Methylphenidate: Wikis

  
  

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Methylphenidate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
methyl phenyl(piperidin-2-yl)acetate
Identifiers
CAS number 113-45-1
ATC code N06BA04
PubChem 4158
DrugBank APRD00657
ChemSpider 4015
Chemical data
Formula C14H19NO2 
Mol. mass 233.31 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 11–52%
Protein binding 30%
Metabolism Liver
Half life 2–4 hours
Excretion Urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C
Legal status .Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule III (CA) ?^ Controlled (S8) (AU) Schedule III (CA) Class B (UK) Schedule II (US) .
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

(UK) Schedule II (US)
Routes Oral, Transdermal, IV, Nasal
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Methylphenidate (MPH; also Ritalin, Concerta, Metadate or Methylin) is a psychostimulant drug approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, and narcolepsy.^ Elia J, Ambrosini PJ, Rapoport JL. Treatment of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.
  • Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCERTA is indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

^ Part 1: Attention-deficit hyperactivity and affective disorders Adv.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.It may also be prescribed for off-label use in treatment-resistant cases of lethargy, depression, neural insult, obesity, and rarely other psychiatric disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.^ This medication may also be used for treating depression in certain cases.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCERTA is approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as part of a total treatment program that may include counseling or other therapies. For more product information, click HERE to visit company website.   .
  • Prescription Drug Coupons - C- CONCERTA DRUG COUPON 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.drugzoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inositol Inositol, a nutrient found in organ meats such as liver, may be effective in the treatment of patients with depression, panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) .

.Methylphenidate belongs to the piperidine class of compounds and increases the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain through reuptake inhibition of the monoamine transporters.^ Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylphenidate but not dextroamphetamine increased plasma norepinephrine.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of noradrenaline and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.

.MPH possesses structural similarities to amphetamine, and, though it is less potent, its pharmacological effects are even more closely related to those of cocaine.^ Ritalin produces pharmacological effects similar to those of cocaine and amphetamines, and it is prescribed to treat attention-de...
  • Ritalin | LIVESTRONG.COM 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The patent disclosed a number of compounds structurally similar to olanzapine that were covered by the Markush formula described by the prior patent but which did not have the same beneficial therapeutic effect.
  • Lexology - Make your selection: the Court of Appeal provides further guidance on selection patents 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.lexology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mild CNS stimulant; blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into presynaptic neurons; appears to stimulate the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures similar to amphetamines .
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][2] .MPH is most commonly known by the Novartis trademark name Ritalin, which is an instant-release racemic mixture, although a variety of formulations and generic brand names exist.^ Concerta and Ritalin are just name brands.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The most prescribed stimulant medication is methylphenidate, patented in 1950 by the CIBA Pharmaceutical Company under the name Ritalin (Bosco, 1975).
  • What Teachers and Parents Should Know About Ritalin (Reference) - TeacherVision.com 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most brand-name Ritalin is produced in the United States, although methylphenidate is also produced in Mexico, Argentina and Pakistan by respective contract pharmaceutical manufacturers and is most commonly marketed under the brand name "Ritalin" for Novartis .
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Contents

History

Methylphenidate was first synthesized in 1944,[4] and was identified as a stimulant in 1954.[5]
.Originally it was marketed as a mixture of two racemates, 80% (±)-erythro and 20% (±)-threo.^ Methylphenidate is usually prepared as a chiral drug composed of d,l-threo -methylphenidate racemic mixture.
  • Methylphenidate Is Stereoselectively Hydrolyzed by Human Carboxylesterase CES1A1 — JPET 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only the racemic mixture of the threo pair of enantiomers ( d,l-threo- methylphenidate) is used therapeutically because it has less adverse effects than the erythro pair ( Markowitz et al., 2003 ).
  • Methylphenidate Is Stereoselectively Hydrolyzed by Human Carboxylesterase CES1A1 — JPET 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has two chiral centers, but most current commercial formulations consist of the racemic mixture of the threo pair of methylphenidate isomers ( d- , l-threo- methylphenidate).
  • Methylphenidate Is Stereoselectively Hydrolyzed by Human Carboxylesterase CES1A1 — JPET 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Subsequent studies of the racemates showed that the central stimulant activity is associated with the threo racemate and were focused on the separation and interconversion of the erythro isomer into the more active threo isomer.^ The d-isomer is more pharmacologically active than the l-isomer.
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, in the latter study, there was also marginally significant raclopride displacement associated with SWM in ventral striatum, showing that such tasks may recruit more than one striatal subregion.
  • Dopamine Release in Dissociable Striatal Subregions Predicts the Different Effects of Oral Methylphenidate on Reversal Learning and Spatial Working Memory -- Clatworthy et al. 29 (15): 4690 -- Journal of Neuroscience 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But there is another hitch: studies show that at least one stimulant, methylphenidate, used to treat ADHD symptoms may only work for a few years.
  • Consumer Reports Health Blog: Parents: Don’t rush to Adderall XR, Concerta, Strattera 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC blogs.consumerreports.org [Source type: General]

[6][7][8]
.Beginning in the 1960s, it was used to treat children with ADHD or ADD, known at the time as hyperactivity or minimal brain dysfunction (MBD).^ Attention Deficit Disorders (previously known as Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Children).
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.stjohn.org [Source type: General]
  • Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.psychiatry.uams.edu [Source type: General]
  • Drug Finder - Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC drugsaz.about.com [Source type: General]
  • Drug Finder - Concerta® 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC drugsaz.about.com [Source type: General]

^ METHYLPHENIDATE is used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Drug Finder - Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC drugsaz.about.com [Source type: General]
  • Drug Finder - Concerta® 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC drugsaz.about.com [Source type: General]

.Production and prescription of methylphenidate rose significantly in the 1990s, especially in the United States, as the ADHD diagnosis came to be better understood and more generally accepted within the medical and mental health communities.^ Adderall prescriptions in the united states.
  • adderall | Google Groups 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surgeon General of the United States (1999).
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In these studies, use of CONCERTA(R) was shown to significantly improve ADHD symptoms such as attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity compared to placebo, and the medication was shown to be generally well tolerated.
  • FDA Approves Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC (CA)'s CONCERTA(R) (methylphenidate HCI) Extended-release Tablets for Treatment of ADHD - News, Search Jobs, Events 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.biospace.com [Source type: News]

[9]
.Most brand-name Ritalin is produced in the United States, and methylphenidate is produced in the United States, Mexico, Argentina, and Pakistan.^ Concerta and Ritalin are just name brands.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Forms and Brands The most common brand of methylphenidate is Ritalin .

^ The most prescribed stimulant medication is methylphenidate, patented in 1950 by the CIBA Pharmaceutical Company under the name Ritalin (Bosco, 1975).
  • What Teachers and Parents Should Know About Ritalin (Reference) - TeacherVision.com 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other generic forms, such as "methylin", are produced by several U.S. pharmaceutical companies.^ Other generic forms, such as "methylin", are produced by several U.S. pharmaceutical companies.

^ In the United States, various generic forms of methylphenidate are also produced by several pharmaceutical companies (such as Methylin, etc.
  • Metadate - Drug information from Medic8.com 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylphenidate - Drug information from Medic8.com 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylphenidate was patented in 1954 by the Ciba pharmaceutical company (one of the predecessors of Novartis ) and was initially prescribed as a treatment for depression, chronic fatigue, and narcolepsy, among other ailments.
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Ritalin is also sold in the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries (although in much lower volumes than in the United States).^ Ritalin, so much easier than parenting.
  • Ritalin Bugs - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC reason.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all other countries experience much lower rates of Ritalin usage.
  • Ritalin: Better Living Through Chemistry? 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.vanguardnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ninety percent of all Ritalin is sold in the United States.
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Belgium the product is sold under the name "Rilatine" and in Brazil and Portugal as "Ritalina".
.Another medicine is Concerta, a once-daily extended-release form of methylphenidate, which was approved in April 2000. Studies have demonstrated that long-acting methylphenidate preparations such as Concerta are just as effective, if not more effective, than IR (instant release) formulas.^ Concerta 27mg extended release.
  • CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Concerta XL" capsules are a controlled release, once-daily version.
  • Methylphenidate - to help hyperactivity 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nmhct.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CONCERTA® is an extended release tablet.
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate HCI) Patient Information - HealthyPlace 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: General]
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[10][11][12][13] .Certain time-release medications are also less prone to abuse as they are not easily crushed for abuse.^ I also find becuase they are time released, that he is an eating machine after school, all the way to bed time.
  • your input on concerta slow release! - Message Boards | Canadian Parents 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC forum.canadianparents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beads have various types of coatings so they can release 30% of the methylphenidate dose immediately and then continue to release methylphenidate over an extended period of time designed to cover a school day.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Once they have taken the concerta is there a certain time in the day thereafter that they feel up to eating- I want to ensure I can catch some time where she will eat.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

[14]
.In April 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a transdermal patch for the treatment of ADHD called Daytrana.^ In 2000, the FDA approved a delayed-release version called Videx EC. The drug belongs to a class of medications known as nucleoside analogues, and reduces the growth of HIV. .
  • HIV Drug Videx Side Effects Linked to Liver Problems: FDA - AboutLawsuits.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.aboutlawsuits.com [Source type: News]

^ Atomoxetine will be the first nonstimulant medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ADHD. Throughout the testing phases, more than 2000 children and adolescents have been exposed to atomoxetine in clinical trials, with both the number of exposures and the length of exposure time increasing.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, for adults, this medication has been on the market (as you probably well know) for children for quite a while.
  • Concerta: Approved For Adult ADHD | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

[15]

Therapeutic uses

Methylphenidate 10 mg Tablet (Mallinckrodt)
.TMP is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system.^ It is a central nervous system reaction to the drug.
  • Pschyatrists and Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.uhuh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULATION: 23 .
  • Pschyatrists and Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.uhuh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concerta is a central nervous system stimulant.
  • Christian Kind - Archives: Meds - Concerta 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC christianadhd.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.^ Centella Asiatica is used to re-vitalize the brain and nervous system, increase attention span and concentration and combat ageing.

^ Dose—there is a threshold for methylphenidate-induced dopamine increases to be perceived as reinforcing and to produce therapeutic effects.
  • Variables That Affect the Clinical Use and Abuse of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD -- Volkow and Swanson 160 (11): 1909 -- Am J Psychiatry 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It ``produces behavioral, psychological, subjective and reinforcing effects similar to those of d-amphetamine, including increases in rating of euphoria, drug liking and activity, and decreases in sedation.''
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The benefits and cost effectiveness of methylphenidate long term are unknown due to a lack of research.^ The effectiveness of CONCERTA® for long-term use, ie, for more than 4 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
  • Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-Term Use The effectiveness of CONCERTA ® for long-term use, ie, for more than 4 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
  • Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effectiveness of CONCERTA® for long-term use, i.e., for more than 7 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[17][18] .The long term effects of methylphenidate on the developing brain are unknown.^ Long term ritalin side effects.
  • ritalin | Google Groups 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long term effects of adderall.
  • adderall | Google Groups 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Methylphenidate is not approved for children under six years of age.^ Children under six years of age should not take CONCERTA(R).
  • FDA Approves Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC (CA)'s CONCERTA(R) (methylphenidate HCI) Extended-release Tablets for Treatment of ADHD - News, Search Jobs, Events 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.biospace.com [Source type: News]

^ Children under 6 years of age .
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylphenidate should not be used in children under the age of 6 years.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

[19][20]

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

.Methylphenidate is approved by the FDA for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder[21] The addition of behavioural modification therapy (e.g.^ Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in the classroom.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Brain metabolism in teenagers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

CBT) has additional benefits on treatment outcome.[22][23] .There is a lack of evidence of the effectiveness in the long term of beneficial effects of methylphenidate with regard to learning and academic performance.^ Long term ritalin side effects.
  • ritalin | Google Groups 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of long-term treatment of hyperactive children with methylphenidate.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

[24] .A meta analysis of the literature concluded that methylphenidate quickly and effectively reduces the signs and symptoms of ADHD in children under the age of 18 in the short term but found that this conclusion may be biased due to the high number of low quality clinical trials in the literature.^ Children under 6 years of age .
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylphenidate should not be used in children under the age of 6 years.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Use in children under 6 years of age .
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.There have been no placebo controlled trials investigating the long term effectiveness of methylphenidate beyond 4 weeks thus the long term effectiveness of methylphenidate has not been scientifically demonstrated.^ The effectiveness of CONCERTA® for long-term use, i.e., for more than 7 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-Term Use The effectiveness of CONCERTA for long-term use, i.e., for more than 4 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
  • Methylphenidate HCI ADHD Medication - Detailed Information 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.realmentalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The safety and efficacy of long-term use of methylphenidate has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Serious concerns of publication bias regarding the use of methylphenidate for ADHD has also been noted.^ USES: Methylphenidate is used to treat attention disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD) as part of a total treatment plan including psychological, educational and social measures.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A third methodologic note concerns our use of in dividualized target behavior goals (DRCs) as dependent measures.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ His research on the use of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD was completed during his second year of medical school.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

[25] .A diagnosis of ADHD must be confirmed and the benefits and risks and proper use of stimulants as well as alternative treatments should be discussed with the parent before stimulants are prescribed.^ ADHD in adolescents: Diagnosis and treatment.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Before starting any drug treatment for ADHD, it’s essential to get an accurate diagnosis.
  • Consumer Reports Health Blog: Parents: Don’t rush to Adderall XR, Concerta, Strattera 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC blogs.consumerreports.org [Source type: General]

^ Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] .The dosage used can vary quite significantly from individual child to individual child with some children responding to quite low doses whereas other children require the higher dose range.^ It is too low a dose – and a dosage increase will help with this .
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Higher doses, not generally or widely used in children, are not represented.
  • Consumer Reports Health - ADHD Drugs 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.consumerreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many others will require higher doses.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

.The dose, therefore, should be titrated to an optimal level that achieves therapeutic benefit and minimal side-effects.^ Therefore, anything that ginseng works, doses, side effects, etc.
  • adderall | Google Groups 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This approach seems to make the assessment of medication effects and side effects objective and allows evaluation of the effect of different doses of medication.
  • Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med -- Double-blind Methylphenidate Trials: Practical, Useful, and Highly Endorsed by Families, December 1999, Kent et al. 153 (12): 1292 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archpedi.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The current study provides the first evidence that oral dosing of therapeutically relevant levels of MPH improves PFC cognitive function in rats.
  • Behavioral and Brain Functions | Full text | Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Therapy with methylphenidate should not be indefinite.^ Methylphenidate treatment should not and need not, be indefinite.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The diagnosis should therefore be considered in any patient who develops new neurological symptoms that are consistent with cerebral ischemia during methylphenidate therapy.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

Weaning off periods to assess symptoms are recommended.[28]

Narcolepsy

.Narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep, is treated primarily with stimulants.^ This medication is also used to treat patients with narcolepsy (a disorder of sleep regulation).
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Education and additional surveillance will be done of all stimulants used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms include daytime sleepiness, inappropriate sleep episodes, and sudden loss of voluntary muscle tone.

.Methylphenidate is considered effective in increasing wakefulness, vigilance, and performance.^ Methylphenidate tended to increase average tapping speed, decrease time to perform walking task, decrease tremor, and increase dyskinesia score but only the decrease in tremor reached significance.
  • Arch Neurol -- Effects of Methylphenidate on Response to Oral Levodopa: A Double-blind Clinical Trial, March 2007, Nutt et al. 64 (3): 319 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archneur.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Methylphenidate improves measures of somnolence on standardized tests, such as the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, but performance does not improve to levels comparable to healthy controls.^ Robert Mendelsohn MD - "No one has ever been able to demonstrate that drugs such as Cylert and Ritalin improve the academic performance of the children who take them....
  • Books: Ritalin: safe and effective alternatives for ADD and ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All statistical tests for the efficacy variables were performed at the P  = .05 significance level.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As Diller puts it, in a point echoed by many other sources, methylphenidate "potentially improves the performance of anyone — child or not, add-diagnosed or not."
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - Why Ritalin Rules 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]

Adjunctive

.Use of stimulants such as methylphenidate in cases of refractory depression is controversial.^ Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Proper fluidity can be maintained, for example, by the use of coating materials, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersions, and by the use of surfactants.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I know that Concerta, as it has methylphenidate as a main ingredient, can be used as an anti-depressant and that as a teenager I’m a person who can react adversely to anti-depressants.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

[31] .In individuals with cancer, methylphenidate is commonly used to counteract opioid-induced somnolence, to increase the analgesic effects of opioids, to treat depression, and to improve cognitive function.^ Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In particular, it is useful in patients who are starting a rehabilitation program but have resigned themselves to fail; these patients may not have a major depressive disorder; will not improve memory or cognitive function; use with caution in patients with dementia who may have increased agitation and confusion.
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Trait impulsivity association with cognitive performance The effect of methylphenidate on reversal learning also varied as a function of trait impulsivity on the BIS. A significant positive correlation was found between BIS score and the ameliorating effect of methylphenidate on reversal learning, such that the most impulsive individuals benefited most from drug administration ( r 2 = 0.46; Kendall's tau-b = 0.64, p = 0.03) ( Fig.
  • Dopamine Release in Dissociable Striatal Subregions Predicts the Different Effects of Oral Methylphenidate on Reversal Learning and Spatial Working Memory -- Clatworthy et al. 29 (15): 4690 -- Journal of Neuroscience 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[32] .Methylphenidate may be used in addition to an antidepressant for treatment-refractory major depressive disorder.^ Tricyclic antidepressant and methylphenidate treatment of attention deficit disorder in children.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular, it is useful in patients who are starting a rehabilitation program but have resigned themselves to fail; these patients may not have a major depressive disorder; will not improve memory or cognitive function; use with caution in patients with dementia who may have increased agitation and confusion.
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal following chronic therapeutic use may unmask symptoms of the underlying disorder that may require follow-up.
  • Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DailyMed: About DailyMed 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]

.It can also improve depression in several groups including stroke, cancer, HIV-positive patients.^ Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Depakote has been shown to be effective in treating severe disruptive behavior disorders, including explosive behavior in children, allowing these patients to have fairly normal lives.

[33] .However, benefits tend to be only partial with stimulants being, in general, less effective than traditional antidepressants and there is some suggestive evidence of a risk of habituation.^ However, there is some evidence that methylphenidate is carcinogenic in mice.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Less effect on appetite than stimulants.
  • ADHD Medications: Adderall, Concerta, Daytrana, Dexedrine, Focalin, Metadate, Ritalin, Strattera and More 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.addresources.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was on 10 mg of the generic IR methylphenidate TID. The problem with methylphenidate, however, was that despite my increase in attentive qualities, the drug only lasted an hour...if that.
  • Ritalin - Methylphenidate - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.drugbuyers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stimulants may however, have fewer side-effects than tricyclic antidepressants in the elderly and medically ill.^ What are the uncommon side effects of stimulants?
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the common side effects of stimulants?
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depression (especially elderly or medically ill) .
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[34] .A review of the literature found that methylphenidate was ineffective for refractory cases of major depression.^ Selective literature review and detailed neuropsychological case studies.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

[35]

Substance dependence

.Methylphenidate has shown some benefits as a replacement therapy for methamphetamine addicts.^ A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from methylphenidate therapy taking into account the benefit of breast-feeding for the child and the benefit of therapy for the woman.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

[36] .Methylphenidate and amphetamine have been investigated as a chemical replacement for the treatment of cocaine dependence[37][38][39] in the same way that methadone is used as a replacement for heroin.^ Each of the systems described below delivers the same medicine used in short-acting methylphenidate tablets, but does so in a way designed to give extended coverage so a child can get through a school day without having to take pills at school.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In February 2009, neuroscientists at the Rockefeller University reported cocaine-like structural and chemical alterations in the brains of mice given methylphenidate.

^ The use of methylphenidate should always be used in this way according to the licensed indication and according to prescribing / diagnostic guidelines.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Its effectiveness in treatment of cocaine or other psychostimulant dependence has not been proven and further research is needed.^ It is clear that more research is needed to further elucidate the actions of MPH on the brain.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ For people with high blood pressure, there are many medications that can be effective, and often a trial of multiple medications and dosages is needed to determine the best treatment.
  • ADHD Medications: Adderall, Concerta, Daytrana, Dexedrine, Focalin, Metadate, Ritalin, Strattera and More 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.addresources.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I expanded my research with reading and using nutrition as treatment for patients, I noted that the nutritional approach was valid for other conditions not just the hyperactive child.

[40]
.Early research began in 2007-8 in some countries on the effectiveness of methylphenidate as a substitute agent in refractory cases of cocaine dependence.^ To summarize, again from the dea report, "it is clear that methylphenidate substitutes for cocaine and d-amphetamine in a number of behavioral paradigms."
  • Hoover Institution - Policy Review - Why Ritalin Rules 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Medication 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.itsacademictutoring.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That it can satisfy cravings for cocaine in a way that is subjectively and pharmacologically equivalent but longer-lasting as well as easier on the body and somewhat safer and easier to manage has long been part of the 'street lore' associated with stimulants in many parts of the world.^ Many patients' ADD symptoms return immediately after stopping stimulants, so they restart their medication not because they crave it but because they lost its benefit when they stopped it.
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Methylphenidate," in the words of a 1995 dea background paper on the drug, "is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and shares many of the pharmacological effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine."

^ Thus, this study is analogous to the many studies of long-acting stimulants that the current authors have conducted in summer treatment program settings.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is similar to the way that other substitution drugs such as methadone, buprenorphine, LAAM, butorphanol, extended-release oral morphine, dihydrocodeine, and clonidine were amongst opioid users in various times over the past century.^ Extended release ritalin and methadone.
  • ritalin | Google Groups 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lack of relationship between positive affective and drug-liking/wanting and other variables The effects described could not be accounted for by positive affective or drug-liking/wanting effects of methylphenidate.
  • Dopamine Release in Dissociable Striatal Subregions Predicts the Different Effects of Oral Methylphenidate on Reversal Learning and Spatial Working Memory -- Clatworthy et al. 29 (15): 4690 -- Journal of Neuroscience 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that the elimination process observed for Metadate CD is controlled by the release rate of methylphenidate from the extended-release formulation, and that the drug absorption is the rate-limiting process.
  • Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

Pervasive developmental disorders

.Given the high comorbidity between ADHD and autism, a few studies have examined the efficacy and effectiveness of methylphenidate in the treatment of autism.^ Psychosocial treatments for ADHD have also been studied.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The aim of the article was to provide a systematic review of therapeutic efficacy observed in the pharmacological treatment of ADHD based on data from controlled clinical trials.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ USES: Methylphenidate is used to treat attention disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD) as part of a total treatment plan including psychological, educational and social measures.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, most of these studies examined the effects of methylphenidate on attention and hyperactivity symptoms among children with autism spectrum disorders.^ Bupropion versus methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of long-term treatment of hyperactive children with methylphenidate.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Tricyclic antidepressant and methylphenidate treatment of attention deficit disorder in children.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Aman and Langworthy (2000) attempted to examine the effects of methylphenidate on social-communication and self-regulation behaviors among kids with ASDs.^ Separate and combined effects of methylphenidate and behavior modification on boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in the classroom.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989; 28:768-772 [Medline] Pelham WE, Sturges J, Hoza J, Sustained release and standard methylphenidate effects on cognitive and social behavior in children with attention deficit disorder.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the respective ED 50 doses, reinforcing effects (self-reports of high ) of intravenous methylphenidate were equivalent to those of intravenous cocaine.
  • Variables That Affect the Clinical Use and Abuse of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of ADHD -- Volkow and Swanson 160 (11): 1909 -- Am J Psychiatry 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC ajp.psychiatryonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.The sample included 33 children with pervasive developmental disorder (29 boys) with a mean age of 6.93 years (range 5-13).^ Children under 6 years of age .
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Use in children under 6 years of age .
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Children 6-12 years of age .
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DailyMed: About DailyMed 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This was a 4-week randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo study, with treatment changing each week between 4 conditions: placebo, low dose, medium dose, and high dose.^ Children with confirmed diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were stratified to receive bioequivalent doses of MCD and CON that were considered to be low (20 mg of MCD and 18 mg of CON), medium (40 mg of MCD and 36 mg of CON), or high (60 mg of MCD and 54 mg of CON), and in a randomized order each of the study treatments was administered once daily in the morning for 1 week.
  • A Comparison of Once-Daily Extended-Release Methylphenidate Formulations in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory School (The Comacs Study) -- Swanson et al. 113 (3): e206 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CONCERTA® was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in children and adolescents who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4 th edition (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. .
  • Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both CON 11 and MCD 12 have been shown individually in randomized, controlled clinical trials to be safe and effective for the treatment of ADHD in school-aged children, and both are available in near-equal daily doses considered to be in the low (20 mg of MCD and 18 mg of CON), medium (40 mg of MCD and 36 mg of CON), and high (60 mg of MCD and 54 mg of CON) ranges of clinical doses of MPH. These near-equal daily doses of MCD and CON were compared recently in a crossover study in healthy adult volunteers.
  • A Comparison of Once-Daily Extended-Release Methylphenidate Formulations in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory School (The Comacs Study) -- Swanson et al. 113 (3): e206 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.In this design, neither the experimenters nor the families know which of the 4 treatments the child is receiving at any given time.^ I am a parent and I know that all parents make the best decisions they are capable of for their children, given the knowledge they had at the time of their decision.
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Teachers also completed a global assessment of how well they thought the treatment given that week worked for the child.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Did you know that parents receiving welfare money from the government can get additional funds for every child that they have labeled and drugged?
  • Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.ritalindeath.com [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, the treatment condition changes randomly each week, without anyone knowing the nature of the old or new condition.^ His mom and dad said no way.This was a year ago and a new evaluation is to be done soon.Does anyone know if this is safe?Does it help the children if they are hyperactive.
  • [HLTH] Ritalin use up(Treat symptoms not Cause) - TimeBomb 2000 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.timebomb2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m seeing my family Dr this week to consider changing my 8 yr old son from rubifen to concerta.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The change from baseline of the overall average (i.e., an average of morning and afternoon scores over 3 days) of the total TCGIS scores during the last week of treatment was analyzed as the primary efficacy parameter.
  • Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.This allows the experimenters to assume that consistent changes in behaviors that occur during a particular treatment is truly due to the effect of that treatment and not to the expectation of the treatment (placebo effect).^ In part due to MPH's limitations and side effects, much research has focused on determining factors that will predict a response to MPH and on alternative drug treatments.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The significance of treatment in the analyses of effects at time 0 (immediately after dosing) was due to the superiority of the PLA condition over both active conditions (MCD or CON).
  • A Comparison of Once-Daily Extended-Release Methylphenidate Formulations in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory School (The Comacs Study) -- Swanson et al. 113 (3): e206 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, we evaluated an a priori hypotheses about treatment effects averaged over the laboratory classroom sessions occurring during the typical school day (the 5 classroom sessions occurring from 1.5 to 7.5 hours after dosing) and compared treatments by using paired sample t tests.
  • A Comparison of Once-Daily Extended-Release Methylphenidate Formulations in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory School (The Comacs Study) -- Swanson et al. 113 (3): e206 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.The results indicate that children showed significantly more joint attention behaviors when receiving methylphenidate than when receiving the placebo (although the most effective dosage varied by individual).^ The results of this landmark study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of AD/HD symptoms.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a 2-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 134 evaluable children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD, symptoms improved to a significantly greater extent with extended-release methylphenidate 10 to 40mg once daily than with placebo.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ MPH-treated children with ADHD showed significantly improved or normalized attention (76%) and classroom behavior (94%) but that only 53% were found to have significantly improved academic efficiency; 91% of children who demonstrated a decrease in academic efficiency under at least one dose of MPH did not show significant improvement under any dose.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, at a group level, the low dose of methylphenidate resulted in significantly improved joint attention behaviors when compared to the placebo, but no differences were noted between the low, medium, and high doses.^ Concerta significantly different from placebo.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ IR MPH significantly different from placebo.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The lowest dose of d-amphetamine and low-to-medium doses of l-amphetamine improved sustained attention.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

.Low and medium doses of methylphenidate also resulted in improved self-regulation behavior when compared to placebo.^ The lowest dose of d-amphetamine and low-to-medium doses of l-amphetamine improved sustained attention.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The present preclinical results extend this previous work by providing evidence of a direct potentiating interaction between the abuse-related behavioral effects of methylphenidate and nicotine.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Importantly, these lower doses produced the greatest increase in nicotine self-administration, suggesting that the present results have clinical relevance.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.The study presents compelling preliminary evidence suggesting that methylphenidate is effective in improving some social behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders.^ J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989; 28:768-772 [Medline] Pelham WE, Sturges J, Hoza J, Sustained release and standard methylphenidate effects on cognitive and social behavior in children with attention deficit disorder.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1989; 28:768-772 [Medl in e] Pelham WE, Sturges J, Hoza J, Susta in ed release and standard methylphenidate effects on cognitive and social behavior in children with attention deficit disorder.
  • Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pediatrics.aappublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As these mechanisms would suggest, it has been shown that coadministration of methylphenidate augments nicotine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine content in the NAcc ( Gerasimov et al , 2000a , 2000b ), suggesting that the interactive effects of these drugs on mesolimbic dopamine transmission underlies the behavioral interactions noted in the present study.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[42]

Investigational

.Animal studies using rats with ADHD like behaviours were used to assess the safety of methylphenidate on the developing brain and found that psychomotor impairments, structural and functional parameters of the dopaminergic system were improved with treatment.^ Psychosocial treatments for ADHD have also been studied.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The mode of therapeutic action in humans is not completely understood, but methylphenidate presumably activates the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only a doctor can determine if medication is the right treatment for individuals with ADHD. CONCERTA(R) uses an advanced OROS(R) extended-release delivery system to deliver a controlled rate of medication throughout the day.
  • Concerta(R) (methylphenidate HCl) Approved for the Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents, Canada 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.medicalnewstoday.com [Source type: Academic]

.This animal data suggests that methylphenidate supports brain development and hyperactivity in children diagnosed with ADHD. However, in normal control animals methylphenidate caused long lasting changes to the dopaminergic system suggesting that if a child is misdiagnosed with ADHD they may be at risk of long lasting adverse effects to brain development.^ Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of long-term treatment of hyperactive children with methylphenidate.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114] 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.medicine.mcgill.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be a direct side effect of the methylphenidate, causing you the palpitations.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

.Animal tests found that rats given methylphenidate grew up to be more stressed and emotional.^ Wultz B, Sagvolden T, Moser EI, Moser MB: The spontaneously hypertensive rat as an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate on exploratory behavior.
  • Behavioral and Brain Functions | Full text | Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A. Dudley, in collaboration with the laboratory technicians, made up drug, tested the animals on the spatial working memory task, and helped with data analysis and the writing of this paper.
  • Behavioral and Brain Functions | Full text | Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Methylphenidate should be given cautiously to emotionally unstable patients, especially if there is a history of alcohol or drug abuse.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is unclear due to lack of followup study whether this occurs in ADHD like animals and whether it occurs in humans.^ Brain imaging studies fit well with the idea that dysfunction in fronto-subcortical pathways occurs in ADHD with its underlying dysregulation of noradrenergic function.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ METHOD: Recent work examining the measurement of the norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine systems in ADHD and normal subjects is reviewed and discussed in the context of recent neuroimaging and animal studies.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not known whether the benefits found in this study apply to adults with ADHD. .
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .However, long lasting benefits of stimulant drugs have not been found in humans.^ How long do the effects of stimulants last?
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms may last decade, however, research has revealed physiologic mechanisms that the human society without a doctor prescription.
  • adderall | Google Groups 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, people who need to stimulant kick to help them focus may be disappointed in the new drug.

[44]
.Methylphenidate may reduce the risk of falls in older adults by treating cognitive deficits associated with aging and disease.^ Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disease that affects children, adolescents, and adults.
  • ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.neurotransmitter.net [Source type: Academic]

^ USES: Methylphenidate is used to treat attention disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD) as part of a total treatment plan including psychological, educational and social measures.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]

Recreational uses

.Young people have been prescribed ritalin have been known to sell on the tablets to other young people who take the drug recreationally.^ Do people sell ritalin.

^ Kids are selling their Ritalin to other kids.
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People selling ritalin.

.In the UK it has been dubbed "kiddie coke" due to its low price and high availability amongst young people.^ Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., had been committed by young people taking psychotropic drugs .
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the USA it is one of the top ten stolen prescription drugs and is known as "Vitamin R" and “The R Ball”.^ We were not told that Methylphenidate is also one of the top ten abused prescription drugs.
  • Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.ritalindeath.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin B6 is, of course, far cheaper (Ritalin prescriptions cost $30 to $60 per month), and far safer than the drug, and the study's protocol was outstanding."
  • Books: Ritalin: safe and effective alternatives for ADD and ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The question here is a very simple one: if the experiments on mice which showed that Ritalin causes cancer were of value why is the drug still available on prescription for children?
  • Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.ritalindeath.com [Source type: Academic]

.To deliver the dose of ritalin more quickly than if the tablets are swallowed some people crush the tablets and then snort the drug.^ Ritalin la crush snort.

^ Crushed ritalin to snort.

^ Ritalin snort max dose.

[46]

Academic performance enhancer

.Ritalin is used by students to enhance their mental abilities, improving their concentration and helping them to study.^ It suggests that abuse of Ritalin - a drug that thousands of students take to help them concentrate in school - is far more common than has been believed.
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even the manufacturer of Ritalin makes no claim that the drug has ever improving a child's ability to learn or retain or remember data.
  • Pschyatrists and Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.uhuh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ College students using adderall ritalin rates.
  • ritalin | Google Groups 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • adderall | Google Groups 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Professor John Harris, an expert in bioethics has said that it would be unethical to stop healthy people taking the drug.^ My question is which is nicer on people with anxiety and would it be safe to take kolonopin with it?
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Also said to start him out next school year without any medication and see if the new school year and teacher turn out any better and then we would take it from there.
  • CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would be the first in line if safe and effective drugs were developed that trumped caffeine,” [said] another author, Michael Gazzaniga [ AP ].
  • Prescribe Ritalin to Everyone, Provocative Essay Suggests | 80beats | Discover Magazine 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also argues that it would be "not rational" and against human enhancement to not use the drug to improve people's cognitive abilities.^ End the WoD Says: December 8th, 2008 at 11:08 am I think that if people find these drugs helpful they should be free to use them.
  • Prescribe Ritalin to Everyone, Provocative Essay Suggests | 80beats | Discover Magazine 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The essay says “a proper societal response will involve making enhancements available while managing their risks”, while your headline implies that the essay recommends compulsory use of the drugs.
  • Prescribe Ritalin to Everyone, Provocative Essay Suggests | 80beats | Discover Magazine 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There used to be different niches for people with differences in talent, skills and personality, he argues, but Americans are becoming more and more programmed to force their children into a mold.
  • ritalin dangers 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.tommyjones.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Professor Anjan Chatterjee however has warned that ritalin has a high potential for abuse and has serious adverse effects on the heart meaning that only people with an illness should take the drug.^ I take wellbutrin and adderall or should i take ritalin.

^ Should be very careful taking this drug.
  • CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WARNING: Ritalin should not be mixed with so-called anti-depressant drugs.
  • Pschyatrists and Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.uhuh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the British Medical Journal he wrote that it was premature to endorse the use of ritalin in this way as the effects of the drug on healthy people have not been studied.^ Ritalin is not indicated for use by many people, i.e.
  • Prescribe Ritalin to Everyone, Provocative Essay Suggests | 80beats | Discover Magazine 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC blogs.discovermagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Novartis, the drug company which is now responsible for Ritalin in the UK, admits that `data on...efficacy of long term use of Ritalin are not complete'.
  • Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.ritalindeath.com [Source type: Academic]

[48][49] .Professor Barbara Sahakian has argued that the use of ritalin in this way may give students an unfair advantage in examinations and that as a result universities may have to consider making students give urine samples to be tested for the drug.^ The basic screening tests that are done by employers, the armed forces, and the legal system for amphetamines may give false positive results for amphetamines when a person has taken non-amphetamine drugs like ephedrine, pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), phentermine, fenfluramine, phenylpropanolamine (PPA), propranolol, phenmetrazine, Thorazine (chlorpromazine), mephentermine, MDMA (Ecstasy), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and buproprion (Wellbutrin.
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Novartis, the drug company which is now responsible for Ritalin in the UK, admits that `data on...efficacy of long term use of Ritalin are not complete'.
  • Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.ritalindeath.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After learning of the extreme dangers associated with Ritalin use, a parent may rightly decide to take the child off this drug.
  • Pschyatrists and Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.uhuh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Delivery formulations

Ritalin 10 mg pill (Ciba/Novartis)
.All media are in milligrams.^ Ritalin 10 mg pill (Ciba/Novartis)All media are in milligrams.

.Ritalin is mostly administered in the form of a tablet or capsule.^ Form: Capsules administered by mouth.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Form: Tablets administered by mouth.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Form: Short-acting tablets administered by mouth.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

Tablets

  • Ritalin: 5, 10 or 20 mg tablets.
  • Ritalin SR: 20 mg controlled-release tablets.
  • Attenta: 10 mg tablets.
  • Methylin: 5, 10 or 20 mg tablets.
  • Methylin ER: 5, 10 and 20 mg controlled-release tablets.
  • Metadate ER: 10 and 20 mg controlled-release tablets.
  • Metadate CD 'Controlled Dose': 10 and 20 mg controlled-release tablets.
  • Equasym: 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg tablets.
  • Rubifen: 5, 10 or 20 mg tablets.
  • Motiron: 5, 10 or 20 mg tablets.
  • Stimdate: 10  mg tablets.

Capsules

.
  • Concerta: 18, 27, 36, and 54 mg osmotic controlled release capsules.^ Capsule, controlled release (Metadate CD) .
    • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Concerta®: 27 mg [ 6 mg immediate release, 21 mg extended release] .
    • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Concerta®: 54 mg [12 mg immediate release, 42 mg extended release] .
    • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    .(goes off patent in 2018)[51]
    Note: Some adults may take two 36 mg capsules for an effective dose of 72 mg.
    ^ I'm only taking 36 mgs., which is probably low for an adult.
    • CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.askapatient.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Response may take some time.
    • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Some patients may require 40 to 60 mg daily.
    • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [52]
  • Ritalin LA: 10, 20, 30 or 40 mg controlled-release capsules.
  • Metadate CD: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 mg controlled-release capsules.
  • Biphentin: 10, 15, 30, 40, or 60 mg suspended release capsules.

Patches

  • Daytrana 10, 15, 20 or 30 mg controlled-release patches (1.1, 1.6, 2.2 or 3.3 mg/hour for 9 hours).

Adverse effects

.Some adverse effects may emerge during chronic use of methylphenidate so a constant watch for adverse effects is recommended.^ CloNIDine: Methylphenidate may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CloNIDine.
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antihypertensives: Methylphenidate may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Antihypertensives.
  • Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may cause a similar suppression of growth, however, it is anticipated that they likely have this effect as well.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .Some adverse effects of stimulant therapy may emerge during long-term therapy but there is very little research of the long-term effects of stimulants.^ Long term ritalin side effects.
  • ritalin | Google Groups 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term effects of adderall.
  • adderall | Google Groups 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ritalin long term effects.
  • ritalin | Google Groups 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54][55]
.The most common side-effects of taking methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia.^ Nervousness and insomnia are the most common adverse reactions reported with other methylphenidate products.
  • Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DailyMed: About DailyMed 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Zoloft common side effects.
  • zolfot | BREAK THE MATRIX 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.breakthematrix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most common side effects are reduction in appetite and difficulty sleeping.
  • Managing Medication for Children and Adolescents with AD/HD (WWK3) 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.help4adhd.org [Source type: Academic]

Other reactions include:

Known or suspected risks to health

.Researchers have also looked into the role of methylphenidate in affecting stature, with some studies finding slight decreases in height acceleration.^ Known or suspected risks to health Researchers have also looked into the role of methylphenidate in affecting stature, with some studies finding slight decreases in height acceleration.

^ Researchers have also looked into the role of methylphenidate in affecting stature, with some studies finding slight decreases in height acceleration.
  • Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This medication may have a place and use, but I believe most teachers, doctors and some parents are just looking for peace and the norm, and don't want to do additional research.
  • [HLTH] Ritalin use up(Treat symptoms not Cause) - TimeBomb 2000 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.timebomb2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Other studies indicate height may normalize by adolescence.^ Other studies indicate height may normalize by adolescence.
  • Pass A Drug Test For Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.alwaystestclean.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This may indicate that heightened energy levels and improved concentration may cause adolescents to take part in new, higher risk activities.
  • Concerta Side Effects 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.myomancy.com [Source type: General]

^ CONCERTA ® is indicated as an integral part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include other measures (psychological, educational, social) for patients with this syndrome.

[58][59] .In a 2005 study, only "minimal effects on growth in height and weight were observed" after 2 years of treatment.^ In a 2005 study, only "minimal effects on growth in height and weight were observed" after 2 years of treatment.
  • Pass A Drug Test For Methylphenidate 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.alwaystestclean.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, Khwaja and colleagues calculated a growth effect that almost exactly matches the effect seen in the Swanson study.
  • Study: Ritalin Stunts Growth - CBS News 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ This drug may affect your child's growth rate, weight, and final adult height, especially in children younger than 6 years.
  • Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Methylphenidate Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Methylphenidate TD Drug information on Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, and User Reviews on RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC fdb.rxlist.com [Source type: General]
  • Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Hy-Vee 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.hy-vee.com [Source type: General]
  • Ritalin Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Concerta Oral Drug information on Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, and User Reviews on RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC fdb.rxlist.com [Source type: General]
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]

."No clinically significant effects on vital signs or laboratory test parameters were observed."^ "No clinically significant effects on vital signs or laboratory test parameters were observed."

^ Sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations were elevated in an in vitro test on cultured ovary cells of Chinese hamster but no mutagenic effects were observed in two further in vitro tests.

^ The failure to find clinically significant augmentation of levodopa effects with MPD is consistent with other small clinical trials that reported no benefit with blockade of the dopamine transporter.
  • Arch Neurol -- Effects of Methylphenidate on Response to Oral Levodopa: A Double-blind Clinical Trial, March 2007, Nutt et al. 64 (3): 319 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC archneur.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

[60]
.A 2003 study tested the effects of dextromethylphenidate (Focalin), levomethylphenidate, and (racemic) dextro-, levomethylphenidate (Ritalin) on mice to search for any carcinogenic effects.^ In clinical studies, side effects of Concerta were virtually identical to those of Ritalin.

^ In life-time rat and mouse carcinogenicity studies, increased numbers of malignant liver tumours were noted in male mice only.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Will 1 pill of ritalin effect your urine for a drug test.

.The researchers found that all three preparations were non-genotoxic and non-clastogenic; d-MPH, d, l-MPH, and l-MPH did not cause mutations or chromosomal aberrations.^ The researchers found that all three compounds were non-genotoxic and non-clastogenic; d-MPH, d, l-MPH, and l-MPH did not cause mutations or chromosomal aberrations.
  • Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers found that all three preparations were non-genotoxic and non-clastogenic; d-MPH, d, l-MPH, and l-MPH did not cause mutations or chromosomal aberrations.

^ Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations were increased, indicative of a weak clastogenic response, in an in vitro assay in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary cells.
  • Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metadate CD Capsules (UCB), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 20 September 2009 17:39 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Metadate CD (Capsule, Extended Release) | D2R Server publishing the Dailymed Dataset 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.rxlist.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.healthyplace.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Methylphenidate HCI ADHD Medication - Detailed Information 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.realmentalhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • DailyMed: About DailyMed 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC dailymed.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.psychiatrictimes.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Concerta Tablet, XR - Consultant Live 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.consultantlive.com [Source type: Academic]

.They concluded that none of the compounds present a carcinogenic risk to humans.^ They concluded that none of the compounds present a carcinogenic risk to humans.

^ The new report, which will now be submitted to the EPA, concluded that PFOA (C-8) is “likely” to be a human carcinogen and, as a result, the EPA should conduct cancer risk assessments for a variety of tumors found in rats and mice exposed to it.

^ But for the students, none of these checks are performed and the taker may not know that they are at risk.
  • BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | The Ritalin express 17 January 2010 4:48 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

[61] .Current scientific evidence supports that long-term methylphenidate treatment does not increase the risk of developing cancer in humans.^ The long-term safety of treatment with methylphenidate is not fully known.
  • Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC emc.medicines.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Does long term treatment with stimulants lead to the development of psychiatric disorders?
  • Meds Q & A 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC healthcalls.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How they developed concerta was that as the day went on – the amount of methylphenidate released would gradually increase – for about 6-8 hours, and then it would gradually decline.
  • Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.addadhdblog.com [Source type: General]

[62]
.It was documented in 2000, by Zito et al.^ Moreover, numerous studies have shown that application of NE (Devilbiss and Waterhouse 2000 ; George 1992 ; Manunta and Edeline 1997 ; Waterhouse et al.
  • Methylphenidate Enhances Noradrenergic Transmission and Suppresses Mid- and Long-Latency Sensory Responses in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Awake Rats -- Drouin et al. 96 (2): 622 -- Journal of Neurophysiology 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC jn.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Proc., 75:711-721 (2000) and Leonard et al., Hum.
  • Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[63][64]“that at least 1.5% of children between the ages of two and four are medicated with stimulants, anti-depressants and anti-psychotic drugs, despite the paucity of controlled scientific trials confirming safety and long-term effects with preschool children.”
.On March 22, 2006 the FDA Pediatric Advisory Committee decided that medications using methylphenidate ingredients do not need black box warnings about their risks, noting that "for normal children, these drugs do not appear to pose an obvious cardiovascular risk."^ These children are then drugged as "therapy."
  • Pschyatrists and Ritalin 28 January 2010 0:27 UTC www.uhuh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black box warning in australia on ritalin.

^ Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.
  • </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_64" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-64"><span>[</span>65<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__135" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="135">Previously, 19 possible cases had been reported of <a href="/Cardiac_arrest" title="Cardiac arrest">Cardiac arrest</a> linked to children taking methylphenidate<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65"><span>[</span>66<span>]</span></a></sup> and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee to the FDA recommend a <a href="/Black_box_warning" title="Black box warning">"black-box" warning</a> in 2006 for stimulant drugs used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Weiss M, Murray C. Assessment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Nicotine and attention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="135"><a href="#citable__135"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>METHYLPHENIDATE (meth il FEN i date) is used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.stjohn.org/HealthInfoLib/swArticle.aspx?26,391">www.stjohn.org</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatry.uams.edu/HealthLibrary/Default.aspx?ContentTypeId=26&ContentID=391">www.psychiatry.uams.edu</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_66" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-66"><span>[</span>67<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__54" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="54">Doses prescribed of stimulants above the recommended dose level is associated with higher levels of <a href="/Psychosis" title="Psychosis">psychosis</a>, <a href="/Substance_misuse" title="Substance misuse" class="mw-redirect">substance misuse</a> and psychiatric admissions.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Stimulants are not intended for use in the child who exhibits symptoms secondary to environmental factors and/or other primary psychiatric disorders, including psychosis.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses.</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugs.com/pro/metadate-cd.html">www.drugs.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The recommended starting dose of CONCERTA XL for patients who are not currently taking methylphenidate, or for patients who are on stimulants other than methylphenidate, is 18 mg once daily.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC)</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://emc.medicines.org.uk/document.aspx?documentId=8382">emc.medicines.org.uk</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="54"><a href="#citable__54"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prefrontal cortex performance is maximal at moderate stimulation of postsynaptic dopaminergic and noradrenergic receptors, and is reduced by either higher or lower levels of receptor stimulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67"><span>[</span>68<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Long_term_effects">Long-term effects</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__260" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="260">The effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on the developing brains of children with ADHD is the subject of study and debate.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="260"><a href="#citable__260"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term side effects of ritalin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="260"><a href="#citable__260"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term effects ritalin toddlers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="260"><a href="#citable__260"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term ritalin side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ritalin | Google Groups </c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://groups.google.com/group/ritalin_">groups.google.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68"><span>[</span>69<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69"><span>[</span>70<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__323" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="323">Although the safety profile of short-term methylphenidate therapy in clinical trials has been well established, repeated use of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate is less clear.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="323"><a href="#citable__323"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate HCl (Tablet) | D2R Server publishing the Dailymed Dataset </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/dailymed/resource/drugs/2715">www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin Truth. What is Ritalin? What are the Ritalin side effects? How to taper off Ritalin. Ritalin, the new street drug. Ritalin.</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.prozactruth.com/ritalineffects.htm">www.prozactruth.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="323"><a href="#citable__323"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The safety of methylphenidate for use during human pregnancy has not been established.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/medications/concerta-tablet-xr">www.psychiatrictimes.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Tablet, XR - Consultant Live</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consultantlive.com/medications/concerta-tablet-xr">www.consultantlive.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="323"><a href="#citable__323"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long-term effects of methylphenidate in children have not been well established .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Metadate CD (Capsule, Extended Release) | D2R Server publishing the Dailymed Dataset </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/dailymed/resource/drugs/2681">www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__98" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="98">There are no well defined withdrawal schedules for discontinuing long-term use of stimulants.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>After long-term use, taper dosage slowly when discontinuing.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/lexicomp/methylphenidate.html">www.merck.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The effectiveness of CONCERTA® for long-term use, ie, for more than 4 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="98"><a href="#citable__98"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long-term use (more than 12 months) in children and adolescents .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Concerta XL 18 mg - 36 mg prolonged release tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC)</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://emc.medicines.org.uk/document.aspx?documentId=8382">emc.medicines.org.uk</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70"><span>[</span>71<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__303" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="303">There is limited data that suggests that there may be modest benefits in correctly diagnosed children with ADHD but there are also overall modest risks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="303"><a href="#citable__303"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While the authors of this study conclude there may be an association between stimulant use and sudden death in children, there were a number of limitations to the study and the FDA cannot conclude this information impacts the overall risk/benefit profile of these medications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/lexicomp/methylphenidate.html">www.merck.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="303"><a href="#citable__303"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Cl in ical lore suggests that children may be embarrassed by trips to the nurse's office for medication and may skip doses as a result.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="303"><a href="#citable__303"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of stimulants in children, including amphetamine, may cause suppression of growth.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71"><span>[</span>72<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__166" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="166">Short-term clinical trials lasting a few weeks show an incidence of psychosis of about 0.1%.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>My son (9 yrs) started on the 18 mg dose and we noticed a great improvement in his concentration and behavior; however, the 18 mg effect only lasted for a few weeks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.askapatient.com/viewrating.asp?drug=21121&name=CONCERTA">www.askapatient.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The effectiveness of CONCERTA® for long-term use, i.e., for more than 7 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="166"><a href="#citable__166"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such drugs include ear, nose lasting for a few days to weeks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> adderall | Google Groups </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://groups.google.com/group/adderall_1">groups.google.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_NovartisPI_72_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-NovartisPI-72"><span>[</span>73<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__68" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="68">A small study of just under 100 children that assessed long-term outcome of stimulant use found that 6% of children became psychotic after months or years of stimulant therapy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA® has not been studied in children under 6 years of age.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Its long term effects on puberty have not been studied.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="68"><a href="#citable__68"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The effectiveness of CONCERTA® for long-term use, ie, for more than 4 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Typically psychosis would abate soon after stopping stimulant therapy. <a name="citable__142" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="142">As the study size was small, larger studies have been recommended.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="142"><a href="#citable__142"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The effect sizes of the studies with amphetamine, methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate were in the high effect size range, and owing to the small number of investigations, we could not discriminate between these drugs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73"><span>[</span>74<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__223" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="223">The long-term effects on mental health disorders in later life of chronic use of methylphenidate is unknown.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term side effects of ritalin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term effects ritalin toddlers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="223"><a href="#citable__223"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long term ritalin side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ritalin | Google Groups </c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://groups.google.com/group/ritalin_">groups.google.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74"><span>[</span>75<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__155" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="155">Concerns have been raised that long-term therapy might cause <a href="/Drug_dependence" title="Drug dependence" class="mw-redirect">drug dependence</a>, <a href="/Paranoia" title="Paranoia">paranoia</a>, <a href="/Schizophrenia" title="Schizophrenia">schizophrenia</a> and behavioral sensitisation, similar to other stimulants.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Might stimulants cause a problem?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Concerta may cause drug dependence.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="155"><a href="#citable__155"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier, it is unlikely to cause depression like some other beta blockers might.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75"><span>[</span>76<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__102" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="102">Psychotic symptoms from methylphenidate can include, <a href="/Hearing_voices" title="Hearing voices" class="mw-redirect">hearing voices</a>, <a href="/Visual_hallucinations" title="Visual hallucinations" class="mw-redirect">visual hallucinations</a>, urges to harm oneself, severe <a href="/Anxiety" title="Anxiety">anxiety</a>, <a href="/Euphoria" title="Euphoria">euphoria</a>, <a href="/Grandiosity" title="Grandiosity">grandiosity</a>, <a href="/Paranoid_delusions" title="Paranoid delusions" class="mw-redirect">paranoid delusions</a>, <a href="/Confusion" title="Confusion" class="mw-redirect">confusion</a>, increased <a href="/Aggression" title="Aggression">aggression</a> and <a href="/Irritability" title="Irritability">irritability</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Symptoms of a Concerta overdose include agitation, tremors (shaking), muscle twitches, seizures, confusion, hallucinations, sweating, flushing, headache, fast or irregular heartbeat, large pupils, and dryness of the mouth and eyes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The most common adverse reactions associated with discontinuation ( ≥ 1%) from either pediatric or adult clinical trials were anxiety, irritability, insomnia, and blood pressure increased.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="102"><a href="#citable__102"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Clinical experience suggests that in psychotic patients, administration of methylphenidate may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a href="/Methylphenidate_psychosis" title="Methylphenidate psychosis" class="mw-redirect">Methylphenidate psychosis</a> is unpredictable in who it will occur. <a name="citable__254" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="254">Family history of mental illness does not predict the incidence of stimulant toxicosis in ADHD children.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="254"><a href="#citable__254"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Stimulants have been the mainstay of treatment for children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="254"><a href="#citable__254"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Treatment emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="254"><a href="#citable__254"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Other stimulant preparations require adm in ister in g medication in the late afternoon or early even in g, both times that may be difficult for many children and families.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__313" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="313">High rates of childhood stimulant use is found in patients with a diagnosis of <a href="/Schizophrenia" title="Schizophrenia">schizophrenia</a> and <a href="/Bipolar" title="Bipolar">bipolar</a> disorder independent of ADHD. Individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar or schizophrenia who were prescribed stimulants during childhood typically have a significantly earlier onset of the psychotic disorder and suffer a more severe clinical course of psychotic disorder.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="313"><a href="#citable__313"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Can patients with bipolar disorder use stimulants?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="313"><a href="#citable__313"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In particular, it is useful in patients who are starting a rehabilitation program but have resigned themselves to fail; these patients may not have a major depressive disorder; will not improve memory or cognitive function; use with caution in patients with dementia who may have increased agitation and confusion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/lexicomp/methylphenidate.html">www.merck.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="313"><a href="#citable__313"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A recent study of 16 children with ADHD (mean age 10) who were receiving divalproex and/or lithium for bipolar disorder found that methylphenidate significantly reduced the severity of the ADHD symptoms and improved the patients' overall condition without inducing mania.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76"><span>[</span>77<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77"><span>[</span>78<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78"><span>[</span>79<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__100" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="100">Knowledge of the effects of chronic use of methylphenidate is poorly understood with regard to persisting behavioral and neuroadaptational effects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The present preclinical results extend this previous work by providing evidence of a direct potentiating interaction between the abuse-related behavioral effects of methylphenidate and nicotine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Gaytan O, Ghelani D, Martin S, Swann AC, Dafny N: Methylphenidate: diurnal effects on locomotor and stereotypic behavior in the rat.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Behavioral and Brain Functions | Full text | Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/1/1/2">www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="100"><a href="#citable__100"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To our knowledge, only 3 studies of stimulant effects on even in g behavior have been conducted.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79"><span>[</span>80<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__266" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="266"><a href="/Drug_tolerance" title="Drug tolerance">Tolerance</a> and behavioural sensitisation may occur with long-term use of methylphenidate.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Long-term use: Safety and efficacy of long-term use of methylphenidate have not yet been established.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/lexicomp/methylphenidate.html">www.merck.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I used to be on methylphenidate for ADD for quite a long while.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin - Methylphenidate - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=91989">www.drugbuyers.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="266"><a href="#citable__266"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>ADHD drugs are either the "amphetamine-like" methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin and Concerta) or actual amphetamines (e.g., Adderall and Vyvanse), so it should not be surprising that long-term use is associated with many hazards.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid19051222_80_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid19051222-80"><span>[</span>81<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__289" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="289">There is also <a href="/Cross_tolerance" title="Cross tolerance" class="mw-redirect">cross tolerance</a> with other <a href="/Stimulants" title="Stimulants" class="mw-redirect">stimulants</a> such as <a href="/Amphetamines" title="Amphetamines" class="mw-redirect">amphetamines</a> and <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">cocaine</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="289"><a href="#citable__289"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However there are many people who do not respond to stimulants or who cannot tolerate the side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="289"><a href="#citable__289"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In reality, however, there is an abundance of scientific literature which indicates that methylphenidate shares the same abuse potential as other Schedule II stimulants."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="289"><a href="#citable__289"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[FN43] Ritalin is classified as a nerve stimulant, [FN44] along with other amphetamine drugs such as caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> [HLTH] Ritalin use up(Treat symptoms not Cause) - TimeBomb 2000</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.timebomb2000.com/vb/showthread.php?threadid=532&highlight=ritalin">www.timebomb2000.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81"><span>[</span>82<span>]</span></a></sup> Stimulant <a href="/Withdrawal" title="Withdrawal">withdrawal</a> or <a href="/Rebound_reactions" title="Rebound reactions" class="mw-redirect">rebound reactions</a> can occur and should be minimised in intensity, i.e. via a gradual tapering off of medication over a period of weeks or months.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_82" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-82"><span>[</span>83<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_83" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-83"><span>[</span>84<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84"><span>[</span>85<span>]</span></a></sup> A very small study of abrupt withdrawal of stimulants did suggest that withdrawal reactions are not typical. <a name="citable__175" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="175">Nonetheless withdrawal reactions may still occur in susceptible individuals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>With prolonged use, drug dependence may occur, and withdrawal symptoms may occur after stopping the drug."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VYVANSE VS. ADDERALL XR POSTER - Cafepharma Message Boards</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cafepharma.com/boards/showthread.php?t=184292">www.cafepharma.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Careful supervision is required during withdrawal from abusive use since severe depression may occur.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate HCI ADHD Medication - Detailed Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.realmentalhealth.com/medications/concerta.asp">www.realmentalhealth.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="175"><a href="#citable__175"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In addition, while they may occur, I have never seen any withdrawal symptoms or pains when patients stop taking them, just a tired feeling for a day or two.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_85" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-85"><span>[</span>86<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__84" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="84">The <a href="/Withdrawal" title="Withdrawal">withdrawal</a> or <a href="/Rebound_symptoms" title="Rebound symptoms" class="mw-redirect">rebound symptoms</a> of methylphenidate can include <a href="/Psychosis" title="Psychosis">psychosis</a>, <a href="/Clinical_depression" title="Clinical depression" class="mw-redirect">depression</a>, <a href="/Irritability" title="Irritability">irritability</a> and a temporary worsening of the original ADHD symptoms.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Withdrawal symptoms can be severe and include depression, fatigue, paranoia, increased dreaming, irritability, bedwetting and suicide.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These psycho-tropic drugs given to children labeled with ADHD include Ritalin, Methylphenidate, Concerta, Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and Metadate, just to name a few.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Books: Ritalin: safe and effective alternatives for ADD and ADHD</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin_books.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="84"><a href="#citable__84"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We conclude that patients with ADHD can be switched from neurostimulants, specifically methylphenidate, to atomoxetine, and may benefit from symptom improvement.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__177" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="177">Methylphenidate due to its very short <a href="/Elimination_half_life" title="Elimination half life" class="mw-redirect">elimination half life</a> may be more prone to <a href="/Rebound_effects" title="Rebound effects" class="mw-redirect">rebound effects</a> than <a href="/D-amphetamine" title="D-amphetamine" class="mw-redirect">d-amphetamine</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The mean elimination half-life of methylphenidate and is roughly 2.5 hours (range 1.5—5 hours).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But if the medication works more powerfully on the body, the person may have a fast heart beat, a very dry mouth, an increase in blood pressure, and/or difficulty sleeping.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="177"><a href="#citable__177"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The half-life of methylphenidate in adults and adolescents following oral administration of CONCERTA ® was approximately 3.5 h.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11056411_27_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11056411-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86"><span>[</span>87<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87"><span>[</span>88<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__309" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="309">Up to a third of ADHD children experience a <a href="/Rebound_effect" title="Rebound effect">rebound effect</a> when methylphenidate dose wears off.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="309"><a href="#citable__309"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Do the effects of stimulants wear off over time?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="309"><a href="#citable__309"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Do the effects of Vyvanse wear off?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="309"><a href="#citable__309"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Metadate CD was administered as repeated once-daily doses of 20 mg or 40 mg to children aged 7-12 years with ADHD for one week.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses.</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugs.com/pro/metadate-cd.html">www.drugs.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88"><span>[</span>89<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Contraindications">Contraindications</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__279" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="279">Methylphenidate should not be prescribed concomitantly with <a href="/Tricyclic_antidepressant" title="Tricyclic antidepressant">tricyclic antidepressants</a>, such as <a href="/Desipramine" title="Desipramine">desipramine</a>, or <a href="/Monoamine_oxidase_inhibitor" title="Monoamine oxidase inhibitor">monoamine oxidase inhibitors</a>, such as <a href="/Phenelzine" title="Phenelzine">phenelzine</a> or <a href="/Tranylcypromine" title="Tranylcypromine">tranylcypromine</a>, as methylphenidate may dangerously increase plasma concentrations, leading to potential toxic reactions (mainly, <a href="/Cardiovascular" title="Cardiovascular" class="mw-redirect">cardiovascular</a> effects).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="279"><a href="#citable__279"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate but not dextroamphetamine increased plasma norepinephrine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="279"><a href="#citable__279"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The tricyclic antidepressants include desipramine and imipramine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="279"><a href="#citable__279"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>You should not take CONCERTA® with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__30" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="30">Methylphenidate should not be prescribed to patients who suffer from severe <a href="/Arrhythmia" title="Arrhythmia" class="mw-redirect">arrhythmia</a>, <a href="/Arterial_hypertension" title="Arterial hypertension" class="mw-redirect">hypertension</a> or <a href="/Liver" title="Liver">liver damage</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="30"><a href="#citable__30"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The recommended dose of CONCERTA ® for patients who are currently taking methylphenidate bid or tid, at doses of 10 to 45 mg/day is provided in Table 4 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="30"><a href="#citable__30"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Screening for ADHD should be part of every patients mental health assessment (since it is so common among those who seek mental health assistance).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="30"><a href="#citable__30"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Metadate CD is contraindicated in patients with severe hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis (see WARNINGS ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses.</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugs.com/pro/metadate-cd.html">www.drugs.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__158" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="158">It shouldn't be prescribed to patients who demonstrate <a href="/Drug_addiction" title="Drug addiction">drug-seeking behaviour</a>, pronounced agitation or nervousness.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Screening for ADHD should be part of every patients mental health assessment (since it is so common among those who seek mental health assistance).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA ® is contraindicated in patients with marked anxiety, tension, and agitation, since the drug may aggravate these symptoms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="158"><a href="#citable__158"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA® is contraindicated in patients with marked anxiety, tension, and agitation, since the drug may aggravate these symptoms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11056411_27_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11056411-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__129" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="129">Care should be taken while prescribing methylphenidate to children with a family history of Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia (PSVT).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with methylphenidate and should counsel them in its appropriate use.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What should my health care professional know before I take methylphenidate?</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="129"><a href="#citable__129"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The prescriber or health professional should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Special_precautions">Special precautions</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__33" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="33">Special precaution is recommended in individuals with epilepsy with additional caution in individuals with uncontrolled epilepsy due to the potential for methylphenidate to lower the seizure threshold.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There is some clinical evidence that methylphenidate may lower the convulsive threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in absence of history of seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="33"><a href="#citable__33"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Its lower abuse potential might make us more willing to prescribe it for individuals with a substance abuse problem.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89"><span>[</span>90<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Pregnancy">Pregnancy</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__32" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="32">The United States <a href="/Food_and_Drug_Administration" title="Food and Drug Administration">Food and Drug Administration</a> gives methylphenidate a <a href="/Pregnancy_category" title="Pregnancy category">pregnancy category</a> of C, and women are advised to only use the drug if the benefits outweight the potential risks.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA ® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="32"><a href="#citable__32"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CNS stimulants are the most widely used pharmacological treatments for ADHD, and the only pharmacologic agents with Federal Drug Administration approval for the disorder.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90"><span>[</span>91<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__235" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="235">Not enough animal and human studies have been conducted to conclusively demonstrate an effect of methylphenidate on fetal development.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="235"><a href="#citable__235"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The lack of tolerance to repeated methylphenidate is comparable to studies demonstrating that tolerance does not develop to the effects of repeated administration of bupropion on nicotine self-administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="235"><a href="#citable__235"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The purpose of this study was to confirm earlier work that methylphenidate has a distinctly different effect on urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) excretion as compared to earlier studies with dextroamphetamine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="235"><a href="#citable__235"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To our knowledge, only 3 studies of stimulant effects on even in g behavior have been conducted.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__117" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="117">In 2007, empirical literature included 63 cases of prenatal exposure to methylphenidate across three empirical studies.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="117"><a href="#citable__117"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Selective literature review and detailed neuropsychological case studies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="117"><a href="#citable__117"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Statistically significant reduction in the Inattention/Overactivity subscale versus placebo was shown consistently across all three controlled studies for CONCERTA®.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="117"><a href="#citable__117"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Statistically significant reduction in the Inattention / Overactivity subscale versus placebo was shown consistently across all three controlled studies for CONCERTA®.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91"><span>[</span>92<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__67" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="67">One of these studies (N = 11) demonstrated no significant increases in malformations.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Robert Mendelsohn MD - "No one has ever been able to demonstrate that drugs such as Cylert and Ritalin improve the academic performance of the children who take them....</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Books: Ritalin: safe and effective alternatives for ADD and ADHD</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin_books.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While no study has ever shown an increase in a child's ability to learn while on Ritalin, studies have shown that any amount in excess of .5 milligrams per kilogram of body weight is a detriment to learning.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="67"><a href="#citable__67"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The combined results from these two studies demonstrated significant improvements in attention and behavior in patients treated with CONCERTA® versus placebo that were maintained through 12 hours after dosing.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_92" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-92"><span>[</span>93<span>]</span></a></sup> A second (N = 13) demonstrated one major malformation in newborns with early exposure to methylphenidate, which was in the expected range of malformations. However, this was a cardiac malformation, which was not within the statistically expected range.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_93" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-93"><span>[</span>94<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__209" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="209">Finally, in a retrospective analysis of patients' medical charts (N = 38), researchers examined the relationship between <em>abuse</em> of intravenous methylphenidate and pentazocine in pregnant women.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Please be aware that reading this site does not establish a doctor-patient relationship between you and the professionals associated with it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The present preclinical results extend this previous work by providing evidence of a direct potentiating interaction between the abuse-related behavioral effects of methylphenidate and nicotine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="209"><a href="#citable__209"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prescription for Disaster in-depth investigation into the relationships between the pharmaceutical industry, the FDA, lobbyists, lawmakers, medical schools, and researchers, and the impact this has on consumers and their health care.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__109" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="109">Twenty-one percent of these children were born prematurely, and several had stunted growth and withdrawal symptoms (31% and 28%, respectively).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Twenty-five percent of these children are institutionalized in mental institutions or prisons by the age of eighteen.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The problem is that I am driving in the morning and evening without decent symptom relief, and these concerns me somewhat, especially because I have my children with me.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="109"><a href="#citable__109"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>These symptoms gave me 3 trips to the ER in one month for "dehydration".</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>VYVANSE VS. ADDERALL XR POSTER - Cafepharma Message Boards</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cafepharma.com/boards/showthread.php?t=184292">www.cafepharma.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__169" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="169">Intravenous methylphenidate abuse was confounded with the concurrent use of other substances (e.g., <a href="/Cigarettes" title="Cigarettes" class="mw-redirect">cigarettes</a>, <a href="/Alcohol" title="Alcohol">alcohol</a>) during pregnancy.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The safety of methylphenidate for use during human pregnancy has not been established.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA®, like other methylphenidate products, is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance by federal regulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="169"><a href="#citable__169"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA ® , like other methylphenidate products, is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance by federal regulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Overdose">Overdose</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__156" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="156">In <a href="/2004" title="2004">2004</a>, over 8000 methylphenidate ingestions were reported in US poison center data.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to-date information on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="156"><a href="#citable__156"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The physician may wish to consider contacting a poison control center for up-to­date information on the management of overdosage with methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta, Methylphenidate Pharmacology - HealthyPlace.com - HealthyPlace</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.healthyplace.com/other-info/psychiatric-medications/methylphenidate-concerta-full-prescribing-information/menu-id-72/">www.healthyplace.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid18058301_94_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid18058301-94"><span>[</span>95<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__75" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="75">The most common reasons for intentional exposure were drug abuse and suicide attempts.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In my experience, this is the most common reason for individuals stopping the drug.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The most common drug-related event reported in trials has been decreased appetite and an initial period of weight loss followed by an apparently normal rate of weight gain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="75"><a href="#citable__75"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It suggests that abuse of Ritalin - a drug that thousands of students take to help them concentrate in school - is far more common than has been believed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid8109495_95_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid8109495-95"><span>[</span>96<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__39" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="39">An overdose manifests in agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Symptoms of a Concerta overdose include agitation, tremors (shaking), muscle twitches, seizures, confusion, hallucinations, sweating, flushing, headache, fast or irregular heartbeat, large pupils, and dryness of the mouth and eyes.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="39"><a href="#citable__39"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Symptoms of overdose may include: confusion, agitation, sweating, flushing, wide pupils, persistent tremor, muscle twitching, hallucinations, severe headache, severe vomiting, seizures, loss of consciousness.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11981294_96_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11981294-96"><span>[</span>97<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__318" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="318"><a href="/Benzodiazepines" title="Benzodiazepines" class="mw-redirect">Benzodiazepines</a> may be used as treatment if agitation, dystonia, or convulsions are present.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="318"><a href="#citable__318"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The researchers conclude that supplementation with the missing fatty acids may be a useful treatment for hyperactivity.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="318"><a href="#citable__318"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCERTA® should be used as a part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may include counseling or other therapies.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="318"><a href="#citable__318"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For example, at the outset of treatment, premenstrual symptoms may be misperceived as side effects of the stimulant, with result that the use of the stimulant may be rejected unnecessarily.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid18058301_94_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid18058301-94"><span>[</span>95<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__294" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="294">MPH is prescribed at 1/100th of the estimated lethal dose.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="294"><a href="#citable__294"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As a consequence, a grow in g trend has been to prescribe a third daily dose of IR MPH in the late afternoon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="294"><a href="#citable__294"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH), the most commonly prescribed drug for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has a short half-life, which necessitates multiple daily doses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="294"><a href="#citable__294"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As a consequence, a growing trend has been to prescribe a third daily dose of IR MPH in the late afternoon.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_97" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-97"><span>[</span>98<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Detection_in_biological_fluids">Detection in biological fluids</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__239" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="239">The concentration of methylphenidate or ritalinic acid, its major metabolite, may be quantified in plasma, serum or whole blood in order to monitor compliance in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdosage.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="239"><a href="#citable__239"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Order ritalin methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="239"><a href="#citable__239"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>II. Effects on plasma concentration of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="239"><a href="#citable__239"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Special populations: Plasma concentrations of the major metabolite appeared to be greater in adult females than in adult males, but no gender differences were observed for methylphenidate plasma concentration in the same subjects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_98" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-98"><span>[</span>99<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Pharmacology">Pharmacology</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__277" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="277">Methylphenidate is a chain substituted <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">amphetamine</a> derivative,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15955613_99_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15955613-99"><span>[</span>100<span>]</span></a></sup> although its chemical structure is more closely related to cocaine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="277"><a href="#citable__277"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Chemical structure of ritalin verses cocaine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="277"><a href="#citable__277"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="277"><a href="#citable__277"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In February 2009, neuroscientists at the Rockefeller University reported cocaine-like structural and chemical alterations in the brains of mice given methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15303308_100_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15303308-100"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__52" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="52">Similar to <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">amphetamines</a> and <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">cocaine</a>, a key target of methylphenidate is the dopamine transporter (DAT).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="52"><a href="#citable__52"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_101" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-101"><span>[</span>102<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__20" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="20">Although methylphenidate is an amphetamine derivative subtle differences exist in its pharmacology; amphetamine works as a dopamine transport substrate where as methylphenidate works as a dopamine transport blocker.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="20"><a href="#citable__20"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15955613_99_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15955613-99"><span>[</span>100<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__6" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="6">Methylphenidate is most active at modulating levels of <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">dopamine</a> and to a lesser extent <a href="/Noradrenaline" title="Noradrenaline" class="mw-redirect">noradrenaline</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="6"><a href="#citable__6"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Structures of the most active methylphenidate and amphetamine isomers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_102" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-102"><span>[</span>103<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Pharmacokinetics">Pharmacokinetics</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__284" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="284">Methylphenidate has both <a href="/Dopamine_transporter" title="Dopamine transporter">DAT</a> and <a href="/Norepinephrine_transporter" title="Norepinephrine transporter">NET</a> binding affinity, with the dextromethylphenidate enantiomers displaying a prominent affinity for the norepinephrine transporter.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="284"><a href="#citable__284"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="284"><a href="#citable__284"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The phenethylamine pharmacophore within the structure of MPH is common to dopamine and norepinephrine (Figure 1), providing for transporter receptor affinity as it competes with dopamine for binding.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="284"><a href="#citable__284"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Atomoxetine is a highly specific inhibitor of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter, with minimal affinity for other transporters or other neurotransmitter receptors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__227" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="227">Both the dextro- and levorotary enantiomers displayed receptor affinity for the <a href="/Serotonergic" title="Serotonergic">serotonergic</a> 5HT<sub>1A</sub> and 5HT<sub>2B</sub> subtypes, though direct binding to the <a href="/Serotonin_transporter" title="Serotonin transporter">serotonin transporter</a> was not observed.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="227"><a href="#citable__227"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Both the dextro- and levorotary isomers displayed receptor affinity for the serotonergic 5HT1A and 5HT2B subtypes, though direct binding to the serotonin transporter was not observed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/ritalin.htm">www.worldofmolecules.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="227"><a href="#citable__227"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is in keeping with its negligible 5-HT transporter affinity (> 10,000 nmol) and apparent inability to raise brain serotonin levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>PsychoTropical Research - Dr Ken Gillman, Serotonin Syndrome, Mirtazapine, Dual Action Drugs.CNS stimulants with MAOIs.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychotropical.com/CNS_stimulants_with_MAOIs.shtml">www.psychotropical.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="227"><a href="#citable__227"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The phenethylamine pharmacophore within the structure of MPH is common to dopamine and norepinephrine (Figure 1), providing for transporter receptor affinity as it competes with dopamine for binding.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid17201613_103_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid17201613-103"><span>[</span>104<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__74" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="74">The enantiomers and the relative psychoactive effects and CNS stimulation of dextro- and levo-methylphenidate is analogous to what is found in amphetamine, where dextro-amphetamine is considered to have a greater psychoactive and CNS stimulatory effect than levo-amphetamine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This is what time to go to bed and what time relative to the rising and falling of the sun no longer coincides with stimulating effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Shirley</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.catalog.com/shirley/">www.catalog.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Methylphenidate," in the words of a 1995 dea background paper on the drug, "is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and shares many of the pharmacological effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="74"><a href="#citable__74"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Since Vyvanse is dextroamphetamine, taking Dextrostat or any dextroamphetamine generic might be more likely to mimic the Vyvanse effects than will generic Adderall, which contains four different amphetamine salts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <div style="display:table-cell;clear:both;"></div><h3><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Pharmacodynamics">Pharmacodynamics</span></h3> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__267" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="267">Methylphenidate exerts its therapeutic effects via blocking the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (as well as stimulating the release of dopamine from dopamine nerve terminals) resulting in increased <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">dopamine</a> levels in the <a href="/Synapse" title="Synapse">synapse</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="267"><a href="#citable__267"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15303308_100_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15303308-100"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_104" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-104"><span>[</span>105<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__53" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="53">The onset of <a href="/Central_nervous_system" title="Central nervous system">central nervous system</a> effects occurs rapidly after intake of methylphenidate and persist for about 4 hours.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is a central nervous system reaction to the drug.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULATION: 23 .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="53"><a href="#citable__53"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate HCl is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_105" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-105"><span>[</span>106<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__242" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="242">The mechanism of action and chemical structure of methylphenidate is extremely similar to cocaine with usual doses of both drugs occupying 50% of dopamine transporters.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="242"><a href="#citable__242"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="242"><a href="#citable__242"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="242"><a href="#citable__242"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__97" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="97">However, cocaine effects such as <a href="/Euphoria" title="Euphoria">euphoria</a> are rare at doses prescribed clinically.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>My son (9 yrs) started on the 18 mg dose and we noticed a great improvement in his concentration and behavior; however, the 18 mg effect only lasted for a few weeks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.askapatient.com/viewrating.asp?drug=21121&name=CONCERTA">www.askapatient.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Unlike the amphetamines and cocaine, physical dependence is infrequent with normal clinical use at therapeutic doses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="97"><a href="#citable__97"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the capsules may be taken with food without clinically significant effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15303308_100_2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15303308-100"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_106" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-106"><span>[</span>107<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_107" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-107"><span>[</span>108<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__168" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="168">The means by which methylphenidate affects people diagnosed with ADHD are not well understood.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="168"><a href="#citable__168"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The means by which methylphenidate helps people with ADHD are not well understood.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate - Drug information from Medic8.com</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medic8.com/medicines/Metadate.html">www.medic8.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate - Formulations</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.experiencefestival.com/methylphenidate_-_formulations">www.experiencefestival.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/ritalin.htm">www.worldofmolecules.