said.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "High-risk behaviors" and "combined" (men only) classes were associated with more frequent alcohol and methamphetamine use compared with the "work" class.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Mirtazapine has been reported useful in some small-population studies.^ Mirtazapine has been reported useful in some small-population studies.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some use it to help them cram and study and focus on exams.
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The present study suggests that the PIK4CA gene does not play a significant role in the vulnerability to METH use disorder in the Japanese population.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[49]
.Since the phenethylamine phentermine is a constitutional isomer of methamphetamine, it has been speculated that it may be effective in treating methamphetamine addiction.^ Since the phenethylamine phentermine is a constitutional isomer of methamphetamine, it has been speculated that it may be effective in treating methamphetamine addiction.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional research is warranted to develop and evaluate agonist-like medications that may effectively treat cocaine dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is possible that it was used to treat Hitler's speculated Parkinson's disease , or that his Parkinson-like symptoms which developed from 1940 onwards resulted from using methamphetamine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Phentermine is a central nervous system stimulant that acts on dopamine and norepinephrine, it has not been reported to cause the same degree of euphoria that is associated with other amphetamines.^ Drugs acting on the nervous system .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Phentermine is a central nervous system stimulant that acts on dopamine and norepinephrine , it has not been reported to cause the same degree of euphoria that is associated with other amphetamines.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like other substances which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system , methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Abrupt interruption of chronic methamphetamine use results in the withdrawal syndrome in almost 90% of the cases.^ Abrupt interruption of chronic methamphetamine use results in the withdrawal syndrome in almost 90% of the cases.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This study tested components of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Risk Reduction Model (ARRM) for a sample of methamphetamine-using offenders in drug treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cases included patients who used methamphetamine as documented by history or urine toxicology screening.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The mental depression associated with methamphetamine withdrawal is longer lasting and more severe than that of cocaine withdrawal.^ Withdrawal of amphetamine often causes a depression which is longer and deeper than even the depression from cocaine withdrawal.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ COCAINE – ITALY Cocaine use on the rise – Wanted in Rome Cocaine use has more than doubled in Italy between 2001-2005.

^ Nearly half of county law enforcement officials consider methamphetamine their primary drug problem, more than cocaine, marijuana and heroin combined, the survey of the National Association of Counties found."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[46]

Medical use

10 mg Desoxyn tablets
.Methamphetamine is FDA approved under the trademark name Desoxyn, for the treatment of ADHD and exogenous obesity, and is prescribed off-label for the treatment of narcolepsy and treatment-resistant depression.^ From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell as a treatment for depression and fatigue.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ; [ 50 ] Extreme obesity ; Narcolepsy [ 51 ] 10 mg Desoxyn Because of its social stigma and toxicity, dextromethamphetamine is not generally prescribed for ADHD unless other stimulants, such as methylphenidate , dextroamphetamine , lisdexamphetamine or other stimulant drug treatments have failed.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Understanding the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and methamphetamine use can further inform both treatment and mental health options.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[50] .Methamphetamine is known to produce central effects similar to other stimulants, but at smaller doses, with fewer peripheral effects.^ Methamphetamine addiction typically occurs when a person begins to use the drug as a stimulant, for its powerful enhancing effects on sex, mood and energy, alertness and ability to concentrate, and weight loss and appetite suppression, among its other psychological and physical effects.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chocolates dosed with methamphetamine were known as Fliegerschokolade ("airmen's chocolate") when given to pilots, or Panzerschokolade ("tank chocolate") when given to tank crews.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances such as caffeine or cathine into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which can be particularly dangerous due to the synergistic effects of multiple stimulants.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

[51]

Other uses

.A study by a group of University of Montana scientists showed that methamphetamine appears to lessen damage to the brains of rats and gerbils that have suffered strokes.^ A study by a group of University of Montana scientists showed that methamphetamine appears to lessen damage to the brains of rats and gerbils that have suffered strokes.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ UM study: Meth may lessen stroke damage ".
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The work is preliminary, and more research is needed to confirm and expand the findings; however, U.M. research assistant professor Dave Poulsen said someday humans may use methamphetamine to lessen stroke damage.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.The researchers found that small amounts of methamphetamine created a protective effect, while higher doses increased damage.^ The researchers found that small amounts of methamphetamine created a protective effect, while higher doses increased damage.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Creates eight new judgeships throughout the state to accommodate anticipated increased workloads stemming from increased sex offender penalties and methamphetamine law changes.

^ At higher doses used typically by illicit users (> = 50 mg), methamphetamine can produce psychosis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The work is preliminary, and more research is needed to confirm and expand the findings; however, U.M. research assistant professor Dave Poulsen said someday humans may use methamphetamine to lessen stroke damage.^ UM study: Meth may lessen stroke damage ".
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The work is preliminary, and more research is needed to confirm and expand the findings; however, U.M. research assistant professor Dave Poulsen said someday humans may use methamphetamine to lessen stroke damage.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The objective of this study was to demonstrate an association of methamphetamine use and ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage and to further reveal the underlying vascular pathology using neuroimaging and pathology.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[52]

Health issues

Meth mouth

.Methamphetamine users and addicts may lose their teeth abnormally quickly, a condition known as "meth mouth". This effect is not caused by any corrosive effects of the drug itself, which is a common myth.^ This effect is not caused by any corrosive effects of the drug itself, which is a common myth.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Suspected case of meth mouth Main article: Meth mouth Methamphetamine users and addicts may lose their teeth abnormally quickly, a condition known as " meth mouth ".
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the American Dental Association , meth mouth "is probably caused by a combination of drug-induced psychological and physiological changes resulting in xerostomia (dry mouth), extended periods of poor oral hygiene , frequent consumption of high-calorie, carbonated beverages and bruxism (teeth grinding and clenching)."
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

According to the American Dental Association, meth mouth "is probably caused by a combination of drug-induced psychological and physiological changes resulting in xerostomia (dry mouth), extended periods of poor oral hygiene, frequent consumption of high-calorie, carbonated beverages and bruxism (teeth grinding and clenching)."[53] Similar, though far less severe symptoms have been reported in clinical use of other amphetamines, where effects are not exacerbated by a lack of oral hygiene for extended periods.[54]
.Like other substances that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.^ Like other substances which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system , methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The heating of reducing sugars with amino acids yields a brown solution; studies of this reaction were originally applied to food chemistry for the production of distinct flavors and aromas.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It may also be flavored with high-sugar candies, drinks, or drink mixes to mask the bitter taste of the drug.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

[55]

Hygiene

.Serious health and appearance problems can be caused by unsterilized needles, lack or ignoring of hygiene needs (more typical on chronic use), and obsessive skin-picking, which may lead to abscesses.^ Serious health and appearance problems can be caused by unsterilized needles, lack or ignoring of hygiene needs (more typical on chronic use), and obsessive skin-picking which may lead to abscesses .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Health costs that stem from illnesses caused by the dangerous chemicals found at meth labs, meth use or the effect of meth on unborn children is probably huge.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Sanjay Sharma, a psychiatrist at Grady Health System's infectious disease program, said the drug's use among gay men has become a serious health concern.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

[46]

Sexual behavior

.Users may exhibit sexually compulsive behavior while under the influence of methamphetamine.^ See also: sex and drugs See also: Party and play Users may exhibit sexually compulsive behaviour while under the influence.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A methamphetamine and sex if methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior.
  • mexican porn woman, metabo speed xxx pills reviewed, met girls photos; mexican photo sex 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.daniels-mara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior.
  • mexican sex pics, methanol unload rail cars; methods to eat your own cum; metastatic breast cancer statistics; metart most teens 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.drewyoung.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This disregard for the potential dangers of unprotected sex or other reckless sexual behavior may contribute to the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).^ A methamphetamine and sex if methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior.
  • mexican porn woman, metabo speed xxx pills reviewed, met girls photos; mexican photo sex 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.daniels-mara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior else methamphetamine and unprotected sex or methamphetamine asian americans orange county near methamphetamine ecstasy and unsafe gay sex!
  • meth ruins sex drive, met art hairy; mexicali strip clubs, methadone drug use teens, mesh and aertex underwear, metal sludge penis sizes 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.comedyxp.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The metestatic breast cancer disease progression in metforman and sex from metforman and sexual side effects.
  • mexican porn woman, metabo speed xxx pills reviewed, met girls photos; mexican photo sex 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.daniels-mara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the effects reported by methamphetamine users are increased libido and sexual pleasure, the ability to have sex for extended periods of time, and an inability to ejaculate or reach orgasm.^ The methamphetamine effects on sex .
  • meth ruins sex drive, met art hairy; mexicali strip clubs, methadone drug use teens, mesh and aertex underwear, metal sludge penis sizes 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.comedyxp.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the effects reported by methamphetamine users are increased libido and sexual pleasure, the ability to have sex for extended periods of time, and an inability to ejaculate or reach orgasm or physical release.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A methamphetamine and sex if methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior.
  • mexican porn woman, metabo speed xxx pills reviewed, met girls photos; mexican photo sex 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.daniels-mara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to increasing the need for sex and enabling the user to engage in prolonged sexual activity, methamphetamine lowers inhibitions and may cause users to behave recklessly or to become forgetful.^ In addition to increasing the need for sex and enabling the user to engage in prolonged sexual activity, methamphetamine lowers inhibitions and may cause users to behave recklessly or to become forgetful.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Users may become hypersexual or obsessed with a task, thought or activity.
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A methamphetamine and sex if methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior.
  • mexican porn woman, metabo speed xxx pills reviewed, met girls photos; mexican photo sex 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.daniels-mara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to a recent San Diego study, methamphetamine users often engage in unsafe sexual activities, and forget or choose not to use condoms.^ According to a recent San Diego study, methamphetamine users often engage in unsafe sexual activities, and forget to or choose not to use condoms .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The study found that methamphetamine users were six times less likely to use condoms.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A methamphetamine and sexual risk behavior else methamphetamine and unprotected sex or methamphetamine asian americans orange county near methamphetamine ecstasy and unsafe gay sex!
  • meth ruins sex drive, met art hairy; mexicali strip clubs, methadone drug use teens, mesh and aertex underwear, metal sludge penis sizes 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.comedyxp.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study found that methamphetamine users were six times less likely to use condoms.^ The study found that methamphetamine users were six times less likely to use condoms.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The hydrochloride salt of methamphetamine is soluble in water; injection users may use any dose from 125 mg to over a gram in one I.V. dose using a small needle.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other uses A study by a group of University of Montana scientists showed that methamphetamine appears to lessen damage to the brains of rats and gerbils that have suffered strokes.

