The Full Wiki

Methanol: Wikis

  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Methanol

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Methanol
Identifiers
CAS number 67-56-1 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 887
ChemSpider 864
RTECS number PC1400000
SMILES
InChI
Properties
Molecular formula CH4O
Molar mass 32.04 g mol−1
Appearance colorless liquid
Density 0.7918 g/cm3
Melting point
−97 °C, −142.9 °F (176 K)
Boiling point
64.7 °C, 148.4 °F (337.8 K)
Solubility in water miscible
Acidity (pKa) ~ 15.5
Viscosity 0.59 mPa·s at 20 °C
Dipole moment 1.69 D (gas)
Hazards[1]
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Flammable (F)
Toxic (T)
R-phrases R11 R23/24/25 R39/23/24/25
S-phrases (S1/2) S7, S16 S36/37 S45
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
3
1
0
Flash point 12 °C (54 °F) (closed cup)
Related compounds
Related alcohols Ethanol
Propanol
Butanol
Related compounds Chloromethane
Methoxymethane
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH).^ Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a highly toxic alcohol (chemical).
  • allAfrica.com: Uganda: Methanol May Impair Your Vision for Good 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

^ Methyl alcohol; carbinol; wood spirit; wood alcohol.
  • Home Distillation of Alcohol (Homemade Alcohol to Drink) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.homedistiller.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result is known as methylated spirit.
  • allAfrica.com: Uganda: Methanol May Impair Your Vision for Good 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: News]

.It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable, liquid with a distinctive odor that is very similar to but slightly sweeter than ethanol (drinking alcohol).^ Clear, colorless, very mobile, flammable liquid; pleasant odor; burning taste.
  • Home Distillation of Alcohol (Homemade Alcohol to Drink) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.homedistiller.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol is an especially nasty type of alcohol because the body tries to break it down the same way it metabolizes, or breaks down, ethanol, the type of alcohol in beer, wine and other drinks.
  • Home Distillation of Alcohol (Homemade Alcohol to Drink) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.homedistiller.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would hasten to add that methanol has very little odor and is colorless, unlike gasoline which has very strong odor that can be easily detected should contamination or a leak should occur.
  • EV WORLD: Beyond Oil and Gas: The ‘Methanol Economy’ 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC evworld.com [Source type: General]

[2] .At room temperature it is a polar liquid and is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol.^ Normal state at room temperature: liquid.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the envisioned system, methanol liquid feed at ~30 C is vaporized and superheated by countercurrent heat exchange with product vapors at ~400 C, which also condenses the product vapors and brings them to room temperature (~30 C) for storage.

^ Methanol is used to make Formaldehyde , as a solvent, and as an Antifreeze .

.It is also used for producing biodiesel via transesterification reaction.^ If released to the atmosphere, methanol degrades via reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals with an approximate half-life of 17.8 days.

^ It would be further advantageous to use an abundant, practically unlimited resource such as carbon dioxide via its chemical recycling as the carbon source to produce methanol.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Also a german company is using it to produce biodiesel with as biomass basis wood.

.Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of bacteria, and is ubiquitous in the environment.^ Methanol can be produced from natural gas.
  • Alcohol Fuels Review Article 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.naftc.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ GO : One approach is to produce methanol by converting still-existing huge reserves of natural gas, but in entirely different, new ways.

^ Formate accumulates and produces acidosis in the methanol poisoned monkey, but not in the rat, apparently due to a slower rate of formate metabolism to carbon dioxide in the monkey.

.As a result, there is a small fraction of methanol vapor in the atmosphere.^ As a result, there is a small fraction of methanol vapor in the atmosphere.
  • Methanol Molecule 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Chemistry - Methanol 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.chemistrydaily.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methanol - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Science Fair Projects - Methanol 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.all-science-fair-projects.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methanol encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Methanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Respiratory protection required if airborne concentration exceeds TLV. There are no cartriges for methanol vapors.
  • Methanol 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.temarry.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol evolved during cooking of high pectin foods (7) has been accounted for in the volatile fraction during boiling and is quickly lost to the atmosphere (49).
  • FORMALDEHYDE & FORMIC ACID FROM 11% METHANOL IN ASPARTAME 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.wnho.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

.Over the course of several days, atmospheric methanol is oxidized with the help of sunlight to carbon dioxide and water.^ When you burn methanol, it goes to carbon dioxide and water.

^ Methanol was originally obtained by the destructive distillation of wood, but is now usually manufactured from hydrogen and carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, and also by oxidation of hydrocarbons (Windholz, 1983).
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major advantage in the newly disclosed chemical recycling of these sources to methanol and derived products is that carbon dioxide is not released into the atmosphere and serves as renewable carbon source for fuels and varied essential products.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Methanol burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water:
2 CH3OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 4 H2O
.A methanol flame is almost colorless in bright sunlight.^ Methanol bums with a colorless flame, but additives can solve this problem.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because of its toxic properties, methanol is frequently used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses — this addition of methanol exempts industrial ethanol from liquor excise taxation.^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

^ This means that a person's methanol levels would have to rise 350% to 600% before an increase would have been noticed by the industry researchers using this outdated test!
  • Scientific Abuse in Methanol / Formaldehyde Research Related to Aspartame 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.holisticmed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Don't accept thin excuses like "ethanol and methanol burn differently", or, "your car is not certified to use methanol".

.Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood.^ Methanol was originally obtained by the destructive distillation of wood, but is now usually manufactured from hydrogen and carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, and also by oxidation of hydrocarbons (Windholz, 1983).
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methanol, being hydroscopic, picks up water like crazy and > > can often produce an in flight condition known > > as "plummeting" (as in earthwards).
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol Methanol, or methyl alcohol or wood alcohol (CH 3 OH), a colorless, flammable liquid and the simplest Alcohol .

Contents

History

.In their embalming process, the ancient Egyptians used a mixture of substances, including methanol, which they obtained from the pyrolysis of wood.^ Therefore, I chose to use the lot number of Optima methanol in use at that time as the reference solvent to which others were compared, including a subsequent new lot of Optima methanol.
  • Methanol-Associated Matrix Effects in Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry -- Annesley 53 (10): 1827 -- Clinical Chemistry 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.clinchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And finally, they could be useful for small methanol plants where the cost of a direct combustion and heat recovery system would be prohibitive.

