Mexico – United States relations: Wikis

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Mexico-United States relations
United States   Mexico
Map indicating location of USA and Mexico
     United States      Mexico

The United Mexican States and the United States of America share a maritime and land border in North America. Several treaties have been concluded between the two nations bilaterally, such as the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement. They are both members of various international organizations, such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations.

Contents

Country comparison

Mexico United Mexican States United States United States of America
Population 111,211,789 308,195,000
Area 1,972,550 km2 (761,606 sq mi) 9,826,630 km2 (3,794,066 sq mi)
Population Density 55/km2 (142/sq mi) 31/km2 (80/sq mi)
Capital Mexico City Washington, D.C.
Largest City Mexico City – 8,836,045 (19,028,000 Metro) New York City – 8,363,710 (19,006,798 Metro)
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic Federal presidential constitutional republic
Official languages Spanish (de facto) English (de facto)
Main religions 76.5% Roman Catholic, 13.8% unspecified, 6% Protestant, 3.1% non-Religious, 0.3% other [1] 75% Christianity, 20% non-Religious, 2% Judaism, 1% Buddhism, 1% Islam
Ethnic groups 60-65% Amerindian-European (mestizo), 17-30% Indian, 9-16% Caucasian, 1% other [2][3] 74% White American, 14.8% Hispanic and Latino Americans (of any race),
13.4% African American, 6.5% Some other race, 4.4% Asian American,
2.0% Two or more races, 0.68% American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.14% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
GDP (nominal) US$1.143 trillion ($10,235 per capita) US$14.441 trillion ($47,440 per capita)
Military expenditures $6.07 billion (FY 2006) $663.7 billion (FY 2010) [4]

History

The United States shares a unique and often complex relationship with the United Mexican States. With shared history stemming back to the Texas Revolution (1835-1836) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), several treaties have been concluded between the two nations, most notably the Gadsden Purchase, and multilaterally with Canada, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico and the United States are members of various international organizations, such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Illegal immigration, arms sales, and drug smuggling continue to be contending issues in 21st-century Mexican-American relations.

Economics

In 1985 the world’s total number of sovereign states had reached 180; by the year 1994, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the number had grown to 220. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) represents the latest attempt to tear down barriers to capital mobility even as territorial demarcations were tightened for workers. The purpose of NAFTA was not merely to facilitate trade and open markets but to expand opportunities for capital investment. The treaty did not pay attention to worker mobility, in striking contrast to the EU, which made labor central to the broader process of market integration. The consolidation of European markets was effected by multilateral polices designed to harmonize social policies, equalize economic infrastructures, and guarantee worker rights and mobility within the trade zone. In contrast, NAFTA omitted these provisions and its American backers instead insisted on the unilateral right to prevent Mexican workers from migrating through restrictive border policies. Hopefully one day we can see a better future with mexico and stop the drug smuggling into the us. Drug smuggling is a very bad crime and also kills more people( gang fights over drugs and the health issues due to drug use). Mexico is a great country and as is the US but if we as one can over come the drug issue mexico as well as canada will be our strongest allies..

Globalization

Globalization is the increasing interconnectedness of people and places as a result of advances in transport, communication, and information technologies that causes political, economical, and cultural convergence. Latin America has emerged from the economic doldrums of the 1970s and 1980s to become a commercial power of its own right in the 1990s. Seeds were planted in the 1980s with the movements towards democracy and free market economies. Mexico has become a member of NAFTA, Mercosur, born in 1988, achieved full internal free trade among member-states Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay by its 1994 deadline.

Positive

The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings.

In contrast to the accepted wisdom of the 1970s and 1980s international firms in the 1990s see Latin America as a springboard into America. Companies such as Honda and Mercedes have built new plants or upgraded existing ones in Mexico to reap the advantages of the free trade that the NAFTA agreement promised. The surge of consumption south of the American border has also sparked the interest of both American and international retailers. After an extensive study of Mexican consumers in its 22 stores on the U.S.-Mexico border, J.C. Penney announced plans to open 20 stores in Mexico and Chile, where the Home Depot briefly had 12 stores in the early 2000s. Wal-Mart followed its initial push into Mexico, Canada and Puerto Rico with aggressive moves into Brazil, Chile and Argentina. Corona is the number one imported beer in America by volume with a 29% share of the beer market.[5]

Negative

While it can be argued that the effects of economic liberalization over three decades have been largely positive, concerns are rising in capitals throughout the world that accelerating change is carrying an increasingly high price in terms of unemployment, social dislocation, income disparities, the exploitation of workers and environmental degradation. This can be seen specifically in cases of the maquiladora factories on the U.S.-Mexico border. Cases of exploitative labor, low wages, long hours, and sexual misconduct are evident.

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Controversies

The increased cooperation of US-Mexico relations in terms of economic dependency of the two countries on each other, could spell trouble for the region. Illegal immigration is a hotly debated issue, particularly in the American states bordering Mexico where there are a large number of illegal border crossings in America. The Mexico – United States barrier is a divisive issue in both countries as is the stationing of national guards along the border. Anti-globalization activists oppose closer ties with Mexico which they feel will create more illegal immigration.

Maquiladoras

A Maquiladora or Maquila is a factory that imports materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then re-exports the assembled product; usually back to the originating country. "Maquiladora" is primarily used to refer to factories in Mexican towns along the United States–Mexico border, but increasingly is used to refer to factories all over Latin America. Maquiladora factories encompass a variety of industries including electronics, transportation, textile, and machinery, among others. Maquiladoras may be 100% foreign-owned (usually by American companies) in most countries. The use of Maquiladoras is an example of off shoring. Other countries such as Japan, Germany, and Korea have Maquiladoras as well; the majorities of them are located in Mexico and are associated with American companies.

The Maquiladora factories along the border can be looked at as a “new factory regime.” This new regime was put in place after NAFTA was organized. The most prominent city in regards to Maquiladora factories is Ciudad Juárez, on the border of Mexico and United States.

Cheaper production of materials for America and Canada has led to exploitation. Factories in Ontario are often threatened or even shut down by increased competition from factories located in Mexico. Parts made by workers in Mexico are identical to those made in Canada; however the Mexican worker is paid less.

Gallery

Diplomatic missions

Of Mexico
Of United States

Common memberships

See also

References

Further reading

  • Arbelaez, Harvey; Milman, Claudio (2007), "The New Business Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean", International Journal of Public Administration: 553  .
  • Dunn, Christopher; Brewer, Benjamin; Yukio, Kawano (2000), "Trade Globalization since 1795: Waves of Integration in the World-System", American Sociological Review 65: 77–95  .
  • Gereffi, Gary; Hempel, Lynn (1996), "Latin America in the Global Economy: Running Faster to Stay in Place", Report on the Americas, http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/40/097.html, retrieved 2008-04-29  .
  • Hill, John; D'souza, Giles (1998), "Tapping the Emerging Americas Market", Journal of Business Strategy  .
  • Kelly, Patricia; Massey, Douglas (2007), "Borders for Whom? The Role of NAFTA in Mexico-U.S. Migration", The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political Science 610: 98–118  .
  • Mumme, Stephen (2007), "Trade Integration, Neoliberal Reform and Environmental Protection in Mexico: Lessons for the Americas", Latin American Perspectives 34: 91–107  .

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