.The urgency for sex combined with the inability to achieve physical release (ejaculation) can result in tearing, chafing, and trauma (such as rawness and friction sores) to the sex organs, the rectum and mouth, dramatically increasing the risk of infectious transmission.^ The urgency for sex combined with the inability to achieve release (ejaculation) can result in tearing, chafing, and trauma (such as rawness and friction sores) to the sex organs , the rectum and mouth, dramatically increasing the risk of transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In many cities, however, gay activists and health officials were not quick to confront the fact that the drug, by curbing inhibitions and boosting energy, encourages unsafe multi-partner sex and thus increases the risk of HIV transmission.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, I suggest to you that increased social pressure on men to not engage in gay sex will not work to reduce HIV transmission rates.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Methamphetamine also causes erectile dysfunction due to vasoconstriction.^ Methamphetamine also causes erectile dysfunction due to vasoconstriction.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

[56]

Use in pregnancy and breastfeeding

.Methamphetamine passes through the placenta and is secreted in the breast milk.^ Methamphetamine passes through the placenta and is secreted in the breast milk.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In methamphetamines and breast milk about methamphetamines and sex, methamphetamines pregnant women on methamphetimine use and sex .
  • meth ruins sex drive, met art hairy; mexicali strip clubs, methadone drug use teens, mesh and aertex underwear, metal sludge penis sizes 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.comedyxp.tv [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In methamphetamines among teens in iowa on methamphetamines and breast milk by methamphetamines and sex.
  • mexican porn woman, metabo speed xxx pills reviewed, met girls photos; mexican photo sex 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.daniels-mara.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Half of the newborns whose mothers used methamphetamine during pregnancy experience withdrawal syndrome; this syndrome is relatively mild and requires medication in only 4% of the cases.^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Canada .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Half of the newborns whose mothers used methamphetamine during pregnancy experience withdrawal syndrome ; this syndrome is relatively mild and requires medication in only 4% of the cases.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in The Netherlands .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[46]

Public Health Issues

.It has been found that the volatile remain products and even the methamphetamine itself can contaminate the "home" methamphetamine labs, thus making these places a public health hazard due to the possible consequences for new inhabitants, especially through the respiratory and conjunctiva mucosa, blood stream and Central Nervous System.^ Methamphetamine production is hazardous to your health.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like other substances which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system , methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Amphetamines, amphetamine-like substances and methamphetamine especially, are highly addictive central nervous system stimulants that can be injected, snorted, smoked, or ingested orally.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[57]

Routes of administration

.Studies have shown that the subjective pleasure of drug use (the reinforcing component of addiction) is proportional to the rate at which the blood level of the drug increases.^ As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This study tested components of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Risk Reduction Model (ARRM) for a sample of methamphetamine-using offenders in drug treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rates of methamphetamine use have remained stable since 1999 The proportion of Americans who use methamphetamine on a monthly basis has hovered in the range of 0.2-0.3% between 1999 and 2004.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[58] .In general, intravenous injection is the fastest mechanism (i.e., it causes blood concentrations to rise the most quickly), followed by smoking, suppository (anal insertion), insufflation (snorting), and ingestion (swallowing).^ In general, intravenous injection is the fastest mechanism (i.e., it causes blood concentrations to rise the most quickly), followed by smoking, anal insertion ( suppository ), insufflation , and ingestion (swallowing).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The gay male community, having been affected the most by the pandemic, mobilized quickly and the practice of unprotected anal sex quickly became taboo within the community.
  • Ramón, 9 años después… » | Vale Chumbar | 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC valechumbar.com [Source type: General]

.Ingestion does not produce a rush, which is the most transcendent state of euphoria experienced with the use of methamphetamine, and is the most prominent with intravenous use.^ Ingestion does not produce a "rush", which is the most transcendent state of euphoria experienced with the use of methamphetamine and is the most prominent with intravenous use.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Three of the women grew up with parents who abused drugs, and all had experienced trauma as children and used other illegal drugs before methamphetamine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine can be produced in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, which at the time were the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as Sudafed and Contac .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.While the onset of the rush produced by injection or smoking can occur in as little as a few seconds, the oral route of administration usually requires approximately half an hour before the high sets in.^ The mean elimination half-life for methamphetamine is approximately 10 hours, with considerable inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Requires the Second Judicial District Court Administrator to transmit the surcharge authorized by section 5 to the commissioner of finance who shall credit the general fund accordingly.

.Thus, oral routes of administration are generally used by recreational or medicinal consumers of the drug, while other more fast-acting routes of administration are used by addicts.^ Gazette Extra Heroin used to be the drug of choice for "experienced" addicts, Patek said.

^ Then examine drug-using, club-hopping young urban men who are likely predisposed to risk-taking behavior in general.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They know, more than me, the bad things the drug can do, but they keep using it, trying to repeat the euphoria of the first time.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Injection

.Injection is a popular method for use, also known as "slamming" and "mainlining", but carries quite a few serious risks.^ A logistic regression model was build using forward stepwise method to determine independent associations between variables of interest and MA injection.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From 2004-2006, 439 injection drug users were recruited in Denver, Colorado, to participate in a study of drug use and HCV risk.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Leigh, Barbara C. -- University of Washington Daily Self-Reports Of Injection Drug Use and Risk .
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The hydrochloride salt of methamphetamine is soluble in water; intravenous users may use any dose range from less than 100 milligrams to over one gram using a hypodermic needle (although it should be noted that typically street methamphetamine is "cut" with a water-soluble cutting material, which constitutes a significant portion of a given street methamphetamine dose).^ The hydrochloride salt of methamphetamine is soluble in water; intravenous users may use any dose from 125 milligrams to over one gram using a hypodermic needle (although it should be noted that typically street methamphetamine is "cut" with a water-soluble cutting material which constitutes a significant portion of a given street methamphetamine dose).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler may have been given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell as a treatment for depression and fatigue.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Serious health and appearance problems can be caused by unsterilized needles, lack or ignoring of hygiene needs (more typical on chronic use), and obsessive skin-picking which may lead to abscesses .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Intravenous users often experience skin rashes (sometimes called "speed bumps") and infections at the site of injection.^ Kirk, Gregory -- Johns Hopkins University Natural History Of HIV Infection In Injection Drug Users .
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.As with the injection of any drug, if a group of users share a common needle or any type of injecting equipment without sterilization procedures, blood-borne diseases such as HIV or hepatitis can be transmitted.^ As with any injected drug, if a group of users shares a common needle or any type of injecting equipment without sterilization procedures, blood-borne diseases such as HIV or hepatitis can be transmitted as well.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to use needles for injection or do not want to have to smoke the methamphetamine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So, to refine the Professor's argument a bit: Whereas - the reservior of HIV in the population of men who have sex with men is higher than that in any other subpopulation except for injection drug users.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

Smoking

."Smoking" amphetamines refers to vaporizing it to inhale the resulting fumes, not burning it to inhale the resulting smoke.^ "Smoking" amphetamines actually refers to vaporizing it to inhale fumes, rather than burning and inhaling the resulting smoke, as with tobacco.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

