Mexican Drug War: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Mexican Drug War

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mexican Drug War
Mexican War on Drugs.png
Upper Left: Mexican President Felipe Calderon
Upper Right: Mexican Security Forces arrest cartel members.
Center: Mexican soldiers during a gun battle in Apatzingan.
Lower Left: Packs of drugs seized from cartels.
Lower Right: Drug lord Joaquin Guzman.
Date December 11, 2006[1] – present.
Location Mexican states of Baja California, Durango, Sonora, Guerrero, Chihuahua, Michoacán, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Guanajuato, and Quintana Roo
Status Ongoing
Belligerents
Commanders
Mexico Felipe Calderón

Mexico Mariano Francisco Saynez Mendoza
Mexico Guillermo Galván Galván
Mexico Sergio Aponte Polito[2]

Joaquín Guzmán Loera,[3]

Ismael Zambada García,
Antonio Ezequiel Cárdenas Guillén,
Jorge Eduardo Costilla,
Vicente Carrillo Fuentes,
Luis Fernando Sánchez Arellano,
Heriberto Lazcano,
Miguel Treviño Morales,
Nazario Moreno González,
Servando Gómez Martínez,
Dionicio Loya Plancarte,
Héctor Beltrán Leyva,
Edgar Valdez Villarreal,
etc.

Strength
50,000 soldiers.[4]
20,000 Federal Police.[4]
5,000 to 10,000+
Casualties and losses
1,000+ Federal forces, police, and prosecutors killed.[5]
58 reporters killed.[6]
45,000+ Cartel members detained.[5]
19,026 killed total (December 2006–March 2010.)[7]

486 killed in December 2006.
2,477 killed during 2007.[8]
6,290 killed during 2008.[9]
7,724 killed during 2009.[10]

2,049 killed during 2010.[11]

The Mexican Drug War is an armed conflict taking place between rival drug cartels and government forces in Mexico. Although Mexican drug cartels, or drug trafficking organizations, have existed for a few decades, they have become more powerful since the demise of Colombia's Cali and Medellín cartels in the 1990s. Mexican drug cartels now dominate the wholesale illicit drug market in the United States.[12] Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, have led to increasing drug violence as cartels fight for control of the trafficking routes into the United States.[13][14][15]

Mexico, a major drug producing and transit country, is the main foreign supplier of marijuana and a major supplier of methamphetamine to the United States.[12] Although Mexico accounts for only a small share of worldwide heroin production, it supplies a large share of the heroin distributed in the United States.[12][16] Drug cartels in Mexico control approximately 70% of the foreign narcotics that flow into the United States.[17] The State Department estimates that 90% of cocaine entering the United States transits Mexico—Colombia being the main cocaine producer[18]—and that wholesale of illicit drug sale earnings estimates range from $13.6 billion to $48.4 billion annually.[12] Mexican drug traffickers increasingly smuggle money back into Mexico in cars and trucks, likely due to the effectiveness of U.S. efforts at monitoring electronic money transfers.[19]

Contents

History

Given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics, illegal aliens and other contraband destined for U.S. markets from Mexico, South America and elsewhere. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Colombia’s Pablo Escobar was the main exporter of cocaine and dealt with organized criminal networks all over the world. When enforcement efforts intensified in South Florida and the Caribbean, the Colombian organizations formed partnerships with the Mexico-based traffickers to transport cocaine through Mexico into the United States.[20] This was easily accomplished because Mexico had long been a major source of heroin and marijuana, and drug traffickers from Mexico had already established an infrastructure that stood ready to serve the Colombia-based traffickers. By the mid-1980s, the organizations from Mexico were well established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine. At first, the Mexican gangs were paid in cash for their transportation services, but in the late 1980s, the Mexican transport organizations and the Colombian drug traffickers settled on a payment-in-product arrangement. Transporters from Mexico usually were given 35 to 50 % of each cocaine shipment. This arrangement meant that organizations from Mexico became involved in the distribution, as well as the transportation of cocaine, and became formidable traffickers in their own right. Currently, the Sinaloa Cartel and the Gulf cartel have taken over trafficking cocaine from Colombia to the worldwide markets.[21]

Over time, the balance of power between the various Mexican cartels shifts as new ones emerge and older ones weaken and collapse. A disruption in the system, such as the arrests or deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the power vacuum.[22] Leadership vacuums sometimes are created by law enforcement successes against a particular cartel, thus cartels often will attempt to use law enforcement against one another, either by bribing Mexican officials to take action against a rival or by leaking intelligence about a rival's operations to the Mexican government or the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).[22] While many factors have contributed to the escalating violence, security analysts in Mexico City trace the origins of the rising scourge to the unraveling of a longtime implicit arrangement between narcotics traffickers and governments controlled by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which lost its grip on political power starting in the late 1980s.[23]

The fighting between rival drug cartels began in earnest after the 1989 arrest of Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo who ran the cocaine business in Mexico.[24] There was a lull in the fighting during the late 1990s but the violence has steadily worsened since 2000.

Presidency of Vicente Fox

Violence increased from 2000. Former president Vicente Fox sent small numbers of troops to Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, on the US-Mexico border to fight the cartels with little success. It is estimated that about 110 people died in Nuevo Laredo alone during the January-August 2005 period as a result of the fighting between the Gulf and Sinaloa cartels.[25] In 2005 there was a surge in violence as a drug cartel tried to establish itself in Michoacán.

Increased government intervention from 2006

Although violence between drug cartels had been occurring long before the war began, the government held a generally passive stance regarding cartel violence in the 1990s and early 2000s. That changed on December 11, 2006, when newly elected President Felipe Calderón sent 6,500 federal troops to the state of Michoacán to end drug violence there. This action is regarded as the first major retaliation made against the cartel violence, and is generally viewed as the starting point of the war between the government and the drug cartels.[1] As time progressed, Calderón continued to escalate his anti-drug campaign, in which there are now about 45,000 troops involved in addition of state and federal police forces.

Escalation

Mexican troops operating in a random checkpoint.

In April 2008, General Sergio Aponte, the man in charge of the anti-drug campaign in the state of Baja California, made a number of allegations of corruption against the police forces in the region. Among his allegations, Aponte stated that he believed Baja California's anti-kidnapping squad was actually a kidnapping team working in conjunction with organized crime, and that bribed police units were being used as bodyguards for drug traffickers.[26] These accusations of corruption suggested that the progress against drug cartels in Mexico has been hindered by bribery, intimidation, and corruption.

On April 26, 2008, a major battle took place between members of the Tijuana and Sinaloa cartels in the city of Tijuana, Baja California, that left 17 people dead.[27] The battle also causes concern about the violence spilling into the United States, as Tijuana and a number of other border cities become hotspots for violence in the war. In September 2008, grenade attacks in Morelia by suspected cartel members killed eight civilians and injured more than 100.