^ The possibility of producing ethylene glycol via methanol oxidative coupling instead of the usual process using ethylene as feedstock is also pursued, and significant advances for synthesizing ethylene glycol from dimethyl ether, obtained by methanol dehydration, have also been made.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pure methanol, however, was first isolated in 1661 by Robert Boyle, when he produced it via the distillation of boxwood.^ It is highly desirable and advantageous to produce methanol without first producing syn-gas.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, given that you are using the methanol to produce energy and part of that energy to convert CO2+H20 into methanol again, isn't it going against the basic laws of thermodynamics?

^ To achieve the desired level of purity, methanol produced by the existing processes is usually purified by sufficient distillation.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

It later became known as pyroxylic spirit. In 1834, the French chemists Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Eugene Peligot determined its elemental composition.
They also introduced the word methylene to organic chemistry, forming it from Greek methy = "wine" + hȳlē = wood (patch of trees). .Its intended origin was "alcohol made from wood (substance)", but it has Greek language errors: wrong Greek word used for the French word bois = "wood"; wrong Greek word combining order influenced by French usage.^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also known as "wood alcohol" methanol can be made from a wide range of renewable feedstocks like landfill methanex cas and waste wood.
  • EV WORLD: Beyond Oil and Gas: The ‘Methanol Economy’ 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC evworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

The term "methyl" was derived in about 1840 by back-formation from methylene, and was then applied to describe "methyl alcohol." This was shortened to "methanol" in 1892 by the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature. The suffix -yl used in organic chemistry to form names of carbon groups, was extracted from the word "methyl."
.In 1923 the German chemists Alwin Mittasch and Mathias Pier, working for BASF, developed a means to convert synthesis gas (a mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen) into methanol.^ Natural gas is incompletely burned, or converted, to synthesis gas, which can then be put together into methanol.

^ In another embodiment of the invention to utilize needed hydrogen only in producing methanol without water as by-product, carbon dioxide is first reduced chemically, such as in its thermal reaction with carbon or electrochemically to carbon monoxide, which is subsequently catalytically converted with hydrogen to methanol.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This mixture is subsequently used to produce methanol according to the equation CO+2H 2 →CH 3 OH. The carbon monoxide formed can also reacted as in examples 1-3 with methanol to give methyl formate, which according to Examples 4 and 5 can be hydrogenatively converted doubling the amount of methanol under moderate temperatures and pressures.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.A patent was filed Jan 12 1926 (reference no.^ Relatively analogous strains disclosed in other known literature references are Pseudomonas methanoloxidans in Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No.
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A relatively analogous strain described in another known literature reference is Corynebacterium methanophilum described in Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No.
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Relatively analogous strains disclosed in other known literature references are Pseudomonas methacarbohylis disclosed in Japanese Laid-Open Patent Publication No.
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

1,569,775). .This process used a chromium and manganese oxide catalyst, and required extremely vigorous conditions—pressures ranging from 50 to 220 atm, and temperatures up to 450 °C.^ Catalysts based on metals and their oxides, in particular copper and zinc, have been developed for this process.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There is also a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process, in which medium-pore zeolites with considerable acidity, e.g., ZSM-5, are used as catalysts.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Olah has developed independently MTO and MTG process using supported bifunctional acid-base non zeolitic catalysts.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Modern methanol production has been made more efficient through use of catalysts (commonly copper) capable of operating at lower pressures, the modern low pressure methanol (LPM) was developed by ICI in the late 1960s with the technology now owned[citation needed] by Johnson Matthey who is a leading licensor of methanol technology.^ A brief History: Water injection was evaluated scientifically in the 1930’s by H. Ricardo who demonstrated that one can basically double the power output of an engine using water/methanol.

^ For now we can use the IC engine's current efficiency metric as a measurement to gauge against the fuel cell and you will see that certain parallels between the history of the IC engine and FC engine's technology is pretty close.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalysts based on metals and their oxides, in particular copper and zinc, have been developed for this process.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The use of methanol as a motor fuel received attention during the oil crises of the 1970s due to its availability, low cost, and environmental benefits.^ Methanol is also one of the safest fuels available.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ More recently, in the early 1980's, the California Energy Commission studied alternative motor fuels, including methanol.

.By the mid-1990s, over 20,000 methanol "flexible fuel vehicles" capable of operating on methanol or gasoline were introduced in the U.S. In addition, low levels of methanol were blending in gasoline fuels sold in Europe during much of the 1980s and early-1990s.^ Is methanol a much higher energy fuel?
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's a simple solution to many of these drawbacks, Zubrin said: Require automakers to produce flexible-fuel cars capable of running on any blend of methanol, ethanol or gasoline.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Automakers stopped building methanol FFVs by the late-1990s, switching their attention to ethanol fueled vehicles.^ In May, the Chinese government issued national standards for methanol-fueled vehicles to help spur the use of alcohol as motor fuel.
  • Energy Tribune- Methanol as Motor Fuel in China 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.energytribune.com [Source type: General]

^ That, along with safety reasons, is why most of the "Methanol" and "Ethanol" fuels sold in service stations in the USA actually have a few % of hydrocarbons.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol can also be used in fuel cells, for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), which are considered to be the best alternative to ICEs in the transportation field.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.While the Methanol FFV program was a technical success, rising methanol pricing in the mid- to late-1990s during a period of slumping gasoline pump prices diminished the interest in methanol fuels.^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are Otto cycle engines which are designed for M100, M85 and flexible fuels (any mixture of methanol and gasoline).
  • Alcohol Fuels Review Article 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.naftc.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, methanol can be added to gasoline up to 85% by volume to obtain commercially viable M20 or M85 fuels.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 2006 astronomers using the MERLIN array of radio telescopes at Jodrell Bank Observatory discovered a large cloud of methanol in space, 300 billion miles across.^ The largest anthropogenic source of methanol release to the environment is evaporation from solvent uses (1.1 billion lb/yr).