It is commonly smoked in glass pipes made from blown Pyrex tubes, light bulbs, or on aluminium foil heated underneath by a flame. This method is also known as "chasing the white dragon" (whereas smoking heroin is known as "chasing the dragon"). .There is little evidence that methamphetamine inhalation results in greater toxicity than any other route of administration.^ In addition to the funding disparities, the IG report found that money was being earmarked for purposes other than methamphetamine enforcement.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ But the evidence that heavy drinking during pregnancy causes serious harm to children is far more substantial than the evidence that using cocaine or methamphetamine does.
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a consequence, on average, if you happen to be a man who engages in sex with other men you are at greater risk than if you are a man who engages in sex with women.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lung damage has been reported with long-term use, but manifests in forms independent of route (pulmonary hypertension and associated complications), or limited to injection users (pulmonary emboli).^ Lung damage has been reported with long-term use, but manifests in forms independent of route (pulmonary hypertension and associated complications), or limited to injection users (pulmonary emboli).
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the long-term effects of methamphetamine use ?
  • CenTF - The Methamphetamine Problem: Question and Answer Guide 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.iir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the long-term effects of methamphetamine use?
  • CenTF - The Methamphetamine Problem: Question and Answer Guide 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.iir.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Insufflation

.Another popular route to intake methamphetamine is insufflation (snorting), where a user crushes the methamphetamine into a fine powder and then sharply inhales it (sometimes with a straw or a rolled up banknote, similar to cocaine) into the nose where methamphetamine is absorbed through the soft tissue in the mucous membrane of the sinus cavity and straight into the bloodstream.^ Another popular route to intake methamphetamine is insufflation (snorting), where a user crushes the methamphetamine into a fine powder and then sharply inhales it (sometimes with a straw or a rolled up banknote ) into the nose where the methamphetamine is absorbed through the soft tissue in the mucous membrane of the sinus cavity straight into the bloodstream.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to use needles for injection or do not want to have to smoke the methamphetamine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances such as caffeine or cathine into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which can be particularly dangerous due to the synergistic effects of multiple stimulants.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This method bypasses first pass metabolism and has a quicker onset with a higher bioavailability, though the duration of action is shorter than oral administration.^ This method bypasses first pass metabolism and has a faster onset with a higher bioavailability , although duration is shorter than with oral administration.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to prepare and administer methamphetamine for injection or smoking, but still experience a fast onset with a rush.^ This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to use needles for injection or do not want to have to smoke the methamphetamine.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the self-ad ministration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While the onset of the "rush" produced by injection or smoking can occur in as little as two minutes, the oral route of administration usually requires approximately half an hour before the "high" kicks in.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

Other methods

.Very little research has focused on suppository or anal insertion as a method, and anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many cultures regarding the anus.^ But the heat generated by this discussion was associated with very little light.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.This method is often known within methamphetamine communities as a "butt rocket", "potato thumping", "turkey basting", a "booty bump", "keistering", "plugging", "shafting", "bumming", or "shelving" (vaginal) and is anecdotally reported to increase sexual pleasure while the effects of the drug last longer.^ As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And last year he published a paper on how far tax cuts pay for themselves, reporting enthusiastically that this self-financing effect is "surprisingly large."
  • The Democratic Party 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Background: Southeast Asia is experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine use, a drug associated with risky sexual behaviors, putting a large segment of the population at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV and in need of prevention efforts.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[59] .The rectum is where the majority of the drug would likely be taken up, through the membranes lining its walls.^ The rectum is where the majority of the drug would likely be taken up, through the membranes lining its walls.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If drugs were passed off as candy, that's not a good thing, as accidental dosing and overdosing and so forth, as well as accidental child consumption, would become more likely.
  • Candy-Colored Meth Dreams - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

^ Like I said up at top, pretty much everyone turns into an idiot when it comes to drugs.
  • Candy-Colored Meth Dreams - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

Illicit production

Crystal methamphetamine

Synthesis

.Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to methcathinone and amphetamine.^ Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to methcathinone and amphetamine .
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ephedrine is similar in structure to the ( semi- ) synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to methcathinone and amphetamine.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When illicitly produced, it is commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine.^ It is made by the ephedrine reduction process.

^ When illicitly produced, it is commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine.

^ In illicit production, it is commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of the necessary chemicals are readily available in household products or over-the-counter cold or allergy medicines.^ Some in the state of Mississippi are promoting the idea of restricting sales of some cold and allergy remedies as a way to stop production of methamphetamine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "Officials Praise Anti-Meth Law" ) that "More than 20 other states are considering restricting over-the-counter cold and allergy medicine sales, according to the National Association of State Legislatures.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ A new anti-methamphetamine law in Alabama will put allergy medicines like Sudafed behind the counter at drug stores.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Synthesis is relatively simple, but entails risk with flammable and corrosive chemicals, particularly the solvents used in extraction and purification.^ Synthesis is relatively simple, but entails risk with flammable and corrosive chemicals, particularly the solvents used in extraction and purification.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Synthesis is relatively simple, but most methods involve flammable and corrosive chemicals.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, those who handle the corrosive chemicals used to make methamphetamines place themselves at risk for severe lung damage, organ failure, and even death.
  • Methamphetamine Abuse: A Growing Problem ; Seattle Washington WA 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.swedish.org [Source type: Academic]

.Clandestine production is therefore often discovered by fires and explosions caused by the improper handling of volatile or flammable solvents.^ Clandestine production is therefore often discovered by fires and explosions caused by the improper handling of volatile or flammable solvents.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The chemicals used in producing methamphetamine are extremely volatile, and the amateur chemists running makeshift laboratories -- often in hotels or areas where children are present -- cause deadly explosions and fires.
  • Narconon Drug Prevention and Education Program of Southern California 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.drug-prevention.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The substitution of one chemical for another in meth recipes may cause the cooking process to be more hazardous (resulting in fire or explosion) or may result in a finished product with unwanted or dangerous effects.

.Most methods of illicit production involve hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine molecule.^ Most methods of illicit production involve hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine molecule.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus , pseudoephedrine or ephedrine (white), and blue iodine (which is technically a purple color in elemental form), from which hydroiodic acid is formed.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Preventative legal strategies of the past 17 years have steadily increased restrictions to the distribution of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine-containing products.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus, pseudoephedrine or ephedrine (white), and blue iodine (which is technically a purple color in elemental form), from which hydroiodic acid is formed.^ According to the Oregonian, "BASF primarily blamed 'a significant decline' in orders for pseudoephedrine from the United States, which consumes half the world's exports of pseudoephedrine and its chemical cousin, ephedrine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ "New State Law Aimed To Curb Meth Cookers" ) that "In an effort to crack down on the manufacture of methamphetamine ( meth ), some local merchants have moved their products containing ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine behind the counter.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ METHODS: Data were obtained from the Treatment Episode Data Set, an administrative data set that captures admissions to federally funded treatment centers in the United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

In Australia, criminal groups have been known to substitute "red" phosphorus with either hypophosphorous acid or phosphorous acid.[60] .This is a fairly dangerous process for amateur chemists, because phosphine gas, a side-product from in situ hydroiodic acid production, is extremely toxic to inhale.^ This is a fairly dangerous process for amateur chemists, because phosphine gas, a side-product from in situ hydroiodic acid production, is extremely toxic to inhale.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ METH – USA As meth cases increase, cleanup help coming – News Democrat and Leader The production of methamphetamine is a dirty and dangerous- not to mention illegal- process.

^ If performed by amateurs, manufacturing methamphetamine can be extremely dangerous.
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.Another common method uses the Birch reduction (also called the "Nagai method"),[61] in which metallic lithium, commonly extracted from non-rechargeable lithium batteries, is substituted for difficult-to-find metallic sodium.^ The findings have important implications for potential interventions and harm reduction strategies at first use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the Birch reduction is dangerous because the alkali metal and liquid anhydrous ammonia are both extremely reactive, and the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added.^ However, the Birch reduction is dangerous because the alkali metal and liquid anhydrous ammonia are both extremely reactive, and the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That's because they're living with parents who are making and using the drug-- putting them in contact with dangerous chemicals.