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Methylphenidate/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="168"><a href="#citable__168"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>As expected, OROS methylphenidate was highly effective in treating the participants’ ADHD. Their ADHD Rating Scale scores declined from a mean of 26.9 at baseline to 9.7 at week 6.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Small Cardiovascular Changes Seen After High-Dose OROS Methylphenidate in Adolescents - Medconnect</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medconnect.com.au/tabid/84/ct1/c334507/Small-Cardiovascular-Changes-Seen-After-High-Dose-OROS-Methylphenidate-in-Adolescents/Default.aspx">www.medconnect.com.au</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="168"><a href="#citable__168"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The protocol for diagnosing ADD [and ADHD] is very well defined."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__212" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="212">Some researchers have theorized that ADHD is caused by a <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">dopamine</a> imbalance in the <a href="/Brain" title="Brain">brains</a> of those affected.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some researchers have theorized that ADHD is caused by a dopamine imbalance in the brains of those affected.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate - Drug information from Medic8.com</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medic8.com/medicines/Metadate.html">www.medic8.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate - Formulations</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.experiencefestival.com/methylphenidate_-_formulations">www.experiencefestival.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/ritalin.htm">www.worldofmolecules.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Brain shrinkage in ADHD not caused by medications.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.ritalindeath.com/">www.ritalindeath.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="212"><a href="#citable__212"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The researchers speculate that methylphenidate amplifies the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, thereby improving attention and focus in individuals who have dopamine signals that are weak, such as individuals with ADHD. .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin Addiction Drug Rehab Ritalin Drug Rehabilitation Prescription Drug Addiction Treatment Centers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drug-rehabs.com/ritalin-rehab.htm">www.drug-rehabs.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__263" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="263">Methylphenidate is a norepinephrine and <a href="/Dopamine_reuptake_inhibitor" title="Dopamine reuptake inhibitor">dopamine reuptake inhibitor</a>, which means that it increases the level of the dopamine <a href="/Neurotransmitter" title="Neurotransmitter">neurotransmitter</a> in the brain by partially blocking the dopamine transporter (DAT) that removes dopamine from the <a href="/Synapse" title="Synapse">synapses</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="263"><a href="#citable__263"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate but not dextroamphetamine increased plasma norepinephrine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_108" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-108"><span>[</span>109<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__173" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="173">This inhibition of DAT blocks the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the amount of dopamine in the synapse.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="173"><a href="#citable__173"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of noradrenaline and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/Profs/Datasheet/c/Concertatab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="173"><a href="#citable__173"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate class stimulants act by increasing the release of norepinephrine and dopamine and blocking their reuptake.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Blog « Minyang Mao, M.D.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://minyangmaomd.com/blog/">minyangmaomd.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="173"><a href="#citable__173"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Bupropion (generic) – Inhibits norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Blog « Minyang Mao, M.D.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://minyangmaomd.com/blog/">minyangmaomd.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__106" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="106">It also stimulates the release of dopamine and norepinephrine into the synapse.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of noradrenaline and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/Profs/Datasheet/c/Concertatab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mild CNS stimulant; blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into presynaptic neurons; appears to stimulate the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures similar to amphetamines .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional </c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/print/lexicomp/methylphenidate.html">www.merck.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp: Merck Manual Professional </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.merck.com/mmpe/lexicomp/methylphenidate.html">www.merck.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="106"><a href="#citable__106"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses.</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugs.com/pro/metadate-cd.html">www.drugs.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Capsules (UCB), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/metadate_cd_capsules_ucb.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/methylin-chewable-tablets-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/methylin-oral-solution-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Concerta: What Every Parent Should Know</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.myomancy.com/2007/04/concerta">www.myomancy.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Extended-Release Tablets (McNeil Consumer), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/concerta_extended_release_tablets_mcneil_consumer.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate HCI ADHD Medication - Detailed Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.realmentalhealth.com/medications/concerta.asp">www.realmentalhealth.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/medications/concerta-tablet-xr">www.psychiatrictimes.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Tablet, XR - Consultant Live</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consultantlive.com/medications/concerta-tablet-xr">www.consultantlive.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__134" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="134">Finally, it increases the magnitude of dopamine release after a stimulus, increasing the salience of stimulus.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of noradrenaline and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Data Sheet</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/Profs/Datasheet/c/Concertatab.htm">www.medsafe.govt.nz</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Official FDA information, side effects and uses.</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugs.com/pro/metadate-cd.html">www.drugs.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Metadate CD Capsules (UCB), Drug Reference Encyclopedia</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.theodora.com/drugs/metadate_cd_capsules_ucb.html">www.theodora.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylin Chewable Tablets (Methylphenidate HCl Chewable Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/methylin-chewable-tablets-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylin Oral Solution (Methylphenidate HCl Oral Solution 5 mg/5 mL and 10 mg/5 mL) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/methylin-oral-solution-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Concerta: What Every Parent Should Know</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.myomancy.com/2007/04/concerta">www.myomancy.com</a> [Source type: General]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate HCI ADHD Medication - Detailed Information</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.realmentalhealth.com/medications/concerta.asp">www.realmentalhealth.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>DailyMed: About DailyMed</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=4203">dailymed.nlm.nih.gov</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Tablet, Extended Release - Psychiatric Times</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/medications/concerta-tablet-xr">www.psychiatrictimes.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Tablet, XR - Consultant Live</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.consultantlive.com/medications/concerta-tablet-xr">www.consultantlive.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="134"><a href="#citable__134"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate class stimulants act by increasing the release of norepinephrine and dopamine and blocking their reuptake.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Blog « Minyang Mao, M.D.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://minyangmaomd.com/blog/">minyangmaomd.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__161" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="161">An alternate explanation that has been explored is that the methylphenidate affects the action of <a href="/Serotonin" title="Serotonin">serotonin</a> in the brain.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="161"><a href="#citable__161"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Imaging the effects of methylphenidate on brain dopamine: new model on its therapeutic actions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid15303308_100_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid15303308-100"><span>[</span>101<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_109" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-109"><span>[</span>110<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__36" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="36">However, benefits with other stimulants that have a different mechanism of action indicates that support for a deficit in specific <a href="/Neurotransmitters" title="Neurotransmitters" class="mw-redirect">neurotransmitters</a> is unsupported and unproven by the evidence and remains a speculative <a href="/Hypothesis" title="Hypothesis">hypothesis</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Atomoxetine is a highly specific inhibitor of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter, with minimal affinity for other transporters or other neurotransmitter receptors.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="36"><a href="#citable__36"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, there are a number of differences between these women and women taking prescribed stimulants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_110" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-110"><span>[</span>111<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__180" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="180">It is commonly asked why a stimulant should be used to treat hyperactivity, which seems paradoxical.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="180"><a href="#citable__180"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It may seem strange to treat hyperactivity with a stimulant.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate | Life and style | BMJ Group </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/besttreatments/autism-treatments-methylphenidate">www.guardian.co.uk</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="180"><a href="#citable__180"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Medications: The most commonly used medications for treating ADHD are stimulants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Blog « Minyang Mao, M.D.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://minyangmaomd.com/blog/">minyangmaomd.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="180"><a href="#citable__180"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>When stimulants are used to treat ADHD, remember that: .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin, Adderall, and Other Stimulant Medications for ADHD - Adult ADHD - Health.com</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.health.com/health/condition-article/0,,20252269,00.html">www.health.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__182" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="182">However, <a href="/Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging" title="Magnetic Resonance Imaging" class="mw-redirect">MRIs</a> of ADHD brains previously drugged with stimulants show decreased activity in the brain centers critical to concentration and impulse control.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although there is no cure for ADHD, stimulant ADHD medications, like CONCERTA, tend to increase a person's attention span, improve focus, and decrease distractibility.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Coupons | Free Pharmacy Coupon Concerta | McNeil Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://firstrxsavings.com/results/product/concerta">firstrxsavings.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Brain scans of people who have been identified as having ADHD show less neural activity in the prefrontal lobes of the brain leading to underdevelopment of the forebrain, the area where concentration and rational behaviour originate (Hannford 1995).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="182"><a href="#citable__182"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Biofeedback Method-where an individual can control bodily functions such as brain activity, muscle tension and heart rate in order to improve their health.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_111" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-111"><span>[</span>112<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__120" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="120">One study finds that methylphenidate reduces the increases in brain glucose metabolism during performance of a cognitive task by about 50%.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Reduced brain metabolism in hyperactive girls.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Methylphenidate: When Society Misunderstands Medicine [MJM 1997 3: 105-114]</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/mjm/v03n02/v03p105/v03p105main.htm">www.medicine.mcgill.ca</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Adults who have ADHD often report that methylphenidate increases their ability to focus on tasks and organize their lives.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Molecule --Ritalin </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.worldofmolecules.com/drugs/ritalin.htm">www.worldofmolecules.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Methylphenidate/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="120"><a href="#citable__120"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although methylphenidate is perhaps one of the best-studied drugs available, with thousands of studies attesting to its longterm safety over the past 50 years, that hasn't stopped critics from raising alarms about the drug's long-term use on children's developing brains, particularly given research that finds the numbers of children taking the drug skyrocketing in recent years.” ^ "Swedish doctors "wrote illegal ADHD prescriptions"", 5 February 2005.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries.</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.chemie.de/lexikon/e/Methylphenidate/">www.chemie.de</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__82" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="82">This suggests that, similar to increasing dopamine and norepinephrine in the striatum and prefrontal cortex, methylphenidate may focus activation of certain regions and make the brain more efficient.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Dopamine increases in the striatum may be associated with the risk of motor tics.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate but not dextroamphetamine increased plasma norepinephrine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="82"><a href="#citable__82"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of action of selective NRIs: both dopamine and norepinephrine increase in prefrontal cortex.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__37" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="37">This is consistent with the observation that stimulant drugs can enhance attention and performance in some individuals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Some individuals have an incomplete response to stimulants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Stimulant Medication and AD/HD</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.baltimorepsych.com/Stimulants.htm">www.baltimorepsych.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The symptoms of childhood ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) usually get dramatically better soon after kids start taking stimulant drugs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Study: Ritalin Stunts Growth - CBS News</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/07/20/health/webmd/main3082458.shtml">www.cbsnews.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="37"><a href="#citable__37"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>A study published in Pediatrics in 1999, (3) showed that individuals with AD/HD who were treated with stimulant medication had a lower risk of drug abuse than AD/HD individuals who had not taken medication.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Stimulant Medication and AD/HD</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.baltimorepsych.com/Stimulants.htm">www.baltimorepsych.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__218" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="218">If brain resources are not optimally distributed (for example, in individuals with ADHD or sleep deprivation), improved performance could be achieved by reducing task-induced regional activation.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Compared to the control group, all subjects in the ADHD sample displayed reduced sleep efficiency, with longer sleep onset latency and more nocturnal awakenings.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> AASM - Journal SLEEP: Methylphenidate Can Have Sleep Benefits in Adults with ADHD</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.aasmnet.org/Articles.aspx?id=755">www.aasmnet.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Whether some individuals with ADHD could continue to use cocaine for symptomatic relief without actually abusing it has not been investigated, although it appears unlikely.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Alcohol & Drug Abuse: Long-Acting Stimulants for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in Cocaine-Dependent Adults -- Castaneda et al. 51 (2): 169 -- Psychiatr Serv</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/51/2/169">ps.psychiatryonline.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="218"><a href="#citable__218"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The current study examined the effects of these low, orally-administered doses of MPH in rats performing a delayed alternation task dependent on prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region that is dysfunctional in ADHD, and is highly sensitive to levels of catecholamines.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Behavioral and Brain Functions | Full text | Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/1/1/2">www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__231" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="231">Stimulant delivery when brain resources are already optimally distributed may then adversely affect performance.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="231"><a href="#citable__231"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>May affect performance of skilled tasks (e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.adders.org/info24.htm">www.adders.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="231"><a href="#citable__231"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>MP did not affect the transport of [ 11 C]raclopride from blood to brain (K 1 ) in striatum or in cerebellum nor did it affect the distribution volume (DV) in cerebellum (Table 1 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate Significantly Increase Extracellular Dopamine in the Human Brain -- Volkow et al. 21 (2): 121 -- Journal of Neuroscience</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/20014896">www.jneurosci.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="231"><a href="#citable__231"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Occupational Hazards: Because methylphenidate may affect performance, patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous activities (i.e., operation of automobiles or dangerous machinery).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>RxMed: Pharmaceutical Information - RITALIN </c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxmed.com/b.main/b2.pharmaceutical/b2.1.monographs/CPS-%20Monographs/CPS-%20(General%20Monographs-%20R)/RITALIN.html">www.rxmed.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_112" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-112"><span>[</span>113<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__59" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="59">A paper published in <em>Biological Psychiatry</em> reports that methylphenidate fine-tunes the functioning of neurons in the <a href="/Prefrontal_cortex" title="Prefrontal cortex">prefrontal cortex</a> - a brain region involved in attention, decision-making and impulse control - while having few effects outside it.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The demonstration that methylphenidate induces changes in neuronal calcium sensor 1 levels in rat brain may help to understand sensitization mechanisms as well as methylphenidate therapeutic effects to improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Then, we investigated if methylphenidate could alter neuronal calcium sensor 1 expression in five brain regions (striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, cortex and cerebellum) in young and adult rats.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="59"><a href="#citable__59"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We hypothesize that the atomoxetine-induced increase of catecholamines in PFC, a region involved in attention and memory, mediates the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine in ADHD. In contrast to methylphenidate, atomoxetine did not increase DA in striatum or nucleus accumbens, suggesting it would not have motoric or drug abuse liabilities."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__8" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="8">The team studied PFC neurons in rats under a variety of methylphenidate doses, including one that improved the animals' performance in a working memory task of the type that ADHD patients have trouble completing.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The dose of methylphenidate will be different for different patients.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate (Systemic)</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://allnutritionals.com/drugs/m/methylphenidate-systemic.shtml">allnutritionals.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Studies to date suggest that prescribed use of methylphenidate in patients with ADHD ...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>The Ritalin Generation : The Frontal Cortex</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://scienceblogs.com/cortex/2009/02/the_ritalin_generation.php">scienceblogs.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="8"><a href="#citable__8"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Children or teens with ADHD exhibit a persistent pattern, lasting six months or more, of a variety of symptoms including impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, lack of focus and inability to complete a task.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Consumer Reports Health Blog: Parents: Don’t rush to Adderall XR, Concerta, Strattera</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://blogs.consumerreports.org/health/2009/07/drugs-to-treat-adhd-dont-rush-to-adderall-xr-concerta-strattera-best-buy-drugs-dextroamphetamine-met.html">blogs.consumerreports.org</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__80" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="80">Using microelectrodes, the scientists observed both the random, spontaneous firings of PFC neurons and their response to stimulation of the <a href="/Hippocampus" title="Hippocampus">hippocampus</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Indeed, these correlations may simply result from the fact that variations in neuronal and behavioral responses both resulted from the MPH administration.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate Enhances Noradrenergic Transmission and Suppresses Mid- and Long-Latency Sensory Responses in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Awake Rats -- Drouin et al. 96 (2): 622 -- Journal of Neurophysiology</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/96/2/622">jn.physiology.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The hypothesis is that stimulant psychoses can be divided into a ‘toxic’ type of response and a chronic persisting response resulting from longer-term use of stimulants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Stimulant psychosis: systematic review -- Curran et al. 185 (3): 196 -- The British Journal of Psychiatry</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/185/3/196">bjp.rcpsych.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="80"><a href="#citable__80"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Such complex, tri-phasic responses to tactile stimulation are observed routinely in somatosensory cortical neurons of waking animals (Chapin et al.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Methylphenidate Enhances Noradrenergic Transmission and Suppresses Mid- and Long-Latency Sensory Responses in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of Awake Rats -- Drouin et al. 96 (2): 622 -- Journal of Neurophysiology</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://jn.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/96/2/622">jn.physiology.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__71" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="71">When they listened to individual PFC neurons, the scientists found that while cognition-enhancing doses of methylphenidate had little effect on spontaneous activity, the neurons' sensitivity to signals coming from the hippocampus increased dramatically.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Receptor mechanisms underlying PFC cognitive enhancing effects of MPH .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Behavioral and Brain Functions | Full text | Methylphenidate improves prefrontal cortical cognitive function through alpha2 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor actions: Relevance to therapeutic effects in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/1/1/2">www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="71"><a href="#citable__71"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is based on the discovery that d-threo-methylphenidate (2R:2'R) possesses enhanced therapeutic activity with reduced side effects, and l-threo-methylphenidate produces undesirable side effects, euphoria and drug abuse potential in patients suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, AIDS cognitive decline, and AIDS Dementia Complex.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Method of treating attention deficit disorders with d-threo methylphenidate - US Patent 5908850 Description</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/5908850/description.html">www.patentstorm.us</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__310" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="310">Under higher, stimulatory doses, on the other hand, PFC neurons stopped responding to incoming information.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="310"><a href="#citable__310"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Other adverse effects, particularly at higher than therapeutic doses, include excessive central nervous system stimulation, euphoria, nervousness, irritability and agitation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin - Bucks County Courier Times</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addsolutions.com/ritalin_article.html">www.addsolutions.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="310"><a href="#citable__310"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Baseline responding for nicotine was higher in rats earning a unit dose of 0.01 mg/kg/infusion than in rats earning a unit dose of 0.03 mg/kg/infusion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="310"><a href="#citable__310"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>On the other hand, increased agitation and anatomical malformations have been observed in offspring in other animal experiments where the doses used were generally much higher than those prescribed for humans.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid18585681_113_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid18585681-113"><span>[</span>114<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Interactions">Interactions</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__178" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="178">Intake of <a href="/Adrenergic_agonist" title="Adrenergic agonist">adrenergic agonist</a> drugs or <a href="/Pemoline" title="Pemoline">pemoline</a> with methylphenidate increases the risk of <a href="/Liver_toxicity" title="Liver toxicity" class="mw-redirect">liver toxicity</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Despite the risk of Videx liver damage, the FDA says that the drug should stay on the market, because the benefits for HIV patients still outweigh the risks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>HIV Drug Videx Side Effects Linked to Liver Problems: FDA - AboutLawsuits.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.aboutlawsuits.com/hiv-drug-videx-liver-problems-7963/">www.aboutlawsuits.com</a> [Source type: News]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Not surprisingly, given these and other measures of methylphenidates recreational appeal, criminal entrepreneurs have responded with interest to the drugs increased circulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="178"><a href="#citable__178"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Moreover, methylphenidate (like other stimulants) appears to increase tolerance for related drugs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_114" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-114"><span>[</span>115<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_115" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-115"><span>[</span>116<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__3" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="3">Antidepressants taken in conjunction with methylphenidate may cause <a href="/Hypertension" title="Hypertension">hypertension</a>, <a href="/Hypothermia" title="Hypothermia">hypothermia</a> and <a href="/Convulsions" title="Convulsions" class="mw-redirect">convulsions</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It may be a direct side effect of the methylphenidate, causing you the palpitations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Antihypertensive agents may improve impulsivity, hyperactivity, and comorbid tics but cause sedation or rebound hypertension.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="3"><a href="#citable__3"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because, while SSRI's may lower the seizure threshold, methylphenidate actually causes them.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin - Methylphenidate - http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.drugbuyers.com/freeboard/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=91989">www.drugbuyers.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11056411_27_3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11056411-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__12" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="12">When methylphenidate is coingested with ethanol, a metabolite called <a href="/Ethylphenidate" title="Ethylphenidate">ethylphenidate</a> is formed via hepatic transesterification,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_116" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-116"><span>[</span>117<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Markowitz_117_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Markowitz-117"><span>[</span>118<span>]</span></a></sup> not unlike the hepatic formation of <a href="/Cocaethylene" title="Cocaethylene">cocaethylene</a> from <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">cocaine and alcohol</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is postulated that this metabolite is formed by an esterase-mediated transesterification pathway analogous to that forming cocaethylene after ethanol and cocaine coingestion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Detection of the novel metabolite ethylphenidate following methylphenidate overdose with alcohol co-ingestion.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="12"><a href="#citable__12"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Thomson MR, Dowd JJ, Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Patrick KS. Enantioselective transesterification of methylphenidate to ethylphenidate after coadministration with ethanol [abstr].</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__119" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="119">Coingestion of alcohol (ethanol) also increases the blood plasma levels of d-methylphenidate by up to 40%.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate but not dextroamphetamine increased plasma norepinephrine.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="119"><a href="#citable__119"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I looked it up and this is when the concentration of methylphenidate peaks in the blood, although I woke up with the symptoms today.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid19051222_80_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid19051222-80"><span>[</span>81<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__261" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="261">It is more selective to the <a href="/Dopamine_transporter" title="Dopamine transporter">dopamine transporter</a> (DAT) than methylphenidate, having approximately the same efficacy as the parent compound,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_118" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-118"><span>[</span>119<span>]</span></a></sup> but has significantly less activity on the <a href="/Norepinephrine_transporter" title="Norepinephrine transporter">norepinephrine transporter</a> (NET).</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="261"><a href="#citable__261"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH) blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters causing an increase in extracellular levels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="261"><a href="#citable__261"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>One caveat to this interpretation is that methylphenidate and bupropion are relatively nonselective inhibitors of the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters ( Dwoskin et al , 2006 ; Han and Gu, 2006 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="261"><a href="#citable__261"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Neurostimulants increasing dopamine and norepinephrine activity, such as bupropion, dextroamphetamine and recently immediate-release methylphenidate have been advocated to improve neurocognitive deficits.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_119" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-119"><span>[</span>120<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Abuse_potential">Abuse potential</span></h2> <div class="thumb tright"> <div class="thumbinner" style="width:302px;"><img alt="" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/05/4/2/9/1643693389436382.jpg" width="300" height="164" class="thumbimage" /> <div class="thumbcaption"> <div class="magnify"><img src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/7/4/4/3695493113783710.png" width="15" height="11" alt="" /></div> Legal warning printed on Ritalin carton (AU)</div> </div> </div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__192" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="192">Methylphenidate is a <a href="/Drug_of_abuse" title="Drug of abuse" class="mw-redirect">drug of abuse</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate should be given cautiously to emotionally unstable patients, especially if there is a history of alcohol or drug abuse.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="192"><a href="#citable__192"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization .</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_120" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-120"><span>[</span>121<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__88" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="88">Methylphenidate like other stimulants increases dopamine levels but at therapeutic doses the increase is slow and thus euphoria does not typically occur except in rare instances.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Moreover, methylphenidate (like other stimulants) appears to increase tolerance for related drugs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="88"><a href="#citable__88"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090275614">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__187" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="187">The abuse potential is increased when methylphenidate is crushed and snorted or when it is injected producing effects almost identical to cocaine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It ``produces behavioral, psychological, subjective and reinforcing effects similar to those of d-amphetamine, including increases in rating of euphoria, drug liking and activity, and decreases in sedation.''</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="187"><a href="#citable__187"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[FN56] The second controversy, and one that is only ancillary for purposes of this Note, involves the potential for dangerous (and possibly psychotropic) side- effects allegedly produced by the drug.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> [HLTH] Ritalin use up(Treat symptoms not Cause) - TimeBomb 2000</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.timebomb2000.com/vb/showthread.php?threadid=532&highlight=ritalin">www.timebomb2000.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__165" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="165">Cocaine-like effects can also occur with very large doses taken orally.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But the use of cocaine or amphetamines orally would have the same effect as Ritalin on the child, with the only difference being that more cocaine or amphetamine would be needed to get the same effect.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="165"><a href="#citable__165"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>What has more likely occurred is that the drugging of the child has created a severe chemical disturbance in the child's brain and body, the symptoms of which have been hidden by the straightjacketing effects of Ritalin.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__257" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="257">The dose, however, that produces euphoric effects varies between individuals.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="257"><a href="#citable__257"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, dosing must be individualized.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="257"><a href="#citable__257"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>My son (9 yrs) started on the 18 mg dose and we noticed a great improvement in his concentration and behavior; however, the 18 mg effect only lasted for a few weeks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.askapatient.com/viewrating.asp?drug=21121&name=CONCERTA">www.askapatient.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="257"><a href="#citable__257"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>However, the time course of Ritalin-SR appears to be variable, and individual responsiveness to the preparation may be highly variable.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__31" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="31">Methylphenidate is actually more potent than cocaine in its effect on dopamine transporters.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because methylphenidate slowly blocks the dopamine-transport proteins, methylphenidate appears less likely than the amphetamines or cocaine to increase systolic and diastolic blood pressure or cause respiratory stimulation.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="31"><a href="#citable__31"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It is the tricyclics effect on neurotransmitters other than dopamine and norepinephrine that appear to cause their drawbacks.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Methylphenidate should not be viewed as a weak stimulant as has previously been hypothesised.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_121" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-121"><span>[</span>122<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__282" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="282">The primary source of methylphenidate for abuse is diversion from legitimate prescriptions rather than illicit synthesis.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="282"><a href="#citable__282"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>And the growing availability of the drug raises the fear of abuse: more teenagers try Ritalin by grinding it up and snorting it for $5 a pill than get it by prescription.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__228" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="228">Those who use it to stay awake do so by taking it orally, while intranasal and intravenous are the preferred means for inducing euphoria.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="228"><a href="#citable__228"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>I sometimes physically cant stay awake if i dont take it in the morning.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>CONCERTA: Side effects, ratings, and patient comments </c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.askapatient.com/viewrating.asp?drug=21121&name=CONCERTA">www.askapatient.com</a> [Source type: Original source]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="228"><a href="#citable__228"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We used the information on this website to take to the consultant who passed it on to the pharmacist to investigate, but she said that in the UK Concerta XL is different to the Concerta in Canada.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11981294_96_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11981294-96"><span>[</span>97<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__262" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="262">IV users tend to be adults whose use may cause panlobular <a href="/Pulmonary_emphysema" title="Pulmonary emphysema" class="mw-redirect">pulmonary emphysema</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>We are not liable for any harm caused or related to the theft or misappropriation of your user name or password, disclosure of your user name or password, or your authorization of anyone else to use your user name or password.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ritalin and Disney | SPIKE </c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.spike.com/video/ritalin-disney/2753099">www.spike.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This medication may cause dependence, especially if it has been used regularly for an extended period of time, or if it has been used in high doses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="262"><a href="#citable__262"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Your user name and password are personal to you and you may not allow any others to use your user name or password under any circumstances.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Ritalin and Disney | SPIKE </c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.spike.com/video/ritalin-disney/2753099">www.spike.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid8109495_95_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid8109495-95"><span>[</span>96<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__307" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="307">Methylphenidate has a high potential for <a href="/Drug_dependence" title="Drug dependence" class="mw-redirect">drug dependence</a> and addictive abuse due to its similarity pharmacologically to <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">cocaine</a> and <a href="/Amphetamines" title="Amphetamines" class="mw-redirect">amphetamines</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="307"><a href="#citable__307"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Mechanism of Action: Methylphenidate exhibits activity similar to that of the amphetamines, although the underlying pharmacology for these two drug classes may differ.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="307"><a href="#citable__307"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Methylphenidate," in the words of a 1995 dea background paper on the drug, "is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and shares many of the pharmacological effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="307"><a href="#citable__307"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant and shares many of the pharmacological effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine,'' according to a 1995 Drug Enforcement Administration background paper.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11056411_27_4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11056411-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__126" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="126">Abuse of prescription stimulants is higher amongst college students than non-college attending young adults.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ritalin illicit use of prescription stimulants among college students.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It suggests that abuse of Ritalin - a drug that thousands of students take to help them concentrate in school - is far more common than has been believed.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="126"><a href="#citable__126"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Based on the data available from the literature, non-stimulant medications are indicated when substance dependence or abuse is in the history, or when the side effects of psychostimulants are not tolerated by the patient.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__314" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="314">College students misuse methylphenidate either as a study aid or to stay awake longer.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="314"><a href="#citable__314"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Because so many teenagers and college students have access to it, methylphenidate is particularly likely to be abused on school grounds.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> The increased alcohol consumption due to stimulant misuse has additional negative effects on health.<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_122" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-122"><span>[</span>123<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__207" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="207">Methylphenidate's pharmacological effect on the central nervous system is almost identical to that of cocaine.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate HCl is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090275614">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="207"><a href="#citable__207"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__286" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="286">Studies have shown that the two drugs are nearly indistinguishable when administered intravenously to cocaine addicts.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="286"><a href="#citable__286"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Remember, it is upon these criteria that children by the millions are being addicted to drugs like Ritalin, a drug which is chemically and neurologically equivalent to cocaine in its affect on the child's body.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="286"><a href="#citable__286"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In a study of the individual isomers administered intravenously, both isomers exhibited similar distribution characteristics, though the terminal elimination of the l-isomer was more rapid.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="286"><a href="#citable__286"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The only real imbalance Ritalin and cocaine are curing is the imbalance in the bank accounts of the drug pushers who are turning America's school children into drug addicts.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_indistinguishable_123_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-indistinguishable-123"><span>[</span>124<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_124" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-124"><span>[</span>125<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__236" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="236">However, cocaine has a slightly higher affinity for the dopamine receptor in comparison to methylphenidate, which is thought to be the mechanism of the euphoria associated with the relatively short-lived cocaine high.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="236"><a href="#citable__236"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is thought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="236"><a href="#citable__236"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate exerts many of its effects through dopamine uptake blockade of central adrenergic neurons, in contrast to the amphetamines and cocaine that increase catecholamine release as a primary mechanism.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title></c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://frames.healthinkonline.com/modules/goldstandard/monograph.asp?cpnum=391&name=Methylphenidate">frames.healthinkonline.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="236"><a href="#citable__236"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_cocaine_125_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cocaine-125"><span>[</span>126<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__195" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="195">Controversy has surrounded whether methylphenidate is as commonly abused as other stimulants with many believing that its rate of abuse is much lower than other stimulants.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous stimulant and is also taught for treating apathy, fatigue, cognitive decline, and depression in cancer patients, AIDS patients and other seriously ill patients.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090275614">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Others believe it is a mild stimulant that helps distractible and hyperactive children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="195"><a href="#citable__195"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The effect on the nucleus accumbens is believed to cause euphoria and to be responsible for the stimulants abuse liability.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__144" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="144">However, the majority of studies assessing its abuse potential and drug liking scores have determined that it has a similar abuse potential as <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">cocaine</a> and <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">amphetamine</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This drug has such tremendous potential for abuse that it is classified as a controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Agency.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This study, like the comparative study above, awaits full publication to fully examine the study design, results, and other potential limitations.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="144"><a href="#citable__144"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It ``produces behavioral, psychological, subjective and reinforcing effects similar to those of d-amphetamine, including increases in rating of euphoria, drug liking and activity, and decreases in sedation.''</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_126" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-126"><span>[</span>127<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__64" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="64">Reports of users experimenting with mixing methylphenidate with caffeine and benzocaine to produce a powder for insufflation for an even more cocaine-like effect began to appear in the middle 1970s; this is apparently an incrementation upon a mixture known as Toot containing <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">phenylpropanolamine</a>, caffeine, and benzocaine in the search for legal highs.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In my experience, the pharmacokinetic studies of medications usually report the effects of medications on the average individual.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In February 2009, neuroscientists at the Rockefeller University reported cocaine-like structural and chemical alterations in the brains of mice given methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="64"><a href="#citable__64"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It ``produces behavioral, psychological, subjective and reinforcing effects similar to those of d-amphetamine, including increases in rating of euphoria, drug liking and activity, and decreases in sedation.''</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__243" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="243">As moderate doses of cocaine have caffeine-like effects and benzocaine produces a slight stimulant effect of its own perhaps 5 per cent the strength of cocaine with a ceiling in that range, the mixture is reported to have at least some of the sought-after effects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The "effective amount" can and will most likely vary depending on the compound, the disease or condition and its severity, or the effect sought to be caused, and the age, weight, etc., of the animal to be treated.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Methylphenidate Derivatives and Uses of Them - Patent application</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090275614">www.faqs.org</a> [Source type: Reference]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In February 2009, neuroscientists at the Rockefeller University reported cocaine-like structural and chemical alterations in the brains of mice given methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="243"><a href="#citable__243"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Of course – speak to your doctor and get close monitoring for side effects when using high dose stimulants.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Legal_status">Legal status</span></h2> <ul> <li><a name="citable__22" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="22">Internationally, methylphenidate is a Schedule II drug under the <a href="/Convention_on_Psychotropic_Substances" title="Convention on Psychotropic Substances">Convention on Psychotropic Substances</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Internationally, methylphenidate is a Schedule II drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Metadate - Drug information from Medic8.com</c_title></em> <c_date>20 September 2009 17:39 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medic8.com/medicines/Metadate.html">www.medic8.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Pass A Drug Test For Methylphenidate</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.alwaystestclean.com/drug_definitions/methylphenidate.htm">www.alwaystestclean.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is a Schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="22"><a href="#citable__22"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate, as mentioned, is a Schedule II drug.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Hoover Institution - Policy Review - Why Ritalin Rules</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3552192.html">www.hoover.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_127" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-127"><span>[</span>128<span>]</span></a></sup></li> <li>In the <a href="/United_States" title="United States">United States</a>, methylphenidate is classified as a <a href="/Controlled_Substances_Act" title="Controlled Substances Act">Schedule II</a> <a href="/Controlled_substance" title="Controlled substance">controlled substance</a>, the designation used for substances that have a recognized medical value but present a high likelihood for abuse because of their addictive potential.