^ One of the limiting factors for large scale use of such methanol conversion process is the availability of the needed CO 2 and H 2 .
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most of this methanol is now used as feedstock in the preparation of other products, and, at present, is largely manufactured off-shore from cheap (waste) natural gas.

Production

.Today, synthesis gas is most commonly produced from the methane component in natural gas rather than from coal.^ Methanol can be made from coal or natural gas.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol can be produced from natural gas.
  • Alcohol Fuels Review Article 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.naftc.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most farmers would rather have less volatility than the extra volume at lower prices ...
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Three processes are commercially practiced. At moderate pressures of 4 MPa (40 atm) and high temperatures (around 850 °C), methane reacts with steam on a nickel catalyst to produce syngas according to the chemical equation:
CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2
.This reaction, commonly called steam-methane reforming or SMR, is endothermic and the heat transfer limitations place limits on the size of and pressure in the catalytic reactors used.^ An alternative approach to the ceramic problem is the use of so-called CO2 reforming, in which the oxygen feed is diluted with CO2 which again serves to diminish the activity of the oxygen and, by the endothermic reaction of CO2 with carbon, moderates the reaction with the concomitant production of additional CO, this time by the reduction of part of the CO2.

^ As the reforming of carbon dioxide with methane generates hydrogen, this hydrogen can also be used for the hydrogenation of methyl formate to methanol in the previously discussed embodiments.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ About 2 % (20 ml min -1 ) of the total gas flow into the reactor was used to create a jet in the pressurized feed port.
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Methane can also undergo partial oxidation with molecular oxygen to produce syngas, as the following equation shows:
2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2
.This reaction is exothermic and the heat given off can be used in-situ to drive the steam-methane reforming reaction.^ As the reforming of carbon dioxide with methane generates hydrogen, this hydrogen can also be used for the hydrogenation of methyl formate to methanol in the previously discussed embodiments.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Again, the oxidation process of methane will cause release of some of the energy contained in methane in an exothermic reaction, thus significant efficiency loss of perhaps 20% of the energy contained in methane.
  • EV WORLD: Beyond Oil and Gas: The ‘Methanol Economy’ 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC evworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Steam reforming of methane yields syn-gas with a stoichiometric number of 2.8 to 3.0, and requires lowering the S value closer to 2 by adding CO 2 or using excess hydrogen in some other process such as ammonia synthesis.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

When the two processes are combined, it is referred to as autothermal reforming. The ratio of CO and H2 can be adjusted to some extent by the water-gas shift reaction,
CO + H2O → CO2 + H2,
to provide the appropriate stoichiometry for methanol synthesis.
.The carbon monoxide and hydrogen then react on a second catalyst to produce methanol.^ Carbon monoxide produced in the third reaction can further react with hydrogen to produce methanol.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And the third step is the catalytic reduction of the remaining carbon monoxide to methanol by the use of the hydrogen produced in the second step.

^ The generated hydrogen is then reacted with CO 2 to produce methanol.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Today, the most widely used catalyst is a mixture of copper, zinc oxide, and alumina first used by ICI in 1966. At 5–10 MPa (50–100 atm) and 250 °C, it can catalyze the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen with high selectivity:
CO + 2 H2 → CH3OH
.It is worth noting that the production of synthesis gas from methane produces 3 moles of hydrogen for every mole of carbon monoxide, while the methanol synthesis consumes only 2 moles of hydrogen for every mole of carbon monoxide.^ Carbon monoxide produced in the third reaction can further react with hydrogen to produce methanol.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In another embodiment of the invention to utilize needed hydrogen only in producing methanol without water as by-product, carbon dioxide is first reduced chemically, such as in its thermal reaction with carbon or electrochemically to carbon monoxide, which is subsequently catalytically converted with hydrogen to methanol.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By incompletely combusting either methane or coal, you get a hydrogen and carbon monoxide compound called syn-gas that when reacted in a Fischer Tropisch process, creates liquid methanol.
  • EV WORLD: Beyond Oil and Gas: The ‘Methanol Economy’ 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC evworld.com [Source type: General]

One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject carbon dioxide into the methanol synthesis reactor, where it, too, reacts to form methanol according to the equation:
CO2 + 3 H2 → CH3OH + H2O
.Although natural gas is the most economical and widely used feedstock for methanol production, many other feedstocks can be used to produce syngas via steam reforming.^ Methanol can be made from coal or natural gas.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are also using Natural gas to power them.

^ Methanol can be produced from natural gas.
  • Alcohol Fuels Review Article 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.naftc.wvu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Coal is increasingly being used as a feedstock for methanol production, particularly in China.^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

^ Synthesis gas for methanol production can be obtained by reforming or partial oxidation of any carbonaceous material, such as coal, coke, natural gas, petroleum, heavy oil, and asphalt.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The better alternative would be to use the methanol in the production of biodiesel.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, mature technologies available for biomass gasification are being utilized for methanol production.^ Fourth, if a wholesale and retail distribution system were established, then, when it (methanol) became available from biomass feed stock, it would be the most practical means of transporting carbon-neutral hydrogen if and when hydrogen fuel cell autos become common (Production of methanol from biomass involves no new technology, it depends only on the production of the biomass).

^ There will be a further word about this in connection with the production of methanol from biomass.

^ Methanol can also be made from renewable biomass, but such methanol production also involves syn-gas and may not be energetically favorable and limited in terms of scale.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Applications

Methanol is a common laboratory solvent. It is especially useful for HPLC and UV/VIS spectroscopy due to its low UV cutoff.

Feedstock

.The largest use of methanol by far is in making other chemicals.^ Therefore, I chose to use the lot number of Optima methanol in use at that time as the reference solvent to which others were compared, including a subsequent new lot of Optima methanol.
  • Methanol-Associated Matrix Effects in Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry -- Annesley 53 (10): 1827 -- Clinical Chemistry 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.clinchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other researchers have used sensitive plasma methanol measurement techniques.
  • Scientific Abuse in Methanol / Formaldehyde Research Related to Aspartame 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.holisticmed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest anthropogenic source of methanol release to the environment is evaporation from solvent uses (1.1 billion lb/yr).