In March 2009, President Calderón called in an additional 5000 Mexican Army troops to Ciudad Juárez. The United States Department of Homeland Security has also said that it is considering using the National Guard to counter the threat of drug violence in Mexico from spilling over the border into the US. The governors of Arizona and Texas have asked the federal government to send additional National Guard troops to help those already there supporting local law enforcement efforts against drug trafficking.[28]

According to the National Drug Intelligence Center, Mexican cartels are the predominant smugglers and wholesale distributors of South American cocaine and Mexico-produced marijuana, methamphetamine and heroin. Mexico's cartels have existed for some time, but have become increasingly powerful in recent years with the demise of the Medellín and Cali cartels in Colombia. Closure of the cocaine trafficking route through Florida also pushed cocaine traffic to Mexico, increasing the role of Mexican cartels in cocaine trafficking. The Mexican cartels are expanding their control over the distribution of these drugs in areas controlled by Colombian and Dominican criminal groups, and now believed to include most of the U.S.A.[29] The East Coast of the United States (mainly New York and New Jersey) have seen little dominance of the Mexican drug cartels. No longer just intermediaries for Colombian producers, they are now powerful organized-crime syndicates that dominate the drug trade in the Americas. According to the FBI, Mexican cartels focus only on wholesale distribution, leaving retail sales of illicit drugs to street gangs. The Mexican cartels reportedly work with multiple gangs and claim not to take sides in U.S. gang conflicts.

Mexican cartels control large swaths of Mexican territory and dozens of municipalities, and they exercise increasing influence in Mexican electoral politics.[30] The cartels are waging violent turf battle over control of key smuggling corridors from Nuevo Laredo, to San Diego. Mexican cartels employ hitmen and groups of enforcers, known as sicarios. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration reports that the Mexican drug cartels operating today along the border are far more sophisticated and dangerous than any other organized criminal group in U.S. law enforcement history.[29] The cartels use grenade launchers, automatic weapons, body armor and sometimes, Kevlar helmets.[31][32][33]

Cartels

Alliances or agreements between drug cartels have been shown to be fragile, tense and temporary. Since February 2010, the major cartels have again aligned in two factions, one integrated by the Juárez Cartel, Tijuana Cartel, Los Zetas and the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel‎‎; the other faction integrated by the Gulf Cartel, Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Cartel.[34]

The Sinaloa Cartel

The Sinaloa Cartel began to contest the Gulf Cartel’s domination of the coveted southwest Texas corridor following the arrest of Gulf Cartel leader Osiel Cárdenas in March 2003. The "Federation" was the result of a 2006 accord between several groups located in the Pacific state of Sinaloa. The cartel is led by Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, Mexico's most-wanted drug trafficker and whose estimated net worth of US$1 billion makes him the 701st richest man in the world, according to Forbes Magazine.[35] In february 2010, new alliances were formed against Los Zetas and Beltran Leyva Cartel.[36]

The Juárez Cartel

The Juárez Cartel controls one of the primary transportation routes for billions of dollars worth of illegal drug shipments annually entering the United States from Mexico. Since 2007, the Juárez Cartel has been locked in a vicious battle with its former partner, the Sinaloa Cartel, for control of Juárez City. Vicente Carrillo Fuentes heads the Juárez Cartel.

The Tijuana Cartel

The cartel of the Arellano-Félix family, the Tijuana Cartel was once among Mexico's most powerful but has fallen on hard times, thanks to the arrests of several top capos. The cartel entered into a brief partnership with the Gulf Cartel. It has been the frequent target of Mexican military confrontations and might be breaking into smaller groups.

The Gulf Cartel

The Gulf Cartel, based in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, has been one of Mexico's two dominant cartels in recent years. In the late 1990s, it hired a private mercenary army (enforcer group called Los Zetas, which in 2006 stepped up as a partner but, in February 2010, their partnership was dissolved and both groups engaged in wide spread violence across several border cities of Tamaulipas state.[37][38] rendering some border towns to "ghost towns".[39]

Los Negros

Los Negros the former armed wing of the Sinaloa Cartel; it was formed to counter Los Zetas and government security forces. Los Negros now work with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel.

Los Zetas

The Gulf Cartel hired a group of former corrupt elite military soldiers now known as Los Zetas, who began operations as a private army for the cartel. The Zetas have been instrumental in the Gulf Cartel’s domination of the drug trade in much of Mexico and have fought to maintain the cartel’s influence in northern cities following the arrest of Osiel Cardenas. Los Zetas made a deal with ex-Sinaloa cartel commanders, the Beltrán-Leyva brothers and since February 2010 Los Zetas became rivals of their former employer/parter, the Gulf Cartel.[36]

The Familia Michoacana

La Familia Michoacana is based in Michoacán. It was formerly allied to the Gulf Cartel and Los Zetas, but La Familia has now split off and became an independent organization.[40] In February 2010, La Familia again forged an alliance with the Gulf Cartel against Los Zetas and Beltrán Leyva Cartel.[36]

The Beltrán Leyva Cartel

The Beltrán Leyva brothers, who were formerly aligned with the Sinaloa Cartel, became allies of Los Zetas in 2008.[41][42] Since February 2010 they fight along Los Zetas against all other Mexican cartels]].[36]

Smuggling of firearms

Colt AR-15
AK-47 style rifle (locally called Cuerno de chivo)
M4 Carbine with grenade launcher.

Firearms are not legally available for sale in Mexico, so drug cartels must smuggle them through the U.S. or Guatemalan borders, or by sea. Many firearms are acquired in U.S. by cartel members through straw purchases and then smuggled to Mexico a few at a time.[43] The most common smuggled firearms include AR-15 and AK-47 type rifles, FN 5.7 caliber semi-automatic pistols and a variety of .50 caliber rifles and machine guns.[44] 30% of AK-47 assault rifles seized have been modified to select fire weapons, effectively creating assault rifles for use by the cartels.[45] Also, there are multiple reports of grenade launchers being used against security forces,[46] and at least twelve M4 Carbines with M203 grenade launchers have been confiscated.[47] It was believed that some of these high power weapons and related accessories were stolen from U.S. military bases.[48][49] However, most military grade weapons such as grenades and light anti-tank rockets are acquired by the cartels through the huge supply of arms left over from the wars in Central America and Asia. (See table below.)