</li> <li>In the <a href="/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">United Kingdom</a>, methylphenidate is a controlled 'Class B' substance (the same category as <a href="/Cannabis" title="Cannabis">Cannabis</a>), and possession without prescription is illegal, with a maximum sentence of prison.</li> <li>In <a href="/New_Zealand" title="New Zealand">New Zealand</a>, it is a 'class B2 controlled substance'. unlawful possession is punishable by 6 month prison sentence and distribution of it is punishable by a 14 year sentence.</li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Chemistry_of_MPH">Chemistry of MPH</span></h2> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__5" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="5">Four isomers of methylphenidate are known to exist.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="5"><a href="#citable__5"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Approximately one in every four marketed drugs exists as a combination of isomers.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__145" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="145">One pair of <a href="/Threo" title="Threo" class="mw-redirect">threo</a> isomers and one pair of erythro are distinguished, from which only <a href="/D-threo-methylphenidate" title="D-threo-methylphenidate" class="mw-redirect">d-threo-methylphenidate</a> exhibits the pharmacologically usually desired effects.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Furthermore, experiments performed with the enantiomers of amphetamine and threo-methylphenidate demonstrate that pharmacodynamic effects of drugs reported from experiments in outbred rat strains, e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Teo SK, Stirling DI, Thomas SD, Khetani VD. Neuro-behavioral effects of racemic threo-methylphenidate and its D and L enantiomers in rats.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="145"><a href="#citable__145"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In my experience, in general, only a small percentage of people are so sensitive that there is a real difference in how one form of methylphenidate responds compared to the other (i.e.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_128" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-128"><span>[</span>129<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_129" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-129"><span>[</span>130<span>]</span></a></sup> When the drug was first introduced it was sold as a 3:1 mixture of erythro:threo <a href="/Diastereomer" title="Diastereomer">diastereomers</a>. The erythro diastereomers are also <em><a href="/Pressor" title="Pressor" class="mw-redirect">pressor</a></em> amines. <a name="citable__60" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="60">"TMP" is referring only to the threo product that does not contain any erythro diastereomers.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This information does not contain any assurances that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>IMPORTANT NOTE: This is a summary and does not contain all possible information about this product.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="60"><a href="#citable__60"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Until the introduction of enantiopure ( d )-MPH product (threo-[+]-MPH, dexmethylphenidate) in 2002, all marketed MPH formulations have contained a racemic (50:50) mixture of threo-RR- d -MPH and threo-S,S- l -MPH isomers (Figure 2).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Since the threo isomers are energetically favored, it is easy to <a href="/Epimerize" title="Epimerize" class="mw-redirect">epimerize</a> out any of the undesired erythro isomers. The drug that contains only <a href="/Dextrorotary" title="Dextrorotary" class="mw-redirect">dextrorotary</a> methylphenidate is called d-TMP.</div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><img alt="Methylphenidate preparation.svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/05/1/6/4/2342613238036884.png" width="800" height="188" /> <img alt="Classical Ritalin Production .svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/10/6/7/6/3061381939630225.png" width="800" height="280" /> <a href="http://www.erowid.org/archive/rhodium/pdf/cocaineanalogs.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Satendra Singh (2000), pages 81-87.</a></div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_Controversy">Controversy</span></h2> <div class="rellink relarticle mainarticle">Main article: <a href="/Attention-deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_controversies" title="Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies">Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies</a></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__93" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="93">Methylphenidate (usually referred to by the brand name Ritalin) has been the subject of controversy in relation to its use in the treatment of ADHD. In general, criticism revolves around concerns of illicit use and abuse, and the ethics of giving <a href="/Psychotropic" title="Psychotropic" class="mw-redirect">psychotropic</a> drugs to children to reduce ADHD symptoms.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Concerta and Ritalin are just name brands.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ritalin chemical and generic names.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="93"><a href="#citable__93"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many people believe that methylphenidate, to use Ritalin's generic name, is a sedative.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid17949504_130_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid17949504-130"><span>[</span>131<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__34" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="34">Calls have been made that methylphenidate be severely restricted in its use.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The first thing that has made the Ritalin explosion possible is that methylphenidate, to use the generic term, is perhaps the most widely misunderstood drug in America today.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="34"><a href="#citable__34"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Psychosis has been associated with chronic use of several stimulants; e.g., amphetamines, METHYLPHENIDATE (RITALIN), phenmetrazine and cocaine...</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11056411_27_5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11056411-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__194" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="194">The pharmacological effects of methylphenidate, a schedule II drug are almost identical to <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">cocaine</a> and the <a href="/Amphetamines" title="Amphetamines" class="mw-redirect">amphetamines</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate, as mentioned, is a Schedule II drug.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>While Ritalin is a different chemical from cocaine and the amphetamines, it has almost an identical effect with two important differences.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="194"><a href="#citable__194"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>"Methylphenidate," in the words of a 1995 dea background paper on the drug, "is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and shares many of the pharmacological effects of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and cocaine."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_131" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-131"><span>[</span>132<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__199" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="199">The abuse pattern of methylphenidate is very similar to cocaine and amphetamines.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="199"><a href="#citable__199"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="199"><a href="#citable__199"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>To summarize, again from the dea report, "it is clear that methylphenidate substitutes for cocaine and d-amphetamine in a number of behavioral paradigms."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="199"><a href="#citable__199"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Coffee (caffeine) is a stimulant that has a number of effects on most people that are similar to the amphetamines and methylphenidate: it energizes them, helps them concentrate, and can keep them awake.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_pmid11056411_27_6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid11056411-27"><span>[</span>28<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__241" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="241">In 2002, a study showed that rats treated with methylphenidate are more receptive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_cocaine_125_1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cocaine-125"><span>[</span>126<span>]</span></a></sup>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="241"><a href="#citable__241"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although this study suggests a more rapid onset of effect with Metadate CD compared with Concerta, it awaits full publication so that it may be reviewed in greater detail.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Advances in the Pharmacotherapy of ADHD: Methylphenidate </c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462703_5">www.medscape.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="241"><a href="#citable__241"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>But the use of cocaine or amphetamines orally would have the same effect as Ritalin on the child, with the only difference being that more cocaine or amphetamine would be needed to get the same effect.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="241"><a href="#citable__241"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Furthermore, experiments performed with the enantiomers of amphetamine and threo-methylphenidate demonstrate that pharmacodynamic effects of drugs reported from experiments in outbred rat strains, e.g.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__133" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="133">The contention that methylphenidate acts as a <a href="/Gateway_drug" title="Gateway drug" class="mw-redirect">gateway drug</a> been discredited by multiple sources,<sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Wilens_132_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Wilens-132"><span>[</span>133<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_Barkley_133_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Barkley-133"><span>[</span>134<span>]</span></a></sup> though this point is still under debate.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate is a Schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Though promoters of the drug say it will help eliminate the embarrassment experienced by children who have to take medication at school, the drug will do nothing to eliminate the dangers of methylphenidate.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="133"><a href="#citable__133"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Methylphenidate (MPH), the most commonly prescribed drug for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has a short half-life, which necessitates multiple daily doses.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li><li> <em><c_title> Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&titleabstract=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+&searchid=1057935976226_1568&stored_search=&FIRSTINDEX=0&journalcode=pediatrics">pediatrics.aappublications.org</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_134" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-134"><span>[</span>135<span>]</span></a></sup> <a name="citable__110" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="110">Smoking tobacco also appeared to increase the risk of cocaine abuse in this population but even after controlling for tobacco exposure cocaine abuse was still significantly higher in adults who had been medicated with stimulants as children.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>[FN134] Parallels can be drawn between the procedural rights of hyperactive children under this act, and the rights of patients/inmates who are subjected to behavioral control.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> [HLTH] Ritalin use up(Treat symptoms not Cause) - TimeBomb 2000</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.timebomb2000.com/vb/showthread.php?threadid=532&highlight=ritalin">www.timebomb2000.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Moreover, methylphenidate has been shown to increase tobacco cigarette smoking in a controlled human laboratory experiment ( Rush et al , 2005 ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="110"><a href="#citable__110"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Although the exact reason(s) for this relationship is yet to be determined, one potential explanation is that tobacco smoking represents a form of self-medication in the ADHD population.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Neuropsychopharmacology - Methylphenidate Enhances the Abuse-Related Behavioral Effects of Nicotine in Rats: Intravenous Self-Administration, Drug Discrimination, and Locomotor Cross-Sensitization</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v33/n5/full/1301477a.html">www.nature.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__83" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="83">This risk was still present 15 years after stimulant medication exposure.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Remember the 15 year-old who is still suffering from withdrawal seven years later.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>This medication is generally not effective for ADD. In addition, it does has a much higher risk than the stimulants for causing seizures.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="83"><a href="#citable__83"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Over the years, there has been a concern that stimulant medications, which have an anti-depressant effect, might also trigger manic symptoms.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_spsrahttreoc_135_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-spsrahttreoc-135"><span>[</span>136<span>]</span></a></sup><sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_srtiewcaeotitoa_136_0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-srtiewcaeotitoa-136"><span>[</span>137<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__299" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="299">Controversy also surrounds ADHD, one point being that a group of ADHD children have in general healthy brains with no gross <a href="/Neurological" title="Neurological" class="mw-redirect">neurological</a> deficits.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="299"><a href="#citable__299"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>There were no significant differences in the genotype or allele frequencies of the SLC6A2 G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms between the ADHD and control groups (p > 0.05).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="299"><a href="#citable__299"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disease that affects children, adolescents, and adults.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="299"><a href="#citable__299"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The hospital report stated that, although Casey suffered symptoms characteristic of ADHD, no neurological basis for the disorder could be found.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> [HLTH] Ritalin use up(Treat symptoms not Cause) - TimeBomb 2000</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.timebomb2000.com/vb/showthread.php?threadid=532&highlight=ritalin">www.timebomb2000.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_137" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-137"><span>[</span>138<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__138" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="138"><a href="/Richard_Bromfield" title="Richard Bromfield">Richard Bromfield</a> claims that Ritalin is often prescribed not because of an underlying neurological disorder, but as an easy way to calm down children whose misbehavior actually results from ordinary causes such as bad parenting.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For many children, Ritalin is the answer simply because it works.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Usually when I hear of such an immediate drop in effectiveness, it’s because a parent starts vitamin C to prevent a cold or something like that.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta Dose: Getting It Right | ADD ADHD Blog.com</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.addadhdblog.com/concerta-getting-the-right-dose/">www.addadhdblog.com</a> [Source type: General]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="138"><a href="#citable__138"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Considered a family-saving wonder drug by many parents, Ritalin gives children who have trouble in school or difficulty socializing (due to poor impulse control) the ability to slow down, focus, and behave.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Books: Ritalin: safe and effective alternatives for ADD and ADHD</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin_books.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__206" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="206">In many such cases the child exhibits symptoms because it has become the <a href="/Identified_patient" title="Identified patient">identified patient</a> in the family.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many patients' ADD symptoms return immediately after stopping stimulants, so they restart their medication not because they crave it but because they lost its benefit when they stopped it.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>For many families, of course, such risks seem a small price to pay for the enormous relief Ritalin can offer.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ritalin dangers</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.tommyjones.org/allaboutdrugs/ritalin.html">www.tommyjones.org</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="206"><a href="#citable__206"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_138" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-138"><span>[</span>139<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__190" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="190">Treatment of ADHD has led to legal actions including <a href="/Malpractice" title="Malpractice">malpractice</a> suits regarding <a href="/Informed_consent" title="Informed consent">informed consent</a>, inadequate information on <a href="/Adverse_effect" title="Adverse effect">side-effects</a>, <a href="/Misdiagnosis" title="Misdiagnosis" class="mw-redirect">misdiagnosis</a>, and coercive use of medications by <a href="/School_systems" title="School systems" class="mw-redirect">school systems</a>.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="190"><a href="#citable__190"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="190"><a href="#citable__190"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Wellbutrin and ritalin used together for adhd side effects.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>buy ritalin blackmarket drugstore</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com/buy-ritalin-online.html">tabletsgen.5gbfreehost.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="190"><a href="#citable__190"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ritalin side effects adhd lawsuits.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title> ritalin | Google Groups </c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://groups.google.com/group/ritalin_">groups.google.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_139" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-139"><span>[</span>140<span>]</span></a></sup></div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a name="citable__128" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="128">This drug has been highly used for children.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ritalin use on the children of America is the product of psychiatrists working with the profiteering drug cartels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>It should be noted that the only drug that has received approval for use in children with major depressive disorder is fluoxetine ( Prozac ).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="128"><a href="#citable__128"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Below is a list of references for you to use in speaking with physicians and school officials or others concerned with the matter of drugging children.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <a name="citable__16" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="16">However only 70% of the drugs used for children, have been tested on children.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Ritalin use on the children of America is the product of psychiatrists working with the profiteering drug cartels.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Pschyatrists and Ritalin</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.uhuh.com/education/ritpsych.htm">www.uhuh.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Use this drug for a condition that is listed in this section only if it has been so prescribed by your health care professional.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Concerta (Methylphenidate Extended-Release Tablets) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.rxlist.com/concerta-drug.htm">www.rxlist.com</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="16"><a href="#citable__16"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>Upper limits of dosing were established years ago when stimulants were used only with children and taken only once a day (and gave a four hour effect).</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Meds Q & A</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://healthcalls.com/QuestionsAnswers.htm">healthcalls.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> Tests are usually done on adults <sup id="wikipedia_cite_ref_140" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-140"><span>[</span>141<span>]</span></a></sup>. <a name="citable__274" class="citable__local-anchor">.</a><span class='citationPopup' rel="274">It is unknown to what extent these different brands have been tested on children, and not on adults, before commercialized.</span><span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that children with ADHD are not homogeneous with regard to NA function and that neurochemical variation is closely associated with differences in clinical characteristics of the children."</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>ADHD and Norepinephrine / Epinephrine -- Neurotransmitter.net</c_title></em> <c_date>28 January 2010 0:27 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.neurotransmitter.net/adhdne.html">www.neurotransmitter.net</a> [Source type: Academic]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>The label ADHD is attached to children who are in reality deprived of appropriate adult attention These children require improved adult attention to their basic needs.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Ritalin danger! ADD and ADHD Natural Alternatives</c_title></em> <c_date>17 January 2010 4:48 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com/ritalin.htm">www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> <span class="citable__li" citable_id="274"><a href="#citable__274"><strong>^</strong></a> <c_txt>In the absence of any positive medical or scientific test, the diagnosis of add in both children and adults depends, today as a decade ago, almost exclusively on behavioral criteria.</c_txt><div style="padding-left: 10px"><small><c_src><ul><li> <em><c_title>Medication</c_title></em> <c_date>6 February 2010 10:54 UTC</c_date> <a href="http://www.itsacademictutoring.com/Medication.htm">www.itsacademictutoring.com</a> [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]</li></ul></c_src></small></div><br></span> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_See_also">See also</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="/Novartis" title="Novartis">Novartis</a></li> <li><a href="/Dextroamphetamine" title="Dextroamphetamine">Dextroamphetamine</a></li> <li><a href="/Controversy_about_ADHD" title="Controversy about ADHD" class="mw-redirect">Controversy about ADHD</a></li> <li><a href="/Methylenedioxypyrovalerone" title="Methylenedioxypyrovalerone">Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)</a></li> <li><a href="/Pemoline" title="Pemoline">Pemoline</a></li> <li><a href="/Psychoactive_drug" title="Psychoactive drug">Psychoactive drug</a></li> <li><a href="/Ritalin_class_action_lawsuits" title="Ritalin class action lawsuits">Ritalin class action lawsuits</a></li> </ul> <dl> <dt>Related drugs</dt> </dl> <ul> <li><a href="/Desoxypipradrol" title="Desoxypipradrol">Desoxypipradrol</a></li> <li><a href="/Ethylphenidate" title="Ethylphenidate">Ethylphenidate</a></li> <li><a href="/O-2172" title="O-2172">O-2172</a></li> <li><a href="/Methylnaphthidate" title="Methylnaphthidate" class="mw-redirect">Methylnaphthidate</a></li> </ul> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_References">References</span></h2> <div class="references-small references-column-count references-column-count-2" style="-moz-column-count:2; column-count:2;"> <ol class="references"> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_0"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-0">^</a></strong> <a href="http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/issues/ritalin.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Ritalin & Cocaine: The Connection and the Controversy</em></a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_1"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</a></strong> <a href="http://books.google.com.au/books?id=a-GcGVtBnqQC&pg=PA160&lpg=PA160&dq=ritalin+structurally+similar+to+amphetamine&source=bl&ots=H5EeOp30WP&sig=zbUbphfr5jQ9nAhLSjYPxStg1Fs&hl=en&ei=eirvSvvrOciHkAXz-NSYDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CA0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=&f=false" class="external text" rel="nofollow"><em>Psychiatric nursing: contemporary practice</em></a></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_2"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></strong> Brand names also include <strong>Ritalina</strong>, <strong>Rilatine</strong>, <strong>Attenta</strong>, <strong>Methylin</strong>, <strong>Penid</strong>, and <strong>Rubifen</strong>; and the sustained release tablets<strong><a href="/Concerta" title="Concerta" class="mw-redirect">Concerta</a></strong>, <strong>Metadate CD</strong>, <strong>Methylin ER</strong>, <strong>Ritalin LA</strong>, and <strong>Ritalin-SR</strong>. <strong>Focalin</strong> is a preparation containing only <a href="/Dexmethylphenidate" title="Dexmethylphenidate">dextro-methylphenidate</a>, rather than the usual <a href="/Racemic" title="Racemic" class="mw-redirect">racemic</a> <a href="/Dextro" title="Dextro">dextro</a>- and levo-methylphenidate mixture of other formulations. A newer way of taking methylphenidate is by using a <a href="/Transdermal_patch" title="Transdermal patch">transdermal patch</a> (under the brand name <strong><a href="/Daytrana" title="Daytrana">Daytrana</a></strong>), similar to those used for nicotine replacement therapy.</li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_3"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</a></strong> <span class="citation Journal">Panizzon, L. (1944). "La preparazione di piridil- e piperidil-arilacetonitrili e di alcuni prodotti di trasformazione (Parte Ia)". <em>Helvetica Chimica Acta</em> <strong>27</strong>: 1748–1756. <a href="/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1002%2Fhlca.194402701222" class="external text" rel="nofollow">10.1002/hlca.194402701222</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=La+preparazione+di+piridil-+e+piperidil-arilacetonitrili+e+di+alcuni+prodotti+di+trasformazione+%28Parte+Ia%29&rft.jtitle=Helvetica+Chimica+Acta&rft.aulast=Panizzon&rft.aufirst=L.&rft.au=Panizzon%2C%26%2332%3BL.&rft.date=1944&rft.volume=27&rft.pages=1748%E2%80%931756&rft_id=info:doi/10.1002%2Fhlca.194402701222&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span> <span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size:smaller">edit</span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_4"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></strong> <span class="citation Journal">Meier; Gross, F; Tripod, J (1954). "Ritalin, a new synthetic compound with specific analeptic components". <em>Klinische Wochenschrift</em> <strong>32</strong> (19-20): 445–50. <a href="/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13164273" class="external text" rel="nofollow">13164273</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Ritalin%2C+a+new+synthetic+compound+with+specific+analeptic+components&rft.jtitle=Klinische+Wochenschrift&rft.aulast=Meier&rft.au=Meier&rft.au=Gross%2C%26%2332%3BF&rft.au=Tripod%2C%26%2332%3BJ&rft.date=1954&rft.volume=32&rft.issue=19-20&rft.pages=445%E2%80%9350&rft_id=info:pmid/13164273&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span><span class="plainlinks noprint" style="font-size:smaller"> edit</span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_5"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></strong> <span><a href="http://www.google.com/patents?q=2507631" class="external text" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 2,507,631</a></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_6"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-6">^</a></strong> <span><a href="http://www.google.com/patents?q=2838519" class="external text" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 2,838,519</a></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_7"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></strong> <span><a href="http://www.google.com/patents?q=2957880" class="external text" rel="nofollow">U.S. Patent 2,957,880</a></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_8"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-8">^</a></strong> <span class="citation web"><a href="http://www.dea.gov/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"News from DEA, Congressional Testimony, 05/16/00"</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.dea.gov/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.dea.gov/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm</a></span><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2007-11-02</span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.btitle=News+from+DEA%2C+Congressional+Testimony%2C+05%2F16%2F00&rft.atitle=&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dea.gov%2Fpubs%2Fcngrtest%2Fct051600.htm&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_steele_9">^ <a href="#cite_ref-steele_9-0"><sup><em><strong>a</strong></em></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-steele_9-1"><sup><em><strong>b</strong></em></sup></a> <span class="citation Journal">Steele M, Weiss M, Swanson J, Wang J, Prinzo RS, Binder CE (2006). <a href="http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP_05-012_e50.pdf" class="external text" rel="nofollow">"A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of OROS-methylphenidate compared to usual care with immediate-release methylphenidate in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder"</a> (pdf). <em>Can J Clin Pharmacol</em> <strong>13</strong> (1): e50–62. <a href="/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16456216" class="external text" rel="nofollow">16456216</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP_05-012_e50.pdf" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP_05-012_e50.pdf</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=A+randomized%2C+controlled+effectiveness+trial+of+OROS-methylphenidate+compared+to+usual+care+with+immediate-release+methylphenidate+in+attention+deficit-hyperactivity+disorder&rft.jtitle=Can+J+Clin+Pharmacol&rft.aulast=Steele+M%2C+Weiss+M%2C+Swanson+J%2C+Wang+J%2C+Prinzo+RS%2C+Binder+CE&rft.au=Steele+M%2C+Weiss+M%2C+Swanson+J%2C+Wang+J%2C+Prinzo+RS%2C+Binder+CE&rft.date=2006&rft.volume=13&rft.issue=1&rft.pages=e50%E2%80%9362&rft_id=info:pmid/16456216&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cjcp.ca%2Fpdf%2FCJCP_05-012_e50.pdf&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_10"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-10">^</a></strong> <span class="citation Journal">Pelham WE, Gnagy EM, Burrows-Maclean L, <em>et al.</em> (June 2001). "Once-a-day Concerta methylphenidate versus three-times-daily methylphenidate in laboratory and natural settings". <em>Pediatrics</em> <strong>107</strong> (6): E105. <a href="/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1542%2Fpeds.107.6.e105" class="external text" rel="nofollow">10.1542/peds.107.6.e105</a>. <a href="/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11389303" class="external text" rel="nofollow">11389303</a>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Once-a-day+Concerta+methylphenidate+versus+three-times-daily+methylphenidate+in+laboratory+and+natural+settings&rft.jtitle=Pediatrics&rft.aulast=Pelham+WE%2C+Gnagy+EM%2C+Burrows-Maclean+L%2C+%27%27et+al.%27%27&rft.au=Pelham+WE%2C+Gnagy+EM%2C+Burrows-Maclean+L%2C+%27%27et+al.%27%27&rft.date=June+2001&rft.volume=107&rft.issue=6&rft.pages=E105&rft_id=info:doi/10.1542%2Fpeds.107.6.e105&rft_id=info:pmid/11389303&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_11"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-11">^</a></strong> <span class="citation Journal">Keating GM, McClellan K, Jarvis B (2001). 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href="/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2002217" class="external text" rel="nofollow">2002217</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://jcn.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2002217" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://jcn.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2002217</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Legal+issues+in+the+treatment+of+children+with+attention+deficit+hyperactivity+disorder&rft.jtitle=Journal+of+Child+Neurology&rft.aulast=Ouellette+EM&rft.au=Ouellette+EM&rft.date=1991&rft.volume=6+Suppl&rft.pages=S68%E2%80%9375&rft_id=info:pmid/2002217&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fjcn.sagepub.com%2Fcgi%2Fpmidlookup%3Fview%3Dlong%26pmid%3D2002217&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li> <li id="wikipedia_cite_note_140"><strong><a href="#cite_ref-140">^</a></strong> <a href="http://www.elpais.com/articulo/sociedad/peligroso/ensayar/ninos/elpepusoc/20091208elpepisoc_1/Tes" class="external free" rel="nofollow">http://www.elpais.com/articulo/sociedad/peligroso/ensayar/ninos/elpepusoc/20091208elpepisoc_1/Tes</a></li> </ol> </div> <h2><span class="mw-headline" id="wikipedia_External_links">External links</span></h2> <ul> <li><a href="http://www.dmoz.org/Health/Pharmacy/Drugs_and_Medications/M/Methylphenidate/" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Methylphenidate</a> at the <a href="/Open_Directory_Project" title="Open Directory Project">Open Directory Project</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/1998/bnlpr092998.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Department of Energy September 29, 1998 press release on Ritalin</a> at <a href="/Brookhaven_National_Laboratory" title="Brookhaven National Laboratory">Brookhaven National Laboratory</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.erowid.org/pharms/methylphenidate/methylphenidate.shtml" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Erowid methylphenidate vault</a></li> </ul> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="3" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Recreational_drug_use" title="Recreational drug use">Recreational drug use</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Major Recreational Drugs</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Cannabinoid" title="Cannabinoid">Cannabinoids</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Tetrahydrocannabinol" title="Tetrahydrocannabinol">THC</a> (<a href="/Cannabis_(drug)" title="Cannabis (drug)">Cannabis</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hashish" title="Hashish">Hashish</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hash_oil" title="Hash oil">Hash oil</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Depressant" title="Depressant">Depressants</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Barbiturate" title="Barbiturate">Barbiturates</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Benzodiazepine" title="Benzodiazepine">Benzodiazepines</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ethanol" title="Ethanol">Ethanol</a> (<a href="/Alcoholic_beverage" title="Alcoholic beverage">Alcoholic beverages</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Gamma-Hydroxybutyric_acid" title="Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid">GHB</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nonbenzodiazepine" title="Nonbenzodiazepine">Nonbenzodiazepines</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Kava" title="Kava">Kava</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Entactogen" title="Entactogen" class="mw-redirect">Entactogens</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDA</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDMA</a> (<a href="/Ecstasy_(drug)" title="Ecstasy (drug)" class="mw-redirect">Ecstasy</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Hallucinogens" title="Hallucinogens" class="mw-redirect">Hallucinogens</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Psychedelic_drug" title="Psychedelic drug">Psychedelics</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Bufotenin" title="Bufotenin">Bufotenin</a> (<a href="/Anadenanthera_peregrina" title="Anadenanthera peregrina">Yopo</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Anadenanthera_colubrina" title="Anadenanthera colubrina">Vilca</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Psychoactive_toad" title="Psychoactive toad">Psychoactive toads</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Dimethyltryptamine" title="Dimethyltryptamine">DMT</a> (<a href="/Ayahuasca" title="Ayahuasca">Ayahuasca</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Lysergic_acid_diethylamide" title="Lysergic acid diethylamide">LSD-25</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Mescaline" title="Mescaline">Mescaline</a> (<a href="/Peyote" title="Peyote">Peyote</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/San_pedro_cactus" title="San pedro cactus" class="mw-redirect">San Pedro</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Peruvian_Torch" title="Peruvian Torch" class="mw-redirect">Peruvian Torch</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Psilocybin" title="Psilocybin">Psilocybin</a> & <a href="/Psilocin" title="Psilocin">Psilocin</a> (<a href="/Psilocybin_mushrooms" title="Psilocybin mushrooms">Psilocybin mushrooms</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Dissociative" title="Dissociative">Dissociatives</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Dextromethorphan" title="Dextromethorphan">DXM</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Inhalant" title="Inhalant">Inhalants</a> (<a href="/Nitrous_oxide" title="Nitrous oxide">Nitrous oxide</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ketamine" title="Ketamine">Ketamine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Phencyclidine" title="Phencyclidine">PCP</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Salvinorin_A" title="Salvinorin A">Salvinorin A</a> (<a href="/Salvia_divinorum" title="Salvia divinorum">Salvia divinorum</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Deliriants" title="Deliriants" class="mw-redirect">Deliriants</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Datura" title="Datura">Datura</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Atropa_belladonna" title="Atropa belladonna">Deadly Nightshade</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hyoscyamus_niger" title="Hyoscyamus niger">Henbane</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Mandragora" title="Mandragora" class="mw-redirect">Mandrake</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Opioid" title="Opioid">Opioids</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Codeine" title="Codeine">Codeine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Diacetylmorphine" title="Diacetylmorphine" class="mw-redirect">Diacetylmorphine (heroin)</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hydrocodone" title="Hydrocodone">Hydrocodone</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Morphine" title="Morphine">Morphine</a> (<a href="/Opium" title="Opium">Opium</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Oxycodone" title="Oxycodone">Oxycodone</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Kratom" title="Kratom">Kratom</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Stimulant" title="Stimulant">Stimulants</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Arecoline" title="Arecoline">Arecoline</a> (<a href="/Areca" title="Areca">Areca</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Paan" title="Paan">Betel</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Caffeine" title="Caffeine">Caffeine</a> (<a href="/Coffee" title="Coffee">Coffee</a> - <a href="/Tea" title="Tea">Tea</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cathinone" title="Cathinone">Cathinone</a> (<a href="/Khat" title="Khat">Khat</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">Cocaine</a> (<a href="/Coca" title="Coca">Coca</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> (<a href="/Ephedra" title="Ephedra">Ephedra</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Methamphetamine" title="Methamphetamine">Methamphetamine</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <strong class="selflink">Methylphenidate</strong><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Nicotine" title="Nicotine">Nicotine</a> (<a href="/Tobacco" title="Tobacco">Tobacco</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Theobromine" title="Theobromine">Theobromine</a> (<a href="/Cocoa_bean" title="Cocoa bean">Cocoa</a>)</div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> <td style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px;" rowspan="9"><img alt="Cannabis leaf 2.svg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/09/5/9/0/0465973456179013.png" width="90" height="97" /><br /> <img alt="Pyschoactive Drugs.jpg" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/11/4/1/5/8930419521087954.jpg" width="110" height="96" /></td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Drug_subculture" title="Drug subculture">Culture</a> and Related Topics</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Cannabis_(drug)" title="Cannabis (drug)">Cannabis</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/420_(cannabis_culture)" title="420 (cannabis culture)">420</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Stoner_film" title="Stoner film">Stoner Film</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Spiritual_use_of_cannabis" title="Spiritual use of cannabis" class="mw-redirect">Spiritual Use of Cannabis</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Medical_cannabis" title="Medical cannabis">Medical Cannabis</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cannabis_(drug)_cultivation" title="Cannabis (drug) cultivation" class="mw-redirect">Cannabis Cultivation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Cannabis_smoking" title="Cannabis smoking">Cannabis smoking</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Psychedelic" title="Psychedelic">Psychedelic</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Psychedelic_art" title="Psychedelic art">Art</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Psychedelic_drug" title="Psychedelic drug">Drug</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Psychedelic_experience" title="Psychedelic experience">Experience</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Psychedelic_literature" title="Psychedelic literature">Literature</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Psychedelic_music" title="Psychedelic music">Music</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Counterculture_of_the_1960s" title="Counterculture of the 1960s">Counterculture of the 1960s</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Club_drug" title="Club drug">Club Drug</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Dance_party" title="Dance party">Dance Party</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_tourism" title="Drug tourism">Drug Tourism</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_paraphernalia" title="Drug paraphernalia">Drug Paraphernalia</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hippie" title="Hippie">Hippie</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Party_and_play" title="Party and play">Party and Play</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Poly_drug_use" title="Poly drug use">Poly Drug Use</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Rave" title="Rave">Rave</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Sex_and_drugs" title="Sex and drugs">Sex and Drugs</a> <a href="/Entheogen" title="Entheogen">Spiritual use of drugs</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Problems with Drug Use</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Drug_abuse" title="Drug abuse">Abuse</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_addiction" title="Drug addiction">Addiction</a> (<a href="/Substance_abuse_prevention" title="Substance abuse prevention">Prevention</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_rehabilitation" title="Drug rehabilitation">Rehabilitation</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Responsible_drug_use" title="Responsible drug use">Responsible Use</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Illegal_drug_trade" title="Illegal drug trade">Illegal Trade</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_overdose" title="Drug overdose">Overdose</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Legality of Drug Use</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">International</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Single_Convention_on_Narcotic_Drugs" title="Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs">1961 Narcotic Drugs</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Convention_on_Psychotropic_Substances" title="Convention on Psychotropic Substances">1971 Psychotropic Substances</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/United_Nations_Convention_Against_Illicit_Traffic_in_Narcotic_Drugs_and_Psychotropic_Substances" title="United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances">1988 Drug Trafficking</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">State Level</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Drug_policy" title="Drug policy">Drug Policy</a> (<a href="/Prohibition_(drugs)" title="Prohibition (drugs)">Prohibition</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Decriminalization" title="Decriminalization">Decriminalization</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_policy_reform" title="Drug policy reform">Policy Reform</a> (<a href="/Drug_liberalization" title="Drug liberalization">Liberalization</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Harm_reduction" title="Harm reduction">Harm Reduction</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Demand_reduction" title="Demand reduction">Demand Reduction</a>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Other</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Designer_drug" title="Designer drug">Designer Drug</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_possession" title="Drug possession">Drug Possession</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Drug_test" title="Drug test">Drug Test</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Hard_and_soft_drugs" title="Hard and soft drugs">Hard and Soft Drugs</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Narc_(narcotics)" title="Narc (narcotics)">Narc</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/War_on_Drugs" title="War on Drugs">War on Drugs</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Lists of Countries by...</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/List_of_countries_by_alcohol_consumption" title="List of countries by alcohol consumption">Alcohol Consumed</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Legality_of_cannabis_by_country" title="Legality of cannabis by country">Cannabis Legality</a> (<a href="/Annual_cannabis_use_by_country" title="Annual cannabis use by country">Annual Use</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/Adult_lifetime_cannabis_use_by_country" title="Adult lifetime cannabis use by country">Lifetime Use</a>)<span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/List_of_countries_by_prevalence_of_cocaine_use" title="List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use">Cocaine Use</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/List_of_countries_by_prevalence_of_opiates_use" title="List of countries by prevalence of opiates use">Opiate Use</a><span style="font-weight:bold;"> ·</span> <a href="/List_of_countries_by_tobacco_consumption_per_capita" title="List of countries by tobacco consumption per capita" class="mw-redirect">Tobacco Smoked</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Stimulant" title="Stimulant">Stimulants</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Adamantane" title="Adamantane">Adamantanes</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">Adaphenoxate • Adapromine • <a href="/Amantadine" title="Amantadine">Amantadine</a> • <a href="/Bromantane" title="Bromantane">Bromantane</a> • Chlodantane • Gludantane • <a href="/Memantine" title="Memantine">Memantine</a> • Midantane</div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Arylcyclohexylamine" title="Arylcyclohexylamine">Arylcyclohexylamines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Benocyclidine" title="Benocyclidine">Benocyclidine</a> • <a href="/Dieticyclidine" title="Dieticyclidine">Dieticyclidine</a> • <a href="/Esketamine" title="Esketamine">Esketamine</a> • <a href="/Eticyclidine" title="Eticyclidine">Eticyclidine</a> • <a href="/Gacyclidine" title="Gacyclidine">Gacyclidine</a> • <a href="/Ketamine" title="Ketamine">Ketamine</a> • Phencyclamine • <a href="/Phencyclidine" title="Phencyclidine">Phencyclidine</a> • <a href="/Rolicyclidine" title="Rolicyclidine">Rolicyclidine</a> • <a href="/Tenocyclidine" title="Tenocyclidine">Tenocyclidine</a> • <a href="/Tiletamine" title="Tiletamine">Tiletamine</a> •</div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Benzazepine" title="Benzazepine">Benzazepines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/6-Br-APB" title="6-Br-APB">6-Br-APB</a> • <a href="/SKF-81297" title="SKF-81297" class="mw-redirect">SKF-81297</a> • <a href="/SKF-82958" title="SKF-82958" class="mw-redirect">SKF-82958</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Acetylcholine" title="Acetylcholine">Cholinergics</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/A-84543" title="A-84543" class="mw-redirect">A-84543</a> • <a href="/A-366,833" title="A-366,833">A-366,833</a> • <a href="/ABT-202" title="ABT-202">ABT-202</a> • <a href="/ABT-418" title="ABT-418">ABT-418</a> • <a href="/AR-R17779" title="AR-R17779">AR-R17779</a> • <a href="/Altinicline" title="Altinicline">Altinicline</a> • <a href="/Anabasine" title="Anabasine">Anabasine</a> • <a href="/Arecoline" title="Arecoline">Arecoline</a> • <a href="/Cotinine" title="Cotinine">Cotinine</a> • <a href="/Cytisine" title="Cytisine">Cytisine</a> • <a href="/Dianicline" title="Dianicline">Dianicline</a> • <a href="/Epibatidine" title="Epibatidine">Epibatidine</a> • <a href="/Epiboxidine" title="Epiboxidine">Epiboxidine</a> • <a href="/GTS-21" title="GTS-21">GTS-21</a> • <a href="/Ispronicline" title="Ispronicline">Ispronicline</a> • <a href="/Nicotine" title="Nicotine">Nicotine</a> • <a href="/PHA-543,613" title="PHA-543,613">PHA-543,613</a> • <a href="/PNU-120,596" title="PNU-120,596">PNU-120,596</a> • <a href="/PNU-282,987" title="PNU-282,987">PNU-282,987</a> • <a href="/Pozanicline" title="Pozanicline">Pozanicline</a> • <a href="/Rivanicline" title="Rivanicline">Rivanicline</a> • <a href="/Sazetidine_A" title="Sazetidine A">Sazetidine A</a> • SIB-1553A • <a href="/SSR-180,711" title="SSR-180,711">SSR-180,711</a> • <a href="/TC-1698" title="TC-1698">TC-1698</a> • TC-1827 • <a href="/TC-2216" title="TC-2216">TC-2216</a> • <a href="/TC-5619" title="TC-5619">TC-5619</a> • <a href="/Tebanicline" title="Tebanicline">Tebanicline</a> • <a href="/UB-165" title="UB-165">UB-165</a> • <a href="/Varenicline" title="Varenicline">Varenicline</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Convulsion" title="Convulsion">Convulsants</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Anatoxin-a" title="Anatoxin-a">Anatoxin-a</a> • <a href="/Bicuculline" title="Bicuculline">Bicuculline</a> • <a href="/DMCM" title="DMCM">DMCM</a> • <a href="/Flurothyl" title="Flurothyl">Flurothyl</a> • <a href="/Gabazine" title="Gabazine">Gabazine</a> • <a href="/Pentylenetetrazol" title="Pentylenetetrazol">Pentetrazol</a> • <a href="/Picrotoxin" title="Picrotoxin">Picrotoxin</a> • <a href="/Strychnine" title="Strychnine">Strychnine</a> • <a href="/Thujone" title="Thujone">Thujone</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Eugeroic" title="Eugeroic">Eugeroics</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Adrafinil" title="Adrafinil">Adrafinil</a> • <a href="/Armodafinil" title="Armodafinil">Armodafinil</a> • <a href="/CRL-40941" title="CRL-40941" class="mw-redirect">CRL-40941</a> • <a href="/Modafinil" title="Modafinil">Modafinil</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Oxazoline" title="Oxazoline">Oxazolines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/4-Methylaminorex" title="4-Methylaminorex">4-Methylaminorex</a> • <a href="/Aminorex" title="Aminorex">Aminorex</a> • <a href="/Clominorex" title="Clominorex">Clominorex</a> • <a href="/Cyclazodone" title="Cyclazodone">Cyclazodone</a> • <a href="/Fenozolone" title="Fenozolone">Fenozolone</a> • <a href="/Fluminorex" title="Fluminorex">Fluminorex</a> • <a href="/Pemoline" title="Pemoline">Pemoline</a> • <a href="/Thozalinone" title="Thozalinone">Thozalinone</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Substituted_phenethylamine" title="Substituted phenethylamine" class="mw-redirect">Phenethylamines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/2-Fluoroamphetamine" title="2-Fluoroamphetamine">2-Fluoroamphetamine</a> • <a href="/2-Fluoromethamphetamine" title="2-Fluoromethamphetamine">2-Fluoromethamphetamine</a> • <a href="/2-Hydroxyphenethylamine" title="2-Hydroxyphenethylamine">2-OH-PEA</a> • 2-Phenyl-3-aminobutane • 2-Phenyl-3-methylaminobutane • <a href="/2,3-Methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="2,3-Methylenedioxyamphetamine">2,3-MDA</a> • <a href="/3-Fluoroamphetamine" title="3-Fluoroamphetamine">3-Fluoroamphetamine</a> • <a href="/3-Fluoromethcathinone" title="3-Fluoromethcathinone">3-Fluoromethcathinone</a> • <a href="/3-Methoxyamphetamine" title="3-Methoxyamphetamine">3-Methoxyamphetamine</a> • <a href="/3-Methylamphetamine" title="3-Methylamphetamine">3-Methylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/4-Bromomethcathinone" title="4-Bromomethcathinone">4-BMC</a> • <a href="/4-Ethylamphetamine" title="4-Ethylamphetamine">4-Ethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/4-Fluoroamphetamine" title="4-Fluoroamphetamine">4-FA</a> • <a href="/4-Fluoromethamphetamine" title="4-Fluoromethamphetamine">4-FMA</a> • <a href="/4-Methylamphetamine" title="4-Methylamphetamine">4-MA</a> • <a href="/4-Methylmethamphetamine" title="4-Methylmethamphetamine">4-MMA</a> • <a href="/4-Methylthioamphetamine" title="4-Methylthioamphetamine">4-MTA</a> • <a href="/6-Fluoronorepinephrine" title="6-Fluoronorepinephrine">6-FNE</a> • <a href="/Alfetamine" title="Alfetamine">Alfetamine</a> • <a href="/Alpha-Ethylphenethylamine" title="Alpha-Ethylphenethylamine">α-Ethylphenethylamine</a> • <a href="/Amfecloral" title="Amfecloral">Amfecloral</a> • <a href="/Amfepentorex" title="Amfepentorex">Amfepentorex</a> • <a href="/Amfepramone" title="Amfepramone">Amfepramone</a> • <a href="/Amidephrine" title="Amidephrine">Amidephrine</a> • <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a> (<a href="/Dextroamphetamine" title="Dextroamphetamine">Dextroamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levoamphetamine" title="Levoamphetamine">Levoamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Amphetaminil" title="Amphetaminil">Amphetaminil</a> • <a href="/Arbutamine" title="Arbutamine">Arbutamine</a> • <a href="/Atomoxetine" title="Atomoxetine">Atomoxetine</a> (Tomoxetine) • <a href="/Beta-Methylphenethylamine" title="Beta-Methylphenethylamine">β-Methylphenethylamine</a> • <a href="/Benfluorex" title="Benfluorex">Benfluorex</a> • <a href="/Benzphetamine" title="Benzphetamine">Benzphetamine</a> • <a href="/Benzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylbutanamine">BDB</a> (J) • <a href="/Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine">BOH</a> (Hydroxy-J) • <a href="/Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane" title="Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane">BPAP</a> • <a href="/Buphedrone" title="Buphedrone">Buphedrone</a> • <a href="/Bupropion" title="Bupropion">Bupropion</a> (Amfebutamone) • <a href="/Butylone" title="Butylone">Butylone</a> • <a href="/Cathine" title="Cathine">Cathine</a> • <a href="/Cathinone" title="Cathinone">Cathinone</a> • <a href="/Chlorphentermine" title="Chlorphentermine">Chlorphentermine</a> • <a href="/Clenbuterol" title="Clenbuterol">Clenbuterol</a> • <a href="/Clobenzorex" title="Clobenzorex">Clobenzorex</a> • <a href="/Clortermine" title="Clortermine">Clortermine</a> • <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/Denopamine" title="Denopamine">Denopamine</a> • <a href="/Dimethoxyamphetamine" title="Dimethoxyamphetamine">Dimethoxyamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Dimethylamphetamine" title="Dimethylamphetamine">Dimethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Dimethylcathinone" title="Dimethylcathinone">Dimethylcathinone</a> (Dimethylpropion, Metamfepramone) • <a href="/Dobutamine" title="Dobutamine">Dobutamine</a> • <a href="/L-DOPA" title="L-DOPA">DOPA</a> (<a href="/Dextrodopa" title="Dextrodopa" class="mw-redirect">Dextrodopa</a>, <a