^ This is a fairly dangerous process for amateur chemists, because phosphine gas, a side-product from in situ hydroiodic acid production, is extremely toxic to inhale.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.Anhydrous ammonia and lithium or sodium (Birch reduction) may be surpassing hydroiodic acid (catalytic hydrogenation) as the most common method of manufacturing methamphetamine in the U.S. and possibly in Mexico.^ Anhydrous ammonia and lithium or sodium (Birch reduction) may be surpassing hydroiodic acid ( catalytic hydrogenation ) as the most common method of manufacturing methamphetamine in the U.S. and possibly in Mexico.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hydroiodic acid "super lab" busts receive more media attention because the equipment employed is much more complex and visible than the glass jars or coffee carafes commonly used to produce methamphetamine with Birch reduction.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine labs can give off noxious fumes, such as phosphine gas, methylamine gas, solvent vapors; such as acetone or chloroform , iodine vapors, white phosphorus , anhydrous ammonia , hydrogen chloride / muriatic acid , hydrogen iodide , lithium / sodium metal, ether , or methamphetamine vapors.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.New Jersey as well as Maine both rank in the top illegal underground methamphetamine producing states.^ Methamphetamine produced in foreign source areas, predominantly Mexico and, to a lesser extent, Canada and Southeast Asia, is available to varying degrees in the United States as well."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The case I made to them was simple: The more states that restrict pseudoephedrine sales, the more difficult it will be for methamphetamine producers and dealers to operate,' Henry said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ As the author says in the introduction, "The findings of this report refute the image of methamphetamine use in the United States as popularly conveyed by both the media as well as many government officials.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Industrial scale methamphetamine factory in Cikande, Indonesia.
.A completely different procedure of synthesis uses the reductive amination of phenylacetone with methylamine,[62] both of which are currently DEA list I chemicals (as are pseudoephedrine and ephedrine).^ Most antidepressant drugs currently used to treat the disorder attempt to correct these chemical imbalances.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the Oregonian, "BASF primarily blamed 'a significant decline' in orders for pseudoephedrine from the United States, which consumes half the world's exports of pseudoephedrine and its chemical cousin, ephedrine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The boom in Mexican methamphetamine production stems from successful efforts in the U.S. to control the sale of chemicals used to produce the drug, including the cold medicine pseudoephedrine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The reaction requires a catalyst that acts as a reducing agent, such as mercury-aluminum amalgam or platinum dioxide, also known as Adams' catalyst.^ The reaction requires a catalyst that acts as a reducing agent, such as mercury-aluminum amalgam or platinum dioxide, also known as Adams' catalyst .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This was once the preferred method of production by motorcycle gangs in California,[63] until DEA restrictions on the chemicals made the process difficult.^ This was once the preferred method of production by motorcycle gangs in California , [ 60 ] until DEA restrictions on the chemicals made the process difficult.
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ 'The case I made to them was simple: The more states that restrict pseudoephedrine sales, the more difficult it will be for methamphetamine producers and dealers to operate,' Henry said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ According to the Times, "The rural fringes of California metropolitan areas, including the Inland Empire, which once were centers of methamphetamine production, remain important distribution hubs.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Other less common methods use other means of hydrogenation, such as hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst.^ Other less common methods use other means of hydrogenation, such as hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I think making hydrogen requires the use of natural gas.
  • The Democratic Party 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.democrats.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I view a middle ground as legalizing some less dangerous and possiblly valuable drugs, such as marijuana and drasticlly lowering the penalties for use of other more dangerous drugs like meth and cocaine.
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Methamphetamine labs can give off noxious fumes, such as phosphine gas, methylamine gas, solvent vapors; such as acetone or chloroform, iodine vapors, white phosphorus, anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen chloride/muriatic acid, hydrogen iodide, lithium/sodium metal, ether, or methamphetamine vapors.^ Methamphetamine labs can give off noxious fumes, such as phosphine gas, methylamine gas, solvent vapors; such as acetone or chloroform , iodine vapors, white phosphorus , anhydrous ammonia , hydrogen chloride / muriatic acid , hydrogen iodide , lithium / sodium metal, ether , or methamphetamine vapors.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anhydrous ammonia and lithium or sodium (Birch reduction) may be surpassing hydroiodic acid ( catalytic hydrogenation ) as the most common method of manufacturing methamphetamine in the U.S. and possibly in Mexico.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus , pseudoephedrine or ephedrine (white), and blue iodine (which is technically a purple color in elemental form), from which hydroiodic acid is formed.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.If performed by amateurs, manufacturing methamphetamine can be extremely dangerous.^ If performed by amateurs, manufacturing methamphetamine can be extremely dangerous.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ When performed by individuals who are not trained chemists, methamphetamine manufacture can lead to extremely dangerous situations.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the increased use of this dangerous drug comes the additional dangers associated with manufacturing methamphetamine.
  • Methamphetamine Structures 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.larimersheriff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the red phosphorus overheats, because of a lack of ventilation, phosphine gas can be produced.^ For example, if the red phosphorus reaction is allowed to overheat, phosphine gas can be produced.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the red phosphorus overheats, because of a lack of ventilation, phosphine gas can be produced.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They control their own supplies, such as red phosphorus, hydriodic acid, iodine, Freon and hydrogen chloride gas.
  • A Madness Called Meth 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.valleymeth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This gas is highly toxic and if present in large quantities is likely to explode upon autoignition from diphosphine, which is formed by overheating phosphorus.^ This gas is highly toxic and if present in large quantities is likely to explode upon autoignition from diphosphine, which is formed by overheating phosphorus .
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.In recent years, reports of a simplified "Shake 'n Bake" synthesis have surfaced.^ In 2009, it was reported that a new, cheaper, and simpler method of production known as "shake-and-bake" had been invented.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The method is suitable for such small batches that pseudoephedrine restrictions are less effective, it uses chemicals that are easier to obtain (though no less dangerous than traditional methods), and it is so easy to carry out that some addicts have made the drug while driving.^ The new method uses an amount of pseudoephedrine so small that it falls under the legal reportage requirements, and is so easy to carry out that some addicts have made the drug while driving.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Gazette Extra Heroin used to be the drug of choice for "experienced" addicts, Patek said.

^ Health costs that stem from illnesses caused by the dangerous chemicals found at meth labs, meth use or the effect of meth on unborn children is probably huge.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[64] .Producing meth in this fashion can be extremely dangerous and has been linked to several fatalities.^ METH – USA Meth, heroin were equally fatal to Oregonians in 2006 – The World Link Though heroin and meth were equally fatal in 2006, the results represent a sharp diversion from numbers posted a decade ago.

[65]

Production and distribution

.Until the early 1990s, methamphetamine for the US market was made mostly in labs run by drug traffickers in Mexico and California.^ Production and distribution Until the early 1990s, methamphetamine for the US market was made mostly in labs run by drug traffickers in Mexico and California.

^ Until the early 1990s, methamphetamine for the US market was made mostly in labs run by drug traffickers in Mexico and California .
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Both Mexico and California have “super labs”.
  • Center for Problem Oriented Policing | Problem Guides | Clandestine Methamphetamine Labs 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.popcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since then, authorities have discovered increasing numbers of small-scale methamphetamine labs all over the United States, mostly in rural, suburban, or low-income areas.^ Since then, authorities have discovered increasing numbers of small-scale methamphetamine labs all over the United States, mostly in rural, suburban, or low-income areas.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manufacturers in these areas tend to be rural, low-income whites.
  • DEA - Publications - Methamphetamine Situation - Production and Trafficking 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the scope of methamphetamine use in the United States?
  • Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.jwoodphd.com [Source type: Academic]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Indiana state police found 1,260 labs in 2003, compared to just 6 in 1995, although this may be partly a result of increased police activity.^ Indiana state police found 1,260 labs in 2003, compared to just 6 in 1995, although this may be partly a result of increased police activity.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of nitrites and amphetamine may increase HIV risk among MSM. Copyright 2009, Springer .
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He or she may also have flights of ideas, racing thoughts, increased goal-directed activity such as shopping, and excessive involvement in high-risk activities.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66] .As of 2007, drug and lab seizure data suggests that approximately 80 percent of the methamphetamine used in the United States originates from larger laboratories operated by Mexican-based syndicates on both sides of the border, and that approximately 20 percent comes from small toxic labs (STLs) in the United States.^ Methamphetamine is considered the fastest-growing illicit drug in United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As of 2007, drug and lab seizure data suggests that approximately 80 percent of the methamphetamine used in the United States originates from larger laboratories operated by Mexican-based syndicates on both sides of the border, and that approximately 20 percent comes from small toxic labs (STLs) in the United States.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ DEA El Paso Intelligence Center data is showing a distinct downward trend in the seizure of clandestine drug labs for the illicit manufacture of methampetamine from a high of 17,356 in 2003.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[67]
.Mobile and motel-based methamphetamine labs have caught the attention of both the US news media and the police.^ Mobile and motel-based methamphetamine labs have caught the attention of both the US news media and the police.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Proposes reporting obligations for police officers and mandated reporters for vulnerable adults who were exposed to a methamphetamine lab.

^ Oklahoma's new law, which took effect in April, is credited for cutting the number of methamphetamine labs by 50 percent to 70 percent.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Such labs can cause explosions and fires, and expose the public to hazardous chemicals.^ Such labs can cause explosions and fires, and expose the public to hazardous chemicals.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Health costs that stem from illnesses caused by the dangerous chemicals found at meth labs, meth use or the effect of meth on unborn children is probably huge.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Clandestine production is therefore often discovered by fires and explosions caused by the improper handling of volatile or flammable solvents.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.Those who manufacture methamphetamine are often harmed by toxic gases.^ In addition to these issues, individuals who manufacture methamphetamine are often harmed by toxic gases.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who manufacture methamphetamine are often harmed by toxic gases.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern Methamphetamine manufacturing requires gallons of highly toxic chemicals: Muriatic Acid, Lye, Engine Starting Fluid, and Red Phosperous from match heads.
  • METHAMPHETAMINE HORROR STORIES 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.sonic.net [Source type: General]

.Many police departments have specialized task forces with training to respond to cases of methamphetamine production.^ Many police departments have specialized task forces with training to respond to cases of methamphetamine production.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Many police forces have responded by creating a specialized task force educated in responding to persons involved in methamphetamine production.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In response, many special task forces and local and Federal initiatives have been developed to target methamphetamine production and use.
  • DEA, Drug Information, Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]