Tracing

An overwhelming majority of confiscated guns (90%) that were traced, originated in the United States.[44][50][51][52][53] The ATF has reportedly traced 22,848 guns smuggled into Mexico from the United States since 2005,[54][55] and it showed that between 2005 and 2008, Texas,[54][56] Arizona and California are the three most prolific source states, respectively, for firearms illegally trafficked to Mexico.[44][57][58][59][60] About 55% of guns smuggled from U.S. are assault rifles.[61][62] Mexican officials only submitted 32% of the guns they seized to the ATF for tracing, and less than half of those weapons had serial numbers. Overall, 83% of the guns found at crime scenes in Mexico could not be traced.[63][64]

Mexican cartels often pay U.S. citizens to purchase assault rifles or other guns at gun shops or gun shows, then sell them to a cartel representative.[65][66][67][68][69][70] This exchange is known as a straw purchase.[71] Because there is no computerized national gun registry, tracking guns relies on a paper trail. Police agents must contact the manufacturer or importer with a make and a serial number and work their way down the supply chain by telephone or on foot.[66] There are about 78,000 gun dealers in the U.S., and ATF agents found that one in five of the guns could not be traced because the dealers had no record of the sale or had gone out of business and the records had been lost.[66]

The House Foreign Affairs Committee has approved a bill (H.R. 6028) that would authorize $73.5 million to be appropriated over three years to increase ATF resources committed to disrupting the flow of illegal guns into Mexico.[53] Lawmakers included $10 million USD in the economic stimulus package for Project Gunrunner, a federal crackdown on U.S. gun-trafficking networks.

In March 2009 U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder called for Congress to reinstate the Federal Assault Weapons Ban. The proposed reinstatement of the assault weapons ban is opposed by 2nd Amendment advocacy groups in the U.S.[72][73][74] In June 2009 Rep. Connie Mack called for increasing the number of federal agents on the Mexican border.[75] U.S. President Barack Obama has proposed to ratify an inter-American treaty known as CIFTA[76] to curb international small arms trafficking throughout the Americas. The treaty makes the unauthorized manufacture and exporting of firearms illegal and calls for nations in this hemisphere to establish a process for information-sharing among different countries' law enforcement divisions to stop the smuggling of arms, to adopt strict licensing requirements, and to make firearms easier to trace.[77]

Sources of weapons

Weapon Primary Source
AK rifle variants (semi-automatic) United States[78][79]
AK rifle variants (select-fire) Central America, South America, Middle East, Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, East Asia[80][81]
AR-15 rifle (semi-automatic) United States[82]
M16/M4 rifles (select-fire) Vietnam[83]
Fragmentation grenades M61/M67/MK 2/K400 United States, Central America, South Korea,[84] Israel, Spain, Soviet bloc, Guatemala,[85] Vietnam,[83] Unknown [85][86]
RPG-7 /M72 LAW // M203 Grenade launchers Asia, Central America/Guatemala,[85] North Korea[86][87][88][89]
.50 caliber Barrett M82 United States.[89][85][86][90][91][92][93]
M2 Browning machine gun Vietnam[83]

There have been some speculation by the U.S. public media that Islamic terror groups may be supporting drug cartels in Mexico,[94][95][96] however, the former Mexican national security adviser and former ambassador to the United Nations, Adolfo Aguilar Zínser, as well as Eduardo Medina-Mora Icaza, the director of Mexico’s Center for Intelligence and National Security (CISEN) and now Attorney-General, noted that there are no indications that foreign terrorist organizations may have established contact with Mexican organizations and had no reason to believe that there was Islamic terror groups presence in Mexico.[97]

Effects in Mexico

Many people in Mexico have suffered the violence of the conflict, although it is not present all over the country. The states that suffer the conflict mostly are Baja California, Guerrero, Chihuahua, Michoacán, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, and Sinaloa (highlighted red on image right). President Calderón's government is currently fighting the drug-dealers, especially in his home state of Michoacán, but there are more operations going on in the states of Jalisco and Guerrero, and in 2009 drug-related violence increased considerably in Sonora.

The states where most of the conflict takes place, marked in red.

On December 24, 2006, the governor of Baja California Eugenio Elorduy announced a similar operation in his state with cooperation of state and federal governments. This operation started in late December 2006 in the border city of Tijuana.

By January 2007, these various operations had extended to the states of Guerrero as well as the so called "Golden Triangle States" of Chihuahua, Durango, and Sinaloa. In the following February the states of Nuevo León and Tamaulipas were included as well. Organized crime responded to the increased pressure with a failed attempt to assassinate the federal deputy representing Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas.

As of early October 2007, the war did not appear to have significantly affected the drugs trade in the United States. In 37 states the price of cocaine has gone up by as much as 24%, while the average purity has dropped by 11%.[98][99]

Seizures and arrests have jumped since Calderón took office in December 2006 and Mexico has extradited more than 100 people wanted in the U.S. A new rule that forces all private airplanes to stop for inspection at either the Cozumel airport on the Caribbean coast or Tapachula on the Guatemala border is credited, in part, for leading to confiscations of more than 270 planes in the past 1½ years.

A narco submarine being seized by a Mexican Navy helicopter unit. July 16, 2008

On July 10, 2008, the Mexican government announced plans to nearly double the size of its Federal Police force to reduce the role of the military in combating drug trafficking.[100] The plan, known as the Comprehensive Strategy Against Drug Trafficking, also involves purging local police forces of corrupt officers. Elements of the plan have already been set in motion, including a massive police recruiting and training effort intended to reduce the country's dependence in the drug war on the military.

On July 16, 2008, the Mexican Navy intercepted a 10-meter long narco submarine travelling about 200 kilometers off the southwest of Oaxaca; in a raid, Special Forces rappelled from a helicopter on to the deck of the narco submarine and arrested four smugglers before they could scuttle their vessel. The vessel was found to be loaded with 5.8 tons of cocaine and was towed to Huatulco, Oaxaca, by a Mexican Navy patrol boat.[101][102][103][104][105]

One apparent paradox for the Calderón administration has been that even while the government has clearly succeeded in damaging the cartels, the country’s security situation continues to deteriorate at what appears to be an unstoppable rate.[106] The most obvious sign of this deteriorating security situation is that the total number of drug-related homicides continues to climb dramatically. Violence has also escalated with intimidation and fear. The discovery of hit lists with the names of police officers has become increasingly common in many Mexican cities along the U.S. border. It also is common for the officers named on those lists to be gunned down one by one. In addition, drug trafficking organizations have now begun displaying large banners over highways in cities around the country. Many of the banners make threats against rivals, or accuse a particular criminal group of being supported by local and federal government officials. In several cases, purported recruiting banners appeared in northern Mexico offering higher pay and better equipment to soldiers and police officers who defect to Los Zetas.[106]

One escalation in this conflict is the traffickers' use of new means to claim their territory and spread fear. Cartel members have broadcast executions on YouTube,[107] tossed body parts into crowded nightclubs and hung banners on public streets.[108] The 2008 Morelia grenade attacks took place on September 15, 2008, when two hand grenades were thrown onto a crowded plaza, killing ten people and injuring more than 100.[109] Some see these efforts as intended to sap the morale of government agents assigned to crack down on the cartels; others see them as an effort to let citizens know who is winning the war. At least one dozen Mexican norteño musicians have been murdered. Most of the victims performed what are known as narcocorrido, popular folk songs that tell the stories of the Mexican drug trade—and celebrate its leaders as folk heroes.[110]