href="/Levodopa" title="Levodopa" class="mw-redirect">Levodopa</a>) • <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">Dopamine</a> • <a href="/Dopexamine" title="Dopexamine">Dopexamine</a> • <a href="/Droxidopa" title="Droxidopa" class="mw-redirect">Droxidopa</a> • <a href="/Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">EBDB</a> (Ethyl-J) • <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> • <a href="/Epinephrine" title="Epinephrine">Epinephrine</a> (Adrenaline) • <a href="/Epinine" title="Epinine" class="mw-redirect">Epinine</a> (Deoxyepinephrine) • <a href="/Etafedrine" title="Etafedrine">Etafedrine</a> • <a href="/Ethcathinone" title="Ethcathinone">Ethcathinone</a> (Ethylpropion) • <a href="/Ethylamphetamine" title="Ethylamphetamine">Ethylamphetamine</a> (Etilamfetamine) • <a href="/Ethylnorepinephrine" title="Ethylnorepinephrine">Ethylnorepinephrine</a> (Butanefrine) • <a href="/Ethylone" title="Ethylone">Ethylone</a> • <a href="/Etilefrine" title="Etilefrine">Etilefrine</a> • Fenbutrazate • <a href="/Fencamine" title="Fencamine">Fencamine</a> • <a href="/Fencamfamine" title="Fencamfamine">Fencamfamine</a> • <a href="/Fenethylline" title="Fenethylline">Fenethylline</a> • <a href="/Fenfluramine" title="Fenfluramine">Fenfluramine</a> (<a href="/Dexfenfluramine" title="Dexfenfluramine">Dexfenfluramine</a>) • <a href="/Fenproporex" title="Fenproporex">Fenproporex</a> • <a href="/Flephedrone" title="Flephedrone">Flephedrone</a> • <a href="/Fludorex" title="Fludorex">Fludorex</a> • <a href="/Furfenorex" title="Furfenorex">Furfenorex</a> • <a href="/Gepefrine" title="Gepefrine">Gepefrine</a> • HMMA • <a href="/Hordenine" title="Hordenine">Hordenine</a> • <a href="/Ibopamine" title="Ibopamine">Ibopamine</a> • <a href="/Indanorex" title="Indanorex">Indanorex</a> • <a href="/Indanylmethylaminopropane" title="Indanylmethylaminopropane">IMP</a> • <a href="/Indanylamphetamine" title="Indanylamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Indanylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Isoetarine" title="Isoetarine">Isoetarine</a> • <a href="/Isoprenaline" title="Isoprenaline">Isoprenaline</a> (Isoproterenol) • <a href="/L-Deprenyl" title="L-Deprenyl" class="mw-redirect">L-Deprenyl</a> (Selegiline) • <a href="/Lefetamine" title="Lefetamine">Lefetamine</a> • <a href="/Lisdexamfetamine" title="Lisdexamfetamine">Lisdexamfetamine</a> • <a href="/Lophophine" title="Lophophine" class="mw-redirect">Lophophine</a> (Homomyristicylamine) • <a href="/Manifaxine" title="Manifaxine">Manifaxine</a> • <a href="/Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">MBDB</a> (Methyl-J; "Eden") • <a href="/Methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDA</a> (Tenamfetamine) • <a href="/Methylenedioxybutylamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxybutylamphetamine">MDBU</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine">MDEA</a> ("Eve") • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDMA</a> ("Ecstasy", "Adam") • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine">MDMPEA</a> (Homarylamine) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine">MDOH</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxypropylamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxypropylamphetamine">MDPR</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxyphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxyphenethylamine">MDPEA</a> (Homopiperonylamine) • <a href="/Mefenorex" title="Mefenorex">Mefenorex</a> • <a href="/Mephedrone" title="Mephedrone">Mephedrone</a> • <a href="/Mephentermine" title="Mephentermine">Mephentermine</a> • <a href="/Metanephrine" title="Metanephrine">Metanephrine</a> • <a href="/Metaraminol" title="Metaraminol">Metaraminol</a> • <a href="/Methamphetamine" title="Methamphetamine">Methamphetamine</a> (Desoxyephedrine, Methedrine; <a href="/Dextromethamphetamine" title="Dextromethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Dextromethamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levomethamphetamine" title="Levomethamphetamine">Levomethamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Methoxamine" title="Methoxamine">Methoxamine</a> • <a href="/Methoxyphenamine" title="Methoxyphenamine">Methoxyphenamine</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MMA</a> • <a href="/Methcathinone" title="Methcathinone">Methcathinone</a> (Methylpropion) • <a href="/Methedrone" title="Methedrone" class="mw-redirect">Methedrone</a> • <a href="/Methoxyphenamine" title="Methoxyphenamine">Methoxyphenamine</a> • <a href="/Methylone" title="Methylone">Methylone</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine">MMDA</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine">MMDMA</a> • <a href="/3-Methoxymethamphetamine" title="3-Methoxymethamphetamine">MMMA</a> • <a href="/Naphthylamphetamine" title="Naphthylamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Naphthylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Nisoxetine" title="Nisoxetine">Nisoxetine</a> • <a href="/Norepinephrine" title="Norepinephrine">Norepinephrine</a> (Noradrenaline) • <a href="/Norfenefrine" title="Norfenefrine">Norfenefrine</a> • <a href="/Norfenfluramine" title="Norfenfluramine">Norfenfluramine</a> • <a href="/Normetanephrine" title="Normetanephrine">Normetanephrine</a> • <a href="/Octopamine" title="Octopamine">Octopamine</a> • <a href="/Orciprenaline" title="Orciprenaline">Orciprenaline</a> • <a href="/Ortetamine" title="Ortetamine">Ortetamine</a> • <a href="/Oxilofrine" title="Oxilofrine">Oxilofrine</a> • <a href="/Paredrine" title="Paredrine" class="mw-redirect">Paredrine</a> (Norpholedrine, Oxamphetamine, Mycadrine) • <a href="/Parabromoamphetamine" title="Parabromoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PBA</a> • <a href="/Parachloroamphetamine" title="Parachloroamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PCA</a> • <a href="/Parahydroxyamphetamine" title="Parahydroxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PHA</a> • <a href="/Pargyline" title="Pargyline">Pargyline</a> • <a href="/Pentylone" title="Pentylone" class="mw-redirect">Pentylone</a> • <a href="/Phendimetrazine" title="Phendimetrazine">Phendimetrazine</a> • <a href="/Phenmetrazine" title="Phenmetrazine">Phenmetrazine</a> • <a href="/Phenpentermine" title="Phenpentermine">Phenpentermine</a> • <a href="/Phenpromethamine" title="Phenpromethamine">Phenpromethamine</a> • <a href="/Phentermine" title="Phentermine">Phentermine</a> • <a href="/Phenylalanine" title="Phenylalanine">Phenylalanine</a> • <a href="/Phenylephrine" title="Phenylephrine">Phenylephrine</a> (Neosynephrine) • <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">Phenylpropanolamine</a> • <a href="/Pholedrine" title="Pholedrine">Pholedrine</a> • <a href="/Paraiodoamphetamine" title="Paraiodoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PIA</a> • <a href="/Paramethoxyamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PMA</a> • <a href="/Paramethoxyethylamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyethylamphetamine">PMEA</a> • <a href="/Paramethoxymethamphetamine" title="Paramethoxymethamphetamine">PMMA</a> • <a href="/Phenylpropylaminopentane" title="Phenylpropylaminopentane">PPAP</a> • <a href="/Prenylamine" title="Prenylamine">Prenylamine</a> • <a href="/Propylamphetamine" title="Propylamphetamine">Propylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Pseudoephedrine" title="Pseudoephedrine">Pseudoephedrine</a> • <a href="/Radafaxine" title="Radafaxine">Radafaxine</a> • <a href="/Ropinirole" title="Ropinirole">Ropinirole</a> • <a href="/Salbutamol" title="Salbutamol">Salbutamol</a> (Albuterol; <a href="/Levosalbutamol" title="Levosalbutamol">Levosalbutamol</a>) • <a href="/Sibutramine" title="Sibutramine">Sibutramine</a> • <a href="/Synephrine" title="Synephrine">Synephrine</a> (Oxedrine) • <a href="/Theodrenaline" title="Theodrenaline">Theodrenaline</a> • <a href="/Tiflorex" title="Tiflorex">Tiflorex</a> (Flutiorex) • <a href="/Tranylcypromine" title="Tranylcypromine">Tranylcypromine</a> • <a href="/Tyramine" title="Tyramine">Tyramine</a> • <a href="/Tyrosine" title="Tyrosine">Tyrosine</a> • <a href="/Xamoterol" title="Xamoterol">Xamoterol</a> • <a href="/Xylopropamine" title="Xylopropamine">Xylopropamine</a> • <a href="/Zylofuramine" title="Zylofuramine">Zylofuramine</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Piperazine" title="Piperazine">Piperazines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/2C-B-BZP" title="2C-B-BZP">2C-B-BZP</a> • <a href="/Benzylpiperazine" title="Benzylpiperazine">BZP</a> • <a href="/DBL-583" title="DBL-583">DBL-583</a> • GBR-12783 • <a href="/GBR-12935" title="GBR-12935">GBR-12935</a> • GBR-13069 • GBR-13098 • GBR-13119 • <a href="/MeOPP" title="MeOPP" class="mw-redirect">MeOPP</a> • <a href="/1-Methyl-4-benzylpiperazine" title="1-Methyl-4-benzylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">MBZP</a> • <a href="/Vanoxerine" title="Vanoxerine">Vanoxerine</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Piperidine" title="Piperidine">Piperidines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/2-Benzylpiperidine" title="2-Benzylpiperidine">2-Benzylpiperidine</a> • <a href="/4-Benzylpiperidine" title="4-Benzylpiperidine">4-Benzylpiperidine</a> • <a href="/Desoxypipradrol" title="Desoxypipradrol">Desoxypipradrol</a> • <a href="/Diphemethoxidine" title="Diphemethoxidine">Diphemethoxidine</a> • <a href="/Ethylphenidate" title="Ethylphenidate">Ethylphenidate</a> • <a href="/HDMP-28" title="HDMP-28">Methylnaphthidate</a> • <strong class="selflink">Methylphenidate</strong> (<a href="/Dexmethylphenidate" title="Dexmethylphenidate">Dexmethylphenidate</a>) • <a href="/Nocaine" title="Nocaine" class="mw-redirect">Nocaine</a> • <a href="/Phacetoperane" title="Phacetoperane" class="mw-redirect">Phacetoperane</a> • <a href="/Pipradrol" title="Pipradrol">Pipradrol</a> • <a href="/SCH-5472" title="SCH-5472">SCH-5472</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Pyrrolidine" title="Pyrrolidine">Pyrrolidines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><a href="/Alpha-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone" title="Alpha-Pyrrolidinopropiophenone">α-PPP</a> • <a href="/Alpha-Pyrrolidinobutiophenone" title="Alpha-Pyrrolidinobutiophenone">α-PBP</a> • <a href="/Alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone" title="Alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone">α-PVP</a> • <a href="/3%27,4%27-Methylenedioxy-%CE%B1-pyrrolidinopropiophenone" title="3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone">MDPPP</a> • <a href="/3%27,4%27-Methylenedioxy-%CE%B1-pyrrolidinobutiophenone" title="3',4'-Methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone">MDPBP</a> • <a href="/3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone" title="3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone" class="mw-redirect">MDPV</a> • <a href="/4%27-Methyl-%CE%B1-pyrrolidinobutiophenone" title="4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone">MPBP</a> • <a href="/4%27-Methyl-%CE%B1-pyrrolidinohexiophenone" title="4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone">MPHP</a> • <a href="/4%27-Methyl-%CE%B1-pyrrolidinopropiophenone" title="4'-Methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone">MPPP</a> • <a href="/4%27-Methoxy-%CE%B1-pyrrolidinopropiophenone" title="4'-Methoxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone">MOPPP</a> • <a href="/O-2482" title="O-2482">Naphyrone</a> • <a href="/Prolintane" title="Prolintane">Prolintane</a> • <a href="/Pyrovalerone" title="Pyrovalerone">Pyrovalerone</a></div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Tropane" title="Tropane">Tropanes</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">3α-Bis-(4-fluorophenyl)methoxytropane • 3-CPMT • <a href="/3-(p-Fluorobenzoyloxy)tropane" title="3-(p-Fluorobenzoyloxy)tropane">3-Pseudotropyl-4-fluorobenzoate</a> • <a href="/Altropane" title="Altropane">Altropane (IACFT)</a> • <a href="/Brasofensine" title="Brasofensine">Brasofensine</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbomethoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">CFT (WIN 35,428)</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbomethoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-iodophenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">β-CIT (RTI-55)</a> • <a href="/Cocaethylene" title="Cocaethylene">Cocaethylene</a> • <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">Cocaine</a> • <a href="/Dichloropane" title="Dichloropane">Dichloropane (RTI-111)</a> • <a href="/Difluoropine" title="Difluoropine">Difluoropine</a> • <a href="/N-(2%27-Fluoroethyl-)-3%CE%B2-(4%27-chlorophenyl)-2%CE%B2-(3%27-phenylisoxazol-5%27-yl)nortropane" title="N-(2'-Fluoroethyl-)-3β-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2β-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)nortropane">FE-β-CPPIT</a> • <a href="/N-(3%27-Fluoropropyl-)-3%CE%B2-(4%27-chlorophenyl)-2%CE%B2-(3%27-phenylisoxazol-5%27-yl)nortropane" title="N-(3'-Fluoropropyl-)-3β-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2β-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)nortropane">FP-β-CPPIT</a> • <a href="/Ioflupane_(123I)" title="Ioflupane (123I)">Ioflupane (<sup>123</sup>I)</a> • <a href="/Norcocaine" title="Norcocaine">Norcocaine</a> • <a href="/2-Propanoyl-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-tropane" title="2-Propanoyl-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-tropane">PIT</a> • <a href="/2%CE%B2-Propanoyl-3%CE%B2-(4-tolyl)-tropane" title="2β-Propanoyl-3β-(4-tolyl)-tropane">PTT</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbomethoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">RTI-31</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbomethoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-methylphenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-methylphenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">RTI-32</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbomethoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-bromophenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-bromophenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">RTI-51</a> • RTI-105 • <a href="/RTI-112" title="RTI-112">RTI-112</a> • <a href="/RTI-113" title="RTI-113">RTI-113</a> • RTI-117 • <a href="/RTI-121" title="RTI-121">RTI-121 (IPCIT)</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-methyl)-3%CE%B2-phenyltropane" title="(-)-2β-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-methyl)-3β-phenyltropane" class="mw-redirect">RTI-126</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbocyclobutoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-methylphenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbocyclobutoxy-3β-(4-methylphenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">RTI-150</a> • RTI-154 • RTI-171 • <a href="/RTI-177" title="RTI-177">RTI-177</a> • RTI-183 • RTI-194 • RTI-202 • <a href="/RTI-229" title="RTI-229">RTI-229</a> • RTI-241 • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-(3-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-3%CE%B2-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-(3-(4-methylphenyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">RTI-336</a> • RTI-354 • <a href="/RTI-371" title="RTI-371">RTI-371</a> • RTI-386 • <a href="/Salicylmethylecgonine" title="Salicylmethylecgonine">Salicylmethylecgonine</a> • <a href="/Tesofensine" title="Tesofensine">Tesofensine</a> • <a href="/Troparil" title="Troparil">Troparil (β-CPT, WIN 35,065-2)</a> • <a href="/Tropoxane" title="Tropoxane">Tropoxane</a> • <a href="/2%CE%B2-Propanoyl-3%CE%B2-(2-naphthyl)-tropane" title="2β-Propanoyl-3β-(2-naphthyl)-tropane">WF-23</a> • <a href="/2%CE%B1-(Propanoyl)-3%CE%B2-(2-(6-methoxynaphthyl))-tropane" title="2α-(Propanoyl)-3β-(2-(6-methoxynaphthyl))-tropane">WF-33</a> • WF-60</div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Xanthine" title="Xanthine">Xanthines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Aminophylline" title="Aminophylline">Aminophylline</a> • <a href="/Caffeine" title="Caffeine">Caffeine</a> • <a href="/Dimethazan" title="Dimethazan">Dimethazan</a> • <a href="/Paraxanthine" title="Paraxanthine">Paraxanthine</a> • <a href="/Theobromine" title="Theobromine">Theobromine</a> • <a href="/Theophylline" title="Theophylline">Theophylline</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Others</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"> <div> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block">1-(Thiophen-2-yl)-2-aminopropane • <a href="/2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene" title="2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene">2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene</a> • <a href="/2-Aminoindane" title="2-Aminoindane">2-Aminoindane</a> • <a href="/2-Aminotetralin" title="2-Aminotetralin">2-Aminotetralin</a> • <a href="/2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine" title="2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine">2-Diphenylmethylpyrrolidine</a> • <a href="/2-MDP" title="2-MDP">2-MDP</a> • <a href="/5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole" title="5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole">5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole</a> • AL-1095 • <a href="/Amfonelic_acid" title="Amfonelic acid">Amfonelic acid</a> • <a href="/Amineptine" title="Amineptine">Amineptine</a> • <a href="/Amiphenazole" title="Amiphenazole">Amiphenazole</a> • <a href="/Atipamezole" title="Atipamezole">Atipamezole</a> • <a href="/Bemegride" title="Bemegride">Bemegride</a> • <a href="/Benzydamine" title="Benzydamine">Benzydamine</a> • <a href="/2-Butyl-3-(p-tolyl)quinuclidine" title="2-Butyl-3-(p-tolyl)quinuclidine" class="mw-redirect">BTQ</a> • <a href="/BTS_74,398" title="BTS 74,398">BTS 74,398</a> • <a href="/Phenylpiracetam" title="Phenylpiracetam">Carphedon</a> • <a href="/Ciclazindol" title="Ciclazindol">Ciclazindol</a> • <a href="/Cilobamine" title="Cilobamine">Cilobamine</a> • <a href="/Clofenciclan" title="Clofenciclan">Clofenciclan</a> • Cropropamide • Crotetamide • <a href="/Diclofensine" title="Diclofensine">Diclofensine</a> • <a href="/Dimethocaine" title="Dimethocaine">Dimethocaine</a> • <a href="/Diphenylprolinol" title="Diphenylprolinol">Diphenylprolinol</a> • <a href="/Efaroxan" title="Efaroxan">Efaroxan</a> • <a href="/Etamivan" title="Etamivan">Etamivan</a> • <a href="/Fenpentadiol" title="Fenpentadiol">Fenpentadiol</a> • <a href="/Feprosidnine" title="Feprosidnine">Feprosidnine</a> • <a href="/Gamfexine" title="Gamfexine">Gamfexine</a> • <a href="/Gilutensin" title="Gilutensin">Gilutensin</a> • <a href="/GYKI-52895" title="GYKI-52895">GYKI-52895</a> • <a href="/Hexacyclonate" title="Hexacyclonate">Hexacyclonate</a> • <a href="/Idazoxan" title="Idazoxan">Idazoxan</a> • <a href="/Indatraline" title="Indatraline">Indatraline</a> • <a href="/JNJ-7925476" title="JNJ-7925476" class="mw-redirect">JNJ-7925476</a> • <a href="/JZ-IV-10" title="JZ-IV-10">JZ-IV-10</a> • <a href="/Lazabemide" title="Lazabemide">Lazabemide</a> • Leptacline • <a href="/LR-5182" title="LR-5182">LR-5182</a> • <a href="/Mazindol" title="Mazindol">Mazindol</a> • Meclofexonate • <a href="/Medifoxamine" title="Medifoxamine">Medifoxamine</a> • Mefexamide • <a href="/Mesocarb" title="Mesocarb">Mesocarb</a> • <a href="/Nefopam" title="Nefopam">Nefopam</a> • <a href="/Nikethamide" title="Nikethamide">Nikethamide</a> • <a href="/Nomifensine" title="Nomifensine">Nomifensine</a> • <a href="/O-2172" title="O-2172">O-2172</a> • <a href="/Oxaprotiline" title="Oxaprotiline">Oxaprotiline</a> • <a href="/Phthalimidopropiophenone" title="Phthalimidopropiophenone">Phthalimidopropiophenone</a> • <a href="/Propylhexedrine" title="Propylhexedrine">Propylhexedrine</a> • <a href="/PRC200-SS" title="PRC200-SS" class="mw-redirect">PRC200-SS</a> • <a href="/Rasagiline" title="Rasagiline">Rasagiline</a> • <a href="/Rauwolscine" title="Rauwolscine">Rauwolscine</a> • <a href="/Rubidium_chloride" title="Rubidium chloride">Rubidium chloride</a> • <a href="/Tametraline" title="Tametraline">Tametraline</a> • <a href="/Tandamine" title="Tandamine">Tandamine</a> • <a href="/UH-232" title="UH-232">UH-232</a> • <a href="/Yohimbine" title="Yohimbine">Yohimbine</a> •</div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-abovebelow" style=";font-style:italic" colspan="2">See also Sympathomimetic amines</td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Psychostimulant" title="Psychostimulant" class="mw-redirect">Psychostimulants</a>, Agents Used for <a href="/ADHD" title="ADHD" class="mw-redirect">ADHD</a>, and <a href="/Nootropic" title="Nootropic">Nootropics</a> (<a href="/ATC_code_N06" title="ATC code N06">N06B</a>)</span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;">Centrally acting <a href="/Sympathomimetic" title="Sympathomimetic" class="mw-redirect">sympathomimetics</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a> • <a href="/Amphetaminil" title="Amphetaminil">Amphetaminil</a> • <a href="/Atomoxetine" title="Atomoxetine">Atomoxetine</a> • <a href="/Dextroamphetamine" title="Dextroamphetamine">Dextroamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Methamphetamine" title="Methamphetamine">Dextromethamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Fencamfamine" title="Fencamfamine">Fencamfamine</a> • <a href="/Fenozolone" title="Fenozolone">Fenozolone</a> • <a href="/Fenethylline" title="Fenethylline">Fenethylline</a> • <a href="/Lisdexamfetamine" title="Lisdexamfetamine">Lisdexamfetamine</a> • <strong class="selflink">Methylphenidate</strong> • <a href="/Mesocarb" title="Mesocarb">Mesocarb</a> • <a href="/Pemoline" title="Pemoline">Pemoline</a> • <a href="/Pipradrol" title="Pipradrol">Pipradrol</a> • <a href="/Prolintane" title="Prolintane">Prolintane</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/Xanthine" title="Xanthine">Xanthine</a> derivatives</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Caffeine" title="Caffeine">Caffeine</a> • <a href="/Propentofylline" title="Propentofylline">Propentofylline</a> • Fenethylline</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/Glutamate_receptor" title="Glutamate receptor">Glutamate receptor</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Racetam" title="Racetam">Racetams</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Aniracetam" title="Aniracetam">Aniracetam</a> • <a href="/Nefiracetam" title="Nefiracetam">Nefiracetam</a> • <a href="/Noopept" title="Noopept">Noopept</a> • <a href="/Oxiracetam" title="Oxiracetam">Oxiracetam</a> • <a href="/Phenylpiracetam" title="Phenylpiracetam">Phenylpiracetam</a> • <a href="/Piracetam" title="Piracetam">Piracetam</a> • <a href="/Pramiracetam" title="Pramiracetam">Pramiracetam</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Ampakine" title="Ampakine">Ampakines</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/CX-516" title="CX-516">CX-516</a> • <a href="/CX-546" title="CX-546">CX-546</a> • <a href="/CX-614" title="CX-614" class="mw-redirect">CX-614</a> • <a href="/Farampator" title="Farampator">CX-691</a> • <a href="/CX717" title="CX717">CX-717</a> • <a href="/IDRA-21" title="IDRA-21">IDRA-21</a> • <a href="/LY-404,187" title="LY-404,187">LY-404,187</a> • <a href="/LY-503,430" title="LY-503,430">LY-503,430</a> • <a href="/PEPA_(drug)" title="PEPA (drug)">PEPA</a> • <a href="/Sunifiram" title="Sunifiram">Sunifiram</a> • <a href="/Unifiram" title="Unifiram">Unifiram</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;">Eugeroics / <a href="/Benzhydryl_compounds" title="Benzhydryl compounds">Benzhydryl compounds</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Adrafinil" title="Adrafinil">Adrafinil</a> • <a href="/Armodafinil" title="Armodafinil">Armodafinil</a> • <a href="/Modafinil" title="Modafinil">Modafinil</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/Histamine_H3_receptor" title="Histamine H3 receptor">Histamine H3 receptor</a> <a href="/H3_antagonist" title="H3 antagonist" class="mw-redirect">antagonists</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/A-349,821" title="A-349,821">A-349,821</a> • <a href="/ABT-239" title="ABT-239">ABT-239</a> • <a href="/Ciproxifan" title="Ciproxifan">Ciproxifan</a> • <a href="/GSK-189,254" title="GSK-189,254">GSK-189,254</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/GABA_A_receptor" title="GABA A receptor" class="mw-redirect">GABA<sub>A</sub></a> <a href="/GABRA5" title="GABRA5">α<sub>5</sub></a> <a href="/Inverse_agonist" title="Inverse agonist">inverse agonists</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/%CE%915IA" title="Α5IA">α5IA</a> • <a href="/L-655,708" title="L-655,708">L-655,708</a> • <a href="/PWZ-029" title="PWZ-029">PWZ-029</a> • <a href="/Suritozole" title="Suritozole">Suritozole</a> • <a href="/TB-21007" title="TB-21007">TB-21007</a> • <a href="/ZK-93426" title="ZK-93426">ZK-93426</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/Dopamine_receptor_D1" title="Dopamine receptor D1">Dopamine D1 receptor</a> <a href="/Dopamine_D1_receptor" title="Dopamine D1 receptor" class="mw-redirect">agonists</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/A-77636" title="A-77636" class="mw-redirect">A-77636</a> • <a href="/Dihydrexidine" title="Dihydrexidine">Dihydrexidine</a> • <a href="/Dinapsoline" title="Dinapsoline">Dinapsoline</a> • <a href="/Doxanthrine" title="Doxanthrine">Doxanthrine</a> • <a href="/SKF-81297" title="SKF-81297" class="mw-redirect">SKF-81297</a> • <a href="/6-Br-APB" title="6-Br-APB">6-Br-APB</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/Alpha-7_nicotinic_receptor" title="Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor">α7 nicotinic</a> agonists / <a href="/Allosteric_modulation" title="Allosteric modulation" class="mw-redirect">PAMs</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/AR-R17779" title="AR-R17779">AR-R17779</a> • <a href="/PNU-282,987" title="PNU-282,987">PNU-282,987</a> • <a href="/SSR-180,711" title="SSR-180,711">SSR-180,711</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;"><a href="/Prolyl_endopeptidase" title="Prolyl endopeptidase">Prolyl endopeptidase</a> <a href="/Enzyme_inhibition" title="Enzyme inhibition" class="mw-redirect">inhibitors</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/S-17092" title="S-17092">S-17092</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background: LightYellow;">Other psychostimulants and nootropics</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Acetylcarnitine" title="Acetylcarnitine">Acetylcarnitine</a> • <a href="/Adafenoxate" title="Adafenoxate">Adafenoxate</a> • <a href="/Bifemelane" title="Bifemelane">Bifemelane</a> • <a href="/Carbenoxolone" title="Carbenoxolone">Carbenoxolone</a> • <a href="/Citicoline" title="Citicoline">Citicoline</a> • <a href="/Cyprodenate" title="Cyprodenate">Cyprodenate</a> • <a href="/Ensaculin" title="Ensaculin">Ensaculin</a> • <a href="/Idebenone" title="Idebenone">Idebenone</a> • <a href="/Ispronicline" title="Ispronicline">Ispronicline</a> • <a href="/Dimethylethanolamine" title="Dimethylethanolamine">Deanol</a> • <a href="/Dimebon" title="Dimebon" class="mw-redirect">Dimebon</a> • <a href="/Fipexide" title="Fipexide">Fipexide</a> • <a href="/Leteprinim" title="Leteprinim">Leteprinim</a> • <a href="/Linopirdine" title="Linopirdine">Linopirdine</a> • <a href="/Centrophenoxine" title="Centrophenoxine" class="mw-redirect">Meclofenoxate</a> • <a href="/Nizofenone" title="Nizofenone">Nizofenone</a> • <a href="/Pirisudanol" title="Pirisudanol">Pirisudanol</a> • <a href="/Pyritinol" title="Pyritinol">Pyritinol</a> • <a href="/Rubidium" title="Rubidium">Rubidium</a> • <a href="/Sulbutiamine" title="Sulbutiamine">Sulbutiamine</a> • <a href="/Taltirelin" title="Taltirelin">Taltirelin</a> • <a href="/Tricyanoaminopropene" title="Tricyanoaminopropene">Tricyanoaminopropene</a> • <a href="/Vinpocetine" title="Vinpocetine">Vinpocetine</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Adrenergic" title="Adrenergic">Adrenergics</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Receptor_(biochemistry)" title="Receptor (biochemistry)">Receptor</a><br /> <a href="/Ligand" title="Ligand">Ligands</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/%CE%911-adrenergic_receptor" title="Α1-adrenergic receptor" class="mw-redirect">α<sub>1</sub></a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><strong>Agonists</strong>: 5-FNE • <a href="/6-Fluoronorepinephrine" title="6-Fluoronorepinephrine">6-FNE</a> • <a href="/Amidephrine" title="Amidephrine">Amidephrine</a> • <a href="/Anisodamine" title="Anisodamine">Anisodamine</a> • <a href="/Anisodine" title="Anisodine">Anisodine</a> • <a href="/Cirazoline" title="Cirazoline">Cirazoline</a> • <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">Dopamine</a> • <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> • <a href="/Epinephrine" title="Epinephrine">Epinephrine</a> (Adrenaline) • <a href="/Etilefrine" title="Etilefrine">Etilefrine</a> • <a href="/Ethylnorepinephrine" title="Ethylnorepinephrine">Ethylnorepinephrine</a> • <a href="/Indanidine" title="Indanidine">Indanidine</a> • <a href="/Levonordefrin" title="Levonordefrin">Levonordefrin</a> • <a href="/Metaraminol" title="Metaraminol">Metaraminol</a> • <a href="/Methoxamine" title="Methoxamine">Methoxamine</a> • <a href="/Methyldopa" title="Methyldopa">Methyldopa</a> • <a href="/Midodrine" title="Midodrine">Midodrine</a> • <a href="/Naphazoline" title="Naphazoline">Naphazoline</a> • <a href="/Norepinephrine" title="Norepinephrine">Norepinephrine</a> (Noradrenaline) • <a href="/Octopamine" title="Octopamine">Octopamine</a> • <a href="/Oxymetazoline" title="Oxymetazoline">Oxymetazoline</a> • <a href="/Phenylephrine" title="Phenylephrine">Phenylephrine</a> • <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">Phenylpropanolamine</a> • <a href="/Pseudoephedrine" title="Pseudoephedrine">Pseudoephedrine</a> • <a href="/Synephrine" title="Synephrine">Synephrine</a> • <a href="/Tetrahydrozoline" title="Tetrahydrozoline">Tetrahydrozoline</a><br /> <strong>Antagonists</strong>: <a href="/Adimolol" title="Adimolol">Adimolol</a> • <a href="/Ajmalicine" title="Ajmalicine">Ajmalicine</a> • <a href="/Alfuzosin" title="Alfuzosin">Alfuzosin</a> • <a href="/Arotinolol" title="Arotinolol">Arotinolol</a> • <a href="/Buflomedil" title="Buflomedil">Buflomedil</a> • <a href="/Bunazosin" title="Bunazosin">Bunazosin</a> • <a href="/Carvedilol" title="Carvedilol">Carvedilol</a> • <a href="/Corynanthine" title="Corynanthine">Corynanthine</a> • <a href="/Dapiprazole" title="Dapiprazole">Dapiprazole</a> • <a href="/Doxazosin" title="Doxazosin">Doxazosin</a> • <a href="/Indoramin" title="Indoramin">Indoramin</a> • <a href="/Ketanserin" title="Ketanserin">Ketanserin</a> • <a href="/L-765,314" title="L-765,314">L-765,314</a> • <a href="/Labetalol" title="Labetalol">Labetalol</a> • <a href="/Moxisylyte" title="Moxisylyte">Moxisylyte</a> (Thymoxamine) • <a href="/Naftopidil" title="Naftopidil">Naftopidil</a> • <a href="/Nantenine" title="Nantenine">Nantenine</a> • <a href="/Nicergoline" title="Nicergoline">Nicergoline</a> • <a href="/Phenoxybenzamine" title="Phenoxybenzamine">Phenoxybenzamine</a> • <a href="/Phentolamine" title="Phentolamine">Phentolamine</a> • <a href="/Prazosin" title="Prazosin">Prazosin</a> • <a href="/Ritanserin" title="Ritanserin">Ritanserin</a> • <a href="/Silodosin" title="Silodosin">Silodosin</a> • <a href="/Talipexole" title="Talipexole">Talipexole</a> • <a href="/Tamsulosin" title="Tamsulosin">Tamsulosin</a> • <a href="/Terazosin" title="Terazosin">Terazosin</a> • <a href="/Tolazoline" title="Tolazoline">Tolazoline</a> • <a href="/Trimazosin" title="Trimazosin">Trimazosin</a> • <a href="/Urapidil" title="Urapidil">Urapidil</a><br /> <small>* Note that many <a href="/Tricyclic_antidepressant" title="Tricyclic antidepressant">TCAs</a>, <a href="/Tetracyclic_antidepressants" title="Tetracyclic antidepressants" class="mw-redirect">TeCAs</a>, <a href="/Antipsychotic" title="Antipsychotic">antipsychotics</a>, and <a href="/Ergoline" title="Ergoline">ergolines</a>, and some <a href="/Piperazine" title="Piperazine">piperazines</a> like <a href="/Buspirone" title="Buspirone">buspirone</a>, <a href="/Trazodone" title="Trazodone">trazodone</a>, <a href="/Nefazodone" title="Nefazodone">nefazodone</a> and <a href="/Etoperidone" title="Etoperidone">etoperidone</a> all antagonize α<sub>1</sub>-adrenergic receptors as well, which contributes to their side effects such as <a href="/Orthostatic_hypotension" title="Orthostatic hypotension">orthostatic hypotension</a>.</small></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/%CE%912-adrenergic_receptor" title="Α2-adrenergic receptor" class="mw-redirect">α<sub>2</sub></a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><strong>Agonists</strong>: <a href="/(R)-3-Nitrobiphenyline" title="(R)-3-Nitrobiphenyline">(R)-3-Nitrobiphenyline</a> • <a href="/4-NEMD" title="4-NEMD">4-NEMD</a> • <a href="/6-Fluoronorepinephrine" title="6-Fluoronorepinephrine">6-FNE</a> • <a href="/Amitraz" title="Amitraz">Amitraz</a> • <a href="/Apraclonidine" title="Apraclonidine">Apraclonidine</a> • <a href="/Bethanidine" title="Bethanidine">Bethanidine</a> • <a href="/Brimonidine" title="Brimonidine">Brimonidine</a> • <a href="/Clonidine" title="Clonidine">Clonidine</a> • <a href="/Debrisoquine" title="Debrisoquine">Debrisoquine</a> • <a href="/Detomidine" title="Detomidine">Detomidine</a> • <a href="/Dexmedetomidine" title="Dexmedetomidine">Dexmedetomidine</a> • <a href="/Dihydroergotamine" title="Dihydroergotamine">Dihydroergotamine</a> • <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">Dopamine</a> • <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> • <a href="/Ergotamine" title="Ergotamine">Ergotamine</a> • <a href="/Epinephrine" title="Epinephrine">Epinephrine</a> (Adrenaline) • <a href="/Etilefrine" title="Etilefrine">Etilefrine</a> • <a href="/Ethylnorepinephrine" title="Ethylnorepinephrine">Ethylnorepinephrine</a> • <a href="/Guanabenz" title="Guanabenz">Guanabenz</a> • <a href="/Guanazodine" title="Guanazodine">Guanazodine</a> • <a href="/Guanethidine" title="Guanethidine">Guanethidine</a> • <a href="/Guanfacine" title="Guanfacine">Guanfacine</a> • <a href="/Guanochlor" title="Guanochlor">Guanochlor</a> • <a href="/Guanoxabenz" title="Guanoxabenz">Guanoxabenz</a> • <a href="/Guanoxan" title="Guanoxan">Guanoxan</a> • <a href="/Levonordefrin" title="Levonordefrin">Levonordefrin</a> • <a href="/Lofexidine" title="Lofexidine">Lofexidine</a> • <a href="/Medetomidine" title="Medetomidine">Medetomidine</a> • <a href="/Methyldopa" title="Methyldopa">Methyldopa</a> • <a href="/Mivazerol" title="Mivazerol">Mivazerol</a> • <a href="/Naphazoline" title="Naphazoline">Naphazoline</a> • <a href="/Norepinephrine" title="Norepinephrine">Norepinephrine</a> (Noradrenaline) • <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">Phenylpropanolamine</a> • <a href="/Pseudoephedrine" title="Pseudoephedrine">Pseudoephedrine</a> • <a href="/Rilmenidine" title="Rilmenidine">Rilmenidine</a> • <a href="/Romifidine" title="Romifidine">Romifidine</a> • <a href="/Talipexole" title="Talipexole">Talipexole</a> • <a href="/Tetrahydrozoline" title="Tetrahydrozoline">Tetrahydrozoline</a> • <a href="/Tizanidine" title="Tizanidine">Tizanidine</a> • <a href="/Tolonidine" title="Tolonidine">Tolonidine</a> • <a href="/Urapidil" title="Urapidil">Urapidil</a> • <a href="/Xylazine" title="Xylazine">Xylazine</a> • <a href="/Xylometazoline" title="Xylometazoline">Xylometazoline</a><br /> <strong>Antagonists</strong>: <a href="/1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)piperazine" title="1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)piperazine">1-PP</a> • <a href="/Adimolol" title="Adimolol">Adimolol</a> • <a href="/Atipamezole" title="Atipamezole">Atipamezole</a> • <a href="/BRL-44408" title="BRL-44408">BRL-44408</a> • <a href="/Buflomedil" title="Buflomedil">Buflomedil</a> • <a href="/Cirazoline" title="Cirazoline">Cirazoline</a> • <a href="/Efaroxan" title="Efaroxan">Efaroxan</a> • <a href="/Esmirtazapine" title="Esmirtazapine">Esmirtazapine</a> • <a href="/Idazoxan" title="Idazoxan">Idazoxan</a> • <a href="/Mianserin" title="Mianserin">Mianserin</a> • <a href="/Mirtazapine" title="Mirtazapine">Mirtazapine</a> • <a href="/NAN-190" title="NAN-190">NAN-190</a> • <a href="/Olanzapine" title="Olanzapine">Olanzapine</a> • <a href="/Phentolamine" title="Phentolamine">Phentolamine</a> • <a href="/Phenoxybenzamine" title="Phenoxybenzamine">Phenoxybenzamine</a> • <a href="/Piribedil" title="Piribedil">Piribedil</a> • <a href="/Rauwolscine" title="Rauwolscine">Rauwolscine</a> • <a href="/Rotigotine" title="Rotigotine">Rotigotine</a> • <a href="/SB-269,970" title="SB-269,970">SB-269,970</a> • <a href="/Setiptiline" title="Setiptiline">Setiptiline</a> • <a href="/Spiroxatrine" title="Spiroxatrine">Spiroxatrine</a> • <a href="/Tolazoline" title="Tolazoline">Tolazoline</a> • <a href="/Yohimbine" title="Yohimbine">Yohimbine</a><br /> <small>* Note that many <a href="/Atypical_antipsychotic" title="Atypical antipsychotic">atypical antipsychotics</a> and <a href="/Azapirone" title="Azapirone">azapirones</a> like <a href="/Buspirone" title="Buspirone">buspirone</a> and <a href="/Gepirone" title="Gepirone">gepirone</a> (via metabolite <a href="/1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)piperazine" title="1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)piperazine">1-PP</a>) antagonize α<sub>2</sub>-adrenergic receptors as well.</small></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/%CE%92-adrenergic_receptor" title="Β-adrenergic receptor" class="mw-redirect">β</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><strong>Agonists</strong>: 2-FNE • 5-FNE • <a href="/Amibegron" title="Amibegron">Amibegron</a> • <a href="/Arbutamine" title="Arbutamine">Arbutamine</a> • <a href="/Arformoterol" title="Arformoterol">Arformoterol</a> • <a href="/Arotinolol" title="Arotinolol">Arotinolol</a> • <a href="/Bromoacetylalprenololmenthane" title="Bromoacetylalprenololmenthane">BAAM</a> • <a href="/Bambuterol" title="Bambuterol">Bambuterol</a> • <a href="/Befunolol" title="Befunolol">Befunolol</a> • <a href="/Bitolterol" title="Bitolterol">Bitolterol</a> • <a href="/Broxaterol" title="Broxaterol">Broxaterol</a> • <a href="/Buphenine" title="Buphenine">Buphenine</a> • <a href="/Carbuterol" title="Carbuterol">Carbuterol</a> • <a href="/Cimaterol" title="Cimaterol">Cimaterol</a> • <a href="/Clenbuterol" title="Clenbuterol">Clenbuterol</a> • <a href="/Denopamine" title="Denopamine">Denopamine</a> • <a href="/Dobutamine" title="Dobutamine">Dobutamine</a> • <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">Dopamine</a> • <a href="/Dopexamine" title="Dopexamine">Dopexamine</a> • <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> • <a href="/Epinephrine" title="Epinephrine">Epinephrine</a> (Adrenaline) • <a href="/Etilefrine" title="Etilefrine">Etilefrine</a> • <a href="/Ethylnorepinephrine" title="Ethylnorepinephrine">Ethylnorepinephrine</a> • <a href="/Fenoterol" title="Fenoterol">Fenoterol</a> • <a href="/Formoterol" title="Formoterol">Formoterol</a> • <a href="/Hexoprenaline" title="Hexoprenaline">Hexoprenaline</a> • <a href="/Higenamine" title="Higenamine">Higenamine</a> • <a href="/Indacaterol" title="Indacaterol">Indacaterol</a> • <a href="/Isoetarine" title="Isoetarine">Isoetarine</a> • <a href="/Isoprenaline" title="Isoprenaline">Isoprenaline</a> (Isoproterenol) • <a href="/Isoxsuprine" title="Isoxsuprine">Isoxsuprine</a> • <a href="/Labetalol" title="Labetalol">Labetalol</a> • <a href="/Levonordefrin" title="Levonordefrin">Levonordefrin</a> • <a href="/Levosalbutamol" title="Levosalbutamol">Levosalbutamol</a> • <a href="/Mabuterol" title="Mabuterol">Mabuterol</a> • <a href="/Methoxyphenamine" title="Methoxyphenamine">Methoxyphenamine</a> • <a href="/Methyldopa" title="Methyldopa">Methyldopa</a> • <a href="/Norepinephrine" title="Norepinephrine">Norepinephrine</a> (Noradrenaline) • <a href="/Orciprenaline" title="Orciprenaline">Orciprenaline</a> • <a href="/Oxyfedrine" title="Oxyfedrine">Oxyfedrine</a> • <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">Phenylpropanolamine</a> • <a href="/Pirbuterol" title="Pirbuterol">Pirbuterol</a> • <a href="/Prenalterol" title="Prenalterol">Prenalterol</a> • <a href="/Ractopamine" title="Ractopamine">Ractopamine</a> • <a href="/Procaterol" title="Procaterol">Procaterol</a> • <a href="/Pseudoephedrine" title="Pseudoephedrine">Pseudoephedrine</a> • <a href="/Reproterol" title="Reproterol">Reproterol</a> • <a href="/Rimiterol" title="Rimiterol">Rimiterol</a> • <a href="/Ritodrine" title="Ritodrine">Ritodrine</a> • <a href="/Salbutamol" title="Salbutamol">Salbutamol</a> (Albuterol) • <a href="/Salmeterol" title="Salmeterol">Salmeterol</a> • <a href="/Solabegron" title="Solabegron">Solabegron</a> • <a href="/Terbutaline" title="Terbutaline">Terbutaline</a> • <a href="/Tretoquinol" title="Tretoquinol">Tretoquinol</a> • <a href="/Tulobuterol" title="Tulobuterol">Tulobuterol</a> • <a href="/Xamoterol" title="Xamoterol">Xamoterol</a> • <a href="/Zilpaterol" title="Zilpaterol">Zilpaterol</a> • <a href="/Zinterol" title="Zinterol">Zinterol</a><br /> <strong>Antagonists</strong>: <a href="/Acebutolol" title="Acebutolol">Acebutolol</a> • <a href="/Adaprolol" title="Adaprolol">Adaprolol</a> • <a href="/Adimolol" title="Adimolol">Adimolol</a> • <a href="/Afurolol" title="Afurolol">Afurolol</a> • <a href="/Alprenolol" title="Alprenolol">Alprenolol</a> • <a href="/Alprenoxime" title="Alprenoxime">Alprenoxime</a> • <a href="/Amosulalol" title="Amosulalol">Amosulalol</a> • <a href="/Ancarolol" title="Ancarolol">Ancarolol</a> • <a href="/Arnolol" title="Arnolol">Arnolol</a> • <a href="/Arotinolol" title="Arotinolol">Arotinolol</a> • <a href="/Atenolol" title="Atenolol">Atenolol</a> • <a href="/Befunolol" title="Befunolol">Befunolol</a> • <a href="/Betaxolol" title="Betaxolol">Betaxolol</a> • <a href="/Bevantolol" title="Bevantolol">Bevantolol</a> • <a href="/Bisoprolol" title="Bisoprolol">Bisoprolol</a> • <a href="/Bopindolol" title="Bopindolol">Bopindolol</a> • Bormetolol • Bornaprolol • Brefonalol • <a href="/Bucindolol" title="Bucindolol">Bucindolol</a> • Bucumolol • Bufetolol • Buftiralol • Bufuralol • Bunitrolol • Bunolol • <a href="/Bupranolol" title="Bupranolol">Bupranolol</a> • Burocrolol • <a href="/Butaxamine" title="Butaxamine">Butaxamine</a> • Butidrine • <a href="/Butofilolol" title="Butofilolol">Butofilolol</a> • Capsinolol • <a href="/Carazolol" title="Carazolol">Carazolol</a> • Carpindolol • <a href="/Carteolol" title="Carteolol">Carteolol</a> • <a href="/Carvedilol" title="Carvedilol">Carvedilol</a> • <a href="/Celiprolol" title="Celiprolol">Celiprolol</a> • Cetamolol • Cicloprolol • Cinamolol • <a href="/Cloranolol" title="Cloranolol">Cloranolol</a> • <a href="/Cyanopindolol" title="Cyanopindolol">Cyanopindolol</a> • Dalbraminol • Dexpropranolol • <a href="/Diacetolol" title="Diacetolol">Diacetolol</a> • <a href="/Dichloroisoprenaline" title="Dichloroisoprenaline">Dichloroisoprenaline</a> • <a href="/Dihydroalprenolol" title="Dihydroalprenolol">Dihydroalprenolol</a> • Dilevalol • Diprafenone • Draquinolol • Dropranolol • Ecastolol • <a href="/Epanolol" title="Epanolol">Epanolol</a> • Ericolol • Ersentilide • Esatenolol • <a href="/Esmolol" title="Esmolol">Esmolol</a> • Esprolol • Exaprolol • Falintolol • Flestolol • Flusoxolol • Hydroxycarteolol • Hydroxytertatolol • <a href="/ICI-118,551" title="ICI-118,551">ICI-118,551</a> • Idropranolol • Indenolol • Indopanolol • <a href="/Iodocyanopindolol" title="Iodocyanopindolol">Iodocyanopindolol</a> • Iprocrolol • Isoxaprolol • <a href="/Isamoltane" title="Isamoltane">Isamoltane</a> • <a href="/Labetalol" title="Labetalol">Labetalol</a> • <a href="/Landiolol" title="Landiolol">Landiolol</a> • <a href="/Levobetaxolol" title="Levobetaxolol">Levobetaxolol</a> • <a href="/Levobunolol" title="Levobunolol">Levobunolol</a> • Levocicloprolol • Levomoprolol • <a href="/Medroxalol" title="Medroxalol">Medroxalol</a> • <a href="/Mepindolol" title="Mepindolol">Mepindolol</a> • Metalol • <a href="/Metipranolol" title="Metipranolol">Metipranolol</a> • <a href="/Metoprolol" title="Metoprolol">Metoprolol</a> • Moprolol • <a href="/Nadolol" title="Nadolol">Nadolol</a> • Nadoxolol • Nafetolol • <a href="/Nebivolol" title="Nebivolol">Nebivolol</a> • Neraminol • Nifenalol • Nipradilol • Oberadilol • <a href="/Oxprenolol" title="Oxprenolol">Oxprenolol</a> • Pacrinolol • Pafenolol • Pamatolol • Pargolol • Parodilol • <a href="/Penbutolol" title="Penbutolol">Penbutolol</a> • Penirolol • PhQA-33 • <a href="/Pindolol" title="Pindolol">Pindolol</a> • Pirepolol • <a href="/Practolol" title="Practolol">Practolol</a> • Primidolol • Procinolol • <a href="/Pronethalol" title="Pronethalol">Pronethalol</a> • <a href="/Propafenone" title="Propafenone">Propafenone</a> • <a href="/Propranolol" title="Propranolol">Propranolol</a> • Ridazolol • Ronactolol • Soquinolol • <a href="/Sotalol" title="Sotalol">Sotalol</a> • Spirendolol • <a href="/SR_59230A" title="SR 59230A">SR 59230A</a> • Sulfinalol • TA-2005 • <a href="/Talinolol" title="Talinolol">Talinolol</a> • Tazolol • Teoprolol • <a href="/Tertatolol" title="Tertatolol">Tertatolol</a> • Terthianolol • Tienoxolol • <a href="/Tilisolol" title="Tilisolol">Tilisolol</a> • <a href="/Timolol" title="Timolol">Timolol</a> • Tiprenolol • Tolamolol • Toliprolol • Tribendilol • Trigevolol • <a href="/Xibenolol" title="Xibenolol">Xibenolol</a> • <a href="/Xipranolol" title="Xipranolol">Xipranolol</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Reuptake_inhibitor" title="Reuptake inhibitor">Reuptake<br /> Inhibitors</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Plasmalemmal" title="Plasmalemmal" class="mw-redirect">Plasmalemmal</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Norepinephrine_transporter" title="Norepinephrine transporter">NET</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors</em>: <a href="/Atomoxetine" title="Atomoxetine">Atomoxetine</a> (Tomoxetine) • <a href="/Ciclazindol" title="Ciclazindol">Ciclazindol</a> • <a href="/Esreboxetine" title="Esreboxetine">Esreboxetine</a> • <a href="/Mazindol" title="Mazindol">Mazindol</a> • <a href="/Nisoxetine" title="Nisoxetine">Nisoxetine</a> • <a href="/Reboxetine" title="Reboxetine">Reboxetine</a> • <a href="/Talopram" title="Talopram">Talopram</a> • <a href="/Talsupram" title="Talsupram">Talsupram</a> • <a href="/Tandamine" title="Tandamine">Tandamine</a> • <a href="/Viloxazine" title="Viloxazine">Viloxazine</a>; <em>Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors</em>: <a href="/Amineptine" title="Amineptine">Amineptine</a> • <a href="/Bupropion" title="Bupropion">Bupropion</a> (Amfebutamone) • <a href="/Fencamine" title="Fencamine">Fencamine</a> • <a href="/Fencamfamine" title="Fencamfamine">Fencamfamine</a> • <a href="/Lefetamine" title="Lefetamine">Lefetamine</a> • <a href="/LR-5182" title="LR-5182">LR-5182</a> • <a href="/Manifaxine" title="Manifaxine">Manifaxine</a> • <strong class="selflink">Methylphenidate</strong> • <a href="/Nomifensine" title="Nomifensine">Nomifensine</a> • <a href="/O-2172" title="O-2172">O-2172</a> • <a href="/Radafaxine" title="Radafaxine">Radafaxine</a>; <em>Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors</em>: <a href="/Bicifadine" title="Bicifadine">Bicifadine</a> • <a href="/Desvenlafaxine" title="Desvenlafaxine">Desvenlafaxine</a> • <a href="/Duloxetine" title="Duloxetine">Duloxetine</a> • <a href="/Levomilnacipran" title="Levomilnacipran">Levomilnacipran</a> • <a href="/Milnacipran" title="Milnacipran">Milnacipran</a> • <a href="/Sibutramine" title="Sibutramine">Sibutramine</a> • <a href="/Venlafaxine" title="Venlafaxine">Venlafaxine</a>; <em>Serotonin-Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors</em>: <a href="/Brasofensine" title="Brasofensine">Brasofensine</a> • <a href="/Diclofensine" title="Diclofensine">Diclofensine</a> • <a href="/DOV-102,677" title="DOV-102,677">DOV-102,677</a> • <a href="/DOV-21,947" title="DOV-21,947">DOV-21,947</a> • <a href="/DOV-216,303" title="DOV-216,303">DOV-216,303</a> • <a href="/JNJ-7925476" title="JNJ-7925476" class="mw-redirect">JNJ-7925476</a> • <a href="/JZ-IV-10" title="JZ-IV-10">JZ-IV-10</a> • <a href="/Methylnaphthidate" title="Methylnaphthidate" class="mw-redirect">Methylnaphthidate</a> • <a href="/Naphyrone" title="Naphyrone" class="mw-redirect">Naphyrone</a> • <a href="/NS-2359" title="NS-2359">NS-2359</a> • <a href="/PRC200-SS" title="PRC200-SS" class="mw-redirect">PRC200-SS</a> • <a href="/SEP-225,289" title="SEP-225,289" class="mw-redirect">SEP-225,289</a> • <a href="/SEP-227,162" title="SEP-227,162">SEP-227,162</a> • <a href="/Tesofensine" title="Tesofensine">Tesofensine</a>; <em>Tricyclic Antidepressants</em>: <a href="/Amitriptyline" title="Amitriptyline">Amitriptyline</a> • <a href="/Butriptyline" title="Butriptyline">Butriptyline</a> • <a href="/Cianopramine" title="Cianopramine">Cianopramine</a> • <a href="/Clomipramine" title="Clomipramine">Clomipramine</a> • <a href="/Desipramine" title="Desipramine">Desipramine</a> • <a href="/Dosulepin" title="Dosulepin">Dosulepin</a> • <a href="/Doxepin" title="Doxepin">Doxepin</a> • <a href="/Imipramine" title="Imipramine">Imipramine</a> • <a href="/Lofepramine" title="Lofepramine">Lofepramine</a> • <a href="/Nortriptyline" title="Nortriptyline">Nortriptyline</a> • <a href="/Protriptyline" title="Protriptyline">Protriptyline</a> • <a href="/Trimipramine" title="Trimipramine">Trimipramine</a>; <em>Tetracyclic Antidepressants</em>: <a href="/Amoxapine" title="Amoxapine">Amoxapine</a> • <a href="/Maprotiline" title="Maprotiline">Maprotiline</a> • <a href="/Mianserin" title="Mianserin">Mianserin</a> • <a href="/Oxaprotiline" title="Oxaprotiline">Oxaprotiline</a> • <a href="/Setiptiline" title="Setiptiline">Setiptiline</a>; <em>Others</em>: <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">Cocaine</a> • <a href="/Nefazodone" title="Nefazodone">Nefazodone</a> • <a href="/Nefopam" title="Nefopam">Nefopam</a> • <a href="/Tapentadol" title="Tapentadol">Tapentadol</a> • <a href="/Tramadol" title="Tramadol">Tramadol</a> • <a href="/Ziprasidone" title="Ziprasidone">Ziprasidone</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vesicular" title="Vesicular" class="mw-redirect">Vesicular</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/VMAT" title="VMAT" class="mw-redirect">VMAT</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Ibogaine" title="Ibogaine">Ibogaine</a> • <a href="/Reserpine" title="Reserpine">Reserpine</a> • <a href="/Tetrabenazine" title="Tetrabenazine">Tetrabenazine</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Releasing_agent" title="Releasing agent">Releasing<br /> Agents</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Morpholines</em>: <a href="/Phendimetrazine" title="Phendimetrazine">Phendimetrazine</a> • <a href="/Phenmetrazine" title="Phenmetrazine">Phenmetrazine</a>; <em>Oxazolines</em>: <a href="/4-Methylaminorex" title="4-Methylaminorex">4-Methylaminorex</a> (4-MAR, 4-MAX) • <a href="/Aminorex" title="Aminorex">Aminorex</a> • <a href="/Clominorex" title="Clominorex">Clominorex</a> • <a href="/Cyclazodone" title="Cyclazodone">Cyclazodone</a> • <a href="/Fenozolone" title="Fenozolone">Fenozolone</a> • <a href="/Fluminorex" title="Fluminorex">Fluminorex</a> • <a href="/Pemoline" title="Pemoline">Pemoline</a> • <a href="/Thozalinone" title="Thozalinone">Thozalinone</a>; <em>Phenethylamines</em> (also <em>Amphetamines</em>, <em>Cathinones</em>, <em>Phentermines</em>, etc): <a href="/2-Hydroxyphenethylamine" title="2-Hydroxyphenethylamine">2-Hydroxyphenethylamine</a> (2-OH-PEA) • <a href="/4-Methylamphetamine" title="4-Methylamphetamine">4-Methylamphetamine</a> (4-MA) • <a href="/4-Methylmethamphetamine" title="4-Methylmethamphetamine">4-Methylmethamphetamine</a> (4-MMA) • <a href="/Alfetamine" title="Alfetamine">Alfetamine</a> • <a href="/Amfecloral" title="Amfecloral">Amfecloral</a> • <a href="/Amfepentorex" title="Amfepentorex">Amfepentorex</a> • <a href="/Amfepramone" title="Amfepramone">Amfepramone</a> • <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a> (<a href="/Dextroamphetamine" title="Dextroamphetamine">Dextroamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levoamphetamine" title="Levoamphetamine">Levoamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Amphetaminil" title="Amphetaminil">Amphetaminil</a> • <a href="/Beta-Methylphenethylamine" title="Beta-Methylphenethylamine">β-Methylphenethylamine</a> (β-Me-PEA) • <a href="/Benzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylbutanamine">Benzodioxolylbutanamine</a> (BDB) • <a href="/Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine">Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine</a> (BOH) • <a href="/Benzphetamine" title="Benzphetamine">Benzphetamine</a> • <a href="/Buphedrone" title="Buphedrone">Buphedrone</a> • <a href="/Butylone" title="Butylone">Butylone</a> • <a href="/Cathine" title="Cathine">Cathine</a> • <a href="/Cathinone" title="Cathinone">Cathinone</a> • <a href="/Clobenzorex" title="Clobenzorex">Clobenzorex</a> • <a href="/Clortermine" title="Clortermine">Clortermine</a> • <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/Dimethoxyamphetamine" title="Dimethoxyamphetamine">Dimethoxyamphetamine</a> (DMA) • <a href="/Dimethoxymethamphetamine" title="Dimethoxymethamphetamine">Dimethoxymethamphetamine</a> (DMMA) • <a href="/Dimethylamphetamine" title="Dimethylamphetamine">Dimethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Dimethylcathinone" title="Dimethylcathinone">Dimethylcathinone</a> (Dimethylpropion, Metamfepramone) • <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> (EPH) • <a href="/Ethcathinone" title="Ethcathinone">Ethcathinone</a> (Ethylpropion) • <a href="/Ethylamphetamine" title="Ethylamphetamine">Ethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine</a> (EBDB) • <a href="/Ethylone" title="Ethylone">Ethylone</a> • <a href="/Fenethylline" title="Fenethylline">Fenethylline</a> • <a href="/Fenproporex" title="Fenproporex">Fenproporex</a> • <a href="/Flephedrone" title="Flephedrone">Flephedrone</a> • <a href="/Fludorex" title="Fludorex">Fludorex</a> • <a href="/Furfenorex" title="Furfenorex">Furfenorex</a> • <a href="/Hordenine" title="Hordenine">Hordenine</a> • <a href="/Indanorex" title="Indanorex">Indanorex</a> • <a href="/L-Deprenyl" title="L-Deprenyl" class="mw-redirect">L-Deprenyl</a> (Selegiline) • <a href="/Lisdexamfetamine" title="Lisdexamfetamine">Lisdexamfetamine</a> • <a href="/Lophophine" title="Lophophine" class="mw-redirect">Lophophine</a> (Homomyristicylamine) • <a href="/Mefenorex" title="Mefenorex">Mefenorex</a> • <a href="/Mephedrone" title="Mephedrone">Mephedrone</a> • <a href="/Mephentermine" title="Mephentermine">Mephentermine</a> • <a href="/Methamphetamine" title="Methamphetamine">Methamphetamine</a> (Desoxyephedrine, Methedrine; <a href="/Dextromethamphetamine" title="Dextromethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Dextromethamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levomethamphetamine" title="Levomethamphetamine">Levomethamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Methcathinone" title="Methcathinone">Methcathinone</a> (Methylpropion) • <a href="/Methedrone" title="Methedrone" class="mw-redirect">Methedrone</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine">Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine</a> (MMDA) • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine">Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine</a> (MMDMA) • <a href="/Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine</a> (MBDB) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Methylenedioxyamphetamine</a> (MDA; Tenamfetamine) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine">Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine</a> (MDEA) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine">Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine</a> (MDOH) • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Methylenedioxymethamphetamine</a> (MDMA) • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine">Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine</a> (MDMPEA; Homarylamine) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxyphenethylamine">Methylenedioxyphenethylamine</a> (MDPEA; Homopiperonylamine) • <a href="/Methylone" title="Methylone">Methylone</a> • <a href="/Ortetamine" title="Ortetamine">Ortetamine</a> • <a href="/Parabromoamphetamine" title="Parabromoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parabromoamphetamine</a> (PBA) • <a href="/Parachloroamphetamine" title="Parachloroamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parachloroamphetamine</a> (PCA) • <a href="/Parafluoroamphetamine" title="Parafluoroamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parafluoroamphetamine</a> (PFA) • <a href="/Parafluoromethamphetamine" title="Parafluoromethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parafluoromethamphetamine</a> (PFMA) • <a href="/Parahydroxyamphetamine" title="Parahydroxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parahydroxyamphetamine</a> (PHA) • <a href="/Paraiodoamphetamine" title="Paraiodoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Paraiodoamphetamine</a> (PIA) • <a href="/Paramethoxyamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Paramethoxyamphetamine</a> (PMA) • <a href="/Paramethoxyethylamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyethylamphetamine">Paramethoxyethylamphetamine</a> (PMEA) • <a href="/Paramethoxymethamphetamine" title="Paramethoxymethamphetamine">Paramethoxymethamphetamine</a> (PMMA) • <a href="/Paredrine" title="Paredrine" class="mw-redirect">Paredrine</a> (Norpholedrine, Oxamphetamine) • <a href="/Phenethylamine" title="Phenethylamine">Phenethylamine</a> (PEA) • <a href="/Pholedrine" title="Pholedrine">Pholedrine</a> • <a href="/Phenpentermine" title="Phenpentermine">Phenpentermine</a> • <a href="/Phenpromethamine" title="Phenpromethamine">Phenpromethamine</a> • <a href="/Phentermine" title="Phentermine">Phentermine</a> • <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">Phenylpropanolamine</a> (PPA) • <a href="/Prenylamine" title="Prenylamine">Prenylamine</a> • <a href="/Propylamphetamine" title="Propylamphetamine">Propylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Pseudoephedrine" title="Pseudoephedrine">Pseudoephedrine</a> (PSE) • <a href="/Tiflorex" title="Tiflorex">Tiflorex</a> (Flutiorex) • <a href="/Tyramine" title="Tyramine">Tyramine</a> (TRA) • <a href="/Xylopropamine" title="Xylopropamine">Xylopropamine</a> • <a href="/Zylofuramine" title="Zylofuramine">Zylofuramine</a>; <em>Piperazines</em>: <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromobenzylpiperazine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromobenzylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromobenzylpiperazine</a> (2C-B-BZP) • <a href="/Benzylpiperazine" title="Benzylpiperazine">Benzylpiperazine</a> (BZP) • <a href="/Methoxyphenylpiperazine" title="Methoxyphenylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">Methoxyphenylpiperazine</a> (MeOPP; Paraperazine) • <a href="/Methylbenzylpiperazine" title="Methylbenzylpiperazine">Methylbenzylpiperazine</a> (MBZP) • <a href="/Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine" title="Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine">Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine</a> (MDBZP; Piperonylpiperazine) • <a href="/Parafluorophenylpiperazine" title="Parafluorophenylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">Parafluorophenylpiperazine</a> (pFPP; Fluoperazine); <em>Others</em>: <a href="/2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene" title="2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene">2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene</a> (2-ADN) • <a href="/2-Aminoindane" title="2-Aminoindane">2-Aminoindane</a> (2-AI) • <a href="/2-Aminotetralin" title="2-Aminotetralin">2-Aminotetralin</a> (2-AT) • <a href="/2-Benzylpiperidine" title="2-Benzylpiperidine">2-Benzylpiperidine</a> (2-BP) • <a href="/4-Benzylpiperidine" title="4-Benzylpiperidine">4-Benzylpiperidine</a> (4-BP) • <a href="/Clofenciclan" title="Clofenciclan">Clofenciclan</a> • <a href="/Cyclopentamine" title="Cyclopentamine">Cyclopentamine</a> • <a href="/Cypenamine" title="Cypenamine">Cypenamine</a> • <a href="/Cyprodenate" title="Cyprodenate">Cyprodenate</a> • <a href="/Feprosidnine" title="Feprosidnine">Feprosidnine</a> • <a href="/Gilutensin" title="Gilutensin">Gilutensin</a> • <a href="/Heptaminol" title="Heptaminol">Heptaminol</a> • <a href="/Hexacyclonate" title="Hexacyclonate">Hexacyclonate</a> • <a href="/Indanylaminopropane" title="Indanylaminopropane">Indanylaminopropane</a> (IAP) • <a href="/Isometheptene" title="Isometheptene">Isometheptene</a> • <a href="/Methylhexanamine" title="Methylhexanamine">Methylhexanamine</a> • <a href="/Naphthylaminopropane" title="Naphthylaminopropane" class="mw-redirect">Naphthylaminopropane</a> (NAP) • <a href="/Octodrine" title="Octodrine">Octodrine</a> • <a href="/Phthalimidopropiophenone" title="Phthalimidopropiophenone">Phthalimidopropiophenone</a> • <a href="/Propylhexedrine" title="Propylhexedrine">Propylhexedrine</a> (PHX) • <a href="/Tuaminoheptane" title="Tuaminoheptane">Tuaminoheptane</a> (Tuamine)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Enzyme_inhibitor" title="Enzyme inhibitor">Enzyme<br /> Inhibitors</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Anabolism" title="Anabolism">Anabolism</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Phenylalanine_hydroxylase" title="Phenylalanine hydroxylase">PAH</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/3,4-Dihydroxystyrene" title="3,4-Dihydroxystyrene">3,4-Dihydroxystyrene</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Tyrosine_hydroxylase" title="Tyrosine hydroxylase">TH</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/3-Iodotyrosine" title="3-Iodotyrosine">3-Iodotyrosine</a> • <a href="/Aquayamycin" title="Aquayamycin">Aquayamycin</a> • <a href="/Bulbocapnine" title="Bulbocapnine">Bulbocapnine</a> • <a href="/Metirosine" title="Metirosine">Metirosine</a> • <a href="/Oudenone" title="Oudenone">Oudenone</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase_inhibitor" title="Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor" class="mw-redirect">AAAD Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Benserazide" title="Benserazide">Benserazide</a> • <a href="/Carbidopa" title="Carbidopa">Carbidopa</a> • <a href="/Genistein" title="Genistein">Genistein</a> • <a href="/Methyldopa" title="Methyldopa">Methyldopa</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase" title="Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase" class="mw-redirect">DBH</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em">Bupicomide • <a href="/Disulfiram" title="Disulfiram">Disulfiram</a> • Dopastin • <a href="/Fusaric_acid" title="Fusaric acid">Fusaric Acid</a> • <a href="/Nepicastat" title="Nepicastat">Nepicastat</a> • Phenopicolinic Acid • <a href="/Tropolone" title="Tropolone">Tropolone</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Phenylethanolamine_N-methyltransferase" title="Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase">PNMT</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em">CGS-19281A • SKF-64139 • SKF-7698</div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Catabolism" title="Catabolism">Catabolism</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Monoamine_oxidase_inhibitor" title="Monoamine oxidase inhibitor">MAO Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Nonselective</em>: <a href="/Benmoxin" title="Benmoxin">Benmoxin</a> • <a href="/Caroxazone" title="Caroxazone">Caroxazone</a> • <a href="/Echinopsidine" title="Echinopsidine">Echinopsidine</a> • <a href="/Furazolidone" title="Furazolidone">Furazolidone</a> • <a href="/Hydralazine" title="Hydralazine">Hydralazine</a> • <a href="/Iproclozide" title="Iproclozide">Iproclozide</a> • <a href="/Iproniazid" title="Iproniazid">Iproniazid</a> • <a href="/Isocarboxazid" title="Isocarboxazid">Isocarboxazid</a> • <a href="/Isoniazid" title="Isoniazid">Isoniazid</a> • <a href="/Linezolid" title="Linezolid">Linezolid</a> • <a href="/Mebanazine" title="Mebanazine">Mebanazine</a> • <a href="/Metfendrazine" title="Metfendrazine">Metfendrazine</a> • <a href="/Nialamide" title="Nialamide">Nialamide</a> • <a href="/Octamoxin" title="Octamoxin">Octamoxin</a> • <a href="/Phenelzine" title="Phenelzine">Phenelzine</a> • <a href="/Pheniprazine" title="Pheniprazine">Pheniprazine</a> • <a href="/Phenoxypropazine" title="Phenoxypropazine">Phenoxypropazine</a> • <a href="/Pivalylbenzhydrazine" title="Pivalylbenzhydrazine">Pivalylbenzhydrazine</a> • <a href="/Procarbazine" title="Procarbazine">Procarbazine</a> • <a href="/Safrazine" title="Safrazine">Safrazine</a> • <a href="/Tranylcypromine" title="Tranylcypromine">Tranylcypromine</a>; <em>MAO-A Selective</em>: <a href="/Amiflamine" title="Amiflamine">Amiflamine</a> • Bazinaprine • <a href="/Befloxatone" title="Befloxatone">Befloxatone</a> • Befol • <a href="/Brofaromine" title="Brofaromine">Brofaromine</a> • <a href="/Cimoxatone" title="Cimoxatone">Cimoxatone</a> • <a href="/Clorgiline" title="Clorgiline">Clorgiline</a> • Esuprone • <a href="/Harmala_alkaloid" title="Harmala alkaloid">Harmala alkaloids</a> (<a href="/Harmine" title="Harmine">Harmine</a>, <a href="/Harmaline" title="Harmaline">Harmaline</a>, <a href="/Tetrahydroharmine" title="Tetrahydroharmine" class="mw-redirect">Tetrahydroharmine</a>, <a href="/Harmala_alkaloid" title="Harmala alkaloid">Harman</a>, <a href="/Norharman" title="Norharman" class="mw-redirect">Norharman</a>, etc) • <a href="/Methylene_blue" title="Methylene blue">Methylene Blue</a> • <a href="/Metralindole" title="Metralindole">Metralindole</a> • <a href="/Minaprine" title="Minaprine">Minaprine</a> • <a href="/Moclobemide" title="Moclobemide">Moclobemide</a> • <a href="/Pirlindole" title="Pirlindole">Pirlindole</a> • Sercloremine • Tetrindole • <a href="/Toloxatone" title="Toloxatone">Toloxatone</a> • <a href="/Tyrima" title="Tyrima">Tyrima</a>; <em>MAO-B Selective</em>: <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/L-Deprenyl" title="L-Deprenyl" class="mw-redirect">L-Deprenyl</a> (Selegiline) • <a href="/Ladostigil" title="Ladostigil">Ladostigil</a> • <a href="/Lazabemide" title="Lazabemide">Lazabemide</a> • Milacemide • Mofegiline • <a href="/Pargyline" title="Pargyline">Pargyline</a> • <a href="/Rasagiline" title="Rasagiline">Rasagiline</a><br /> <small>* Note that MAO-B inhibitors also influence norepinephrine/epinephrine levels since they inhibit the breakdown of their precursor dopamine.