.About 40% of methanol is converted to formaldehyde, and from there into products as diverse as plastics, plywood, paints, explosives, and permanent press textiles.^ There will be a further word about this in connection with the production of methanol from biomass.

^ All methanol would have been converted to formaldehyde.
  • Scientific Abuse in Methanol / Formaldehyde Research Related to Aspartame 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.holisticmed.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is also a more recently developed liquid phase process for methanol production, during which syn-gas is bubbled into liquid.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Also in the early 1970s, a methanol to gasoline process was developed by Mobil for producing gasoline ready for use in vehicles.^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

^ Thus, it it is highly desirable to develop a process for chemical recycling carbon dioxide to produce hydrocarbon in a short, commercially feasible time scale.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

One such industrial facility was built at Motunui in New Zealand in the 1980s. .In the 1990s, large amounts of methanol were used in the United States to produce the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

^ At present, the level of fermentation alcohol production is in the order of 10% of the fuel-equivalent amount of gasoline used.

^ Methanol is not a gasoline additive permitted by the US EPA. - obviously clearly-labelled products and trials are permitted on a case-by-case basis.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While MTBE is no longer marketed in the U.S., it is still widely used in other parts of the world.^ While Boost Juice is still recommended as your exclusive injection fluid, it is no longer required to honor this new warranty.

^ If plant products are to be used, then it would seem better to use farm and forestry byproducts to the full rather than to divert crop land to energy farms with no other product.

.In addition to direct use as a fuel, methanol (or less commonly, ethanol) is used as a component in the transesterification of triglycerides to yield a form of biodiesel.^ Methanol can also be used in the manufacture of biodiesel fuels by esterification of fatty acids.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

.Other chemical derivatives of methanol include dimethyl ether, which has replaced chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol spray propellant, and acetic acid.^ Dimethyl ether (DME, CH 3 OCH 3 ), the simplest of all ethers, is a colorless, nontoxic, non-corrosive, non-carcinogenic and environmentally friendly chemical that is mainly used today as an aerosol propellant in spray cans, in place of the banned CFC gases.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dimethyl ether is easily obtained from methanol by dehydration and is an effective fuel particularly in diesel engines because of its high cetane number and favorable properties.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The methanol or dimethyl ether as indicated can be also utilized as convenient energy storage and transportation materials in the aforementioned cycles.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Dimethyl ether, or "DME" also can be blended with liquified petroleum gas (LPG) for home heating and cooking, and can be used as a diesel replacement transportation fuel.^ DME is also a potential substitute for LNG and LPG for heating homes and in industrial uses.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The dimethyl ether can be used as a suitable fuel; to be used as a substitute for Diesel fuel or household gas.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Consider also, home heating fuel.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fuel for vehicles

.Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines.^ Methanol produced according to the discussed new processes can be used for any of the practical mentioned purposes such as for energy storage and transportation, as a fuel in internal combustion engines or fuel cells, to produce derived fuels (such as dimethyl ether), dimethyl carbonate (and the like), to produce ethylene, propylene, and related for synthetic hydrocarbons and all their derived products including and not limiting single cell proteins.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

.Pure methanol is required by rule to be used in Champcars, Monster Trucks, USAC sprint cars (as well as midgets, modifieds, etc.^ The use of natural gas as motive power has been well explored, and in fact, truck and bus fleet operations on natural gas have been successfully pursued.

^ Don't accept thin excuses like "ethanol and methanol burn differently", or, "your car is not certified to use methanol".

^ Hydrogen is a sexy, trendy, sci-fi fuel but would require a truely sci-fi infrastructure and materials just to use--and requires more energy than methanol just to produce.

), and other dirt track series such as World of Outlaws, and Motorcycle Speedway. .Methanol is also used, as the primary fuel ingredient since the late 1940s, in the powerplants for radio control, control line and free flight airplanes (as methanol is required in the "glow-plug" engines that primarily power them), cars and trucks, from such an engine's use of a platinum filament glow plug being able to ignite the methanol vapor through a catalytic reaction.^ A brief History: Water injection was evaluated scientifically in the 1930’s by H. Ricardo who demonstrated that one can basically double the power output of an engine using water/methanol.

^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of natural gas as motive power has been well explored, and in fact, truck and bus fleet operations on natural gas have been successfully pursued.

.Drag racers and mud racers also use methanol as their primary fuel source.^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The largest anthropogenic source of methanol release to the environment is evaporation from solvent uses (1.1 billion lb/yr).

^ Methanol in China has taken a unique hue both in terms of the government’s push for its use as a “clean” transportation fuel and also in terms of its market share.
  • Energy Tribune- Methanol as Motor Fuel in China 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.energytribune.com [Source type: General]

.Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol Dragster and, until the end of the 2006 season, all vehicles in the Indianapolis 500 had to run methanol.^ "Gasoline engines need different carburetor settings to run on methanol."

^ Thus, compared to a gasoline-powered car, a methanol-powered engine provides a smaller, lighter engine block, reduced cooling requirements, and better acceleration and mileage capabilities.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Engine exhausts from both gasoline and diesel vehicles have been found to contain methanol (2).

.Mud racers have mixed methanol with gasoline and nitrous oxide to produce more power than gasoline and nitrous oxide alone.^ Methanol is environmentally safer than gasoline.

^ It is EXTREMELY dangerous, just hunt down the MSDS. Way more toxic than gasoline.

^ The preferred amount of methanol is not more than 50 g/liter.
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.One of the drawbacks of methanol as a fuel is its corrosivity to some metals, including aluminium.^ Methanol is also one of the safest fuels available.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Methanol has some problems as a fuel.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that anhydrous methanol is extremely corrosive to light metals ( aluminium and magnesium alloys ).
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Methanol, although a weak acid, attacks the oxide coating that normally protects the aluminium from corrosion:
6 CH3OH + Al2O3 → 2 Al(OCH3)3 + 3 H2O
.The resulting methoxide salts are soluble in methanol, resulting in clean aluminium surface, which is readily oxidized by some dissolved oxygen.^ (The methanol should then have a shot at the cut surface before the air can start to oxidize it.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second function would be to supply some oxidizing power with the resultant reduction of some of the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide.