The extreme violence is jeopardizing foreign investment in Mexico, and the Finance Minister, Agustín Carstens, said that the deteriorating security alone is reducing gross domestic product annually by 1% in Mexico, Latin America's second-largest economy.[111]

Corruption of officials

Mexican cartels advance their operations, in part, by corrupting or intimidating law enforcement officials.[26][99][112] The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) reports that although Mexico has made concerted efforts to reduce corruption in recent years, it remains a serious problem.[113][114] Some agents of the Federal Investigations Agency (AFI) are believed to work as enforcers for the Sinaloa cartel, and the Attorney General (PGR) reported in December 2005 nearly 1,500 of AFI's 7,000 agents were under investigation for suspected criminal activity and 457 were facing charges.[99]

In recent years, the federal government conducted purges and prosecution of police forces in Nuevo Laredo, Michoacán, Baja California and Mexico City.[99] The anti-cartel operations begun by President Calderón in December 2006 includes ballistic checks of police weapons in places where there is concern that police are also working for the cartels. In June 2007, President Calderón purged 284 federal police commanders from all 31 states and the Federal District.[99]

Under the 'Cleanup Operation' performed in 2008, several agents and high ranking officials have been arrested and charged with selling information or protection to drug cartels;[115][116] some high profile arrests were: Victor Gerardo Garay Cadena,[117] (chief of the Federal Police), Noé Ramírez Mandujano (ex-chief of the Organized Crime Division (SIEDO)), José Luis Santiago Vasconcelos (ex-chief of the Organized Crime Division (SIEDO)), and Ricardo Gutiérrez Vargas who is the ex-director of Mexico's Interpol office. In January 2009, Rodolfo de la Guardia García, ex-director of Mexico's Interpol office, was arrested.[118] Julio César Godoy Toscano, who was just elected July 5, 2009 to the lower house of Congress, was discovered to be a top-ranking member of La Familia Michoacana drug cartel and is accused of being in charge of protection for the cartel.[119] He is now a fugitive.

Effects internationally

North America

The Mexican Army has severely curtailed the ability of the Mexican drug cartels to move cocaine inside U.S.A. and Canada, prompting an upsurge in gang violence in Vancouver, where the cocaine price has increased from $23,300 to almost $39,000 per kilo as both the U.S. and Canadian drug markets are experiencing prolonged shortages of cocaine.[13] As evidence of this pressure, the U.S. government says the amount of cocaine seized on U.S. soil dropped by 41 percent between early 2007 and mid-2008.[13]

Europe

Improved cooperation of Mexico with the U.S. led to the recent arrests of 755 Sinaloa cartel suspects in U.S. cities and towns, but the U.S. market is being eclipsed by booming demand for cocaine in Europe, where users now pay twice the going U.S. rate, and Colombian gangs don't need Mexican middlemen when shipping across the Atlantic.[13] U.S. Attorney General announced September 17, 2008 that an international drug interdiction operation, Project Reckoning, involving law enforcement in the United States, Italy, Canada, Mexico and Guatemala had netted more than 500 organized crime members involved in the cocaine trade. The announcement highlighted the Italian-Mexican cocaine connection.[21]

Guatemala

The Mexican Army crackdown has driven some cartels to seek a safer location for their operations across the border in Guatemala, attracted by corruption, weak policing and its position on the overland smuggling route.[120][121] The smugglers pick up drugs from small planes that land at private airstrips hidden in Guatemalan jungle. The cargo is then moved up through Mexico to the U.S. border. Guatemala has also arrested dozens of drug suspects and torched huge marijuana and poppy fields, but is struggling. The U.S. government has sent speedboats and night-vision goggles under a regional drug aid package, but much more is needed. In February 2009, the powerful Los Zetas gang threatened to kill the President of Guatemala, Álvaro Colom.[122] On March 1, 2010, Guatemala's chief of national police and the country's top anti-drugs official have been arrested over alleged links to drug trafficking.[121] A report from the Brookings Institution[123] warns that, without proactive, timely efforts, the violence will spread throughout the Central American region.[124]

West Africa

At least nine Mexican and Colombian drug cartels have established bases in 11 West African nations.[125] They are reportedly working closely with local criminal gangs to carve out a staging area for access to the lucrative European market. The Colombian and Mexican cartels have discovered that it's much easier to smuggle large loads into West Africa and then break that up into smaller shipments to Europe - mostly Spain, the United Kingdom and France.[125]

United States

The U.S. Justice Department considers the Mexican drug cartels as the greatest organized crime threat to the United States.[126] During the first 18 months of Calderón's presidency, the Mexican government has spent about $7 billion USD in the war against drugs.[127] In seeking partnership from the United States, Mexican officials point out that the illicit drug trade is a shared problem in need of a shared solution, and remark that most of the financing for the Mexican traffickers comes from American drug consumers.[128] On March 25, 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, stated that "Our [America's] insatiable demand for illegal drugs fuels the drug trade", and that "the United States bears shared responsibility for the drug-fueled violence sweeping Mexico." [129] U.S. State Department officials are aware that Mexican president, Felipe Calderón’s willingness to work with the United States is unprecedented on issues of security, crime and drugs, so the U.S. Congress passed legislation in late June 2008 to provide Mexico and Central American countries with $1.6 billion USD for the Mérida Initiative, a three-year international assistance plan. The Mérida Initiative provides Mexico and Central American countries with law enforcement training and equipment, as well as technical advice to strengthen the national justice systems. The Mérida Initiative does not include cash or weapons. In January 2009, a U.S. military assessment expressed some concern that if the war is extended 25 years, it could cause a collapse of the Mexican government due to the military strength of organized crime, and that the conflict could possibly spread to border states.[130][131] Currently, the Mexican drug cartels already have a presence in most major U.S. cities.[55]

Multiple researchers propose focusing on prevention, treatment and education programs to curb demand rather than the continued support of combating the supply of drugs. Studies show that military interdiction efforts fail because they ignore the root cause of the problem: U.S. demand. During the early to mid-1990s, the Clinton administration ordered and funded a major cocaine policy study by the Rand Drug Policy Research Center; the study concluded that $3 billion USD should be switched from federal and local law enforcement to treatment. The report said that treatment is the cheapest and most effective way to cut drug use. President Clinton's drug czar's office rejected slashing law enforcement spending.[132] The Bush administration proposed cutting spending on drug treatment and prevention programs by $73 million, or 1.5%, in the 2009 budget, which hasn't been approved yet.[111]

In March 2009, the Obama administration outlined plans to redeploy more than 500 federal agents to border posts and redirect $200 million to combat smuggling of illegal drugs, money and weapons.[133]

U.S. death toll and national security

U.S. authorities are reporting a spike in killings, kidnappings and home invasions connected to Mexico's cartels, and at least 19 Americans were killed in 2008.[134][135] Also, more than 200 Americans have been killed in Mexico since 2004.[136]