</small></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Catechol-O-methyl_transferase_inhibitor" title="Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor" class="mw-redirect">COMT Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Entacapone" title="Entacapone">Entacapone</a> • <a href="/Tolcapone" title="Tolcapone">Tolcapone</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;">Others</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Precursor_(chemistry)" title="Precursor (chemistry)">Precursors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/L-Phenylalanine" title="L-Phenylalanine" class="mw-redirect">L-Phenylalanine</a> → <a href="/Tyrosine" title="Tyrosine">L-Tyrosine</a> → <a href="/L-DOPA" title="L-DOPA">L-DOPA</a> (Levodopa) → <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">Dopamine</a> • <a href="/L-DOPS" title="L-DOPS">L-DOPS</a> (Droxidopa)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Cofactor_(biochemistry)" title="Cofactor (biochemistry)">Cofactors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Ferrous" title="Ferrous">Ferrous</a> <a href="/Iron" title="Iron">Iron</a> (Fe<sup>2+</sup>) • <a href="/S-Adenosyl-L-methionine" title="S-Adenosyl-L-methionine" class="mw-redirect">S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine</a> • <a href="/Vitamin_B3" title="Vitamin B3" class="mw-redirect">Vitamin B3</a> (<a href="/Niacin" title="Niacin">Niacin</a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide" title="Nicotinamide">Nicotinamide</a> → <a href="/NADPH" title="NADPH" class="mw-redirect">NADPH</a>) • <a href="/Vitamin_B6" title="Vitamin B6">Vitamin B6</a> (<a href="/Pyridoxine" title="Pyridoxine">Pyridoxine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxamine" title="Pyridoxamine">Pyridoxamine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxal" title="Pyridoxal">Pyridoxal</a> → <a href="/Pyridoxal_phosphate" title="Pyridoxal phosphate">Pyridoxal Phosphate</a>) • <a href="/Vitamin_B9" title="Vitamin B9" class="mw-redirect">Vitamin B9</a> (<a href="/Folic_acid" title="Folic acid">Folic Acid</a> → <a href="/Tetrahydrofolic_acid" title="Tetrahydrofolic acid">Tetrahydrofolic Acid</a>) • <a href="/Vitamin_C" title="Vitamin C">Vitamin C</a> (<a href="/Ascorbic_acid" title="Ascorbic acid">Ascorbic Acid</a>) • <a href="/Zinc" title="Zinc">Zinc</a> (Zn<sup>2+</sup>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Others</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Activity Enhancers</em>: <a href="/Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane" title="Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane">Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane</a> (BPAP) • <a href="/Phenylpropylaminopentane" title="Phenylpropylaminopentane">Phenylpropylaminopentane</a> (PPAP); <em>Release Blockers</em>: <a href="/Bretylium" title="Bretylium">Bretylium</a> • <a href="/Guanadrel" title="Guanadrel">Guanadrel</a> • <a href="/Guanethidine" title="Guanethidine">Guanethidine</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible collapsed" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Dopaminergic" title="Dopaminergic">Dopaminergics</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Receptor_(biochemistry)" title="Receptor (biochemistry)">Receptor</a><br /> <a href="/Ligand" title="Ligand">Ligands</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Agonist" title="Agonist">Agonists</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Adamantanes</em>: <a href="/Amantadine" title="Amantadine">Amantadine</a> • <a href="/Memantine" title="Memantine">Memantine</a> • <a href="/Rimantadine" title="Rimantadine">Rimantadine</a>; <em>Aminotetralins</em>: <a href="/7-OH-DPAT" title="7-OH-DPAT">7-OH-DPAT</a> • <a href="/8-OH-PBZI" title="8-OH-PBZI">8-OH-PBZI</a> • <a href="/Rotigotine" title="Rotigotine">Rotigotine</a> • <a href="/UH-232" title="UH-232">UH-232</a>; <em>Benzazepines</em>: <a href="/6-Br-APB" title="6-Br-APB">6-Br-APB</a> • <a href="/Fenoldopam" title="Fenoldopam">Fenoldopam</a> • <a href="/SKF-38,393" title="SKF-38,393" class="mw-redirect">SKF-38,393</a> • SKF-77,434 • <a href="/SKF-81,297" title="SKF-81,297">SKF-81,297</a> • <a href="/SKF-82,958" title="SKF-82,958">SKF-82,958</a> • <a href="/SKF-83,959" title="SKF-83,959">SKF-83,959</a>; <em>Ergolines</em>: <a href="/Bromocriptine" title="Bromocriptine">Bromocriptine</a> • <a href="/Cabergoline" title="Cabergoline">Cabergoline</a> • <a href="/Dihydroergocryptine" title="Dihydroergocryptine">Dihydroergocryptine</a> • <a href="/Lisuride" title="Lisuride">Lisuride</a> • <a href="/Lysergic_acid_diethylamide" title="Lysergic acid diethylamide">LSD</a> • <a href="/Pergolide" title="Pergolide">Pergolide</a>; <em>Dihydrexidine-derivatives</em>: <a href="/2-OH-NPA" title="2-OH-NPA">2-OH-NPA</a> • <a href="/A-86,929" title="A-86,929" class="mw-redirect">A-86,929</a> • <a href="/Dihydrexidine" title="Dihydrexidine">Dihydrexidine</a> • <a href="/Dinapsoline" title="Dinapsoline">Dinapsoline</a> • <a href="/Dinoxyline" title="Dinoxyline">Dinoxyline</a> • <a href="/Doxanthrine" title="Doxanthrine">Doxanthrine</a>; <em>Others</em>: <a href="/A-68,930" title="A-68,930" class="mw-redirect">A-68,930</a> • <a href="/A-77,636" title="A-77,636">A-77,636</a> • <a href="/A-412,997" title="A-412,997">A-412,997</a> • <a href="/ABT-670" title="ABT-670">ABT-670</a> • <a href="/ABT-724" title="ABT-724">ABT-724</a> • <a href="/Aplindore" title="Aplindore">Aplindore</a> • <a href="/Apomorphine" title="Apomorphine">Apomorphine</a> • <a href="/Aripiprazole" title="Aripiprazole">Aripiprazole</a> • <a href="/Bifeprunox" title="Bifeprunox">Bifeprunox</a> • CY-208,243 • <a href="/Etilevodopa" title="Etilevodopa">Etilevodopa</a> • <a href="/Melevodopa" title="Melevodopa">Melevodopa</a> • <a href="/Pardoprunox" title="Pardoprunox">Pardoprunox</a> • <a href="/PD-128,907" title="PD-128,907">PD-128,907</a> • <a href="/PF-219,061" title="PF-219,061">PF-219,061</a> • <a href="/Piribedil" title="Piribedil">Piribedil</a> • <a href="/Pramipexole" title="Pramipexole">Pramipexole</a> • <a href="/Propylnorapomorphine" title="Propylnorapomorphine">Propylnorapomorphine</a> • <a href="/Pukateine" title="Pukateine">Pukateine</a> • <a href="/Quinpirole" title="Quinpirole">Quinpirole</a> • <a href="/RDS-127" title="RDS-127">RDS-127</a> • <a href="/Ropinirole" title="Ropinirole">Ropinirole</a> • <a href="/Rotigotine" title="Rotigotine">Rotigotine</a> • <a href="/Roxindole" title="Roxindole">Roxindole</a> • SKF-89145 • SKF-89626 • <a href="/Terguride" title="Terguride">Terguride</a> • <a href="/Umespirone" title="Umespirone">Umespirone</a> • <a href="/WAY-100,635" title="WAY-100,635">WAY-100,635</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Receptor_antagonist" title="Receptor antagonist">Antagonists</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Typical Antipsychotics</em>: <a href="/Acepromazine" title="Acepromazine">Acepromazine</a> • <a href="/Azaperone" title="Azaperone">Azaperone</a> • <a href="/Benperidol" title="Benperidol">Benperidol</a> • <a href="/Bromperidol" title="Bromperidol">Bromperidol</a> • <a href="/Clopenthixol" title="Clopenthixol">Clopenthixol</a> • <a href="/Chlorpromazine" title="Chlorpromazine">Chlorpromazine</a> • <a href="/Chlorprothixene" title="Chlorprothixene">Chlorprothixene</a> • <a href="/Droperidol" title="Droperidol">Droperidol</a> • <a href="/Flupentixol" title="Flupentixol">Flupentixol</a> • <a href="/Fluphenazine" title="Fluphenazine">Fluphenazine</a> • <a href="/Fluspirilene" title="Fluspirilene">Fluspirilene</a> • <a href="/Haloperidol" title="Haloperidol">Haloperidol</a> • <a href="/Loxapine" title="Loxapine">Loxapine</a> • <a href="/Mesoridazine" title="Mesoridazine">Mesoridazine</a> • <a href="/Methotrimeprazine" title="Methotrimeprazine" class="mw-redirect">Methotrimeprazine</a> • <a href="/Molindone" title="Molindone">Molindone</a> • <a href="/Nemonapride" title="Nemonapride">Nemonapride</a> • <a href="/Penfluridol" title="Penfluridol">Penfluridol</a> • <a href="/Perazine" title="Perazine">Perazine</a> • <a href="/Periciazine" title="Periciazine">Periciazine</a> • <a href="/Perphenazine" title="Perphenazine">Perphenazine</a> • <a href="/Pimozide" title="Pimozide">Pimozide</a> • <a href="/Prochlorperazine" title="Prochlorperazine">Prochlorperazine</a> • <a href="/Promazine" title="Promazine">Promazine</a> • <a href="/Sulforidazine" title="Sulforidazine">Sulforidazine</a> • <a href="/Sulpiride" title="Sulpiride">Sulpiride</a> • <a href="/Sultopride" title="Sultopride">Sultopride</a> • <a href="/Thioridazine" title="Thioridazine">Thioridazine</a> • <a href="/Thiothixene" title="Thiothixene">Thiothixene</a> • <a href="/Trifluoperazine" title="Trifluoperazine">Trifluoperazine</a> • <a href="/Triflupromazine" title="Triflupromazine">Triflupromazine</a> • <a href="/Trifluperidol" title="Trifluperidol">Trifluperidol</a> • <a href="/Zuclopenthixol" title="Zuclopenthixol">Zuclopenthixol</a>; <em>Atypical Antipsychotics</em>: <a href="/Amisulpride" title="Amisulpride">Amisulpride</a> • <a href="/Asenapine" title="Asenapine">Asenapine</a> • <a href="/Blonanserin" title="Blonanserin">Blonanserin</a> • <a href="/Clozapine" title="Clozapine">Clozapine</a> • <a href="/Iloperidone" title="Iloperidone">Iloperidone</a> • <a href="/Lurasidone" title="Lurasidone">Lurasidone</a> • <a href="/Melperone" title="Melperone">Melperone</a> • <a href="/Mosapramine" title="Mosapramine">Mosapramine</a> • Octaperidone • <a href="/Olanzapine" title="Olanzapine">Olanzapine</a> • <a href="/Paliperidone" title="Paliperidone">Paliperidone</a> • <a href="/Perospirone" title="Perospirone">Perospirone</a> • <a href="/Quetiapine" title="Quetiapine">Quetiapine</a> • <a href="/Remoxipride" title="Remoxipride">Remoxipride</a> • <a href="/Risperidone" title="Risperidone">Risperidone</a> • <a href="/Sertindole" title="Sertindole">Sertindole</a> • <a href="/Tiospirone" title="Tiospirone">Tiospirone</a> • <a href="/Ziprasidone" title="Ziprasidone">Ziprasidone</a> • <a href="/Zotepine" title="Zotepine">Zotepine</a>; <em>Antiemetics</em>: <a href="/AS-8112" title="AS-8112">AS-8112</a> • <a href="/Alizapride" title="Alizapride">Alizapride</a> • <a href="/Bromopride" title="Bromopride">Bromopride</a> • <a href="/Clebopride" title="Clebopride">Clebopride</a> • <a href="/Domperidone" title="Domperidone">Domperidone</a> • <a href="/Metoclopramide" title="Metoclopramide">Metoclopramide</a> • <a href="/Thiethylperazine" title="Thiethylperazine">Thiethylperazine</a>; <em>Others</em>: <a href="/Amoxapine" title="Amoxapine">Amoxapine</a> • <a href="/Buspirone" title="Buspirone">Buspirone</a> • <a href="/Butaclamol" title="Butaclamol">Butaclamol</a> • <a href="/N-Ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline" title="N-Ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline">N-Ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline</a> • <a href="/Ecopipam" title="Ecopipam">Ecopipam</a> • <a href="/Eticlopride" title="Eticlopride">Eticlopride</a> • <a href="/Fananserin" title="Fananserin">Fananserin</a> • <a href="/Nafadotride" title="Nafadotride">Nafadotride</a> • <a href="/Nuciferine" title="Nuciferine">Nuciferine</a> • <a href="/Raclopride" title="Raclopride">Raclopride</a> • <a href="/SB-277,011-A" title="SB-277,011-A">SB-277,011-A</a> • <a href="/SCH-23,390" title="SCH-23,390" class="mw-redirect">SCH-23,390</a> • SKF-83,566 • <a href="/SKF-83,959" title="SKF-83,959">SKF-83,959</a> • <a href="/Spiperone" title="Spiperone">Spiperone</a> • <a href="/Spiroxatrine" title="Spiroxatrine">Spiroxatrine</a> • <a href="/Stepholidine" title="Stepholidine">Stepholidine</a> • <a href="/Tetrahydropalmatine" title="Tetrahydropalmatine">Tetrahydropalmatine</a> • <a href="/Tiapride" title="Tiapride">Tiapride</a> • <a href="/UH-232" title="UH-232">UH-232</a> • <a href="/Yohimbine" title="Yohimbine">Yohimbine</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Reuptake_inhibitor" title="Reuptake inhibitor">Reuptake<br /> Inhibitors</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Plasmalemmal" title="Plasmalemmal" class="mw-redirect">Plasmalemmal</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Dopamine_reuptake_inhibitor" title="Dopamine reuptake inhibitor">DAT Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Piperazines</em>: <a href="/DBL-583" title="DBL-583">DBL-583</a> • <a href="/GBR-12,935" title="GBR-12,935" class="mw-redirect">GBR-12,935</a> • <a href="/Nefazodone" title="Nefazodone">Nefazodone</a> • <a href="/Vanoxerine" title="Vanoxerine">Vanoxerine</a>; <em>Piperidines</em>: <a href="/1-(1-(1-Benzothiophen-2-yl)cyclohexyl)piperidine" title="1-(1-(1-Benzothiophen-2-yl)cyclohexyl)piperidine" class="mw-redirect">BTCP</a> • <a href="/Desoxypipradrol" title="Desoxypipradrol">Desoxypipradrol</a> • <a href="/Dextromethylphenidate" title="Dextromethylphenidate" class="mw-redirect">Dextromethylphenidate</a> • <a href="/Ethylphenidate" title="Ethylphenidate">Ethylphenidate</a> • <a href="/Methylnaphthidate" title="Methylnaphthidate" class="mw-redirect">Methylnaphthidate</a> • <strong class="selflink">Methylphenidate</strong> • <a href="/Phencyclidine" title="Phencyclidine">Phencyclidine</a> • <a href="/Pipradrol" title="Pipradrol">Pipradrol</a>; <em>Pyrrolidines</em>: <a href="/Diphenylprolinol" title="Diphenylprolinol">Diphenylprolinol</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxypyrovalerone" title="Methylenedioxypyrovalerone">Methylenedioxypyrovalerone</a> (MDPV) • <a href="/Naphyrone" title="Naphyrone" class="mw-redirect">Naphyrone</a> • <a href="/Prolintane" title="Prolintane">Prolintane</a> • <a href="/Pyrovalerone" title="Pyrovalerone">Pyrovalerone</a>; <em>Tropanes</em>: <a href="/3%CE%B2-(4%27-Chlorophenyl)-2%CE%B2-(3%27-phenylisoxazol-5%27-yl)tropane" title="3β-(4'-Chlorophenyl)-2β-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">β-CPPIT</a> • <a href="/Altropane" title="Altropane">Altropane</a> • <a href="/Brasofensine" title="Brasofensine">Brasofensine</a> • <a href="/(-)-2%CE%B2-Carbomethoxy-3%CE%B2-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane" title="(-)-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane" class="mw-redirect">CFT</a> • <a href="/Cocaine" title="Cocaine">Cocaine</a> • <a href="/Dichloropane" title="Dichloropane">Dichloropane</a> • <a href="/Difluoropine" title="Difluoropine">Difluoropine</a> • <a href="/N-(2%27-Fluoroethyl-)-3%CE%B2-(4%27-chlorophenyl)-2%CE%B2-(3%27-phenylisoxazol-5%27-yl)nortropane" title="N-(2'-Fluoroethyl-)-3β-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2β-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)nortropane">FE-β-CPPIT</a> • <a href="/N-(3%27-Fluoropropyl-)-3%CE%B2-(4%27-chlorophenyl)-2%CE%B2-(3%27-phenylisoxazol-5%27-yl)nortropane" title="N-(3'-Fluoropropyl-)-3β-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2β-(3'-phenylisoxazol-5'-yl)nortropane">FP-β-CPPIT</a> • <a href="/Ioflupane_(123I)" title="Ioflupane (123I)">Ioflupane (<sup>123</sup>I)</a> • <a href="/Iometopane" title="Iometopane" class="mw-redirect">Iometopane</a> • <a href="/RTI-112" title="RTI-112">RTI-112</a> • <a href="/RTI-113" title="RTI-113">RTI-113</a> • <a href="/RTI-121" title="RTI-121">RTI-121</a> • <a href="/RTI-126" title="RTI-126" class="mw-redirect">RTI-126</a> • <a href="/RTI-150" title="RTI-150">RTI-150</a> • <a href="/RTI-177" title="RTI-177">RTI-177</a> • <a href="/RTI-229" title="RTI-229">RTI-229</a> • <a href="/RTI-336" title="RTI-336" class="mw-redirect">RTI-336</a> • <a href="/Tenocyclidine" title="Tenocyclidine">Tenocyclidine</a> • <a href="/Tesofensine" title="Tesofensine">Tesofensine</a> • <a href="/Troparil" title="Troparil">Troparil</a> • <a href="/Tropoxane" title="Tropoxane">Tropoxane</a> • <a href="/2%CE%B2-Propanoyl-3%CE%B2-(4-tolyl)-tropane" title="2β-Propanoyl-3β-(4-tolyl)-tropane">WF-11</a> • <a href="/2%CE%B2-Propanoyl-3%CE%B2-(2-naphthyl)-tropane" title="2β-Propanoyl-3β-(2-naphthyl)-tropane">WF-23</a> • <a href="/2-Propanoyl-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-tropane" title="2-Propanoyl-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-tropane">WF-31</a> • <a href="/2%CE%B1-(Propanoyl)-3%CE%B2-(2-(6-methoxynaphthyl))-tropane" title="2α-(Propanoyl)-3β-(2-(6-methoxynaphthyl))-tropane">WF-33</a>; <em>Others</em>: <a href="/Amfonelic_acid" title="Amfonelic acid">Amfonelic Acid</a> • <a href="/Amineptine" title="Amineptine">Amineptine</a> • <a href="/Benzatropine" title="Benzatropine">Benzatropine</a> (Benztropine) • <a href="/Bromantane" title="Bromantane">Bromantane</a> • <a href="/2-Butyl-3-(p-tolyl)quinuclidine" title="2-Butyl-3-(p-tolyl)quinuclidine" class="mw-redirect">BTQ</a> • <a href="/BTS-74,398" title="BTS-74,398" class="mw-redirect">BTS-74,398</a> • <a href="/Bupropion" title="Bupropion">Bupropion</a> (Amfebutamone) • <a href="/Ciclazindol" title="Ciclazindol">Ciclazindol</a> • <a href="/Diclofensine" title="Diclofensine">Diclofensine</a> • <a href="/Dimethocaine" title="Dimethocaine">Dimethocaine</a> • <a href="/Dizocilpine" title="Dizocilpine">Dizocilpine</a> • <a href="/DOV-102,677" title="DOV-102,677">DOV-102,677</a> • <a href="/DOV-21,947" title="DOV-21,947">DOV-21,947</a> • <a href="/DOV-216,303" title="DOV-216,303">DOV-216,303</a> • <a href="/Etybenzatropine" title="Etybenzatropine">Etybenzatropine</a> (Ethylbenztropine) • <a href="/Fencamine" title="Fencamine">Fencamine</a> • <a href="/Fencamfamine" title="Fencamfamine">Fencamfamine</a> • <a href="/GYKI-52,895" title="GYKI-52,895" class="mw-redirect">GYKI-52,895</a> • <a href="/Indatraline" title="Indatraline">Indatraline</a> • <a href="/Ketamine" title="Ketamine">Ketamine</a> • <a href="/Lefetamine" title="Lefetamine">Lefetamine</a> • <a href="/LR-5182" title="LR-5182">LR-5182</a> • <a href="/Manifaxine" title="Manifaxine">Manifaxine</a> • <a href="/Mazindol" title="Mazindol">Mazindol</a> • <a href="/Medifoxamine" title="Medifoxamine">Medifoxamine</a> • <a href="/Mesocarb" title="Mesocarb">Mesocarb</a> • <a href="/Nefopam" title="Nefopam">Nefopam</a> • <a href="/Nomifensine" title="Nomifensine">Nomifensine</a> • <a href="/NS-2359" title="NS-2359">NS-2359</a> • <a href="/O-2172" title="O-2172">O-2172</a> • <a href="/Propylamphetamine" title="Propylamphetamine">Propylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Radafaxine" title="Radafaxine">Radafaxine</a> • <a href="/SEP-225,289" title="SEP-225,289" class="mw-redirect">SEP-225,289</a> • <a href="/SEP-227,162" title="SEP-227,162">SEP-227,162</a> • <a href="/Sibutramine" title="Sibutramine">Sibutramine</a> • <a href="/Tametraline" title="Tametraline">Tametraline</a> • <a href="/Tripelennamine" title="Tripelennamine">Tripelennamine</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vesicular" title="Vesicular" class="mw-redirect">Vesicular</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Vesicular_monoamine_transporter" title="Vesicular monoamine transporter">VMAT</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Deserpidine" title="Deserpidine">Deserpidine</a> • <a href="/Ibogaine" title="Ibogaine">Ibogaine</a> • <a href="/Reserpine" title="Reserpine">Reserpine</a> • <a href="/Tetrabenazine" title="Tetrabenazine">Tetrabenazine</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Releasing_agent" title="Releasing agent">Releasing<br /> Agents</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Morpholines</em>: <a href="/Phendimetrazine" title="Phendimetrazine">Phendimetrazine</a> • <a href="/Phenmetrazine" title="Phenmetrazine">Phenmetrazine</a>; <em>Oxazolines</em>: <a href="/4-Methylaminorex" title="4-Methylaminorex">4-Methylaminorex</a> (4-MAR, 4-MAX) • <a href="/Aminorex" title="Aminorex">Aminorex</a> • <a href="/Clominorex" title="Clominorex">Clominorex</a> • <a href="/Cyclazodone" title="Cyclazodone">Cyclazodone</a> • <a href="/Fenozolone" title="Fenozolone">Fenozolone</a> • <a href="/Fluminorex" title="Fluminorex">Fluminorex</a> • <a href="/Pemoline" title="Pemoline">Pemoline</a> • <a href="/Thozalinone" title="Thozalinone">Thozalinone</a>; <em>Phenethylamines</em> (also <em>Amphetamines</em>, <em>Cathinones</em>, <em>Phentermines</em>, etc): <a href="/2-Hydroxyphenethylamine" title="2-Hydroxyphenethylamine">2-Hydroxyphenethylamine</a> (2-OH-PEA) • <a href="/4-Methylamphetamine" title="4-Methylamphetamine">4-Methylamphetamine</a> (4-MA) • <a href="/4-Methylmethamphetamine" title="4-Methylmethamphetamine">4-Methylmethamphetamine</a> (4-MMA) • <a href="/Alfetamine" title="Alfetamine">Alfetamine</a> • <a href="/Amfecloral" title="Amfecloral">Amfecloral</a> • <a href="/Amfepentorex" title="Amfepentorex">Amfepentorex</a> • <a href="/Amfepramone" title="Amfepramone">Amfepramone</a> • <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a> (<a href="/Dextroamphetamine" title="Dextroamphetamine">Dextroamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levoamphetamine" title="Levoamphetamine">Levoamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Amphetaminil" title="Amphetaminil">Amphetaminil</a> • <a href="/Beta-Methylphenethylamine" title="Beta-Methylphenethylamine">β-Methylphenethylamine</a> (β-Me-PEA) • <a href="/Benzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylbutanamine">Benzodioxolylbutanamine</a> (BDB) • <a href="/Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine">Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine</a> (BOH) • <a href="/Benzphetamine" title="Benzphetamine">Benzphetamine</a> • <a href="/Buphedrone" title="Buphedrone">Buphedrone</a> • <a href="/Butylone" title="Butylone">Butylone</a> • <a href="/Cathine" title="Cathine">Cathine</a> • <a href="/Cathinone" title="Cathinone">Cathinone</a> • <a href="/Clobenzorex" title="Clobenzorex">Clobenzorex</a> • <a href="/Clortermine" title="Clortermine">Clortermine</a> • <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/Dimethoxyamphetamine" title="Dimethoxyamphetamine">Dimethoxyamphetamine</a> (DMA) • <a href="/Dimethoxymethamphetamine" title="Dimethoxymethamphetamine">Dimethoxymethamphetamine</a> (DMMA) • <a href="/Dimethylamphetamine" title="Dimethylamphetamine">Dimethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Dimethylcathinone" title="Dimethylcathinone">Dimethylcathinone</a> (Dimethylpropion, Metamfepramone) • <a href="/Ethcathinone" title="Ethcathinone">Ethcathinone</a> (Ethylpropion) • <a href="/Ethylamphetamine" title="Ethylamphetamine">Ethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine</a> (EBDB) • <a href="/Ethylone" title="Ethylone">Ethylone</a> • <a href="/Fenethylline" title="Fenethylline">Fenethylline</a> • <a href="/Fenproporex" title="Fenproporex">Fenproporex</a> • <a href="/Flephedrone" title="Flephedrone">Flephedrone</a> • <a href="/Fludorex" title="Fludorex">Fludorex</a> • <a href="/Furfenorex" title="Furfenorex">Furfenorex</a> • <a href="/Hordenine" title="Hordenine">Hordenine</a> • <a href="/Indanorex" title="Indanorex">Indanorex</a> • <a href="/Lophophine" title="Lophophine" class="mw-redirect">Lophophine</a> (Homomyristicylamine) • <a href="/Mefenorex" title="Mefenorex">Mefenorex</a> • <a href="/Mephedrone" title="Mephedrone">Mephedrone</a> • <a href="/Methamphetamine" title="Methamphetamine">Methamphetamine</a> (Desoxyephedrine, Methedrine; <a href="/Dextromethamphetamine" title="Dextromethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Dextromethamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levomethamphetamine" title="Levomethamphetamine">Levomethamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Methcathinone" title="Methcathinone">Methcathinone</a> (Methylpropion) • <a href="/Methedrone" title="Methedrone" class="mw-redirect">Methedrone</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine">Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine</a> (MMDA) • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine">Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine</a> (MMDMA) • <a href="/Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine</a> (MBDB) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Methylenedioxyamphetamine</a> (MDA; Tenamfetamine) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine">Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine</a> (MDEA) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine">Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine</a> (MDOH) • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Methylenedioxymethamphetamine</a> (MDMA) • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine">Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine</a> (MDMPEA; Homarylamine) • <a href="/Methylenedioxyphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxyphenethylamine">Methylenedioxyphenethylamine</a> (MDPEA; Homopiperonylamine) • <a href="/Methylone" title="Methylone">Methylone</a> • <a href="/Ortetamine" title="Ortetamine">Ortetamine</a> • <a href="/Parabromoamphetamine" title="Parabromoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parabromoamphetamine</a> (PBA) • <a href="/Parachloroamphetamine" title="Parachloroamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parachloroamphetamine</a> (PCA) • <a href="/4-Fluoroamphetamine" title="4-Fluoroamphetamine">Parafluoroamphetamine</a> (PFA) • <a href="/4-Fluoromethamphetamine" title="4-Fluoromethamphetamine">Parafluoromethamphetamine</a> (PFMA) • <a href="/Parahydroxyamphetamine" title="Parahydroxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Parahydroxyamphetamine</a> (PHA) • <a href="/Paraiodoamphetamine" title="Paraiodoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Paraiodoamphetamine</a> (PIA) • <a href="/Paramethoxyamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Paramethoxyamphetamine</a> (PMA) • <a href="/Paramethoxyethylamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyethylamphetamine">Paramethoxyethylamphetamine</a> (PMEA) • <a href="/Paramethoxymethamphetamine" title="Paramethoxymethamphetamine">Paramethoxymethamphetamine</a> (PMMA) • <a href="/Paredrine" title="Paredrine" class="mw-redirect">Paredrine</a> (Norpholedrine, Oxamphetamine) • <a href="/Phenethylamine" title="Phenethylamine">Phenethylamine</a> (PEA) • <a href="/Pholedrine" title="Pholedrine">Pholedrine</a> • <a href="/Phenpromethamine" title="Phenpromethamine">Phenpromethamine</a> • <a href="/Prenylamine" title="Prenylamine">Prenylamine</a> • <a href="/Propylamphetamine" title="Propylamphetamine">Propylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Tiflorex" title="Tiflorex">Tiflorex</a> (Flutiorex) • <a href="/Tyramine" title="Tyramine">Tyramine</a> (TRA) • <a href="/Xylopropamine" title="Xylopropamine">Xylopropamine</a> • <a href="/Zylofuramine" title="Zylofuramine">Zylofuramine</a>; <em>Piperazines</em>: <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromobenzylpiperazine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromobenzylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromobenzylpiperazine</a> (2C-B-BZP) • <a href="/Benzylpiperazine" title="Benzylpiperazine">Benzylpiperazine</a> (BZP) • <a href="/Methoxyphenylpiperazine" title="Methoxyphenylpiperazine" class="mw-redirect">Methoxyphenylpiperazine</a> (MeOPP; Paraperazine) • <a href="/Methylbenzylpiperazine" title="Methylbenzylpiperazine">Methylbenzylpiperazine</a> (MBZP) • <a href="/Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine" title="Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine">Methylenedioxybenzylpiperazine</a> (MDBZP; Piperonylpiperazine); <em>Others</em>: <a href="/2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene" title="2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene">2-Amino-1,2-dihydronaphthalene</a> (2-ADN) • <a href="/2-Aminoindane" title="2-Aminoindane">2-Aminoindane</a> (2-AI) • <a href="/2-Aminotetralin" title="2-Aminotetralin">2-Aminotetralin</a> (2-AT) • <a href="/4-Benzylpiperidine" title="4-Benzylpiperidine">4-Benzylpiperidine</a> (4-BP) • <a href="/Clofenciclan" title="Clofenciclan">Clofenciclan</a> • <a href="/Cyclopentamine" title="Cyclopentamine">Cyclopentamine</a> • <a href="/Cypenamine" title="Cypenamine">Cypenamine</a> • <a href="/Cyprodenate" title="Cyprodenate">Cyprodenate</a> • <a href="/Feprosidnine" title="Feprosidnine">Feprosidnine</a> • <a href="/Gilutensin" title="Gilutensin">Gilutensin</a> • <a href="/Heptaminol" title="Heptaminol">Heptaminol</a> • <a href="/Hexacyclonate" title="Hexacyclonate">Hexacyclonate</a> • <a href="/Indanylaminopropane" title="Indanylaminopropane">Indanylaminopropane</a> (IAP) • <a href="/Isometheptene" title="Isometheptene">Isometheptene</a> • <a href="/Methylhexanamine" title="Methylhexanamine">Methylhexanamine</a> • <a href="/Naphthylaminopropane" title="Naphthylaminopropane" class="mw-redirect">Naphthylaminopropane</a> (NAP) • <a href="/Octodrine" title="Octodrine">Octodrine</a> • <a href="/Phthalimidopropiophenone" title="Phthalimidopropiophenone">Phthalimidopropiophenone</a> • <a href="/Propylhexedrine" title="Propylhexedrine">Propylhexedrine</a> (PHX) • <a href="/Tuaminoheptane" title="Tuaminoheptane">Tuaminoheptane</a> (Tuamine)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;"><a href="/Enzyme_inhibitor" title="Enzyme inhibitor">Enzyme<br /> Inhibitors</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Anabolism" title="Anabolism">Anabolism</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Phenylalanine_hydroxylase" title="Phenylalanine hydroxylase">PAH</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/3,4-Dihydroxystyrene" title="3,4-Dihydroxystyrene">3,4-Dihydroxystyrene</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Tyrosine_hydroxylase" title="Tyrosine hydroxylase">TH</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/3-Iodotyrosine" title="3-Iodotyrosine">3-Iodotyrosine</a> • <a href="/Aquayamycin" title="Aquayamycin">Aquayamycin</a> • <a href="/Bulbocapnine" title="Bulbocapnine">Bulbocapnine</a> • <a href="/Metirosine" title="Metirosine">Metirosine</a> • <a href="/Oudenone" title="Oudenone">Oudenone</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Aromatic_L-amino_acid_decarboxylase" title="Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase">AAAD</a> / <a href="/DOPA_decarboxylase" title="DOPA decarboxylase" class="mw-redirect">DDC</a> <a href="/Dopa_decarboxylase_inhibitor" title="Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor">Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Benserazide" title="Benserazide">Benserazide</a> • <a href="/Carbidopa" title="Carbidopa">Carbidopa</a> • <a href="/Genistein" title="Genistein">Genistein</a> • <a href="/Methyldopa" title="Methyldopa">Methyldopa</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Catabolism" title="Catabolism">Catabolism</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Monoamine_oxidase_inhibitor" title="Monoamine oxidase inhibitor">MAO Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Nonselective</em>: <a href="/Benmoxin" title="Benmoxin">Benmoxin</a> • <a href="/Caroxazone" title="Caroxazone">Caroxazone</a> • <a href="/Echinopsidine" title="Echinopsidine">Echinopsidine</a> • <a href="/Furazolidone" title="Furazolidone">Furazolidone</a> • <a href="/Hydralazine" title="Hydralazine">Hydralazine</a> • <a href="/Iproclozide" title="Iproclozide">Iproclozide</a> • <a href="/Iproniazid" title="Iproniazid">Iproniazid</a> • <a href="/Isocarboxazid" title="Isocarboxazid">Isocarboxazid</a> • <a href="/Isoniazid" title="Isoniazid">Isoniazid</a> • <a href="/Linezolid" title="Linezolid">Linezolid</a> • <a href="/Mebanazine" title="Mebanazine">Mebanazine</a> • <a href="/Metfendrazine" title="Metfendrazine">Metfendrazine</a> • <a href="/Nialamide" title="Nialamide">Nialamide</a> • <a href="/Octamoxin" title="Octamoxin">Octamoxin</a> • <a href="/Phenelzine" title="Phenelzine">Phenelzine</a> • <a href="/Pheniprazine" title="Pheniprazine">Pheniprazine</a> • <a href="/Phenoxypropazine" title="Phenoxypropazine">Phenoxypropazine</a> • <a href="/Pivalylbenzhydrazine" title="Pivalylbenzhydrazine">Pivalylbenzhydrazine</a> • <a href="/Procarbazine" title="Procarbazine">Procarbazine</a> • <a href="/Safrazine" title="Safrazine">Safrazine</a> • <a href="/Tranylcypromine" title="Tranylcypromine">Tranylcypromine</a>; <em>MAO-A Selective</em>: <a href="/Amiflamine" title="Amiflamine">Amiflamine</a> • Bazinaprine • <a href="/Befloxatone" title="Befloxatone">Befloxatone</a> • Befol • <a href="/Brofaromine" title="Brofaromine">Brofaromine</a> • <a href="/Cimoxatone" title="Cimoxatone">Cimoxatone</a> • <a href="/Clorgiline" title="Clorgiline">Clorgiline</a> • Esuprone • <a href="/Harmala_alkaloid" title="Harmala alkaloid">Harmala alkaloids</a> (<a href="/Harmine" title="Harmine">Harmine</a>, <a href="/Harmaline" title="Harmaline">Harmaline</a>, <a href="/Tetrahydroharmine" title="Tetrahydroharmine" class="mw-redirect">Tetrahydroharmine</a>, <a href="/Harmala_alkaloid" title="Harmala alkaloid">Harman</a>, <a href="/Norharman" title="Norharman" class="mw-redirect">Norharman</a>, etc) • <a href="/Methylene_blue" title="Methylene blue">Methylene Blue</a> • <a href="/Metralindole" title="Metralindole">Metralindole</a> • <a href="/Minaprine" title="Minaprine">Minaprine</a> • <a href="/Moclobemide" title="Moclobemide">Moclobemide</a> • <a href="/Pirlindole" title="Pirlindole">Pirlindole</a> • Sercloremine • Tetrindole • <a href="/Toloxatone" title="Toloxatone">Toloxatone</a> • <a href="/Tyrima" title="Tyrima">Tyrima</a>; <em>MAO-B Selective</em>: <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/L-Deprenyl" title="L-Deprenyl" class="mw-redirect">L-Deprenyl</a> (Selegiline) • <a href="/Ladostigil" title="Ladostigil">Ladostigil</a> • <a href="/Lazabemide" title="Lazabemide">Lazabemide</a> • Milacemide • Mofegiline • <a href="/Pargyline" title="Pargyline">Pargyline</a> • <a href="/Rasagiline" title="Rasagiline">Rasagiline</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Catechol-O-methyl_transferase" title="Catechol-O-methyl transferase">COMT</a> <a href="/Catechol-O-methyl_transferase_inhibitor" title="Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor" class="mw-redirect">Inhibitors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Entacapone" title="Entacapone">Entacapone</a> • <a href="/Tolcapone" title="Tolcapone">Tolcapone</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase" title="Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase" class="mw-redirect">DBH</a> Inhibitors</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em">Bupicomide • <a href="/Disulfiram" title="Disulfiram">Disulfiram</a> • Dopastin • <a href="/Fusaric_acid" title="Fusaric acid">Fusaric Acid</a> • <a href="/Nepicastat" title="Nepicastat">Nepicastat</a> • Phenopicolinic Acid • <a href="/Tropolone" title="Tropolone">Tropolone</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";background-color: LightYellow;">Others</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="width:100%;;;;"> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Precursor_(chemistry)" title="Precursor (chemistry)">Precursors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/L-Phenylalanine" title="L-Phenylalanine" class="mw-redirect">L-Phenylalanine</a> → <a href="/Tyrosine" title="Tyrosine">L-Tyrosine</a> → <a href="/L-DOPA" title="L-DOPA">L-DOPA</a> (Levodopa)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;"><a href="/Cofactor_(biochemistry)" title="Cofactor (biochemistry)">Cofactors</a></div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Ferrous" title="Ferrous">Ferrous</a> <a href="/Iron" title="Iron">Iron</a> (Fe<sup>2+</sup>) • <a href="/Tetrahydrobiopterin" title="Tetrahydrobiopterin">Tetrahydrobiopterin</a> • <a href="/Vitamin_B3" title="Vitamin B3" class="mw-redirect">Vitamin B3</a> (<a href="/Niacin" title="Niacin">Niacin</a>, <a href="/Nicotinamide" title="Nicotinamide">Nicotinamide</a> → <a href="/NADPH" title="NADPH" class="mw-redirect">NADPH</a>) • <a href="/Vitamin_B6" title="Vitamin B6">Vitamin B6</a> (<a href="/Pyridoxine" title="Pyridoxine">Pyridoxine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxamine" title="Pyridoxamine">Pyridoxamine</a>, <a href="/Pyridoxal" title="Pyridoxal">Pyridoxal</a> → <a href="/Pyridoxal_phosphate" title="Pyridoxal phosphate">Pyridoxal Phosphate</a>) • <a href="/Vitamin_B9" title="Vitamin B9" class="mw-redirect">Vitamin B9</a> (<a href="/Folic_acid" title="Folic acid">Folic Acid</a> → <a href="/Tetrahydrofolic_acid" title="Tetrahydrofolic acid">Tetrahydrofolic Acid</a>) • <a href="/Vitamin_C" title="Vitamin C">Vitamin C</a> (<a href="/Ascorbic_acid" title="Ascorbic acid">Ascorbic Acid</a>) • <a href="/Zinc" title="Zinc">Zinc</a> (Zn<sup>2+</sup>)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";padding-left:0em;padding-right:0em;background-color: LightYellow;"> <div style="padding:0em 0.75em;">Others</div> </td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Activity Enhancers</em>: <a href="/Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane" title="Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane">Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane</a> (BPAP) • <a href="/Phenylpropylaminopentane" title="Phenylpropylaminopentane">Phenylpropylaminopentane</a> (PPAP)</div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <table class="navbox" cellspacing="0" style=";"> <tr> <td style="padding:2px;"> <table cellspacing="0" class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse" style="width:100%;background:transparent;color:inherit;;"> <tr> <th style=";" colspan="2" class="navbox-title"><span class="" style="font-size:110%;"><a href="/Substituted_phenethylamine" title="Substituted phenethylamine" class="mw-redirect">Phenethylamines</a></span></th> </tr> <tr style="height:2px;"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Substituted_phenethylamine" title="Substituted phenethylamine" class="mw-redirect">Phenethylamines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Psychedelics:</em> <a href="/2C-B" title="2C-B">2C-B</a> • <a href="/2C-B-FLY" title="2C-B-FLY">2C-B-FLY</a> • <a href="/2C-C" title="2C-C">2C-C</a> • <a href="/2C-D" title="2C-D">2C-D</a> • <a href="/2C-E" title="2C-E">2C-E</a> • <a href="/2C-G" title="2C-G">2C-G</a> • <a href="/2C-I" title="2C-I">2C-I</a> • <a href="/2C-N" title="2C-N">2C-N</a> • <a href="/2C-P" title="2C-P">2C-P</a> • <a href="/2C-SE" title="2C-SE">2C-SE</a> • <a href="/2C-T" title="2C-T">2C-T</a> • <a href="/2C-T-2" title="2C-T-2">2C-T-2</a> • <a href="/2C-T-4" title="2C-T-4">2C-T-4</a> • <a href="/2C-T-7" title="2C-T-7">2C-T-7</a> • <a href="/2C-T-8" title="2C-T-8">2C-T-8</a> • <a href="/2C-T-9" title="2C-T-9">2C-T-9</a> • <a href="/2C-T-13" title="2C-T-13">2C-T-13</a> • <a href="/2C-T-15" title="2C-T-15">2C-T-15</a> • <a href="/2C-T-17" title="2C-T-17">2C-T-17</a> • <a href="/2C-T-21" title="2C-T-21">2C-T-21</a> • <a href="/2C-TFM" title="2C-TFM">2C-TFM</a> • <a href="/2C-YN" title="2C-YN">2C-YN</a> • <a href="/Allylescaline" title="Allylescaline">Allylescaline</a> • <a href="/DESOXY" title="DESOXY">DESOXY</a> • <a href="/3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine" title="3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine">DMPEA</a> • <a href="/Escaline" title="Escaline">Escaline</a> • <a href="/Isoproscaline" title="Isoproscaline">Isoproscaline</a> • <a href="/Jimscaline" title="Jimscaline">Jimscaline</a> • <a href="/Macromerine" title="Macromerine">Macromerine</a> • <a href="/3-Methoxy-4-ethoxyphenethylamine" title="3-Methoxy-4-ethoxyphenethylamine">MEPEA</a> • <a href="/Mescaline" title="Mescaline">Mescaline</a> • <a href="/Metaescaline" title="Metaescaline">Metaescaline</a> • <a href="/Methallylescaline" title="Methallylescaline">Methallylescaline</a> • <a href="/Proscaline" title="Proscaline">Proscaline</a> • <a href="/Psi-2C-T-4" title="Psi-2C-T-4" class="mw-redirect">Psi-2C-T-4</a> • <a href="/TCB-2" title="TCB-2">TCB-2</a><br /> <em>Stimulants:</em> <a href="/2-Hydroxyphenethylamine" title="2-Hydroxyphenethylamine">2-OH-PEA</a> • <a href="/%CE%91-Ethylphenethylamine" title="Α-Ethylphenethylamine" class="mw-redirect">α-Et-PEA</a> • <a href="/%CE%92-Methylphenethylamine" title="Β-Methylphenethylamine" class="mw-redirect">β-Me-PEA</a> • <a href="/Hordenine" title="Hordenine">Hordenine</a> • <a href="/Methylphenethylamine" title="Methylphenethylamine"><em>N</em>-Me-PEA</a> • <a href="/Phenethylamine" title="Phenethylamine">Phenethylamine</a> (PEA)<br /> <em>Entactogens:</em> <a href="/Lophophine" title="Lophophine" class="mw-redirect">Lophophine</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxyphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxyphenethylamine">MDPEA</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine" title="Methylenedioxymethylphenethylamine">MDMPEA</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Substituted_amphetamine" title="Substituted amphetamine">Amphetamines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Psychedelics:</em> <a href="/3C-BZ" title="3C-BZ">3C-BZ</a> • <a href="/3C-E" title="3C-E">3C-E</a> • <a href="/3C-P" title="3C-P">3C-P</a> • <a href="/Aleph_(psychedelic)" title="Aleph (psychedelic)">Aleph</a> • <a href="/Beatrice_(psychedelic)" title="Beatrice (psychedelic)">Beatrice</a> • <a href="/Bromo-DragonFLY" title="Bromo-DragonFLY">Bromo-DragonFLY</a> • <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/Dimethoxyamphetamine" title="Dimethoxyamphetamine">DMA</a> • <a href="/4-Methyl-2,5-methoxycyclopropylamine" title="4-Methyl-2,5-methoxycyclopropylamine">DMCPA</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">DMMDA</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine">DOB</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-chloroamphetamine">DOC</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-fluoroethylamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-fluoroethylamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">DOEF</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine">DOET</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine">DOI</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine">DOM</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitroamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-nitroamphetamine">DON</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylamphetamine">DOPR</a> • <a href="/2,5-Dimethoxy-4-trifluoromethylamphetamine" title="2,5-Dimethoxy-4-trifluoromethylamphetamine">DOTFM</a> • <a href="/Ganesha_(psychedelic)" title="Ganesha (psychedelic)">Ganesha</a> • <a href="/Psi-DOM" title="Psi-DOM">Psi-DOM</a> • <a href="/Trimethoxyamphetamine" title="Trimethoxyamphetamine">TMA</a> • <a href="/Tetramethoxyamphetamine" title="Tetramethoxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">TeMA</a><br /> <em>Stimulants:</em> <a href="/4-Methamphetamine" title="4-Methamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">4-MA</a> • <a href="/4-Methylmethamphetamine" title="4-Methylmethamphetamine">4-MMA</a> • <a href="/4-Methylthioamphetamine" title="4-Methylthioamphetamine">4-MTA</a> • <a href="/Alfetamine" title="Alfetamine">Alfetamine</a> • <a href="/Amfecloral" title="Amfecloral">Amfecloral</a> • <a href="/Amfepentorex" title="Amfepentorex">Amfepentorex</a> • <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a> (<a href="/Dextroamphetamine" title="Dextroamphetamine">Dextroamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levoamphetamine" title="Levoamphetamine">Levoamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/Amphetaminil" title="Amphetaminil">Amphetaminil</a> • <a href="/Benfluorex" title="Benfluorex">Benfluorex</a> • <a href="/Benzphetamine" title="Benzphetamine">Benzphetamine</a> • <a href="/Cathine" title="Cathine">Cathine</a> • <a href="/Clobenzorex" title="Clobenzorex">Clobenzorex</a> • <a href="/Dimethylamphetamine" title="Dimethylamphetamine">Dimethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Ephedrine" title="Ephedrine">Ephedrine</a> (EPH) • <a href="/Ethylamphetamine" title="Ethylamphetamine">Ethylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Fencamfamine" title="Fencamfamine">Fencamfamine</a> • <a href="/Fencamine" title="Fencamine">Fencamine</a> • <a href="/Fenethylline" title="Fenethylline">Fenethylline</a> • <a href="/Fenfluramine" title="Fenfluramine">Fenfluramine</a> (<a href="/Dexfenfluramine" title="Dexfenfluramine">Dexfenfluramine</a>) • <a href="/Fenproporex" title="Fenproporex">Fenproporex</a> • <a href="/Fludorex" title="Fludorex">Fludorex</a> • <a href="/Furfenorex" title="Furfenorex">Furfenorex</a> • <a href="/Isopropylamphetamine" title="Isopropylamphetamine">Isopropylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Mefenorex" title="Mefenorex">Mefenorex</a> • <a href="/Methamphetamine" title="Methamphetamine">Methamphetamine</a> (<a href="/Dextromethamphetamine" title="Dextromethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">Dextromethamphetamine</a>, <a href="/Levomethamphetamine" title="Levomethamphetamine">Levomethamphetamine</a>) • <a href="/3-Methoxy-4-methylamphetamine" title="3-Methoxy-4-methylamphetamine">MMA</a> • <a href="/Oxilofrine" title="Oxilofrine">Oxilofrine</a> • <a href="/Ortetamine" title="Ortetamine">Ortetamine</a> • <a href="/Parabromoamphetamine" title="Parabromoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PBA</a> • <a href="/Parachloroamphetamine" title="Parachloroamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PCA</a> • <a href="/Phenpromethamine" title="Phenpromethamine">Phenpromethamine</a> • <a href="/4-Fluoroamphetamine" title="4-Fluoroamphetamine">PFA</a> • <a href="/4-Fluoromethamphetamine" title="4-Fluoromethamphetamine">PFMA</a> • <a href="/Paraiodoamphetamine" title="Paraiodoamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PIA</a> • <a href="/Paramethoxyamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">PMA</a> • <a href="/Paramethoxyethylamphetamine" title="Paramethoxyethylamphetamine">PMEA</a> • <a href="/Paramethoxymethamphetamine" title="Paramethoxymethamphetamine">PMMA</a> • <a href="/Phenylpropanolamine" title="Phenylpropanolamine">Phenylpropanolamine</a> (PPA) • <a href="/Prenylamine" title="Prenylamine">Prenylamine</a> • <a href="/Propylamphetamine" title="Propylamphetamine">Propylamphetamine</a> • <a href="/Pseudoephedrine" title="Pseudoephedrine">Pseudoephedrine</a> (PSE) • <a href="/Sibutramine" title="Sibutramine">Sibutramine</a> • <a href="/Tiflorex" title="Tiflorex">Tiflorex</a> (Flutiorex) • <a href="/Tranylcypromine" title="Tranylcypromine">Tranylcypromine</a> • <a href="/Xylopropamine" title="Xylopropamine">Xylopropamine</a> • <a href="/Zylofuramine" title="Zylofuramine">Zylofuramine</a><br /> <em>Entactogens:</em> <a href="/Methylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDA</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine">MDEA</a> ("Eve") • <a href="/Methylenedioxyhydroxylmethamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyhydroxylmethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDHMA</a> (FLEA) • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxymethamphetamine" class="mw-redirect">MDMA</a> ("Ecstasy", "Adam") • <a href="/Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine" title="Methylenedioxyhydroxyamphetamine">MDOH</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxyamphetamine">MMDA</a> • <a href="/Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine" title="Methoxymethylenedioxymethamphetamine">MMDMA</a><br /> <em>Others:</em> <a href="/Amiflamine" title="Amiflamine">Amiflamine</a> • <a href="/D-Deprenyl" title="D-Deprenyl">D-Deprenyl</a> • <a href="/L-Deprenyl" title="L-Deprenyl" class="mw-redirect">L-Deprenyl</a> (Selegiline)</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Phentermine" title="Phentermine">Phentermines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Stimulants:</em> <a href="/Chlorphentermine" title="Chlorphentermine">Chlorphentermine</a> • <a href="/Clortermine" title="Clortermine">Clortermine</a> • <a href="/Mephentermine" title="Mephentermine">Mephentermine</a> • <a href="/Phenpentermine" title="Phenpentermine">Phenpentermine</a> • <a href="/Phentermine" title="Phentermine">Phentermine</a><br /> <em>Entactogens:</em> <a href="/Methylenedioxyphentermine" title="Methylenedioxyphentermine">MDPH</a> • <a href="/Methylenedioxymethylphentermine" title="Methylenedioxymethylphentermine">MDMPH</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Substituted_cathinone" title="Substituted cathinone">Cathinones</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Stimulants:</em> <a href="/Amfepramone" title="Amfepramone">Amfepramone</a> • <a href="/Brephedrone" title="Brephedrone" class="mw-redirect">Brephedrone</a> • <a href="/Buphedrone" title="Buphedrone">Buphedrone</a> • <a href="/Bupropion" title="Bupropion">Bupropion</a> (Amfebutamone) • <a href="/Cathinone" title="Cathinone">Cathinone</a> (Propion) • <a href="/Dimethylcathinone" title="Dimethylcathinone">Dimethylcathinone</a> (Dimethylpropion, Metamfepramone) • <a href="/Ethcathinone" title="Ethcathinone">Ethcathinone</a> (Ethylpropion) • <a href="/Flephedrone" title="Flephedrone">Flephedrone</a> • <a href="/Methcathinone" title="Methcathinone">Methcathinone</a> (Methylpropion) • <a href="/Mephedrone" title="Mephedrone">Mephedrone</a> • <a href="/Methedrone" title="Methedrone" class="mw-redirect">Methedrone</a><br /> <em>Entactogens:</em> <a href="/Ethylone" title="Ethylone">Ethylone</a> • <a href="/Methylone" title="Methylone">Methylone</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Butanamine" title="Butanamine" class="mw-redirect">Butanamines</a></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><em>Entactogens:</em> <a href="/Benzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylbutanamine">BDB</a> (J) • <a href="/Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine" title="Benzodioxolylhydroxybutanamine">BOH</a> (Hydroxy-J) • <a href="/Butylone" title="Butylone">Butylone</a> (bk-MBDB) • <a href="/Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Ethylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">EBDB</a> (Ethyl-J) • <a href="/Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine" title="Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine">MBDB</a> (Methyl-J; "Eden")</div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;"><a href="/Catecholamine" title="Catecholamine">Catecholamines</a><br /> <small>(and relatives..)