Mexico state: Wikis


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Estado Libre y Soberano de México
Free and Sovereign State
of Mexico
—  State  —


Coat of arms
Motto: "Estado de México Avanza" ("State of Mexico Goes Forward")
Location within Mexico
Demonym Mexiquense
Capital Toluca
Municipalities 125
Largest City Ecatepec
Admission December 20, 1823[1]
Order 1st
 - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)
 - Federal Deputies PRI: 7
PAN: 11
PRD: 20
Convergencia: 2
 - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD)
Héctor Bautista (PRD)
Ulises Ramírez (PAN)
Ranked 25th
 - Total 21,355 km2 (8,245.2 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 - Total 14,007,495(Ranked 1st)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
HDI (2004) 0.7789 - medium
Ranked 18th
ISO 3166-2 MX-MEX
Postal abbr. Méx.
Website State of Mexico Government

Mexico State or State of Mexico (often abbreviated to "Edomex", from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the center of the country of Mexico. The state's capital is the city of Toluca.

The Pre-Columbian ruins of the city of Teotihuacan are located in the State of Mexico.



The State of Mexico is located in the central part of the Mexican Republic between 18’ 21’ 29’’ and 20’ 17’ 20’’ north, and 98’35’50’’ and 100’36’3" west, with an altitude that varies from 1,330 meters above sea level to 2,800. The state has a surface of 22,499.95 km2 (8,687.28 sq mi), which represents 1.1% of Mexican territory.[2]


Political geography


Mexico State is bounded to the north by Hidalgo and Querétaro, to the east by Tlaxcala and Puebla, to the south by Morelos and Guerrero, and to the west by Michoacán. It surrounds to the east, north and west of the Mexican Federal District and capital Mexico City and has an area of 1,479 km2 (571 sq mi), which is not in the state of Mexico, but borders it to the west, north and east of the District.[3]

Political division

It consists of 121 municipalities, grouped into 8 counties:[4]

  • Atlacomulco, which has 9 municipalities.
  • Coatepec Harinas, which has 12 municipalities.
  • Jilotepec, which has 7 municipalities.
  • Tejupilco, which has 5 municipalities.
  • Texcoco, which has 25 municipalities.
  • Toluca, which has 24 municipalities.
  • Valle de Bravo, which has 9 municipalities.
  • Zumpango, which has 30 municipalities.[2]

Natural geography


Its total surface is 22,499.8 square kilometres (8,687.2 sq mi). It is used for agriculture, forest and livestock. 14% of the territory is urban, water and industrial zones.[5]


The state is characterized by large plains divided by mountain ranges. To the north is a dry region called "Los Llanos", with vegetation such as mezquites and paddle cactus. In this region there are oak trees and holm oak like in Cuzdha and El Rosal in the municipality of San Miguel Calpulalpan. Toluca and Lerma are in the central valleys, where industrial parks are the source of income. In the surrounding hills, the vegetation consists of pines and oaks. There are white cedars at the National Park of Bancheves. Ocotes, that are aromatic resins, are very common in El Oro, a municipality located in the north-east part of the state. In the central valley are industries and cultivated lands. In the lower, warm elevations to the south, the vegetation is tropical. Here are found guajes (fruits of climber), papelillos (trees whose crust is withdrawed by itself), acacias, palo de Brasil (red tree), guacima (small tree with rounded crown) and amate(tree whose bark is used to paint or write).[6]

Mountains and valleys

The state is divided into two unequal parts: the cross-sectional volcanic axis, which is formed by peaks, the Mountain Range of Querétaro and Hidalgo, and the Sierra Madre del Sur, which is formed by the depression of the Balsas River, in addition to valleys which begin in Guerrero. Inside this system are included the Sierra de Ajusco and Montes de las Cruces, which form a wooded ridge across it from east to west, with a general elevation of about 3000 meters above sea-level. These ranges are part of a broken irregular chain which sometimes bears the name of Anahuac.[2]

The most important summits are the "Sierra Nevada", the "Sierra de las Cruces", "Nevado de Toluca" and the significant valleys are Toluca-Lerma and Cuautitlán- Texcoco.[5]