The National Drug Threat Assessment 2006, produced by the Department of Justice, found "decreased domestic methamphetamine production in both small and large-scale laboratories", but also that "decreases in domestic methamphetamine production have been offset by increased production in Mexico." .They concluded that "methamphetamine availability is not likely to decline in the near term."^ They concluded that "methamphetamine availability is not likely to decline in the near term."
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine transportation from Mexico to the United States by these DTOs and criminal groups is likely to increase further in the near term as production in Mexico-based methamphetamine laboratories continues to increase in order to offset declines in domestic production.
  • DEA, Drug Information, Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ African Americans were older when they first used methamphetamine and had used fewer grams in the past 30 days; Caucasians were more likely to inject.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[68]
.In July 2007, a ship was caught by Mexican officials at the port of Lázaro Cárdenas, originating in Hong Kong, after traveling through the port of Long Beach with 19 tons of pseudoephedrine, a raw material needed for meth.^ In July 2007, a ship was caught by Mexican officials at the port of Lázaro Cárdenas , originating in Hong Kong , after traveling through the port of Long Beach with 19 tons of pseudoephedrine , a raw material needed for meth.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest share of the chemicals is believed to be shipped to Mexico from factories in China and India and routed through Hong Kong.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Imports of ephedrine to Argentina recently began to soar -- from 2.9 tons in 2004 to 19.1 tons in 2007, according to government figures."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[69]
.Methamphetamine is distributed by prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, street gangs, traditional organized crime operations, and impromptu small networks.^ Methamphetamine is distributed by prison gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs , street gangs, traditional organized crime operations, and impromptu small networks.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Domestic clandestine methamphetamine production is dominated largely by Mexican criminal groups who also dominate wholesale distribution and share control of retail distribution with local independent distributors and gangs, including outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) and street gangs.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Department of Public Safety for distribution to crime victims services organizations that provide services to victims of prostitution or sex trafficking crimes .

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In the United States illicit methamphetamine comes in a variety of forms with prices varying widely over time.^ In the United States illicit methamphetamine comes in a variety of forms with prices varying widely over time.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is a stimulant widely abused in the United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is considered the fastest-growing illicit drug in United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[70] .Most commonly it is found as a colorless crystalline solid.^ Most commonly it is found as a colorless crystalline solid.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

.Impurities may result in a brownish or tan color.^ Impurities may result in a brownish or tan color.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Colourful flavored pills containing methamphetamine and caffeine are known as yaa baa (Thai for "crazy medicine").^ Colourful flavored pills containing methamphetamine and caffeine are known as yaa baa (Thai for "crazy medicine").
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances such as caffeine or cathine into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which can be particularly dangerous due to the synergistic effects of multiple stimulants.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

An impure form of methamphetamine is sold as a crumbly brown or off-white rock, commonly referred to as "peanut butter crank".[71] .Methamphetamine found on the street is rarely pure, but adulterated with chemicals that were used to synthesize it.^ Methamphetamine found on the street is rarely pure, but adulterated with chemicals that were used to synthesize it.
  • Crystal Meth! 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.kipaddotta.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is synthesized from precursor chemicals using relatively easy production methods that are commonly available on the Internet or in underground publications; anyone with high school chemistry experience can “cook” methamphetamine.
  • DEA, Drug Information, Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey found that 2.2% of grade 7–12 students admitted using methamphetamine in the last year, which was down significantly from 5.3% in 1999.
  • The burden and management of crystal meth use -- Buxton and Dove 178 (12): 1537 -- Canadian Medical Association Journal 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.cmaj.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Public health: The burden and management of crystal meth use 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] It may be diluted or "cut" with non-psychoactive substances like inositol, isopropylbenzylamine or dimethylsulfone. .Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances such as caffeine or cathine into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which can be particularly dangerous due to the synergistic effects of multiple stimulants.^ Findings revealed that most were experienced users of other substances when trying the drug for the first time, but lacked specific knowledge of methamphetamine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is a highly addictive powerful stimulant that increases wakefulness and physical activity and produces other effects including cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, and violent behavior.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Research by UCLA's Integrated Substance Abuse Programs and others shows that treatment can be effective for methamphetamine users.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.It may also be flavored with high-sugar candies, drinks, or drink mixes to mask the bitter taste of the drug.^ It may also be flavored with high-sugar candies, drinks, or drink mixes to mask the bitter taste of the drug.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The powder form is usually white, odorless and bitter-tasting and can be snorted, smoked, eaten, dissolved in a drink and ingested, or heated and injected.
  • FRONTLINE: the meth epidemic: frequently asked questions | PBS 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'Drug dealers have consistently marketed their drugs any way they can, using flavorings and colors, different kinds of candies, ever since they've been selling drugs,' Harrison said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Coloring may be added to the meth, as is the case with "Strawberry Quick."^ Coloring may be added to the meth, as is the case with "Strawberry Quick."
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As for meth, anyone who’s seen a meth addict, with their scabbed skin and rotting teeth, knows what a con “Strawberry Quick” is.

^ Suspected case of meth mouth Main article: Meth mouth Methamphetamine users and addicts may lose their teeth abnormally quickly, a condition known as " meth mouth ".
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

[72][73]

Natural occurrence

.Methamphetamine has been reported to occur naturally in Acacia berlandieri and possibly Acacia rigidula, trees that grow in west Texas.^ The majority of methamphetamine admissions occurred in the West (73%) among white (64%) unemployed (88%) women.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[74] .Methamphetamine and other amphetamines were long thought to be strictly human-synthesized,[75] but acacia trees contain numerous other psychoactive compounds (e.g.^ Background: Methamphetamine, a derivative of amphetamine, has been well known to cause mental problems in humans; however, its physical effects are little known.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Overall, 59% of random samples and 75% of contact point samples contained methamphetamine in excess of the state decontamination standard (0.1 g/100 cm2).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine (MAMP) and amphetamine (AMP) have previously been observed in meconium of MAMP-exposed neonates; the presence of other metabolites has not been investigated.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

amphetamine, mescaline, nicotine, dimethyltryptamine), and the related compound β-phenethylamine is known from numerous Acacia species.[76]

Terminology

Nicknames for methamphetamine are numerous and vary significantly from region to region. .Some common nicknames for methamphetamine include "ice", "meth", "crystal", "crystal meth", "crank", "glass", "nazi dope", "shabu" (Japan, Philippines , Malaysia), "tik" (South Africa),[77][78] "ya ba" (Thailand), and "P" (New Zealand).^ METH – USA Mom's Against Meth Air New Anti-Drug Movie Nationwide – Fox 12 Boise A nationwide group called Mothers Against Meth has created a film called "Crystal Meth: They Call It Ice".

^ METH – USA Flavored Meth Making Its Way To Siouxland – KTIV News Methamphetamine labs are declining in number in the Hawkeye State after a state law disrupted the flow of some raw materials used to make meth.

^ "New State Law Aimed To Curb Meth Cookers" ) that "In an effort to crack down on the manufacture of methamphetamine ( meth ), some local merchants have moved their products containing ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine behind the counter.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[79] .Methamphetamine may also be referred to as "speed", although this street term is officially reserved for regular amphetamine, without the methyl group.^ The Sun quotes the reports assertion that "The number of [methamphetamine] laboratories reported by Mexico and Canada remains comparatively small, although the size of the laboratories may on average be larger."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Objectives: To review how genetic variation affects responses to cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine and how this information may guide pharmacotherapy.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ADDICTION – USA City of Phoenix Tackles Meth Addiction – KTAR News On the street, it's referred to as uppers, speed, crank, crystal and glass.

[80]

Legality

Australia

.As a Schedule 8 drug, the medical use of methamphetamine is recognized in Australia.^ As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This study tested components of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Risk Reduction Model (ARRM) for a sample of methamphetamine-using offenders in drug treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Three of the women grew up with parents who abused drugs, and all had experienced trauma as children and used other illegal drugs before methamphetamine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[81] .It is not, however, available for medicinal use.^ In states which have passed restrictions on availability of cold and allergy medicines, such as Oklahoma and Arkansas, officials claim that the number of production operations in those states have declined; use, however, remains as high.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[citation needed]

Canada

.Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Canada.^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in The Netherlands .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Canada.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Netherlands Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in The Netherlands.

.As of 2005, methamphetamine has been moved to Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, which provides access to the highest maximum penalties.^ GBL and BDO. Exempts the chemicals GBL and BDO from the controlled substances schedules when the chemicals are in their natural concentration or intended for industrial use (as opposed to human consumption).

^ 'I think there should be now conclusive evidence that just simply enhancing penalties is in no way going to reducing the trafficking in a particular controlled substance.'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Authorities now estimate that 80% of the methamphetamine on U.S. streets is controlled by Mexican drug traffickers, with most of the supply smuggled in from Mexico.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The maximum penalty for production and distribution of methamphetamine has increased from 10 years to life in prison.^ The penalty for this crime is life, although the commissioner of corrections may release the offender from prison after the offender has served 30 years.

^ If the act causes, or creates a risk of, death, substantial bodily harm, or serious property damage, the penalty is a felony (up to five years in prison; $10,000 fine).

