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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A metropolis is a big city, in most cases with over half a million inhabitants in the city proper, and with a population of at least one million living in its urban agglomeration.[citation needed] Big cities belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but which are not the core of that agglomeration, are not generally considered a metropolis but a part of it. A metropolis is usually a significant economic, political and cultural center for some country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications. The plural of the word is most commonly metropolises, though metropoleis is sometimes used as well.

In a broader sense, it refers to the city or state of origin of a colony (as of ancient Greece), a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or a large important city.

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Antiquity

In the past, metropolis was the designation for a city or state of origin of a colony. Many large cities founded by ancient civilizations have been considered important world metropolises of their times due to their large populations and importance. Some of these ancient metropolises survived until the modern days and are among the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.

Etymology and modern usage

The word comes from the Greek μήτηρ, mētēr meaning "mother" and πόλις, pólis meaning "city"/"town", which is how the Greek colonies of antiquity referred to their original cities, with whom they retained cultic and political-cultural connections. The word was used in post-classical Latin for the chief city of a province, the seat of the government and, in particular, ecclesiastically for the seat or see of a metropolitan bishop to whom suffragan bishops were responsible. This usage equates the province with the diocese or episcopal see.

In modern usage the word is frequently mis-used to refer to a metropolitan area, a set of adjacent and interconnected cities clustered around a major urban center. In this sense metropolitan usually means "spanning the whole metropolis" (as in "metropolitan administration"); or "proper of a metropolis" (as in "metropolitan life", and opposed to "provincial" or "rural").

Global cities

The concept of a Global city (or a World city) means a city that has a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socioeconomic means. The term has become increasingly familiar, because of the rise of globalization (i.e., global finance, communications, and travel). An attempt to define and categorize world cities by financial criteria was made by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC), based primarily at Loughborough University in England. The study ranked cities based on their provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising, finance and law. The Inventory identifies three levels of world cities and several sub-ranks (see World cities ranking).

A metropolis is not necessarily a global city—or, being one, it could not be among the top-ranking—due to its standards of living, development, and infrastructures.

Local definitions by country

Canada

Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core where the urban core has a population of at least 100,000.[1]

India

In the Republic of India, the Census Commission defines a metropolitan city as one having a population of over 40 lakh (4 million).[2] Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad are the eight cities that qualify. Residents of these cities are also entitled to a higher house-rent allowance. The figure only applies to the city region and not the conurbation.

Italy

With the 2001 reform of the Title V of the Constitution of Italy, the Italian republic has provided for the institution of Aree Metropolitane. Aree Metropolitane will be instituted at least for the major conurbations of Rome, Milan and Naples, but, as of January 2009, it is yet unclear whether the Aree Metropolitane will replace Provinces, or just be added to the older administrative subdivisions.

Japan

The Japanese legal term to (都) is commonly translated as "metropolis".[3] Structured like a prefecture instead of a normal city, there is only one to in Japan, namely Tokyo. As of 2008, Japan has 11 other cities with populations greater than one million.

Poland

In Poland from 1990 exist Union of Polish Metropolises / Union of Polish Metropolies (Polish: Unia Metropolii Polskich) - union uniting the largest cities in country. All cities of Union of Polish Metropolises (except one) it has more than quarter million people. However, in Poland was written about only two metropolis: Warsaw (1.7 million in city, 2.7 million in Warsaw metropolitan area) and Katowice with Upper Silesian Metropolis (2 million in city, 5 million in Silesian metropolitan area). Upper Silesian Metropolis is an initiative of recent years, attempt to unite large conurbation/urban area into one official urban organism.

United Kingdom

Various conurbations in the United Kingdom are considered to be metropolitan areas (see Metropolitan county). The term Metropolis itself is rarely used. London is archaically referred to as "the Metropolis", which is only retained by the London police force, the Metropolitan Police Service. (The leader of the Met is formally known as the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis.)

United States

In the United States an incorporated area or group of areas having a population more than 50,000 is required to have a metropolitan planning organization in order to facilitate major infrastructure projects and to ensure financial solvency. Thus, a population of 50,000 or greater has been used as a de facto standard in the United States to define a metropolis. A similar definition is used by the United States Census Bureau. They define a metropolitan statistical area as at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants.

Metropolis as a mainland area

In France, Portugal and Spain, metropolis (métropole (Fr.) / metrópole (Port.) / metrópoli (Spa.)) designates the mainland part of a country near or on the European continent; in the case of France, this would mean France without its overseas departments; for Portugal and Spain during the Spanish Empire and Portuguese Empire period, it used to be common to designate Portugal or Spain except its colonies (the Ultramar). In France metropolis is also used to refer to large agglomerations.

See also

Other city types
Lists
Planning theories
Other

Notes and references

  • Allen J. Scott (ed.) Global City Regions: Trends, Theory, Policy, Oxford University Press (2001).
  • Monti, Daniel J., Jr., The American City: A Social and Cultural History. Oxford, England and Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 391 pp. ISBN 978-1-55786-918-0.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents
The "Giant" Superman statue
The "Giant" Superman statue

Metropolis [1] is a small city in Southern Illinois probably named out of wishful thinking which hasn't really been born out. The town's current claim to fame is as the host for a floating riverboat casino run by the Harrah's casino chain of Reno, Nevada. The town has also capitalized on its name by erecting what is referred to on road signs as a Giant Statue of Superman of DC Comics fame. In fact though the statue is called giant it's less than half as tall as the statue of Big John the grocer which is found in front of the Big John's supermarket on the way into town.

Get in

By plane

Metropolis has a small, public, paved air strip 2 miles north west of town. It can be accessed by small planes. it has no control towers, there is no landing fee but there is an overnight tie down fee. Dusk-dawn lights only. Metropolis, IL 62960 Phone: (618) 524-9976

Big John the Grocer
Big John the Grocer
  • Harrah's
  • Holiday Inn Express
  • Amerihost Inn
  • Old Bethlehem School
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

METROPOLIS (Gr. µijrr i p, mother, rats, city), properly a mother-city, and so the name of the parent state from which colonies were founded in ancient Greece (see Greece, sect. History, Ancient). The word was used in post-classical Latin for the chief city of a province, the seat of the government, and in particular ecclesiastically for the seat or see of a metropolitan bishop (see Metropolitan). It is thus used now for the capital of a country, which contains the various official buildings of the administrative departments, the Houses of Parliament, &c. In the case of London, the term "metropolitan" is sometimes applied to the whole area including the "City of London," e.g. " Metropolitan Asylums Board"; and sometimes, as in "Metropolitan Police," excludes the City, which has its own police force (see London).


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