</small></td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-even"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/6-Fluoronorepinephrine" title="6-Fluoronorepinephrine">6-FNE</a> • <a href="/6-Hydroxydopamine" title="6-Hydroxydopamine">6-OHDA</a> • <a href="/Alpha-Methyldopamine" title="Alpha-Methyldopamine">α-Me-DA</a> • <a href="/Alpha-Methyltyramine" title="Alpha-Methyltyramine" class="mw-redirect">α-Me-TRA</a> • <a href="/Adrenochrome" title="Adrenochrome">Adrenochrome</a> • <a href="/D-DOPA" title="D-DOPA">D-DOPA</a> (Dextrodopa) • <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">Dopamine</a> • <a href="/Epinephrine" title="Epinephrine">Epinephrine</a> (Adrenaline) • <a href="/Epinine" title="Epinine" class="mw-redirect">Epinine</a> • <a href="/Fenclonine" title="Fenclonine">Fenclonine</a> • <a href="/Ibopamine" title="Ibopamine">Ibopamine</a> • <a href="/L-DOPA" title="L-DOPA">L-DOPA</a> (Levodopa) • <a href="/L-DOPS" title="L-DOPS">L-DOPS</a> (Droxidopa) • <a href="/L-Phenylalanine" title="L-Phenylalanine" class="mw-redirect">L-Phenylalanine</a> • <a href="/L-Tyrosine" title="L-Tyrosine" class="mw-redirect">L-Tyrosine</a> • <a href="/Metanephrine" title="Metanephrine">Metanephrine</a> • <a href="/Metirosine" title="Metirosine">Metirosine</a> • <a href="/Methyldopa" title="Methyldopa">Methyldopa</a> • <a href="/Nordefrin" title="Nordefrin" class="mw-redirect">Nordefrin</a> (<a href="/Levonordefrin" title="Levonordefrin">Levonordefrin</a>) • <a href="/Norepinephrine" title="Norepinephrine">Norepinephrine</a> (Noradrenaline) • <a href="/Normetanephrine" title="Normetanephrine">Normetanephrine</a> • <a href="/Octopamine" title="Octopamine">Octopamine</a> • <a href="/Tyramine" title="Tyramine">Tyramine</a></div> </td> </tr> <tr style="height:2px"> <td></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="navbox-group" style=";;">Miscellaneous</td> <td style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px;;;" class="navbox-list navbox-odd"> <div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/Amidephrine" title="Amidephrine">Amidephrine</a> • <a href="/Arbutamine" title="Arbutamine">Arbutamine</a> • <a href="/Cafedrine" title="Cafedrine">Cafedrine</a> • <a href="/Denopamine" title="Denopamine">Denopamine</a> • <a href="/Dobutamine" title="Dobutamine">Dobutamine</a> • <a href="/Dopexamine" title="Dopexamine">Dopexamine</a> • <a href="/Etafedrine" title="Etafedrine">Etafedrine</a> • <a href="/Ethylnorepinephrine" title="Ethylnorepinephrine">Ethylnorepinephrine</a> • <a href="/Etilefrine" title="Etilefrine">Etilefrine</a> • <a href="/Gepefrine" title="Gepefrine">Gepefrine</a> • <a href="/Isoprenaline" title="Isoprenaline">Isoprenaline</a> (Isoproterenol) • <a href="/Isoetarine" title="Isoetarine">Isoetarine</a> • <a href="/Metaraminol" title="Metaraminol">Metaraminol</a> • <a href="/Methoxamine" title="Methoxamine">Methoxamine</a> • <a href="/Methoxyphenamine" title="Methoxyphenamine">Methoxyphenamine</a> • <a href="/Norfenefrine" title="Norfenefrine">Norfenefrine</a> • <a href="/Orciprenaline" title="Orciprenaline">Orciprenaline</a> • <a href="/Phenylephrine" title="Phenylephrine">Phenylephrine</a> (Neosynephrine) • <a href="/Phenoxybenzamine" title="Phenoxybenzamine">Phenoxybenzamine</a> • <a href="/Prenalterol" title="Prenalterol">Prenalterol</a> • <a href="/Propranolol" title="Propranolol">Propranolol</a> • <a href="/Salbutamol" title="Salbutamol">Salbutamol</a> (Albuterol; <a href="/Levosalbutamol" title="Levosalbutamol">Levosalbutamol</a>) • <a href="/Synephrine" title="Synephrine">Synephrine</a> (Oxedrine) • <a href="/Theodrenaline" title="Theodrenaline">Theodrenaline</a> • <a href="/Xamoterol" title="Xamoterol">Xamoterol</a></div> </td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> </table> <div style="margin: 1.12em 0; display:block"><span id="wikipedia_interwiki_es_fa"></span></div> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'> <div id="wikipedia_mw_normal_catlinks">Categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Class_A_drugs" title="Category:Class A drugs">Class A drugs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Class_B_drugs" title="Category:Class B drugs">Class B drugs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Nootropics" title="Category:Nootropics">Nootropics</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Stimulants" title="Category:Stimulants">Stimulants</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Sympathomimetic_amines" title="Category:Sympathomimetic amines">Sympathomimetic amines</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Piperidines" title="Category:Piperidines">Piperidines</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Dopamine_reuptake_inhibitors" title="Category:Dopamine reuptake inhibitors">Dopamine reuptake inhibitors</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Drug_culture" title="Category:Drug culture">Drug culture</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Psychiatry" title="Category:Psychiatry">Psychiatry</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Biology_of_bipolar_disorder" title="Category:Biology of bipolar disorder">Biology of bipolar disorder</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Acetates" title="Category:Acetates">Acetates</a></span></div> <div id="wikipedia_mw_hidden_catlinks" class="mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Pages_with_DOIs_broken_since_2009" title="Category:Pages with DOIs broken since 2009">Pages with DOIs broken since 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Wikipedia_articles_needing_page_number_citations" title="Category:Wikipedia articles needing page number citations">Wikipedia articles needing page number citations</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_needing_additional_references_from_February_2010" title="Category:Articles needing additional references from February 2010">Articles needing additional references from February 2010</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_articles_needing_additional_references" title="Category:All articles needing additional references">All articles needing additional references</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Articles_needing_cleanup_from_November_2009" title="Category:Articles needing cleanup from November 2009">Articles needing cleanup from November 2009</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:All_pages_needing_cleanup" title="Category:All pages needing cleanup">All pages needing cleanup</a></span></div> </div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="simple_wikipedia"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="simple_wikipedia">Simple English</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="simple_wikipedia_fragments"> <p>[[File:|thumb|right|Chemical structure of Methylphenidate]] [[File:|thumb|Tablets of a drug containing Methylphenidate, with a <a href="/Coin" title="Coin">coin</a> for comparison]] <b>Methylphenidate</b> is a <a href="/Drug" title="Drug">drug</a> which is similar to <a href="/Amphetamine" title="Amphetamine">amphetamine</a>. Its name is often shortened to <b>MPH</b>. MPH stimulates the <a href="/Central_nervous_system" title="Central nervous system">central nervous system</a>. It does this by increasing <a href="/Dopamine" title="Dopamine">dopamine</a> transmission in the <a href="/Brain" title="Brain">brain</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-pmid10440465_0-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-pmid10440465-0" title="">[1]</a></sup> </p><p>The drug is commonly used to treat <a href="/Attention-deficit_hyperactivity_disorder" title="Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder">attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder</a> and <a href="/Narcolepsy" title="Narcolepsy">narcolepsy</a>. It is sometimes used together with other drugs to treat <a href="/Major_depressive_disorder" title="Major depressive disorder">depression</a>. In most countries, its use needs to be <a href="/Prescription" title="Prescription">prescribed</a> by a <a href="/Doctor" title="Doctor">doctor</a>. </p><p>The most common <a href="/Side-effect" title="Side-effect" class="mw-redirect">side-effects</a> of taking the drug are nervousness and <a href="/Insomnia" title="Insomnia">sleeping problems</a>. About one in ten patients see these problems. Other side-effects include changes of <a href="/Blood_pressure" title="Blood pressure">blood pressure</a>, <a href="/Headache" title="Headache">headache</a>, and weight loss. Rare cases of <a href="/Tourette_syndrome" title="Tourette syndrome">Tourette syndrome</a> and <a href="/Psychosis" title="Psychosis">psychosis</a> have been reported, amongst others. </p><p>Sometimes, the drug has been prescribed to children, to help them stay focused in <a href="/School" title="School">school</a>. This use has been criticised by the <a href="/Media" title="Media">media</a>. Using Methylphenidate in children may be problematic, because on of the <a href="/Side-effect" title="Side-effect" class="mw-redirect">side-effects</a> is that children have growth problems. The media often uses the name <b>Ritalin</b>. Ritalin is one formulation of the drug, which is often used in such cases. </p> <a name="References" id="References"></a><h2> <span class="mw-headline">References</span></h2> <p> </p> <div class="references-small"> <ol class="references"><li id="cite_note-pmid10440465-0"><a href="#cite_ref-pmid10440465_0-0" title="">↑</a> <span class="citation Journal">Markowitz JS, Logan BK, Diamond F, Patrick KS (August 1999). <a href="http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0271-0749&volume=19&issue=4&spage=362" class="external text" title="http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0271-0749&volume=19&issue=4&spage=362" rel="nofollow">"Detection of the novel metabolite ethylphenidate after methylphenidate overdose with alcohol coingestion"</a>. <i>J Clin Psychopharmacol</i> <b>19</b> (4): 362–6. <a href="/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2F00004714-199908000-00013" class="external text" title="http://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2F00004714-199908000-00013" rel="nofollow">10.1097/00004714-199908000-00013</a>. <a href="/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10440465" class="external text" title="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10440465" rel="nofollow">10440465</a><span class="printonly">. <a href="http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0271-0749&volume=19&issue=4&spage=362" class="external free" title="http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0271-0749&volume=19&issue=4&spage=362" rel="nofollow">http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0271-0749&volume=19&issue=4&spage=362</a></span>.</span><span class="Z3988" title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=Detection+of+the+novel+metabolite+ethylphenidate+after+methylphenidate+overdose+with+alcohol+coingestion&rft.jtitle=J+Clin+Psychopharmacol&rft.aulast=Markowitz+JS%2C+Logan+BK%2C+Diamond+F%2C+Patrick+KS&rft.au=Markowitz+JS%2C+Logan+BK%2C+Diamond+F%2C+Patrick+KS&rft.date=August+1999&rft.volume=19&rft.issue=4&rft.pages=362%E2%80%936&rft_id=info:doi/10.1097%2F00004714-199908000-00013&rft_id=info:pmid/10440465&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fmeta.wkhealth.com%2Fpt%2Fpt-core%2Ftemplate-journal%2Flwwgateway%2Fmedia%2Flandingpage.htm%3Fissn%3D0271-0749%26volume%3D19%26issue%3D4%26spage%3D362&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:Methylphenidate"><span style="display: none;"> </span></span></li></ol></div> <div class="notice metadata plainlinks" id="stub"><a href="/index.php?title=Special:Upload&wpDestFile=Wiki_letter_w.svg" class="new" title="File:Wiki letter w.svg"></a> <i>This <a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">short article</a> can be made longer. You can help Wikipedia by <span class="plainlinks"><a href="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=Methylphenidate&action=edit" class="external text" title="http://yak.rapint.com/index.php?title=Methylphenidate&action=edit" rel="nofollow">adding to it</a>. </i></div> <p><span id="interwiki-es-fa"></span> </p><p></span> </p> </div> <div class="printfooter"> Retrieved from "<a href="http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Methylphenidate">http://yak.rapint.com/wiki/Methylphenidate</a>"</div> <div class="contents"> <div id='catlinks' class='catlinks'><div id="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/Special:Categories" title="Special:Categories">Categories</a>: <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Stubs" title="Category:Stubs">Stubs</a></span> | <span dir='ltr'><a href="/Category:Drugs" title="Category:Drugs">Drugs</a></span></div></div> <div class="bottom"></div> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> </div> <div id="core_panel_main" > <div class="section" id="citable_sentences"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="citable_sentences">Citable sentences</a> </h1> <div style="float:right"> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of December 15, 2010</span> <br> </div> <div class="fragment"> <div id="citable_fragments"> <div id="citableSentencesList"> <p> Here are sentences from other pages on Methylphenidate, which are similar to those in the above article. <div id="citable__sentence_list"> </div> </p> </div> </div> </div><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div id="external_links_revision_history_tooltip"> </div> <script> $(document).ready(function() { $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments a[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', effect: 'toggle', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,2], lazy: true, delay: 100}); $("#external_links_revision_history_fragments img[title]").tooltip({tip: '#external_links_revision_history_tooltip', position: 'bottom right', offset: [-1,0], lazy: true, effect: 'toggle'}); }); </script> <div class="section" id="related_links"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_links">Related links</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of November 16, 2009</span> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>100%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/1998/bnlpr092998.html" title="The research team made the first measurements ever of how the oral form of Ritalin, known chemically as <B>methylphenidate</B>, affects the human brain dopamine system, which is involved in the reinforcing and addictive effects of abused drugs.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/1998/bnlpr092998.html>http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/1998/bnlpr092998.html</A>">Dep't of Energy 1998 Sep 29 press release on Ritalin</a> - Study Shows Pill Form of Ritalin is Safe</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>65%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://pittsburghlive.com/x/tribune-review/trib/regional/s_265518.html" title="<A HREF=http://pittsburghlive.com/x/tribune-review/trib/regional/s_265518.html>http://pittsburghlive.com/x/tribune-review/trib/regional/s_265518.html</A>">More students abusing hyperactivity drugs</a> - More students abusing hyperactivity drugs - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/tick-green-8x11.gif" align="bottom" title = "This page is marked authoritative because it has been included for <B>65%</B> of the life of the Wikipedia article."> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf" title="23rd edition. August 2003. International Narcotics Board, Vienna International Centre. Accessed 02 March 2006<br><br><A HREF=http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf>http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf</A>">Green List: Annex to the annual statistical report on psychotropic substances (form P)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31/health/main327150.shtml" title="<A HREF=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31/health/main327150.shtml>http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31/health/main327150.shtml</A>">Kiddie Cocaine</a> - 'Kiddie Cocaine': Behavior Drug Ritalin Abused by Children - CBS News</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9685452&query_hl=7" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Response to growth hormone in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of <B>methylphenidate</B> and pemoline therapy.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with <B>methylphenidate</B> hydrochloride or pemoline diminishes the response to growth hormone (GH) therapy in patients with idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>METHODS: The National Cooperative Growth Study database was used to identify patients between 3 and 20 years of age with IGHD or ISS and those within these groups who were treated with <B>methylphenidate</B> or pemoline for ADHD.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9685452&query_hl=7>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9685452&query_hl=7</A>">Response to growth hormone in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate and pemoline therapy</a> - Response to growth hormone in attention deficit hy...[Pediatrics. 1998] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8936912&query_hl=7" title="". ''J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry''. 1996 Nov;35(11):1460-9.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8936912&query_hl=7>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8936912&query_hl=7</A>">Growth deficits in ADHD children revisited: evidence for disorder-associated growth delays?</a> - Growth deficits in ADHD children revisited: eviden...[J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3058089&query_hl=7" title="The findings indicated that <B>methylphenidate</B> therapy does not compromise final height, even when it has an adverse impact on children's growth rate during the active treatment phase.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3058089&query_hl=7>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3058089&query_hl=7</A>">Hyperactive boys almost grown up. III. Methylphenidate effects on ultimate height</a> - Hyperactive boys almost grown up. III. Methylpheni...[Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16175106&query_hl=11" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>ADHD treatment with once-daily OROS <B>methylphenidate</B>: final results from a long-term open-label study.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>This article presents final results from an open-label, multisite study of a once-daily formulation of <B>methylphenidate</B> (MPH), OROS MPH.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16175106&query_hl=11>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16175106&query_hl=11</A>">ADHD treatment with once-daily OROS methylphenidate: final results from a long-term open-label study</a> - ADHD treatment with once-daily OROS methylphenidat...[J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP_05-012_e50.pdf" title="". ''Can J Clin Pharmacol''. 2006 Winter;13(1):e50-62.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP_05-012_e50.pdf>http://www.cjcp.ca/pdf/CJCP_05-012_e50.pdf</A>">A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of OROS-methylphenidate compared to usual care with immediate-release methylphenidate in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/155/10/1325" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Objective:The therapeutic effects of <B>methylphenidate</B> in the treatment of attention deficit disorder have been attributed to its ability to increase the synaptic concentration of dopamine by blocking the dopamine transporters.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>However, the levels of dopamine transporter blockade achieved by therapeutic doses of <B>methylphenidate</B> are not known.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>This study measured, for the first time, dopamine transporter occupancy by orally administered <B>methylphenidate</B> in the human brain and its rate of uptake in the brain.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/155/10/1325>http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/155/10/1325</A>">Dopamine Transporter Occupancies in the Human Brain Induced by Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate</a> - Dopamine Transporter Occupancies in the Human Brain Induced by Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate -- Volkow et al. 155 (10): 1325 -- Am J Psychiatry</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11524026&query_hl=77&itool=pubmed_docsum" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is a CNS stimulant that is thought to block the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into the presynaptic neuron.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD, the maximum plasma concentration of OROS <B>methylphenidate</B> 18 to 54 mg was reached after approximately 7 to 8 hours.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In adults, the plasma concentration-time profile of OROS <B>methylphenidate</B> differed markedly from that of the sustained release and immediate release (IR) <B>methylphenidate</B> formulations.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11524026&query_hl=77&itool=pubmed_docsum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11524026&query_hl=77&itool=pubmed_docsum</A>">Methylphenidate (OROS formulation)</a> - Methylphenidate (OROS formulation). [CNS Drugs. 2001] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> (MPH), the most commonly prescribed drug for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has a short half-life, which necessitates multiple daily doses.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Immediate-release (IR) <B>methylphenidate</B> (MPH) has been the primary stimulant used in the treatment of children with ADHD for the past 30 years and is well documented in the literature as demonstrating efficacy.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Solanto MV, Conners CK A dose-response and time-action analysis of autonomic and behavioral effects of <B>methylphenidate</B> in attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105>http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/e105</A>">Once-a-day Concerta methylphenidate versus three-times-daily methylphenidate in laboratory and natural settings</a> - Once-a-Day Concerta Methylphenidate Versus Three-Times-Daily Methylphenidate in Laboratory and Natural Settings -- Pelham et al. 107 (6): e105 -- Pediatrics</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12742508&query_hl=17&itool=pubmed_docsum" title="". ''Mutat Res''. 2003 May 9;537(1):67-79.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12742508&query_hl=17&itool=pubmed_docsum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12742508&query_hl=17&itool=pubmed_docsum</A>">D-Methylphenidate is non-genotoxic in vitro and in vivo assays</a> - D-Methylphenidate is non-genotoxic in in vitro and...[Mutat Res. 2003] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16511362&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum" title="Dextroamphetamine and <B>methylphenidate</B> were equally likely to be associated with a favorable response, but dextroamphetamine was more likely to be associated with side effects.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16511362&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16511362&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum</A>">Long-Term Stimulant Medication Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Population-Based Study</a> - Long-term stimulant medication treatment of attent...[J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.medpagetoday.com/ProductAlert/Prescriptions/tb/3027" title="PHILADELPHIA, April 7 - The FDA has approved the first transdermal patch for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Daytrana (<B>methylphenidate</B> transdermal system), Shire PLC announced here today.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.medpagetoday.com/ProductAlert/Prescriptions/tb/3027>http://www.medpagetoday.com/ProductAlert/Prescriptions/tb/3027</A>">Medical News: FDA Approves Daytrana Transdermal Patch for ADHD - in Psychiatry, ADHD/ADD from MedPage Today</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/ritalin.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is a medication prescribed for individuals (usually children) who have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which consists of a persistent pattern of abnormally high levels of activity, impulsivity, and/or inattention that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals with comparable levels of development.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> also is occasionally prescribed for treating narcolepsy.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/ritalin.html>http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/ritalin.html</A>">Methylphenidate (Ritalin) - InfoFacts - NIDA</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/ritalin_side_effects.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>It's the brand name for a drug called <B>methylphenidate</B> and the ADHD drug of choice for physicians treating Attention Deficit Disorder.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Of the many psychoactive drugs prescribed to children in the United States, two controlled substances are widely prescribed to treat children: <B>methylphenidate</B> (Ritalin and the newest form of Ritalin, Concerta) and amphetamine (Adderall and Dexedrine).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In 1990, there were 271 emergency room mentions for <B>methylphenidate</B> (Ritalin) in the Drug Abuse Warning Network.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/ritalin_side_effects.htm>http://www.add-adhd-help-center.com/ritalin_side_effects.htm</A>">Ritalin (methylphenidate) Side Effects and Abuse</a> - Ritalin (methylphenidate) Side Effects and Abuse</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.medicinenet.com/methylphenidate-oral/page2.htm#SideEffects" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>PRECAUTIONS: Before taking <B>methylphenidate</B>, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it;</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Prolonged use of stimulants like <B>methylphenidate</B> could possibly hinder growth (weight gain and height) in children.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> should be used during pregnancy only when clearly needed.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.medicinenet.com/methylphenidate-oral/page2.htm#SideEffects>http://www.medicinenet.com/methylphenidate-oral/page2.htm#SideEffects</A>">MedicineNet</a> - METHYLPHENIDATE - ORAL (Ritalin) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg18925393.300.html" title="). In response the<br><br><A HREF=http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg18925393.300.html>http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg18925393.300.html</A>">''New Scientist'' 18 Feb. 2006</a> - There has been an error - New Scientist</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.slate.com/id/2076413" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Both cocaine and <B>methylphenidate</B>, the generic name for Ritalin, are stimulants that target the dopamine system, which helps control the brain's functioning during pleasurable experiences.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Nora Volkow, a senior scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory who has done extensive research on <B>methylphenidate</B>, found in a 2001 study that Ritalin takes upward of an hour to raise dopamine levels;</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.slate.com/id/2076413>http://www.slate.com/id/2076413</A>">Is Ritalin "Chemically Similar" to Cocaine? Brendan I. Koerner. Jan 6, 2003 Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC</a> - Is Ritalin "chemically similar" to cocaine? - By Brendan I. Koerner - Slate Magazine</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/plomdevelop/genetics/01margen.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Of considerable interest are the recent studies that have suggested that homozygosity for the 10-repeat allele of the dopamine transporter gene may be associated with poor response to <B>methylphenidate</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Administration of amphetamine (Adderallt, Dexedrinet), <B>methylphenidate</B> (Ritalint), or cocaine to the hyperactive knockout mice calms them;</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Normal mice show an expected increase in extracellular dopamine brain levels in response to an injection of <B>methylphenidate</B>, which blocks the dopamine transporter.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/plomdevelop/genetics/01margen.htm>http://www.med.yale.edu/chldstdy/plomdevelop/genetics/01margen.htm</A>">Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XXIV. ADHD, Part 8: Hyperdopaminergic Mice as an Animal Model of ADHD</a> - Development and Neurobiology: Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XXIV. ADHD, Part 8: Hyperdopaminergic Mice as an Animal Model of ADHD</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.erowid.org/pharms/methylphenidate/methylphenidate.shtml" title="<B>Methylphenidate</B> is a central nervous system stimulant widely prescribed to treat attention deficit disorder.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.erowid.org/pharms/methylphenidate/methylphenidate.shtml>http://www.erowid.org/pharms/methylphenidate/methylphenidate.shtml</A>">Erowid Methylphenidate Vault</a> - Erowid Methylphenidate (Ritalin) Vault</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=hw166083" title="<A HREF=http://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=hw166083>http://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=hw166083</A>">Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)</a> - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - Information and Resources</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.racgp.org.au/cmi/nvcrtlor.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://www.racgp.org.au/cmi/nvcrtlor.pdf>http://www.racgp.org.au/cmi/nvcrtlor.pdf</A>">Ritalin(R) 10mg Consumer Medicine Information (Australia)</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.daytrana.com" title="Daytrana (<B>methylphenidate</B>) - The first and only patch for ADHD<br><br><A HREF=http://www.daytrana.com>http://www.daytrana.com</A>">Information from the manufacturer on the methylphenidate ADHD Patch</a> - Daytrana ADHD Patch Medication | ADD Patch | Medication For ADHD | Daytrana.com</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062990a,1,6085874,full.story?coll=la-news-comment" title="Known generically as <B>methylphenidate</B> hydrochloride, Ritalin is intended for youngsters afflicted with "attention deficit disorder," more commonly known as hyperactivity.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062990a,1,6085874,full.story?coll=la-news-comment>http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientology062990a,1,6085874,full.story?coll=la-news-comment</A>">Suits, Protests Fuel a Campaign Against Psychiatry</a> - Suits, Protests Fuel a Campaign Against Psychiatry - Los Angeles Times</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/la90/la90-6b.html" title="Known generically as <B>methylphenidate</B> hydrochloride, Ritalin is intended for youngsters afflicted with "attention deficit disorder," more commonly known as hyperactivity.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/la90/la90-6b.html>http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/la90/la90-6b.html</A>">link here</a> - The Scientology Story - Part 6B: Suits, Protests Fuel a Campaign Against Psychiatry</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nsba.org/site/doc_sbn.asp?TRACKID=&VID=58&CID=1063&DID=11584" title="<A HREF=http://www.nsba.org/site/doc_sbn.asp?TRACKID=&VID=58&CID=1063&DID=11584>http://www.nsba.org/site/doc_sbn.asp?TRACKID=&VID=58&CID=1063&DID=11584</A>">Students without ADHD are using Ritalin to help them study</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16403217&query_hl=31&itool=pubmed_DocSum" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Influence of <B>methylphenidate</B> on brain development--an update of recent animal experiments.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> (MPH) is the most commonly used drug to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children effectively and safely.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>ReviewA systematic review and economic model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of <B>methylphenidate</B>, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16403217&query_hl=31&itool=pubmed_DocSum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16403217&query_hl=31&itool=pubmed_DocSum</A>">Influence of methylphenidate on brain development - an update of recent animal experiments</a> - Influence of methylphenidate on brain development-...[Behav Brain Funct. 2006] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>15</B> times over <B>a 2 year</B> period."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17201613&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>ReviewDifferential pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of <B>methylphenidate</B> enantiomers: does chirality matter?</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>ReviewEvolution of stimulants to treat ADHD: transdermal <B>methylphenidate</B>.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17201613&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17201613&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_docsum</A>">A Comprehensive In Vitro Screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-Methylphenidate: An Exploratory Study</a> - A comprehensive in vitro screening of d-, l-, and ...[J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/minutes/2006-4210m_Minutes%20PAC%20March%2022%202006.pdf" title=". March 22, 2006.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/minutes/2006-4210m_Minutes%20PAC%20March%2022%202006.pdf>http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/minutes/2006-4210m_Minutes%20PAC%20March%2022%202006.pdf</A>">Minutes of the FDA Pediatric Advisory Committee</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1041880066942_4290&FULLTEXT=stimulant&VOLUME=111&ISSUE=1&JOURNALCODE=&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=111/1/179&gca=111/1/97#111/1/179" title="". ''PEDIATRICS. 2003 Vol. 111 No. 1'':pp. 179-185<br><br><A HREF=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1041880066942_4290&FULLTEXT=stimulant&VOLUME=111&ISSUE=1&JOURNALCODE=&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=111/1/179&gca=111/1/97#111/1/179>http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1041880066942_4290&FULLTEXT=stimulant&VOLUME=111&ISSUE=1&JOURNALCODE=&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=111/1/179&gca=111/1/97#111/1/179</A>">Does Stimulant Therapy of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Beget Later Substance Abuse? A Meta-analytic Review of the Literature</a> - Pediatrics -- Selected Abstracts</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1041880066942_4290&FULLTEXT=stimulant&VOLUME=111&ISSUE=1&JOURNALCODE=&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=111/1/179&gca=111/1/97#111/1/97" title="". ''PEDIATRICS. 2003 Vol. 111 No. 1'': pp. 97-109<br><br><A HREF=http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1041880066942_4290&FULLTEXT=stimulant&VOLUME=111&ISSUE=1&JOURNALCODE=&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=111/1/179&gca=111/1/97#111/1/97>http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/gca?sendit=Get+All+Checked+Abstract(s)&SEARCHID=1041880066942_4290&FULLTEXT=stimulant&VOLUME=111&ISSUE=1&JOURNALCODE=&FIRSTINDEX=0&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&gca=111/1/179&gca=111/1/97#111/1/97</A>">Does the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Stimulants Contribute to Drug Use/Abuse? A 13-Year Prospective Study</a> - Pediatrics -- Selected Abstracts</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1892117" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> (MPH), a central nervous system stimulant, is the most frequently prescribed drug for the symptomatic treatment of ADHD and has consistently shown efficacy and safety.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> inhibits cytochrome P450 in the Swiss Webster mouse.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is not clastogenic in cultured human lymphocytes and in the mouse bone-marrow micronucleus test.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1892117>http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1892117</A>">Does Methylphenidate Cause a Cytogenetic Effect in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?</a> - Does Methylphenidate Cause a Cytogenetic Effect in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.gladwell.com/1999/1999_02_02_a_ritalin.htm" title="In a sense, the drug could be both overprescribed and underprescribed; that is, some children taking MPH may not benefit from it, while an even greater number of children would benefit from MPH but are not taking it.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.gladwell.com/1999/1999_02_02_a_ritalin.htm>http://www.gladwell.com/1999/1999_02_02_a_ritalin.htm</A>">Running from Ritalin</a> - gladwell dot com - running from ritalin</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.amphetamines.com/methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>In a 4-week, double-blind trial in 132 children with ADHD, significantly greater improvements from baseline in teacher-rated Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP)-ADHD scores were seen in dex<B>methylphenidate</B> and <B>methylphenidate</B> recipients, compared with placebo recipients.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In addition, significantly more dex<B>methylphenidate</B> and <B>methylphenidate</B> recipients, compared with placebo recipients, were much improved or very much improved according to Clinical Global Impression-Improvement of Illness scale scores.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In the same study, parent-rated SNAP-ADHD scores had decreased by a significantly greater extent in dex<B>methylphenidate</B> recipients at 3pm and 6pm and in <B>methylphenidate</B> recipients at 3pm, compared with placebo recipients.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.amphetamines.com/methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate.html>http://www.amphetamines.com/methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate.html</A>">Dexmethylphenidate</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.biopsychiatry.com/methcomp.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>BACKGROUND: The purposes of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of <B>methylphenidate</B> hydrochloride (Ritalin) in the human brain, to compare them with those of cocaine, and to evaluate whether cocaine and <B>methylphenidate</B> compete for the same binding sites.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>METHODS: We used positron emission tomography to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of carbon 11 (11C)-labeled <B>methylphenidate</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Three were tested twice to assess test-retest variability, four were tested at baseline and after administration of <B>methylphenidate</B>, and one was tested with [11C]<B>methylphenidate</B> and [11C]cocaine.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.biopsychiatry.com/methcomp.htm>http://www.biopsychiatry.com/methcomp.htm</A>">Is methylphenidate like cocaine?</a> - Methylphenidate ( Ritalin ) and Cocaine</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.biopsychiatry.com/methcoke.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The reinforcing effects of cocaine and <B>methylphenidate</B> have been linked to their ability to block dopamine transporters (DAT).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Though cocaine and <B>methylphenidate</B> have similar in vitro affinities for DAT the abuse of <B>methylphenidate</B> in humans is substantially lower than of cocaine.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.biopsychiatry.com/methcoke.htm>http://www.biopsychiatry.com/methcoke.htm</A>">Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain</a> - Methylphenidate ( Ritalin ) and Cocaine</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cpementalhealth.com/content/3/1/21" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> (MPH, e.g., Ritalin) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, e.g., Prozac, Seroxat) are prescribed most often [5].</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Babcock Q, Byrne T: Student perceptions of <B>methylphenidate</B> abuse at a public liberal arts college.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.cpementalhealth.com/content/3/1/21>http://www.cpementalhealth.com/content/3/1/21</A>">The impact of prescribed psychotropics on youth</a> - Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health | Full text | The impact of prescribed psychotropics on youth</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.dea.gov/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Of the many psychoactive substances prescribed to young children in the United States, only two controlled substances are widely utilized by American physicians to treat children: <B>methylphenidate</B> (commonly known as Ritalin®) and amphetamine (primarily Adderall® and Dexedrine®).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In 1995, in response to a petition by Children and Adults With Attention Deficit Disorder (CH.A.D.D.) and the American Academy of Neurology to lower the regulatory controls on <B>methylphenidate</B>, the DEA conducted an extensive review of the use, abuse liability, actual abuse, diversion, and trafficking of <B>methylphenidate</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Poison control data, emergency room data and high school surveys all indicate that the abuse of <B>methylphenidate</B> has increased significantly since 1990.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.dea.gov/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm>http://www.dea.gov/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm</A>">News from DEA, Congressional Testimony, 05/16/00</a> - News from DEA, Congressional Testimony, 05/16/00</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/sonuga_19.2.pdf" title="<A HREF=http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/sonuga_19.2.pdf>http://depts.washington.edu/isei/iyc/sonuga_19.2.pdf</A>">Nonpharmacological Interventions for Preschoolers With ADHD: The Case for Specialized Parent Training</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NKT/is_1_25/ai_99698688/pg_4" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Overall, about 50 percent of children and 13 percent of adults with ADHD are treated with medication, (12) usually with stimulants such as <B>methylphenidate</B> (Riralin and Concerta) and amphetamine (Dexedrine and Adderall).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Although <B>methylphenidate</B> is perhaps one of the best-studied drugs available, with thousands of studies attesting to its longterm safety over the past 50 years, that hasn't stopped critics from raising alarms about the drug's long-term use on children's developing brains, particularly given research that finds the numbers of children taking the drug skyrocketing in recent years.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NKT/is_1_25/ai_99698688/pg_4>http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NKT/is_1_25/ai_99698688/pg_4</A>">ADHD & Women's Health - Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder National Women's Health Report</a> - ADHD & Women's health - attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder | National Women's Health Report | Find Articles at BNET</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.Erowid.org" title="Online library of<br><br><A HREF=http://www.Erowid.org>http://www.Erowid.org</A>">www.Erowid.org</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.HarmReduction.org" title="A coalition of<br><br><A HREF=http://www.HarmReduction.org>http://www.HarmReduction.org</A>">www.HarmReduction.org</a> - Harm Reduction Coalition : Index</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.DanceSafe.org" title="A community-driver project from the rave culture gives non-judgmental information considered "youth-friendly" and well-informed. DanceSafe has pioneered many harm-reduction campaigns.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.DanceSafe.org>http://www.DanceSafe.org</A>">www.DanceSafe.org</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://ritalindeath.com/crusade.htm" title="<A HREF=http://ritalindeath.com/crusade.htm>http://ritalindeath.com/crusade.htm</A>">Parents' Crusade over Childrens Deaths Caused From ADD and ADHD Drugs</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/m/methyl14.wav" title="('''MPH''') is a<br><br><A HREF=http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/m/methyl14.wav>http://cougar.eb.com/soundc11/m/methyl14.wav</A>">'''Methylphenidate'''</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://adhd.emedtv.com/concerta/generic-concerta.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Concerta® (<B>methylphenidate</B> extended release) is a prescription medication that has been licensed to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is the active ingredient in Concerta (and several other medications), but it is not a generic version of Concerta.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://adhd.emedtv.com/concerta/generic-concerta.html>http://adhd.emedtv.com/concerta/generic-concerta.html</A>">Generic Concerta</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_An_Old_Drug_May_Give_Cancer_Patients_a_Lift.asp" title=". Brand names of drugs that contain <B>methylphenidate</B> include '''Ritalin''' ('''Ritalina''', '''Rilatine''', '''Attenta''', '''Methylin''', '''Penid''', '''Rubifen'''); and the<br><br><A HREF=http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_An_Old_Drug_May_Give_Cancer_Patients_a_Lift.asp>http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_An_Old_Drug_May_Give_Cancer_Patients_a_Lift.asp</A>">An Old Drug May Give Cancer Patients a Lift</a> - ACS :: An Old Drug May Give Cancer Patientsa Lift</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_Ritalin_Helps_Doctor_Beat_His_Cancer-Related_Fatigue.asp" title="As a pediatrician, Wharton had some experience with drugs like Ritalin (<B>methylphenidate</B>) in treating children with attention deficit disorder.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_Ritalin_Helps_Doctor_Beat_His_Cancer-Related_Fatigue.asp>http://www.cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_Ritalin_Helps_Doctor_Beat_His_Cancer-Related_Fatigue.asp</A>">Ritalin Helps Doctor Beat His Cancer-Related Fatigue</a> - ACS :: Ritalin Helps Doctor Beat His Cancer-Related Fatigue</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Virtue4.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The stimulant <B>methylphenidate</B>, also used in Ritalin, is the active ingredient in the Concerta medication for ADHD and ADD.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The medical community has not yet determined the long-term effects of having <B>methylphenidate</B> in the bloodstream for prolonged hours every day for numbers of years.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Virtue4.html>http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Virtue4.html</A>">Concerta: Benefits and Side Effects</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16319916&query_hl=1" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> administration to adolescent rats determines plastic changes on reward-related behavior and striatal gene expression.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Administration of <B>methylphenidate</B> (MPH, Ritalin) to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an elective therapy, but raises concerns for public health, due to possible persistent neurobehavioral alterations.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16319916&query_hl=1>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16319916&query_hl=1</A>">Methylphenidate Administration to Adolescent Rats Determines Plastic Changes on Reward-Related Behavior and Striatal Gene Expression</a> - Methylphenidate administration to adolescent rats ...[Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://childadvocate.net/childpresentations/child_medication.htm" title="at childadvocate.net<br><br><A HREF=http://childadvocate.net/childpresentations/child_medication.htm>http://childadvocate.net/childpresentations/child_medication.htm</A>">Children and Medication � a multimodal presentation</a> - Children and Psychiatric Medication</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/104454603322572606?cookieSet=1" title="". ''Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology'', Sep 2003, Vol. 13, No. 3: 273-282.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/104454603322572606?cookieSet=1>http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/104454603322572606?cookieSet=1</A>">Does Stimulant Treatment Place Children at Risk for Adult Substance Abuse? A Controlled, Prospective Follow-up Study</a> - Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. - Cookie absent</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-r03.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The mode of action in man is not completely understood, but <B>methylphenidate</B> presumably activates the brain stem arousal system and cortex to produce its stimulant effect.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby <B>methylphenidate</B> produces its mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how these effects relate to the condition of the CNS.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is rapidly and extensively absorbed from the tablets following oral administration;</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-r03.html>http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-r03.html</A>">Internet Mental Health</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16297714&query_hl=3" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>In recent years there has been a surge in <B>methylphenidate</B> (Ritalin) use for treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In a population composed of twelve children treated with therapeutic doses of <B>methylphenidate</B>, we analyzed three cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained before and three months after initiation of treatment with this drug.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>These findings warrant further investigations of the possible health effects of <B>methylphenidate</B> in humans, especially in view of the well-documented relationship between elevated frequencies of chromosome aberrations and increased cancer risk.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16297714&query_hl=3>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16297714&query_hl=3</A>">Cytogenetic effects in children treated with methylphenidate</a> - Cytogenetic effects in children treated with methy...[Cancer Lett. 2005] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://ritalindeath.com" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Between 1990 and 2000 there were 186 deaths from <B>methylphenidate</B> reported to the FDA MedWatch program, a voluntary reporting scheme, the numbers of which represent no more than 10 to 20% of the actual incidence.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>The cause of death was determined to be from the long-term (age 7-14) use of <B>Methylphenidate</B>, a drug commonly known as Ritalin.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Ljuba Dragovic, the Chief Pathologist of Oakland County, Michigan, upon autopsy, Matthew's heart showed clear signs of small vessel damage caused from the use of <B>Methylphenidate</B> (Ritalin).</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://ritalindeath.com>http://ritalindeath.com</A>">Ritalindeath.com</a> - Death from Ritalin the Truth Behind ADHD</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10405496&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum" title=". ''Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry'' 38 (7):797-804.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10405496&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10405496&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum</A>">Are stimulants overprescribed? Treatment of ADHD in four U.S. communities</a> - Are stimulants overprescribed? Treatment of ADHD i...[J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999] - PubMed Result</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.usdoj.gov:80/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>Of the many psychoactive substances prescribed to young children in the United States, only two controlled substances are widely utilized by American physicians to treat children: <B>methylphenidate</B> (commonly known as Ritalin®) and amphetamine (primarily Adderall® and Dexedrine®).</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>In 1995, in response to a petition by Children and Adults With Attention Deficit Disorder (CH.A.D.D.) and the American Academy of Neurology to lower the regulatory controls on <B>methylphenidate</B>, the DEA conducted an extensive review of the use, abuse liability, actual abuse, diversion, and trafficking of <B>methylphenidate</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Poison control data, emergency room data and high school surveys all indicate that the abuse of <B>methylphenidate</B> has increased significantly since 1990.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.usdoj.gov:80/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm>http://www.usdoj.gov:80/dea/pubs/cngrtest/ct051600.htm</A>">News from DEA, Congressional Testimony, 05/16/00</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/methylphenidate.html" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B>, a Schedule II substance, has a high potential for abuse and produces many of the same effects as cocaine or the amphetamines.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Binge use, psychotic episodes, cardiovascular complications, and severe psychological addiction have all been associated with <B>methylphenidate</B> abuse.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD><B>Methylphenidate</B> is used legitimately in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, as is the newly marketed Schedule IV stimulant, modafinil (Provigil®).</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/methylphenidate.html>http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/methylphenidate.html</A>">Methylphenidate</a> - DEA Briefs & Background, Drugs and Drug Abuse, Drug Descriptions, Methylphenidate</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.rhodium.ws/chemistry/index.html" title="<A HREF=http://www.rhodium.ws/chemistry/index.html>http://www.rhodium.ws/chemistry/index.html</A>">Rhodium.ws Chemistry Section, Includes syntheses for Ritalin</a> - Rhodium: Drug Chemistry Archive</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://addadhdadvances.com" title="<A HREF=http://addadhdadvances.com>http://addadhdadvances.com</A>">ADD ADHD Information</a> - Get ADD ADHD Child Treatment, Behavior, and Medication Help</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/pep-red-8x11.jpg" align="bottom" title="We marked this link as controversial because it was removed and readded from Wikipedia <B>11</B> times."><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/monograph169/056-082_Schenk.pdf" title="".Stimulant Preexposure Sensitizes Rats and Humans to the Rewarding Effects of Cocaine" NIDA Monograph 169, p. 56-82.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/monograph169/056-082_Schenk.pdf>http://www.nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/monograph169/056-082_Schenk.pdf</A>">Stimulant Preexposure Sensitizes Rats and Humans to the Rewarding Effects of Cocaine</a></td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg19025452.700.html" title="<A HREF=http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg19025452.700.html>http://www.newscientist.com/channel/health/mg19025452.700.html</A>">''New Scientist'', 31 March 2006</a> - There has been an error - New Scientist</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.naturalchild.org/guest/thomas_armstrong.html" title="<A HREF=http://www.naturalchild.org/guest/thomas_armstrong.html>http://www.naturalchild.org/guest/thomas_armstrong.html</A>">Why I Believe that Attention Deficit Disorder is a Myth</a> - Why I Believe that Attention Deficit Disorder is a Myth - The Natural Child Project</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/full/1999/301/1" title="The stimulants amphetamine, <B>methylphenidate</B>, and cocaine had the paradoxical calming effect in DAT knock-out mice.<br><br><A HREF=http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/full/1999/301/1>http://psychiatry.jwatch.org/cgi/content/full/1999/301/1</A>">Hyperactivity Paradox Resolved?</a> - Hyperactivity Paradox Resolved? - Journal Watch Psychiatry</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/6/456" title="<TABLE STYLE='font-size: 12;'><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>•</TD><TD>The purposes of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of <B>methylphenidate</B> hydrochloride (Ritalin) in the human brain, to compare them with those of cocaine, and to evaluate whether cocaine and <B>methylphenidate</B> compete for the same binding sites.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>We used positron emission tomography to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of carbon 11 (11C)-labeled <B>methylphenidate</B>.</TD></TR><TR><TD VALIGN='TOP'>&bull</TD><TD>Three were tested twice to assess test-retest variability, four were tested at baseline and after administration of <B>methylphenidate</B>, and one was tested with [11C]<B>methylphenidate</B> and [11C]cocaine.</TD></TR></TABLE><BR><A HREF=http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/6/456>http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/52/6/456</A>">Is methylphenidate like cocaine? Studies on their pharmacokinetics and distribution in the human brain</a> - Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Abstract: Is Methylphenidate Like Cocaine? Studies on Their Pharmacokinetics and Distribution in the Human Brain, June 1995, Volkow et al. 52 (6): 456</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.medpagetoday.com/Psychiatry/ADHD-ADD/tb/6213" title="NEW YORK, July 20 -- Children who take <B>methylphenidate</B> (Ritalin) throughout childhood may undergo behavior-modifying brain changes that carry into adulthood, or so investigators found in rats.<br><br><A HREF=http://www.medpagetoday.com/Psychiatry/ADHD-ADD/tb/6213>http://www.medpagetoday.com/Psychiatry/ADHD-ADD/tb/6213</A>">Ritalin May Alter Chemistry of Young Brains</a> - Medical News: Ritalin May Alter Chemistry of Young Brains - in Psychiatry, ADHD/ADD from MedPage Today</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> <span class="fragment"> <div id="external_links_revision_history_fragments"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" hspace="0" vspace="0"><tr><td valign="top" nowrap bgcolor="white"><nobr><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/spacer.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"><img src="images/external_links_revision_history/square2-8x11.gif" align="bottom" width="8" height="11"> </nobr></td><td><a href="http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=933&date=20050205" title="According to a recent research report in the Archives of General Psychiatry "cocaine, which is one of the most reinforcing and addicting of the abused drugs, has pharmacological actions that are very similar to those of <B>methylphenidate</B> (Ritalin, Concerta), which is now the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medicine for children in the US".<br><br><A HREF=http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=933&date=20050205>http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=933&date=20050205</A>">Swedish doctors "wrote illegal ADHD prescriptions"</a> - Swedish doctors "wrote illegal ADHD prescriptions" - The Local</td></tr></table> </div> </span><br/> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div> <div class="section" id="related_topics"> <h1 class="section-title"> <a name="related_topics">Related topics</a> </h1> <span class="core-uptodate">Up to date as of August 19, 2010</span> <ul> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Amphetamine">Amphetamine</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Methamphetamine">Methamphetamine</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/MDMA">MDMA</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Lisdexamfetamine">Lisdexamfetamine</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Cocaine">Cocaine</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Tranylcypromine">Tranylcypromine</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Methylone">Methylone</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/PRC200">PRC200</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/DOV-102,677">DOV-102,677</a> </li> </span> <span class="fragment"> <li> <a href="/Amfecloral">Amfecloral</a> </li> </span> </ul> </div> <div class="section-delimeter"></div></div> </div> <br/><br/><br/> <script type="text/javascript" language="javascript"><!-- function checkEmail(myForm) { if (/^\w+([\.-]?\w+)*@\w+([\.-]?\w+)*(\.\w{2,3})+$/.test(myForm.str_email.value)){ return (true); } alert("Invalid E-mail Address! 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