^ A growing number of authorities around the US are becoming aware that Mexican methamphetamine production has been increasing dramatically in the past few years since states and the federal government have been cracking down on domestic US production.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[82]

The Czech Republic

.In the Czech republic the law prohibits possession of amount of a drug, which is "larger than small". The Government mandates which amount is regarded as "larger than small". Nowadays possession of up to 2 grams of Methamphetamine is legal.^ Three of the women grew up with parents who abused drugs, and all had experienced trauma as children and used other illegal drugs before methamphetamine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results support recent clinical studies that suggest methamphetamine use is different than other drug use in its effects on violence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DRUGS – USA Overdoses Drive Up Accidental Death Rate in U.S. – Join Together The rate is rising again, and part of the blame is being focused on accidental overdoses on legal and illicit drugs.

[83] However, production and distribution is illegal. .In 2009 police raided 340 Methamphetamine laboratories in the Czech republic, which is the most among Eu countries.^ Methamphetamine is unique in that it can be easily manufactured in clandestine laboratories using store-bought materials and is the most prevalent synthetic drug manufactured in the United States.
  • NIDA - Director's Report - May, 2007 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.[84] Government changed policy of sale of legal drugs, which contain substances needed for meth production - the buyer must have medical prescription, must identify himself by ID card and can obtain only a few packages.^ However, state leaders are upset that recent changes to the Combat Meth Act would allow the federal government to supersede tougher legislation enacted this year in Iowa to better control sales of meth's main ingredient.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ PRESCRIPTION – CANADA Prescription drugs hit streets – The Record Prescription pain medications, such as morphine and oxycodone, are increasingly being sold on the street.

^ PRESCRIPTION – USA Feds cite New Jersey prescription drug abuse problem – Newsday New Jersey has a significant prescription drug abuse problem, White House drug policy officials said Monday.

.Due to this Czech meth producers are buying out the drugs with Pseudoephedrine in Poland, where there are no restrictions to it.^ For more information about methamphetamine, check out the Meth Section of Drug War Facts .
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ On matching, there was no difference in mortality (11.1% vs. ICU and hospital stay but the METH (+) group had a higher rate of laparotomy.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bupropion can serve as a discriminative stimulus (S-D) in an operant drug discrimination task, and a variety of stimulants substitute for the bupropion S-D. There are no reports, however, of bupropion functioning as a Pavlovian occasion setter (i.e.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[85]
.The Czech penal code penalizes possession (of more than 2 grams) by 1 - 8 years of imprisonment (penalty is differentiated by the amount of drug); production and distribution by up to 5 years, or up to 10 years (if conducted as a member of organized group, in large scale, against a child, or if it led to a large profit).^ Methods: A multistage probability survey of school-attending adolescents in grades 7, 9, 10, and 12, aged 11-19 years, was conducted in 2004, 2005, and 2006.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm still waiting for a valid answer to why the "male homosexual activity" between me and my monogamous partner of 5 years is more dangerous than it would be if he were a she.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - Those Who Sincerely Wonder Whether My Posts Are Motivated By Anti-Gay Animus 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nationally, about $19 million was spent on more than 10,000 meth cleanups.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Penal code also punishes spoofing or propagation of drugs (up to 5 years of imprisonment by different circumstances, up to 8 if against a child).^ METH – USA ‘Life's Great, Don't Meth It Up' – KDBC News Kids and drugs -- It's a connection parents, teachers and even students have fought for years.

^ Sarah A. Weese, 19, was charged Tuesday with one count of first-degree endangering the welfare of a child, a class C felony punishable by up to seven years in prison.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

Hong Kong

.Methamphetamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Dangerous Drugs Ordinance.^ In the self-ad ministration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Eliminate grants to states under the National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws, an organization that has been instrumental in helping states draft legislative responses to the methamphetamine crisis.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[86] .It can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purposes.^ It can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purposes.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I don't think any of this is meant to be used in court, it seems to me that it's from more of a research/public health angle that a criminal prosecution one.
  • Schneier on Security: Mapping Drug Use by Testing Sewer Water 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.schneier.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the University of Iowa College of Public Health recently compiled a bibliography of radon epidemiology research that took 192 pages just to list!
  • 770 590-7880 Atlanta Mold Testing Mold Inspections Indoor Air Quality Inspection 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.1800moldlab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription.^ The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be punished with 15 years imprisonment and a fine of $100,000 (HKD).^ Violation of these provisions results in a felony and imprisonment of not more than five years or a fine of not more than $10,000 or both.

^ Mayor cantidad de rollos de papel: en un Clásico de Avellaneda con 15.000 rollos y además 100 kilos de azúcar.
  • Ramón, 9 años después… » | Vale Chumbar | 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC valechumbar.com [Source type: General]

^ A knowing violation of these provisions results in a felony and imprisonment of no more than five years or a fine of not more than $50,000 or both.

[87] .The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment.^ The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment.
  • Meth Addiction 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.1a-drug-rehab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be punished with 15 years imprisonment and a fine of $100,000 ( HKD ).
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be fined $10000(HKD).

[88] .Possession or use of the substance without license from the Department of Health is liable to a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of imprisonment.^ Participants (N = 526) were assessed for depression, substance use, and psychosocial outcomes at baseline, treatment discharge, and 3-year follow-up.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the Gazette, "The law carries a penalty of five years in prison, a $5,000 fine, or both for allowing a child to be in a place where meth is 'possessed, stored or ingested.'
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ State data on parental meth use includes only two categories: manufacturing/possessing dangerous substances in the presence of a child, and presence of illegal substances in the child's system.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[89]

Italy

.Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Italy, except for an extremely small number of case-approved, strictly controlled experimental therapies, and it is listed in the Tabella 1 ("Schedule One") of the Psychotropic Substances List of the Italian Ministry of Health.^ Cases included patients who used methamphetamine as documented by history or urine toxicology screening.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Less commonly, electrical stimulation of the brain, known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is used to treat people with severe depression that has not responded to medication.
  • Mental Health and Illness - Pervasive Developmental Disorders 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.libraryindex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ METH – USA Daily HIV/AIDS Report – Kaiser Network Some health officials are concerned that the ease with which people can use the Internet to find crystal methamphetamine and sex partners will lead to an increase in the number of new HIV cases among men who have sex with men, Reuters reports.

[90] .Methamphetamine is thus regulated like any other "heavy drug" (Italian law makes distinction between "light drugs", such as marijuana, and "heavy drugs", such as heroin, cocaine or MDMA).^ Other drug use (heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana) and anxiety (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.60, 2.59) were independently associated with prescription opiate misuse.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nearly half of county law enforcement officials consider methamphetamine their primary drug problem, more than cocaine, marijuana and heroin combined, the survey of the National Association of Counties found."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Although she hasn't ruled out filing charges in cases that involve marijuana or other drugs, Patterson said pediatricians singled out cocaine and methamphetamine as posing the most significant risks to newborns.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.Production, traffic and/or sale of methamphetamine can be punished with a sentence of imprisonment ranging from six to twenty years, and with a fine ranging from 26,000 to 260,000 Euros, according to the severity of the felony.^ Some in the state of Mississippi are promoting the idea of restricting sales of some cold and allergy remedies as a way to stop production of methamphetamine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Proliferation of methamphetamine production and use in the US was noted in the late 1990s, as reported by several publications.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Or, if the person was sentenced to life under the repeat sex offender law, the person is first eligible the day after the inmate has served 30 years imprisonment.

.As for any other drugs, the consumption of methamphetamine and the possession of the substance for "personal use" (under a certain quantity) is not illegal in Italy, although law enforcement and health authorities keep files on known users and addicts, which are often forced to undergo treatment.^ But drugs, especially methamphetamine, are often a factor.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ METH – USA Flavored meth targets children – Idaho Press Tribune Idaho drug and law enforcement officials are on the lookout for a new brightly colored version of methamphetamine that is either strawberry or chocolate flavored, resembles rock candy and targets the youngest potential addicts.

[91] However, methamphetamine is not a particularly common or popular substance in Italy, surclassed by the above-mentioned cocaine, heroin, and by ecstasy, even if its popularity it's growing [92]

The Netherlands

.Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in The Netherlands.^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Canada.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in The Netherlands.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Canada .
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It falls under Schedule I of the Opium Act.^ Methamphetamine is a Class "A" or Schedule 1 controlled drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 .
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Under the Misuse of Drugs Act in Singapore, methamphetamine is a Class A — Schedule I controlled drug.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It falls under Schedule I of the Opium Act.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[93] .Although production and distribution of this drug are prohibited, few people who were caught with a small amount for personal use have been prosecuted.^ Although production and distribution of this drug are prohibited, few people who were caught with a small amount for personal use have been prosecuted.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are used for the illicit production of illegal drugs, mostly methamphetamine, PCP, GHB, or MDA (Ecstasy).
  • 770 590-7880 Atlanta Mold Testing Mold Inspections Indoor Air Quality Inspection 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.1800moldlab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexican drug rings often use safe houses on Indian reservations to facilitate distribution into North Dakota.
  • Meth Can Mess Up Your Life 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]

New Zealand

.Methamphetamine is a Class "A" or Schedule 1 controlled drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975.^ Authorities now estimate that 80% of the methamphetamine on U.S. streets is controlled by Mexican drug traffickers, with most of the supply smuggled in from Mexico.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ For example, states might find that a medicine or other potential ingredient not on the list of drugs controlled by the federal law had become useful for methamphetamine makers.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In the self-ad ministration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[94] .The maximum penalty for production and distribution is imprisonment for life.^ The maximum term of imprisonment is life.