For the U.S. Joint Forces Command, in terms of worst-case scenarios, Mexico bears some consideration for sudden collapse in the next two decades as the government, its politicians, police, and judicial infrastructure are all under sustained assault and pressure by criminal gangs and drug cartels.[130] The Joint Forces Command are concerned that this internal conflict over the next several years, will have a major impact on the stability of the Mexican state, and therefore would demand an American response based on the implications for homeland security alone.[130] In March 2009, the United States Department of Homeland Security said that it is considering using the National Guard to counter the threat of drug violence in Mexico from spilling over the border into the US. The governors of Arizona and Texas have asked the federal government to send additional National Guard troops to help those already there supporting local law enforcement efforts against drug trafficking.[28] On March 26, 2009, the body of a U.S. marshal, who was the subject of an arrest warrant, was discovered in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.[137]

Controversies

Private policing

In October 12, 2009, private security company Jax Desmond Worldwide announced an offer to assist the Mexican government in its fight against the Los Zetas. The project nicknamed "Operation Duvdevan" alleged the company would eliminate the Los Zetas in four months. The project would include the use of former Israeli and U.S. Special Forces equipped with state of the art weaponry and logistical solutions that Jax Desmond claimed was far superior to that of the Los Zetas.[138][139]

Guns supply

Fox News has reported that the federal government is exaggerating the percentage of guns recovered from crime scenes in Mexico, and states that the total of guns purchased in the U.S. is not 90% but 17%.[63] The two Fox reporters explain that 68% of the guns that were recovered in Mexico were never submitted to the U.S. for tracing "because it is obvious from their markings that they do not come from the U.S."[63] The article explains that not every gun seized in Mexico has a serial number on it that would make it traceable, and the U.S. effort to trace weapons only extends to weapons that have been in the U.S. market. These two reporters believe that the rest of the guns and explosives smuggled into Mexico originate from Russia, Asia and Latin America through the Guatemalan border and Mexican seaports. (see table above)

Chris Cox, spokesman for the National Rifle Association, said that the official 90% number is intentionally used to weaken the Second Amendment and force a ban on assault rifles in the United States.[63][140] Most news reports also fail to differentiate between weapons sold by private US businesses and weapons sold by the US government to the Mexican government for use by the military and various police agencies. Given the level of corruption in Mexican law enforcement and the desertion rate of the Mexican military, it is possible many of the weapons traced back to the US were sold legitimately through the US government.

A failed war

According to former Presidents Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil, Ernesto Zedillo of Mexico and César Gaviria of Colombia, the United States-led drug war is pushing Latin America into a downward spiral; Mr. Cardoso said in a conference that "the available evidence indicates that the war on drugs is a failed war".[141] The panel of the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy commission, headed by Cardoso, stated that the countries involved in this war should remove the "taboos" and re-examine the anti-drug programs. Latin American governments have followed the advice of the U.S. to combat the drug war, but the policies had little effect. The commission made some recommendations to President Barack Obama to consider new policies, such as decriminalization of cannabis (marijuana) and to treat drug use as a public health problem and not as a security problem.[142] The Council on Hemispheric Affairs states it is time to seriously consider drug decriminalization and legalization.[143]