^ Response of a continuous culture of B. methanolicus MGA3 (limited by 100 mM methanol in the feed) to a methanol pulse resulting in an increase in the dissolved methanol concentration to 8·9 mM (a), 10·9 mM (b) or 12·8 mM (c).
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Also the methanol can act as an oxidizer:
6 CH3OH + 2 Al → 2 Al(OCH3)3 + 3 H2
.This reciprocal process effectively fuels corrosion until either the metal is eaten away or the concentration of CH3OH is negligible.^ The corrosion affects not just the fuel lines, but any metals the fuel touches, pump parts, injectors, throttle bodies, valves and the combustion chamber itself.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F is the feed rate (0·25 l h -1 ), c in the methanol concentration in the feed (100 mM), c the methanol concentration in the reactor (mM), CH 3 OH pulse the methanol added with the pulse (mmol), t time (h) and x the biomass concentration in the reactor (g l -1 ).
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Concerns with methanol's corrosivity have been addressed by using methanol compatible materials, and fuel additives that serve as corrosion inhibitors.^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This fuel cell uses methanol and produces CO2 and water.

^ Combustion of such fuel will of course generate carbon dioxide, but as carbon dioxide can be recovered and recycled for use in the production of methanol and or dimethyl ether this creates again an environmentally carbon neutral cycle.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.When produced from wood or other organic materials, the resulting organic methanol (bioalcohol) has been suggested as renewable alternative to petroleum-based hydrocarbons.^ Hydrogen is a sexy, trendy, sci-fi fuel but would require a truely sci-fi infrastructure and materials just to use--and requires more energy than methanol just to produce.

^ But where ever we get it from it will take less energy to produce methanol than other fuels because methanol is a much more simple molecule, Britt Borden.

^ The good news is that more people are catching on to gasification as a means for producing not only methanol and ethanol, but other products with energy applications as well, such as butanol .
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Low levels of methanol can be used in existing vehicles, with the use of proper cosolvents and corrosion inhibitors.^ To achieve the desired level of purity, methanol produced by the existing processes is usually purified by sufficient distillation.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Avoid racing methanol, since it might have an existing known fix in it (and in fact you imply strongly that racing fuel is the problem 'the hard way when using methanol as a racing fuel').
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol can also be used in fuel cells, for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), which are considered to be the best alternative to ICEs in the transportation field.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The European Fuel Quality Directive allows up to 3% methanol with an equal amount of cosolvent to be blending in gasoline sold in Europe.^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At present, the level of fermentation alcohol production is in the order of 10% of the fuel-equivalent amount of gasoline used.

^ For example, methanol can be added to gasoline up to 85% by volume to obtain commercially viable M20 or M85 fuels.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Today, China uses more than one billion gallons of methanol per year as a transportation fuel in both low level blends used in existing vehicles, and as high level blends in vehicles designed to accommodate the use of methanol fuels.^ A brief History: Water injection was evaluated scientifically in the 1930’s by H. Ricardo who demonstrated that one can basically double the power output of an engine using water/methanol.

^ With the AEM Water / Methanol Injection Kit, you get all the best features in one low priced kit.

^ More recently, in the early 1980's, the California Energy Commission studied alternative motor fuels, including methanol.

Other applications

.Methanol is a traditional denaturant for ethanol, thus giving the term methylated spirit.^ The conversion of formaldehyde itself can be conducted in the presence of a solid supported basic catalyst or an organometallic catalyst to give methanol and formic acid, or methyl formate.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ethanol carries a bit less oxygen in its structure and thus will run a bit leaner than methanol.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatively, dimerization of formaldehyde gives methyl formate, which upon catalytic hydrogenation yields methanol as the only product.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[3]
.Methanol is also used as a solvent, and as an antifreeze in pipelines and windshield washer fluid.^ The largest anthropogenic source of methanol release to the environment is evaporation from solvent uses (1.1 billion lb/yr).

^ The owner of the speed shop assures me that it isn't doctored in any way and that it is just commercial methanol as sold for solvent and chemical use.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Food Additives and Contaminants Committee recommended that methanol should be used as a solvent in food for extraction purposes only, and recommended a maximum concentration of 8 ppm in food.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some wastewater treatment plants, a small amount of methanol is added to wastewater to provide a food source of carbon for the denitrifying bacteria, which convert nitrates to nitrogen to reduce the denitrification of sensitive aquifers.^ Then, methanol in the above-indicated amount was added aseptically.
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then, methanol in the amount indicated above was aseptically added.
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ And finally, they could be useful for small methanol plants where the cost of a direct combustion and heat recovery system would be prohibitive.

.During World War II, methanol was used as a fuel in several German military rocket designs, under name M-Stoff, and in a mixture as C-Stoff.^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Any volatile fuel under the right conditions can form an explosive mixture with air, but an ignition source is absolutely necessary.

^ Methanol in China has taken a unique hue both in terms of the government’s push for its use as a “clean” transportation fuel and also in terms of its market share.
  • Energy Tribune- Methanol as Motor Fuel in China 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.energytribune.com [Source type: General]

.Methanol was used as an automobile coolant antifreeze in the early 1900s.^ Pure methanol has been readily available for many years as "HEET" or "Dry-Gas", an automobile gas line antifreeze.

^ Methanol can be used as a substitute for gasoline in most automobile engines.

[4]
Methanol is used as a denaturing agent in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
.Direct-methanol fuel cells are unique in their low temperature, atmospheric pressure operation, allowing them to be miniaturized to an unprecedented degree.^ And we have developed a methanol fuel cell.

^ We were co-inventors of the direct methanol fuel cell.