^ The maximum term of imprisonment for all offenses is life.

^ Increases the statutory maximum penalty for second-degree criminal sexual conduct from 15 years to life.

.While in theory a doctor could prescribe it for an appropriate indication, this would require case-by-case approval by the director-general of public health.^ While in theory a doctor could prescribe it for an appropriate indication, this would require case-by-case approval by the director-general of public health.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In both cases I would be using something that is legally available to me (if I go to the bookstore, or if I go to the doctor and then the pharmacy) but that I have broken the law to possess.
  • Meth Myths - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 24 January 2010 16:14 UTC reason.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'It's a grave public health problem of enormous dimensions,' said Victor Clark Alfaro, a border expert and director of the Binational Center for Human Rights in Tijuana.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

High purity methamphetamine is most commonly referred to by the uniquely New Zealand street name of P, for "pure".[95]

Singapore

.Under the Misuse of Drugs Act in Singapore, methamphetamine is a Class A — Schedule I controlled drug.^ Authorities now estimate that 80% of the methamphetamine on U.S. streets is controlled by Mexican drug traffickers, with most of the supply smuggled in from Mexico.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ For example, states might find that a medicine or other potential ingredient not on the list of drugs controlled by the federal law had become useful for methamphetamine makers.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ In the self-ad ministration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[96] .Under the Section 17 of the Misuse of Drugs Act, any person who carries 25 or more grammes of the drug shall be presumed to possess them for the purpose of drug trafficking,[97] which is punishable by death.^ Amends the Data Practices Act to specify that certain data are made accessible to the Minnesota Sex Offender Review Board under section 244.0515 (section 3).

^ Establishes the board to review and approve the conditional release of sex offenders who are sentenced to an indeterminate sentence under sections 609.3455 and 609.3458, subdivision 3.

^ This definition is used for the purpose of the criminal sexual predatory conduct crime in section 17.

.Unless authorized by the government, the possession, consumption, manufacturing, import, export, or trafficking of methamphetamine in any amount are illegal.^ Amends the attempted manufacture of methamphetamine crime to clarify that this crime is not an "attempt crime" but rather a crime of possession of "any chemical reagents or precursors with the intent to manufacture methamphetamine."

^ State data on parental meth use includes only two categories: manufacturing/possessing dangerous substances in the presence of a child, and presence of illegal substances in the child's system.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Methamphetamine Manufacture Crime; Possession of Substances with Intent to Manufacture Methamphetamine Crime.

South Africa

.In South Africa, methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule 7 drug,[98] and is listed as Undesirable Dependence-Producing Substances in Part III of Schedule 2 of the Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act, 1992.[99] Commonly called tik,[78] it is predominantly used by non-whites in the Cape Flats areas.^ As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion).
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This study tested components of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Risk Reduction Model (ARRM) for a sample of methamphetamine-using offenders in drug treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Three of the women grew up with parents who abused drugs, and all had experienced trauma as children and used other illegal drugs before methamphetamine.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[100]

United Kingdom

.As of 18 January 2007,[101] methamphetamine is classified as a Class A drug in the UK under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 following a recommendation made by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs in June 2006.[102] It had previously been classified as a Class B drug, except when prepared for injection.^ Amends the Data Practices Act to specify that certain data are made accessible to the Minnesota Sex Offender Review Board under section 244.0515 (section 3).

^ Department of Corrections that classifies offenders' risk levels under the community notification act; and .

^ Permits the commissioner to make grants to combat gang and drug crime after considering the recommendations of the council.

United States

Methamphetamine Lab Seizures in the US
Year Seizures
1999 7,438
2000 9,902
2001 13,357
2002 16,212
2003 17,356
2004 17,170
2005 12,619
2006 7,347
2007 5,910
2008 6,783
.Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.^ Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances .
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Classified as a Schedule II drug, pharmaceutical methamphetamine is still manufactured by Abbott Laboratories and marketed as Desoxyn by Ovation Pharmaceuticals.
  • Speed Nation: Methamphetamine, HIV and Hepatitis - The Body 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 18 January 2007, [34] methamphetamine is classified as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 following a recommendation made by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs in June 2006.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103] It is available by prescription under the trade name Desoxyn, manufactured by Ovation Pharma. .While there is technically no difference between the laws regarding methamphetamine and other controlled stimulants, most medical professionals are averse to prescribing it due to its notoriety.^ While there is technically no difference between the laws regarding methamphetamine and other controlled stimulants, most medical professionals are averse to prescribing it due to its notoriety.
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Bupropion can serve as a discriminative stimulus (S-D) in an operant drug discrimination task, and a variety of stimulants substitute for the bupropion S-D. There are no reports, however, of bupropion functioning as a Pavlovian occasion setter (i.e.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The field is also lacking a treatment to reverse an overdose of methamphetamine, and there is currently no good treatment to reduce paranoid feelings in meth users.
  • Speed Nation: Methamphetamine, HIV and Hepatitis - The Body 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Illicit methamphetamine has become a major focus of the 'war on drugs' in the United States in recent years.^ Methamphetamine is considered the fastest-growing illicit drug in United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine use has risen in many countries around the world in recent years, and New Zealand is no exception, with the substance having become well-established in the illicit drug market.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A growing number of authorities around the US are becoming aware that Mexican methamphetamine production has been increasing dramatically in the past few years since states and the federal government have been cracking down on domestic US production.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[citation needed] .In addition to federal laws, some states have placed additional restrictions on the sale of precursor chemicals commonly used to synthesize methamphetamine, particularly pseudoephedrine, a common over-the-counter decongestant.^ Establishes requirements relating to over-the-counter sale of methamphetamine precursor drugs.

^ In addition to federal laws, some states have placed additional restrictions on the sale of precursor chemicals commonly used to synthesize methamphetamine, particularly pseudoephedrine , a common over-the-counter decongestant .
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ See pseudoephedrine and ephedrine for legal restrictions in place as a result of their use as precursors in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

In 2005, the DEA seized 2,148.6 kg(4,736.8 lbs) of methamphetamine.[104] .In 2005, the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 was passed as part of the USA PATRIOT Act, putting restrictions on the sale of methamphetamine precursors.^ The Des Moines Register reported on June 8, 2005 ( "Federal Meth Act Would Overrule State Law" ) that "Momentum is building in Congress to pass a nationwide law restricting the sale of pseudoephedrine, the popular decongestant used to make the highly addictive drug methamphetamine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Some in the state of Mississippi are promoting the idea of restricting sales of some cold and allergy remedies as a way to stop production of methamphetamine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ COCAINE – USA Crack cocaine now a local ‘epidemic’ – The Daily Review While methamphetamine use has declined in Bradford County, crack cocaine use has now reached “epidemic” proportions in the county.

.Various state governments have passed even more stringent laws to regulate the sale of pseudoephedrine decongestants.^ The Des Moines Register reported on June 8, 2005 ( "Federal Meth Act Would Overrule State Law" ) that "Momentum is building in Congress to pass a nationwide law restricting the sale of pseudoephedrine, the popular decongestant used to make the highly addictive drug methamphetamine.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Chuck Grassley and Tom Harkin of Iowa, would not have superseded state laws that were more restrictive than the federal measure.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ But state officials worry that a federal drug law would prevent them from enacting tougher regulations than the national standard.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.On November 7, 2006, the US Department of Justice declared that November 30, 2006 be Methamphetamine Awareness Day.^ On November 7, 2006, the US Department of Justice declared that November 30, 2006 be Methamphetamine Awareness Day.
  • Methamphetamine - Psychology Wiki 9 October 2009 19:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ocfinder.com | all about orange county! | ocfinder.com | all about orange county! 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC ocfinder.dot5hosting.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Boston University School of Theology 22 September 2009 16:016 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Methamphetamine Wyoming Launches Horror Based Anti Drug Campaign The Wyoming Department of Health has launched a methamphetamine awareness campaign with television ads that resemble horror movies.
  • Methamphetamine - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:28 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Justice issued a report on anti-methamphetamine funding channeled through the department's Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS).
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[105]
.DEA El Paso Intelligence Center data is showing a distinct downward trend in the seizure of clandestine drug labs for the illicit manufacture of methampetamine from a high of 17,356 in 2003. Lab seizure data for the United States is available from EPIC beginning in 1999 when 7,438 labs were reported to have been seized during that calendar year.^ Methamphetamine is considered the fastest-growing illicit drug in United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ METHODS: Data were obtained from the Treatment Episode Data Set, an administrative data set that captures admissions to federally funded treatment centers in the United States.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the report, the issue revolves less around the sheer number of Canadian drug labs than it does around those labs' sizes.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.These figures include methamphetamine lab, "dumpsite" and "chemical and glassware" seizures.^ The state seized 1,259 illegal methamphetamine labs last year, the third highest number of seizures in the country behind Iowa with 1,300 and Missouri with 2,707.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[106]