Demand

RAND studies released in the mid-1990s found that using drug user treatment to reduce drug consumption in the United States is seven times more cost effective than law enforcement efforts alone, and it could potentially cut consumption by a third.[144]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Mexico Cracking Down on Drug Violence". Associated Press. December 11, 2006. http://origin.foxnews.com/wires/2006Dec11/0,4670,MexicoDrugViolence,00.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  2. ^ "Mexican general makes explosive accusations". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/laplaza/2008/04/mexican-general.html. 
  3. ^ "Mexico drug gangs suspected of fatal blast". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN16627055. 
  4. ^ a b "Four Gunmen Die in Clash with Mexican Troops". Latin American Herald Tribune. March 4,2010. http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=352959&CategoryId=14091. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  5. ^ a b Gonzales, Maria de la Luz (2009-03-25). "Suman 10 mil 475 ejecuciones en esta administracion: PGR" (in Spanish). El Universal. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/166613.html. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  6. ^ "Alarmante, situación de periodistas en México" (in Spanish). El Universal. January 10, 2010. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/columnas/81750.html. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  7. ^ The attorney general's office says that 9 of 10 victims are members of organized-crime groups."Briefing: How Mexico is waging war on drug cartels.". The Christian Science Monitor. August 16, 2009. http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/0819/p10s01-woam.html. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  8. ^ "Bodies of Mexican general, 2 soldiers found". CNN News. February 3, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/americas/02/03/mexico.soldiers/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  9. ^ "Mexico: 1,000 killed in drug violence so far in '09". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2009-02-26-mexico-drug-violence_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  10. ^ Sanchez, Esther (January 01, 2010). "Aumenta nivel de violencia del narco" (in Spanish). El Universal. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/648979.html. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  11. ^ "Ejecutados" (in Spanish). El Universal. March 16, 2010. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/coberturas/esp207.html. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c d Cook, Colleen W., ed. (October 16), "Mexico's Drug Cartels" (PDF), CRS Report for Congress, Congresional Research Service, p. 7, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf, retrieved 2009-08-09 
  13. ^ a b c d "Progress in Mexico drug war is drenched in blood". Associated Press (INSI). November 3, 2009. http://www.newssafety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12194:progress-in-mexico-drug-war-is-drenched-in-blood&catid=345:mexico-security&Itemid=100298. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  14. ^ "High U.S. cocaine cost shows drug war working: Mexico". Reuters. September 14, 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN1422771920070914. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  15. ^ Sullivan, Mark P., ed. (December 18), "CRS Report for Congress" (PDF), Mexico - U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress, Congresional Research Service, pp. 2, 13, 14, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32724.pdf, retrieved 2009-04-01 
  16. ^ Cook, Colleen W., ed. (October 16), "Mexico's Drug Cartels" (PDF), CRS Report for Congress, Congresional Research Service, p. 2, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf, retrieved 2009-08-09 
  17. ^ Creechan, James. "An overview of drug cartels in Mexico" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 01, 2006 <Not Available>. 2009-05-24 [1]
  18. ^ "US anti-drug campaign 'failing'". BBC News. 2004-08-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3540686.stm. 
  19. ^ Cook, Colleen W., ed. (October 16), "Mexico's Drug Cartels" (PDF), CRS Report for Congress, Congresional Research Service, p. 9, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf, retrieved 2009-08-09 
  20. ^ "History of DEA Operations", DEA History, U.S. DEA, http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/history/history_part2.pdf, retrieved 2008-09-21 
  21. ^ a b "Mexico, U.S., Italy: The Cocaine Connection". Stratfor Intelligence. September 18, 2008. http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/20080918_mexico_u_s_italy_cocaine_connection. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  22. ^ a b Burton, Fred (May 2, 2007). "Mexico: The Price of Peace in the Cartel Wars". The Stratfor Global Intelligence. http://www.stratfor.com/mexico_price_peace_cartel_wars. Retrieved 2009-08-16. 
  23. ^ Bussey, Jana (September 15, 2008). [Institutional Revolutionary Party "Drug lords rose to power when Mexicans ousted old government"]. McClatchy Newspapers. Institutional Revolutionary Party. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  24. ^ "Analysis: Mexico's drug wars continue". BBC News. 2002-03-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1867842.stm. 
  25. ^ "Gang wars plague Mexican drugs hub". BBC News. 2005-08-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4144686.stm. 
  26. ^ a b "Mexican general makes explosive accusations". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/laplaza/2008/04/mexican-general.html. 
  27. ^ "Seventeen killed in Mexico drug battle". Reuters. 2008-26-4. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN2639514820080427. 
  28. ^ a b BBC News - Americas - March-12-09
  29. ^ a b "Mexican Drug Cartels Forming Alliances with American Street Gangs". The Right Side News. June 15, 2008. http://www.rightsidenews.com/200806161201/homeland-security/mexican-drug-cartels-forming-alliances-with-american-street-gangs.html. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  30. ^ The United States is undermining its own security | Statesman.com | October 25, 2008
  31. ^ Stratfor: Mexican Cartels and the Fallout From Phoenix
  32. ^ Mexican Drug cartels terror reaches Alabama
  33. ^ Los Zetas: the Ruthless Army Spawned by a Mexican Drug Cartel
  34. ^ "Violence the result of fractured arrangement between Zetas and Gulf Cartel, authorities say". The Brownsville Herald. March 09, 2010. http://www.brownsvilleherald.com/news/say-109525-arrangement-violence.html. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  35. ^ "Mexican drug lord makes Forbes' billionaire list". 2009-03-13. http://us.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/americas/03/13/mexico.forbes.list/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  36. ^ a b c d "Drug Wars in Tamaulipas: Cartels vs. Zetas vs. the Military". Center for Latin American and Border Studies (MexiData). March 1, 2010. http://www.mexidata.info/id2570.html. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  37. ^ "Drug Wars in Tamaulipas: Cartels vs. Zetas vs. the Military". Center for Latin American and Border Studies (MexiData). March 1, 2010. http://www.mexidata.info/id2570.html. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  38. ^ "EU: alarma guerra “Zetas”-El Golfo" (in Spanish). El Universal. March 4 2010. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/176052.html. Retrieved 2010-03-04. 
  39. ^ Video: Narco deja pueblos fantasma en Tamaulipas (March 4, 2010).
  40. ^ Mexico offers $2m for drug lords
  41. ^ Revela laptop operaciones de los Beltrán Leyva
  42. ^ Sinaloa, en jaque por la violencia tras ser asesinado hijo del Chapo
  43. ^ Kevin Johnson (August 24, 2009). "Gun traffickers recruiting women as buyers". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2009-08-23-gun-smuggling_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  44. ^ a b c McKinley, James C. (February 25, 2009). "U.S. Is Arms Bazaar for Mexican Cartels". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/us/26borders.html. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  45. ^ Castillo, Eduardo; Michelle Roberts (May 7, 2009). "Mexico's weapons cache stymies tracing". Associated Press. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/05/06/international/i111117D34.DTL&hw=gun&sn=014&sc=1000. Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  46. ^ The NY Times - Caught in a Swirl of Drug Violence, Mexico Vows to Fight Back
  47. ^ TIME -Civilian Victims in Mexico's Drug War
  48. ^ Armas robadas en EU, en poder de narcos
  49. ^ The US Arms Both Sides of Mexico's Drug War
  50. ^ "Firearms Trafficking: U.S. Efforts to Combat Arms Trafficking to Mexico Face Planning and Coordination Challenges", Firearms Trafficking, U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO), June 18, 2009, http://gao.gov/products/GAO-09-709, retrieved 2009-06-21 
  51. ^ Hoover, William (February 7), "STATEMENT AT THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE", Statement by William Hoover, Assistant Director for Field Operations, Bureau of ATF, Washington, D.C.: UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES - COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS, http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/110/hoo020708.htm, retrieved 2009-03-21 