^ Methanol in China has taken a unique hue both in terms of the government’s push for its use as a “clean” transportation fuel and also in terms of its market share.
  • Energy Tribune- Methanol as Motor Fuel in China 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.energytribune.com [Source type: General]

.This, combined with the relatively easy and safe storage and handling of methanol may open the possibility of fuel cell-powered consumer electronics, such as for laptop computers and mobile phones.^ Sure, methanol fuel cells will be great for laptop computers and any power-hungry portable electronics.
  • EV WORLD: Beyond Oil and Gas: The ‘Methanol Economy’ 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC evworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The methanol powered a hydrogen fuel cell on the experimental vehicle.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And we have developed a methanol fuel cell.

[5]
.Methanol is also a widely used fuel in camping and boating stoves.^ Methanol is commonly used on Sail Boats as a stove fuel and is widely available in plastic bottles.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methanol and methanol-derived compounds, e.g., DME and DMC as oxygenated fuels, can be easily blended with gasoline and used in internal combustion or Diesel engines with only minor modifications.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This fuel cell uses methanol and produces CO2 and water.

.Methanol burns well in an unpressurized burner, so alcohol stoves are often very simple, sometimes little more than a cup to hold fuel.^ Partial combustion of a fuel to CO is a little more delicate.

^ The cost of conversion to methanol via syn-gas may well be comparable to the cost of refining crude to gasoline motor fuel.

^ Fresh orange juices can have very little methanol (0.8 mg/liter), and have a concomitant ethyl alcohol content of 380 mg/liter 28.
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

.This lack of complexity makes them a favorite of hikers who spend extended time in the wilderness.^ Plans for more extended studies at that time by Reed and coworkers at MIT were subjected to bureaucratic interference and control by an MIT administration who had strong ties to the oil industry.

.Methanol is mixed with water and injected into high performance diesel engines for and increase of power and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature.^ Methanol has been identified in exhausts from both gasoline and diesel engines(6).

^ Methanol dissolves into water.

^ Methanol is emitted in exhaust from gasoline and diesel engines(2).

.This is called water methanol injection.^ A brief History: Water injection was evaluated scientifically in the 1930’s by H. Ricardo who demonstrated that one can basically double the power output of an engine using water/methanol.

^ Following the war, the turboprop aircraft industry used water/methanol injection and called it the “automatic power reserve system (APR)” for use in hot or high altitude take off.

^ The allies soon followed by fitting the P51 Mustang and other high performance aircraft with water/methanol injection.

Health and safety

Toxicity

.Methanol has a high toxicity in humans.^ If this process proves to be as protective for humans as has been shown in other organisms (50,38) it may account, in part, for the tremendous variability of human responses to acute methanol toxicity.
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The importance of ethanol as an antidote to methanol toxicity in humans is very well established in the literature (46,55).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Humans and non-human primates are uniquely sensitive to the toxic effects of methanol .

.If ingested, as little as 10 mL can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve and 30 mL is potentially fatal,[6] although the usual fatal dose is typically 100–125 mL (4 fl oz).^ Blindness is usually permanent.

^ Usual fatal dose: 100-125 milliliters.

^ Methanol can cause permanent blindness when breathed, ingested, or passed through the skin.

Toxic effects take hours to start and effective antidotes can often prevent permanent damage.[6] .Because of its similarities to ethanol (the alcohol in beverages), it is difficult to differentiate between the two (such is the case with denatured alcohol).^ Alcoholics may average much more, with a potential range of between 0 and 600 mg/day, depending on the source and in some cases the quality of their beverages (15).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PEER REVIEWED** Two cases which were described as multiple neuritis in men engaged in shellacking furniture with shellac dissolved in methyl alcohol / were reported/.

^ In one such case reported to me, my interpretation of an electromyogram indicated the signs of denervation indicative of alcoholic polyneuropathy (36).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

.Methanol is toxic by two mechanisms.^ Thus, two mechanisms may be operative in explaining low formate oxidation in species susceptible to methanol toxicity, low hepatic tetahydrofolate levels and reduced hepatic 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity.

.Firstly, methanol (whether it enters the body by ingestion, inhalation, or absorption through the skin) can be fatal due to its CNS depressant properties in the same manner as ethanol poisoning.^ Skin absorption of administration of methanol in men.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pediatric poisoning may occur through skin absorption or inhalation (Litovitz, l986).
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although ingestion dominates as the most frequent route of poisoning, inhalation of high concentrations of methanol vapor and percutaneous absorption of methanolic liquids are as effective as the oral route in producing acute toxic effects.

.Secondly, in a process of toxication, it is metabolised to formic acid (which is present as the formate ion) via formaldehyde in a process initiated by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver.^ The initial step involves oxidation to formaldehyde by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase ...

^ In step 2, formaldehyde is oxidized by formaldehyde dehydrogenase to formic acid/or formate depending on the pH. In step 3, formic acid is detoxified to carbon dioxide by folate-dependent reactions.

^ The MTO technology is presently a two-step process, in which natural gas is converted to methanol via syn-gas and methanol is then transformed to olefin.
  • EFFICIENT AND SELECTIVE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO METHANOL, DIMETHYL ETHER AND DERIVED PRODUCTS - Patent Application 20070254969 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[7] .The reaction to formate proceeds completely, with no detectable formaldehyde remaining.^ However, the conditions of the cell extract preparation and the assay itself may not have been sufficiently sensitive to detect formaldehyde and formate dehydrogenase activity.
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In step 2, formaldehyde is oxidized by formaldehyde dehydrogenase to formic acid/or formate depending on the pH. In step 3, formic acid is detoxified to carbon dioxide by folate-dependent reactions.

^ A small signal for a hexose phosphate was also detected, whereas no formate had yet accumulated to a detectable concentration (in the order of 1 mM).
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing the symptoms of hypoxia at the cellular level, and also causing metabolic acidosis among a variety of other metabolic disturbances.^ The acute and short term toxicity of methanol varies greatly between different species, toxicity being highest in species with a relatively poor ability to metabolize formate.

^ The goal was to determine if sudden increases in the dissolved methanol concentration can cause the accumulation of toxic levels of formaldehyde, the first intermediate of methanol assimilation.
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Formic acid production causes severe metabolic acidosis (Rowe and McCollister 1981).