Legality of similar chemicals

.See pseudoephedrine and ephedrine for legal restrictions in place as a result of their use as precursors in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine.^ "New State Law Aimed To Curb Meth Cookers" ) that "In an effort to crack down on the manufacture of methamphetamine ( meth ), some local merchants have moved their products containing ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine behind the counter.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ 'The case I made to them was simple: The more states that restrict pseudoephedrine sales, the more difficult it will be for methamphetamine producers and dealers to operate,' Henry said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Methamphetamine News 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ As a result clandestine chemists have had to resort to other means of obtaining the necessary chemical precursors.
  • CORK Bibliography: Methamphetamine 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

See also

Footnotes

References

  1. ^ Methamphetamine and amphetamine pharmacokinetics in oral fluid and plasma after controlled oral methamphetamine administration to human volunteers.
  2. ^ Mack, Avram H.; Frances, Richard J.; Miller, Sheldon I. (2005). Clinical Textbook of Addictive Disorders, Third Edition. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 207. ISBN 1-59385-174-X. 
  3. ^ B.K. Logan. Methamphetamine - Effects on Human Performance and Behavior. Forensic Science Review, Vol. 14, no. 1/2 (2002), p. 142 Full PDF
  4. ^ Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) - RxList
  5. ^ Nagai N. (1893). "Kanyaku maou seibun kenkyuu seiseki (zoku)". Yakugaku Zasshi 127: 832–860. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110003609935/. 
  6. ^ Grinspoon; Hedblom (1975-01-01). Speed Culture: Amphetamine Use and Abuse in America. Harvard University Press. pp. 18. ISBN 978-0674831926. http://books.google.com/books?id=LyStWcRD6QIC&lpg=PT1&pg=PA18. 
  7. ^ Andreas Ulrich, Andreas. "The Nazi Death Machine: Hitler's Drugged Soldiers - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International". Spiegel Online. http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,354606,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  8. ^ Doyle, D (2005). "Hitler's Medical Care" (PDF). Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 35 (1): 75–82. PMID 15825245. http://www.rcpe.ac.uk/journal/issue/journal_35_1/Hitler%27s_medical_care.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-28. 
  9. ^ Digital Creators Studio Yama-Arashi (2006-04-16). "抗うつ薬いろいろ (Various Antidepressants)" (in Japanese). 医療情報提供サービス. http://www.yama-arashi.com/medical/antidepressants.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-14. 
  10. ^ M. Tamura (1989-01-01). "Japan: stimulant epidemics past and present". Bulletin on Narcotics. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. pp. 83–93. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1989-01-01_1_page007.html. Retrieved 14 July 2006. 
  11. ^ Grollman, Arthur (1954). Pharmacology and Therapeutics: a Textbook for Students and Practitioners of Medicine. Lea & Febiger. pp. 209. 
  12. ^ Methamphetamine Use: Lessons Learned
  13. ^ Cunningham JK, Liu LM. (2003) Impacts of Federal ephedrine and pseudoephedrine regulations on methamphetamine-related hospital admissions. Addiction, 98, 1229–1237.
  14. ^ Rothman, et al. "Amphetamine-Type Central Nervous System Potently than they Release Dopamine and Serotonin." (2001): Synapse 39, 32-41 (Table V. on page 37)
  15. ^ Itzhak Y, Martin J, Ali S (2002). "Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: long-lasting sensitization to the locomotor stimulation and desensitization to the rewarding effects of methamphetamine". Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26 (6): 1177–83. doi:10.1016/S0278-5846(02)00257-9. PMID 12452543. 
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Further reading

External links

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Documentaries

Academic Sources


Simple English

File:Methamphetamine
Pills of Methamphetamine
File:Méthamphétamine
Pure Crystal Meth

[[File:|thumb|right|Chemical structure of Meth]]

Methamphetamine (also called methylamphetamine, desoxyephedrine, Crystal Meth or just meth) is a man-made drug. It is a stimulant.[1][2] Many people use it illegally, but it can be used legally to treat narcolepsy, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or obesity.[1][3][4] When people take meth, it creates a strong feeling of euphoria (happiness) and energy. Meth is very addictive.[2] This means that when people start taking the drug, they will want to keep taking more, even if it is making them sick. Meth users often begin to lose weight because of the loss of appetite (wanting to eat) that occurs.

Meth can be in powder or crystal form, and can be snorted, smoked, injected, or eaten.[5][6] In its smokeable form, meth is known as "ice," "crystal," "crank," or "glass".

Contents

Ingestion methods

Snorting

With the "snorting" method, the meth crystals are ground up and made into little lines (also called Rails) and inhaled through the nose with rolled up paper, rolled up dollar bills or an empty plastic pen tube.

In this method, the effects of meth last longer than in the smoking or injecting method. In fact, in this method, the effects of meth can last as long as twelve hours.[7] However, the effect takes longer to feel than smoking or injecting[6], and there is not as strong of a "rush" (happy feeling).[8] Snorting meth can be damaging to the nasal septum on the inside of the nose. Also, if people share the same snorting tube, they can get infections.

Smoking

The crystals are placed into a pipe (called a speed pipe) or a hollowed out lightbulb and warmed up from underneath by a flame (lighter, matches etc.). The Crystal Meth is not actually "smoked" this way, but heated up until it melts. When it melts it turns into a gas that is then sucked into the user's lungs and held in. Smoking gives one of the fastest onset of the "happy feeling" and the strongest "happy" feeling. However, the vapor (gas) can damage the lungs, and smoking is more addictive than snorting or eating.

Injecting

The crystal meth can be mixed with water and warmed up, then put into a needle and injected. Injecting gives one of the fastest onset of the "happy feeling" and the strongest "happy" feeling. However, it can damage the body, it is very addictive, and people can get infections from dirty needles.

Eating

If the crystal meth is eaten, it gets absorbed into the body from the digestive system

Effects of meth

If people use meth, they may take too much and get sick or even die. This is called an overdose. Also, when people take meth, they can become aggressive. Long-term diseases include Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In fact, a teenager taking meth can show symptoms similar to Alzheimer's.[9]

Crystal Meth is highly addictive because of the "come down" as the drugs effect begins to wear off. Many users claim to have an uncontrollable urge to get more of the drug, after using, this effect of the drug is part of the reason methamphetamine can be so addictive.

Sharing needles among users will increase the chance of getting infections or diseases. Getting "high" on crystal meth can also increase one's libido.

Health issues

Meth Mouth

[[File:|thumb|right|220px|A suspected case of meth mouth]] "Meth Mouth" is a term used to describe the tooth deterioration caused by smoking meth. Meth mouth destruction can be quick - a new addict can go from having healthy teeth to total tooth loss in as little as one year.

Decay starts on the cheek side of the smooth surfaces of the teeth and the areas between the front teeth.

Meth mouth is caused by many things. The vapors of meth contain several harsh chemicals (like battery acid and fertilizers) that dry out the salivary glands. This makes the mouth dry. When the mouth is dry, the number of bacteria in the mouth increases. This leads to cavities.[10]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "METHAMPHETAMINE (Trade Name: Desoxyn®; Street Names: Meth, Speed, Crystal, Glass, Ice, Crank, Yaba)". deadiversion.usdoj.gov. http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/meth.htm. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "NIDA - Research Report Series - Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction". drugabuse.gov. http://drugabuse.gov/researchreports/methamph/methamph2.html#what. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
  3. "DESOXYN" (PDF). accessdata.fda.gov. Food and Drug Administration. pp. 1, 7. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2007/005378s026lbl.pdf. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 
  4. "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF). house.gov. May 22, 2006. http://www.house.gov/gallegly/issues/crime/crimedocs/RS22325.pdf. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 
  5. "NIDA - Research Report Series - Methamphetamine Abuse and Addiction". drugabuse.gov. http://drugabuse.gov/researchreports/methamph/methamph3.html. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Methamphetamine Fast Facts". justice.gov. http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs3/3981/index.htm. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  7. "Illinois Attorney General - Basic Understanding Of Meth". illinoisattorneygeneral.gov. http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/understandingmeth/basics.html#Anchor-Ho-22954. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  8. "CEWG Publications - 6/99 Seattle Advance Report - Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse - NIDA". archives.drugabuse.gov. http://archives.drugabuse.gov/about/organization/CEWG/AdvancedRep/699ADV/699adv.html. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  9. "Signs of Methamphetamine use in youths - Alcohol and Drug Abuse Information - Vermont Department of Health". healthvermont.gov. http://healthvermont.gov/adap/meth/youth_signs.aspx. Retrieved January 23, 2011. 
  10. "Meth Mouth" (PDF). Maine.gov. p. 1. http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/bohdcfh/odh/pdf/Meth-Mouth.pdf. Retrieved January 20, 2011. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Methamphetamine, which are similar to those in the above article.








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