  52. ^ *"Project Gunrunner". Embassy of the U.S. in Mexico. 2007. http://www.usembassy-mexico.gov/eng/texts/et080116eTrace.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  53. ^ a b "The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF): Budget and Operations" (PDF), CRS Report for Congress, May 30, 2008, http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/RL34514_20080530.pdf, retrieved 2009-03-14 
  54. ^ a b Bensman, Todd (2009-04-23). "Texas top source for smugglers". The San Antonio Express News. http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/state/Texas_top_source_for_smugglers.html. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  55. ^ a b "Mexican Cartels: Drug organizations extending reach farthen into U.S.". 2009. http://hosted.ap.org/specials/interactives/_international/mexican_cartels/index.html?SITE=AP. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  56. ^ Bensman, Todd (March 31, 2009). "Most guns from raid traced to Texas". Express News. http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local_news/Officials_say_most_weapons_from_raid_came_from_Texas_dealers.html. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  57. ^ "Mexican Cartels: Drug organizations extending reach farther into U.S.". 2009. http://hosted.ap.org/specials/interactives/_international/mexican_cartels/index.html?SITE=AP. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  58. ^ "Mexico's Massive Illegal weapons coming from China and the U.S.". Right Side News. 23 June 2008. http://www.rightsidenews.com/200806231247/border-and-sovereignty/mexicos-massive-illegal-weapons-coming-from-china-and-the-us.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  59. ^ Feds raid gun store tied to Mexican drug cartels
  60. ^ "U.S. police nab guns bound for Mexico". Reuters. March 11, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE52A6B520090311. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  61. ^ "A lethal export to Mexico". The Boston Globe. March 4, 2009. http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/editorial_opinion/editorials/articles/2009/03/04/a_lethal_export_to_mexico/. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  62. ^ Testimony of Secretary Janet Napolitano before Senate - March 25, 2009
  63. ^ a b c d La Jeunesse, William; Maxim Lott (April 02, 2009). "The Myth of 90 Percent: Only a Small Fraction of Guns in Mexico Come From U.S.". Fox News. http://www.CNN.com/politics/2009/04/02/myth-percent-guns-mexico-fraction-number-claimed/. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  64. ^ "GAO Reports On Arms Trafficking In Mexico". AmoLand. June 20th, 2009. http://www.ammoland.com/2009/06/20/gao-reports-on-arms-trafficking-in-mexico/. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  65. ^ Ross, Brian; Richard Esposito (April 22, 2008). "U.S. Guns Arming Mexican Drug Gangs; Second Amendment to Blame?". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/Story?id=4695848&page=1. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  66. ^ a b c McKinley Jr., James C. (April 15, 2009). "U.S. Stymied as Guns Flow to Mexican Cartels". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/15/us/15guns.html?_r=1&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  67. ^ "Mexico: U.S. Must Stop Gun Trade At Border". Associated Press. CBS News - Dallas. February 28, 2009. http://cbs11tv.com/national/mexico.us.guns.2.947011.html. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  68. ^ "Obama's too cool on gun restrictions". The Christian Science Monitor. April 17, 2009. http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/0417/p08s01-comv.html. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  69. ^ "Houston man gets 8 years for selling guns to drug lords". Houston Chronicle. April 17, 2009. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/front/6378652.html. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  70. ^ Greyson, George (April 16, 2009). "Mexico: Dealing With Drug Violence". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2009/04/16/DI2009041602176.html. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 
  71. ^ "US Agents Break up Ring Smuggling Guns to Mexico". VOA News. May 20, 2009. http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-05-20-voa62.cfm. Retrieved 2009-05-24. 
  72. ^ Miller, Joshua Rhett (March 17, 2009). "Gun Advocates Ready for Battle on Federal Assault Weapons Ban". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/first100days/2009/03/17/gun-advocates-ready-battle-federal-assault-ban/. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  73. ^ "Gun Control Debate Hangs Over U.S.-Mexico Violence". CNS News. March 24, 2009. http://cnsnews.com/news/article/45548. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  74. ^ "A Self-Inflicted Gun Wound". Newsweek. March 25, 2009. http://www.newsweek.com/id/191037. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  75. ^ Meyer, Josh (June 20, 2009). "Report on arms smuggling to Mexico called incomplete". Los Angelas Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jun/20/nation/na-arms-smuggling20. 
  76. ^ CIFTA is an acronym for: "Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials."
  77. ^ Tapper, Jake; Sunlen Miller (April 17, 2009). "President Obama to Face Opposition from Gun Lobby, Possibly Democrats, to Ratify Treaty on Firearms Trafficking". ABC News. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalpunch/2009/04/president-ob-18.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  78. ^ "Project Gunrunner". U.S. Bureau of ATF. 2007. http://www.usembassy-mexico.gov/eng/texts/et080116eTrace.html. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  79. ^ "AK-47 Varieties Made in U.S.A.". AK47.US. 2009. http://www.ak-47.us/USmade.php. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  80. ^ "Kalashnikov AKM (& close derivatives)". Weapons ID. 2009. http://weaponsid.smallarmssurvey.org/media/products/15/Kalashnikov_AKM.pdf?SASid=iutuv2kk0rm799u1lq8rinu4n1. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  81. ^ "Kalashnikov AKM (& close derivatives)". Weapons ID. 2009. http://weaponsid.smallarmssurvey.org/media/products/21/Kalashnikov_AK47.pdf?SASid=iutuv2kk0rm799u1lq8rinu4n1. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  82. ^ "AR15 Manufacturers & Builders". AR15.US. 2009. http://www.ar-15.us/AR15_Manufacturers.php. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  83. ^ a b c Brian Wood; Johan Peleman. The ARms Fixers. http://www.iansa.org/issues/documents/arms_fixers.pdf. 
  84. ^ "Mexico, U.S.: A New Weapon in the Cartel Arsenal". The Stratfor. February 10, 2009. http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/20090210_mexico_u_s_new_weapon_cartel_arsenal. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  85. ^ a b c d Ellingwood, Ken; Tracy Wilkinson (March 15, 2009). "Drug cartels' new weaponry means war". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-mexico-arms-race15-2009mar15,0,7497626,full.story. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  86. ^ a b c "Traffickers Advantage in Arms (Grafic)". Los Angeles Times. March 14, 2009. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-031409-fg-2mexico_arms_race-g,0,2306703.graphic. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  87. ^ "CRIMINAL ACTIVITY AND VIOLENCE" (PDF), HEARING BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, Washington, D.C.: U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, August 16, pp. 21, 32, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_house_hearings&docid=f:35565.pdf, retrieved 2009-03-20 
  88. ^ "Money, Guns and Drugs: Are U.S> Inputs Fueling Violence on the U.S.-Mexico Border?" (PDF), Testimony of Chris W. Cox, Executive DIrector of the N.R.A. before the U.S. House of Representatives, March 12, p. 4, http://www.nraila.org/media/PDFs/ushousehearings/031209/TestimonyChrisCox.pdf, retrieved 2009-03-20 
  89. ^ a b Sanchez, Matt (February 04, 2009). "Mexican Drug Cartels Armed to the Hilt, Threatening National Security". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,487911,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  90. ^ "Mexico violence prompts new look at US gun laws". Associated Press. March 12, 2009. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/03/12/national/w093115D05.DTL&hw=gun&sn=058&sc=598. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
  91. ^ Burton, Fred; Scott Stewart (November 12, 2008). "Worrying Signs from Border Raids". Stratfor Global Intelligence. http://74.125.95.132/search?q=cache:mnlE4hGaqgYJ:www.stratfor.com/weekly/20081112_worrying_signs_border_raids+.50+caliber+mexico&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  92. ^ Griffin, Drew; John Murgatroyd (March 26, 2008). "Smugglers' deadly cargo: Cop-killing guns". CNN News. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/03/26/gun.smuggling/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  93. ^ "Criminal Use of the .50 Caliber Sniper Rifle". Violence Policy Center. 2009. http://www.vpc.org/snipercrime.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