[9] .Fetal tissue will not tolerate methanol.^ Fetal tissue will not tolerate methanol.
  • Methanol - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methanol encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Methanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Methanol poisoning can be treated with the antidotes ethanol or fomepizole.^ The importance of ethanol as an antidote to methanol toxicity in humans is very well established in the literature (46,55).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The timely administration of ethanol is still considered a vital part of methanol poisoning management (11,12,19,20,50).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ethanol, the classic antidote for methanol toxicity, is found in natural food sources of methanol at concentrations 5 to 500,000 times that of the toxin (Table 1).
  • Aspartame, Methanol & the Public Health | www.DORway.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC dorway.com [Source type: Academic]

[7][10][11] .Both of these drugs act to reduce the action of alcohol dehydrogenase on methanol by means of competitive inhibition, so that it is excreted by the kidneys rather than being transformed into toxic metabolites.^ Studies demonstrating the role of alcohol dehydrogenase in methanol metabolism in the monkey are reported; however, the catalase/peroxidative system which participates in methanol metabolism in rats apparently does not function in the monkey.

^ The acute and short term toxicity of methanol varies greatly between different species, toxicity being highest in species with a relatively poor ability to metabolize formate.

^ Rather than spewing out more exhaust from an IC engine, we can capture the by-product of the methanol and swap it out when we 'gas' up at tomorrow's methanol gas stations.
  • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Further treatment may include giving sodium bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis and haemodialysis or haemodiafiltration can be used to remove methanol and formate from the blood.^ Haemodialysis removes methanol and its metabolites, and also helps in correcting the metabolic acidosis.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sodium bicarbonate must be used.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe metabolic acidosis is characteristic of methanol poisoning.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Folinic acid or folic acid is also administered to enhance the metabolism of formate.^ O-F test [by the Hugh Leifson method]: Oxidatively metabolizes glucose (weak formation of acid) .
  • Production of microbial cells from methanol - Patent 4368271 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This susceptibility may depend on the activity of folic acid requiring metabolic reactions involved in formate metabolism, formate being an intermediate produced during methanol oxidation and responsible for many toxic effects of methanol .

[7]
.The initial symptoms of methanol intoxication include central nervous system depression, headache, dizziness, nausea, lack of coordination, confusion, and with sufficiently large doses, unconsciousness and death.^ May cause blindness, headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, gastrointestinal irritation, central nervous system depression, and hearing loss.

^ Health effects from exposure to high concentrations of methanol, usually in occupational settings or from accidental exposure, include visual disturbances, permanent blindness, damage to the nervous system, nausea, vomiting, cardiac depression, liver damage and eye, nose and mouth irritation.

^ Symptoms of Exposure: Signs and symptoms of exposure to this material through breathing, swallowing, and/or passage of the material through the skin may include: stomach or intestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), irritation (nose, throat, airways), central nervous system depression (dizziness, drowsiness, weakness, fatigue, nausea, headache, unconsciousness), leg cramps, pain in the abdomen and lower back, blurred vision, shortness of breath, cyanosis (causes blue coloring of the skin and nails from lack of oxygen), visual impairment (including blindness), coma, and death.

.The initial symptoms of methanol exposure are usually less severe than the symptoms resulting from the ingestion of a similar quantity of ethanol.^ Methanol has less energy per volume than ethanol.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These nonspecific tests are preferred because they are easy to use and usually offer a better correlation with exposure than specific tests.

^ But where ever we get it from it will take less energy to produce methanol than other fuels because methanol is a much more simple molecule, Britt Borden.

[2] .Once the initial symptoms have passed, a second set of symptoms arises, 10 to as many as 30 hours after the initial exposure to methanol, including blurring or complete loss of vision and acidosis.^ Animals - Rats were exposed by inhalation, 7 hours/day, to 5000 or 10,000 ppm methanol on gestation days 1-19 or to 20,000 ppm on days 7-15.

^ There is typically a delay of the toxic symptoms anywhere from six-30 hours and longer if ethanol has been co-ingested.

^ The output of urinary formic acid 16 hours after exposure was found to be linearly proportional to the methanol concentration in air.

[7] .These symptoms result from the accumulation of toxic levels of formate in the bloodstream, and may progress to death by respiratory failure.^ This may have been due to rapid oxidation of NADH resulting from the fast initial conversion of methanol to formaldehyde and possibly to formate, indicating a change in respiratory chain activity and possibly pathway utilization.
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When laboratory findings demonstrate the absence of unchanged methanol in the body and the accumulation of toxic metabolites (very low or absent methanol in the blood, high levels of formate in blood and urine), ethanol is probably useless.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal was to determine if sudden increases in the dissolved methanol concentration can cause the accumulation of toxic levels of formaldehyde, the first intermediate of methanol assimilation.
  • Dissimilation of [13C]methanol by continuous cultures of Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 at 50 {degrees}C studied by 13C NMR and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry -- Pluschkell and Flickinger 148 (10): 3223 -- Microbiology 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The ester derivatives of methanol do not share this toxicity.^ The ester derivatives of methanol do not share this toxicity.
  • Chemistry - Methanol 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.chemistrydaily.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methanol - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Science Fair Projects - Methanol 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.all-science-fair-projects.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methanol encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Methanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Ethanol is sometimes denatured (adulterated), and thus made undrinkable, by the addition of methanol.^ They were probably "protected" by the fact that the adulterated wine contained both methanol and ethanol.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methanol then became cheaper than ethanol resulting in its use for the adulteration of wine.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The determination of methanol in blood of drinking drivers in addition to ethanol could indicate long-standing ethanol intoxication and therfore potential problem drinkers or alcoholics.

.The result is known as methylated spirit or "meths" (UK use).^ The result is known as methylated spirit or "meths" (UK use).
  • Methanol - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methanol encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Methanol: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The result is known as methylated spirits or meths .

^ Section8 = }} Methanol , also known as methyl alcohol , carbinol , wood alcohol , wood naphtha or wood spirits , is a chemical compound with chemical formula C H 3 O H (often abbreviated MeOH).
  • Methanol encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

The latter should not be confused with meth, a common U.S. abbreviation for methamphetamine.