  94. ^ "DEA report: U.S. terror cells linked to drug cartels". Victorville Daily Press. August 11, 2007. http://www.vvdailypress.com/news/report-2273-drug-washington.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  95. ^ Mideast Terrorists Team Up With Drug Cartels | GroundReport
  96. ^ "Mexican drug cartels and terrorist are recruiting for more fighters to train as soldiers". American Chronicle. April 16, 2008. 
  97. ^ Miró, Ramón J. (February), "ORGANIZED CRIME AND TERRORIST ACTIVITY IN MEXICO, 1999-2002", in Curtis, Glenn E. (PDF), A Report Prepared by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress under an Interagency Agreement with the United States Government, Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, pp. 47–48, http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/OrgCrime_Mexico.pdf, retrieved 2009-01-10 
  98. ^ "US-Mexico drugs blitz 'success'". BBC News. 2002-03-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7027490.stm. 
  99. ^ a b c d e Cook, Colleen W., ed. (October 16, 2007), "CSR Report for Congress" (PDF), Mexico's Drug Cartels, USA: Congressional Research Service, http://ftp.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf, retrieved 2008-11-02 
  100. ^ Mexico Plan Adds Police To Take On Drug Cartels
  101. ^ Secretaría de Marina - Noticias 18 de julio del 2008
  102. ^ Reuters -Mexico captures submarine loaded with drugs
  103. ^ The Narco Submarine
  104. ^ Mexican navy seizes cocaine sub
  105. ^ Drug cartels using submarines to smuggle cocaine
  106. ^ a b "Mexican Drug Cartels: Government Progress and Growing Violence". STRATFOR Global Intelligence. December 11, 2008. http://www.stratfor.com/analysis/20081209_mexican_drug_cartels_government_progress_and_growing_violence. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
  107. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel (April 9, 2007). "Mexican Drug Cartels Leave a Bloody Trail on YouTube". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/08/AR2007040801005_2.html. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  108. ^ Ellingwood, Ken (June 11, 2008). "Macabre drug cartel messages in Mexico". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-me-haven3,0,1312148.story. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  109. ^ Lacey, Mark (September 24, 2008). "Grenade Attack in Mexico Breaks From Deadly Script". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/25/world/americas/25mexico.html?_r=1&ref=americas&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  110. ^ "Mexico: Trouble in Culiacán". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. 2009. http://www.pulitzercenter.org/showproject.cfm?id=86. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  111. ^ a b Gould, Jens E. (October 20, 2008). "Mexico's Drug War Veers Toward Terrorism Amid Anger Over U.S.". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=akDCw.fUKYOc&refer=home. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  112. ^ "Mexico's corruption inquiry expands to ex-police official". Associated Press. November 7, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/11/07/mexico.violence.ap/index.html. Retrieved 2008-11-08. 
  113. ^ Goddard, Jacqui (October 28, 2008). "Interpol agent passed information to Beltrán-Leyva cartel in Mexico". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article5026787.ece. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  114. ^ Lacey, Marc (November 1, 2008). "In Mexico, Sorting Out Good Guys From Bad". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/02/world/americas/02mexico.html?ref=americas. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  115. ^ Lawson, Guy (March 04, 2009). "The Making of a Narco State". The Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/26435119/the_making_of_a_narco_state/print. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  116. ^ Video-report on high-profile arrests. January 15, 2009. Spanish.
  117. ^ "Encarcelan al ex comisionado de PFP Gerardo Garay Cadena" (in Spanish). La Cronica de Hoy. 11 de Dic., 2008. http://www.cronica.com.mx/nota.php?id_nota=403216. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  118. ^ "Ordenan arrestar a ex mandos de Interpol" (in Spanish). El Universal. January 16, 2009. http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/165134.html. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  119. ^ "2 Mexican politicians sought; drug cartel link alleged". CNN News. July 15, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/americas/07/15/mexico.violence/. Retrieved 2009-08-14. 
  120. ^ Mexican drug gang menace spreads in Guatemala
  121. ^ a b "Guatemala police chief arrested over 'cocaine link'". BBC News. 2 March 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8546590.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-03. 
  122. ^ Mexican cartel threatens Guatemala President
  123. ^ "'Guatemalastan': How to Prevent a Failed State in our Midst". The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/opinions/2009/0522_guatemala_casaszamora.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  124. ^ "Guatemala on the brink?". Homeland Security Insight nd Analysis. May 25, 2009. http://www.hstoday.us/content/view/8634/149/. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  125. ^ a b Brice, Arthur (2009-09-21). "Latin American drug cartels find home in West Africa". CNN News. http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/africa/09/21/africa.drug.cartels/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  126. ^ Testimony of Secretary Janet Napolitano before Senate (March 25, 2009)
  127. ^ Merida Initiative Will Help Battle Drug Trafficking
  128. ^ Americans finance Mexican traffickers
  129. ^ Drugs, Guns and a Reality Check The Washington Post.. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  130. ^ a b c "The Joint Operating Environment - December 2008" (PDF), Challenges and implications for the future Joint Force, Norfolk, VA: The Joint Operating Environment - December 2008, December, pp. 38, 40, http://www.jfcom.mil/newslink/storyarchive/2008/JOE2008.pdf, retrieved 2009-03-03 
  131. ^ Mexico in danger of collapse
  132. ^ Rydell, C. Peter; Susan S. Everingham (1994). "Controlling Cocaine: Supply Versus Demand Programs". Rand Drug Policy Research Center. http://www.fathom.com/media/PDF/2184_cocainess.pdf. 
    *Cauchon, Dennis (June 14 1994). "White House balks at study urging more drug treatment". USA Today: 2A. http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/73026.html. 
    *Stokes, Doug; Noam Chomsky (Introduction) (2005). America's Other War: Terrorizing Colombia. Zed Books. ISBN 1-84277-547-2. OCLC 156752200.  p. xii, 87
    *Donnelly, John (April 1 2000). "Narcotics Bill Reopens Drug War Debate Colombia Measure Spurs New Look At Us Policy". The Boston Globe. http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/73026.html#2. 
    *Cochran, John; Peter Jennings (September 22 1999). ""A Closer Look"". ABC News. http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/73026.html#2. 
    *Douglas, William (June 14 1994). "Best Weapon In Drug War Is Treatment". Newsday: A15. http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/73026.html#5. 
    *Douglas, William (June 14 1994). "U.S. Should Boost Therapy Of Coke Addicts, Study Urges". The Times Union. http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/73026.html#6. 
  133. ^ Reuters: Obama Mexico border plan not enough-US senator
  134. ^ American Death toll
  135. ^ Mexican Drug Violence Spills Over Into US
  136. ^ More Americans Killed in Mexico Since 2004 Than in Any Other Country (Outside Military Combat Zones)
  137. ^ CNN: U.S. marshal's body found in Mexico
  138. ^ "Watch Out Los Zetas Jax Desmond Worldwide Offers Support To Mexico In Battling Deadly Drug Cartel". Jax Desmond Worldwide (Reuters). October 12, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUS154912+12-Oct-2009+PRN20091012. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  139. ^ Medellin, Jorge (2009-11-29). "Jax Desmond:“En cuatro meses acabaríamos con Los Zetas”". Milenio Semanal: Cover Story. http://semanal.milenio.com/node/1556. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  140. ^ "Money Guns and Drugs: Are U.S. Inputs Fueling Violence in the U.S.-Mexico Border?" (PDF), Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs - Testimony of Chris W. Cox during a House Hearings, Washington, D.C.: National Rifle Association, March 12, p. 2, http://www.nraila.org/media/PDFs/ushousehearings/031209/TestimonyChrisCox.pdf, retrieved 2009-04-04 
  141. ^ Latin American Panel Calls U.S. Drug War a Failure - WSJ.com
  142. ^ Cardoso, Gaviria, Zedillo Urge Obama to Decriminalize Marijuana - Bloomberg.com
  143. ^ Birns, Larry; Michael Ramirez (April 1st, 2009). "Time to Debate a Change in Washington’s Failed Latin American Drug Policies". The Council on Hemispheric Affairs. http://www.coha.org/2009/04/time-to-debate-a-change-in-washington%E2%80%99s-international-drug-policies/. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  144. ^ Miller, Stephanie (April 7, 2009). "A Regional Strategy for Drug Wars in the Americas". Center for American Progress. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/ideas/2009/04/040709.html. Retrieved 2009-04-13. 

External links








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message