Safety in automotive fuels

.Pure methanol has been used in open wheel auto racing since the mid-1960s.^ However, haemodialysis can still be useful, since both methanol and formate are dialysable substances.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of ethanol invalidates a methanol procedure based on oxidation followed by CTA colour development if the calibration curve has been set using pure methanol standards.
  • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You can ask at your dealer for information about whether your auto can use M85 or neat methanol as fuel, and if the answer is "NO", say "why not?".

.Unlike petroleum fires, methanol fires can be extinguished with plain water.^ Water may be ineffective in controlling or extinguishing fires in such materials.

.A methanol-based fire burns invisibly, unlike gasoline, which burns with a visible flame.^ Methanol had the potential, based on coal, to expand to an almost total replacement for gasoline, having none of the land use limitations of ethanol.

^ Unlike electricity or hydrogen, methanol can be stockpiled in tanks exactly as for gasoline.

^ To the open environment, methanol is less hazardous because unlike gasoline it is rapidly bio-degradable.

.If a fire occurs on the track, there is no flame or smoke to obstruct the view of fast approaching drivers, but this can also delay visual detection of the fire and the initiation of fire suppression.^ ELIMINATE all ignition sources (no smoking, flares, sparks or flames in immediate area).

.The decision to permanently switch to methanol in American IndyCar racing was a result of the devastating crash and explosion at the 1964 Indianapolis 500 which killed drivers Eddie Sachs and Dave MacDonald.^ Race car drivers have been using methanol as a high performance fuel since at least 1976.

[12] In 2007 IndyCars switched back to ethanol.[13]
Methanol is readily biodegradable in both aerobic (oxygen present) and anaerobic (oxygen absent) environments. Methanol will not persist in the environment. .The "half-life" for methanol in groundwater is just one to seven days, while many common gasoline components have half-lives in the hundreds of days (such as benzene at 10-730 days).^ Animals - Rats were exposed by inhalation, 7 hours/day, to 5000 or 10,000 ppm methanol on gestation days 1-19 or to 20,000 ppm on days 7-15.

^ One female and 13 male workers of mean age 41 years exposed to methanol 10 +/5 years, and five female and five male workers exposed to formic acid for 6 +/4 years participated in the study.

^ The corresponding elimination half-lives of methanol were 213, 110, 133 and 142 min in these same individuals.

.Since methanol is miscible with water and biodegradable, methanol is unlikely to accumulate in groundwater, surface water, air or soil.^ (The methanol should then have a shot at the cut surface before the air can start to oxidize it.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They worry about the water that pure alcohol sucks from the air, since any dilution will cut their performance.
  • Methanol (Bruce Hamilton; Gregory Milligan; John De Armond; Mike Smith; Russ Cage) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC yarchive.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DMFCs produce electricity from a reaction between methanol, water and air.
  • Toshiba launches methanol fuel cell charger | ITworld 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

(Reference: Evaluation of the Fate and Transport of Methanol in the Environment, Malcolm Pirnie, January 1999).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Systematic Agent: METHANOL". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/EmergencyResponseCard_29750029.html#er. Retrieved 26 August 2009. 
  2. ^ a b National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (August 22, 2008). "The Emergency Response Safety and Health Database: Methanol". http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/EmergencyResponseCard_29750029.html. Retrieved March 17, 2009. 
  3. ^ http://www.slate.com/id/2245188/
  4. ^ http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ie50257a020
  5. ^ Sandy Berger (September 30, 2006). "Methanol Laptop Fuel". Compu·Kiss. http://www.compukiss.com/populartopics/tech_gadgetshtm/article887.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  6. ^ a b Vale A (2007). "Methanol". Medicine 35 (12): 633-4. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2007.09.014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Vale JA, Beasley DM (Sep 30 2009). "A seaman with blindness and confusion". BMJ 339: b3929. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3929. PMID 19793790. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/339/sep30_1/b3929. 
  8. ^ McMartin KE, Martin-Amat G, Noker PE, Tephly TR (March 1979). "Lack of a role for formaldehyde in methanol poisoning in the monkey". Biochem. Pharmacol. 28 (5): 645–9. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(79)90149-7. PMID 109089. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0006-2952(79)90149-7. 
  9. ^ Liesivuori J, Savolainen H (September 1991). "Methanol and formic acid toxicity: biochemical mechanisms". Pharmacol. Toxicol. 69 (3): 157–63. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1991.tb01290.x. PMID 1665561. 
  10. ^ Casavant MJ (Jan 2001). "Fomepizole in the treatment of poisoning". Pediatrics 107 (1): 170. PMID 11134450. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/1/170. 
  11. ^ Brent J (May 2009). "Fomepizole for ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning". N Engl J Med 360 (21): 2216–23. doi:10.1056/NEJMct0806112. PMID 19458366. 
  12. ^ McDonald, Norris. "Green no longer bad luck at Indy". Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/comment/columnists/article/205088. 
  13. ^ http://www.indycar.com/tech/ethanol.php

References

.
  • Robert Boyle, The Sceptical Chymist (1661) – contains account of distillation of wood alcohol.
  • Gallucci, F., Basile, A., Drioli, E., Methanol as an energy source and/or energy carrier in membrane processes Separation and Purification Reviews 36 (2), pp.^ It also requires an energy-intensive distillation process to separate the fuel from water."
    • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Methanol was originally obtained by the destructive distillation of wood, but is now usually manufactured from hydrogen and carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, and also by oxidation of hydrocarbons (Windholz, 1983).
    • METHANOL (PIM 335) 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Rocket scientist Robert Zubrin lays out the case for an alcohol-based fuel economy in a new book titled "Energy Victory" – and although ethanol is the best-known alcohol replacement for gasoline, Zubrin focuses on a different brew called methanol , also known as wood alcohol.
    • Is alcohol the energy answer? - Cosmic Log - msnbc.com 10 January 2010 6:28 UTC cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    175–202

External links


Simple English


Methanol is the simplest alcohol: CH4O
It has similarities to ethanol (the alcohol we can drink), but it is toxic!
It is used as fuel additive, solvent and in chemical industry.



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Methanol, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message