Lakes and rivers

A considerable part of the northern plateau consists of a broad plain, once the bed of a great lake but now covered with swamps, sodden meadows and lakes. The surrounding country drains into this depression, but an artificial diversion of this water has been created by the opening of the Tequixquiac tunnel. The plateau drains westward to the Pacific Ocean via the Lerma River which has a surface of 6,147.49 km2 (2,373.56 sq mi), and north-east to the Gulf of South of the Sierra de Ajusco. The state is roughly mountainous and drains to the Pacific through tributaries of the Balsas River that has 8,372.14 km2 (3,232.50 sq mi). It drains to the Gulf of Mexico through the San Juan and Panuco river that has a surface of 7,980.3 km2 (3,081.2 sq mi).[6]

Within the depression of the north are the lakes of Zumpango, San Cristobal, Xaltocan, Chalco, Xochimilco and Texcoco, the latter three lying partly or wholly in the Federal District.


The most common climates in Mexico State are tempering-humid and tempering sub-humid. 60% of the State has these type of climates. In the highest mountains, the weather is cold.

The annual average temperature in the south-east is about 20 °C (68 °F), and in the north is about 13 °C (55 °F). The annual rainfall is between 600 and 1800 mm.[6] The weather can variate a lot from one season to another. In the summer, it is very warm but during winter, the temperature can be lower than 0 °C (32 °F). It can snow in Mexico.



In the Pre-Hispanic period codices were very important. There were several Aztec codices about history, religion, tributes administration, cartography (maps) from the 16th century. The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to symbolize spoken or written narratives.[7] The colonial era codices not only contain Aztec pictographs, but also Classical Nahuatl (in the Latin alphabet), Spanish, and occasionally Latin. Examples of these Aztec codices include:as Tlacotepec, Xilotepec codex, Tezcoco-Acampan codex.

Mexico State is part of a cultural area called Valle de México or Valley of Mexico, characterized by homogeneous cultural elements despite the presence of multiple linguistic groups.[8]

Different ethnic groups including the Otomi, Mazahua, Matlatzinca and Chichimeca have made the State of Mexico their home.

At the end of the classic period the region was dominated by the Tepanecas who live in the Azcapotzalco region, the otomies that create the kingdom of Xaltocan, the acolhuas that live in Coatlichan and a new tribe call the Mexicas who end being the dominant power of the region. (The mexicas was original name it Aztecs that means people form Aztlan, the mythical city in the north from who in their tradition they begin his journey, as they travel to the south they change their name to mexicas or mexitin, see Aztecs).

With the dead of Tezozomoc from Azcapotzalco his son Maxtla, king of Coyoacán, assume the power of the region. Maxtla try to submit the mexicas into his direct control. The mexicas forge an alliance with the tetzcocanos, another group submitted by Tezozomoc. Their combine forces defeated the tepanecas. [9]

Some of the more important emperors settled in the Valley of Mexico were Tezozomoc, Tlalmanalco, Opochihuacan and Xaltocan.

Colonial period

The first incursions of Spaniards to the State of Mexico were led by Andrés de Tapia who destroyed the population of Malinalco in 1521. Later, Gonzálo de Sandoval arrived in Toluca Valley and defeated the Matlazincas who were allied with the Aztecs. After the fall of the Aztec empire, some mazahuas were taken to rebuild Mexico City. Evangelization began in 1523 in Texcoco by Brother Pedro de Gante, who funded the Padua School. In 1524, the first religious order formed by the Franciscans came.[10 ]

When Hernán Cortés arrived, the conditions of the political situation were on his side. The heirs of the Texcoco crown were having a conflict. Cortés took advantage of and conquered what is now the State of Mexico. The Colonial period was when the original inhabitants formed a new world. They established new values, structures and created what now is known as the State of Mexico. This period began with the creation of small villages, territory delimitation, and the most important characteristic: the establishment of the original authority. Since this period, religion has been a very important of Mexican culture. The influence of the Dominicans and Augustinians was as important as that of the Franciscans" left. Education was well organized until "Jesus Company" arrived. In the 17th century, the native communities’ culture started to fall apart.[10 ]

In 1799, the town of Toluca was declared a city by Carlos IV.

In this period Mexico State was too big (107,619 square kilometers). The "Congreso de la Union" decided to take Querétaro, D.F., Guerrero, Tlalpan, Hidalgo, Morelos and Calpulalpan( Total: 86,466 square kilometers) from it. Also the capital D.F. was taken because the "Congreso de la Union" said that the capital must not be part of one state.

Independence of Mexico (1810-1821)

At the beginning of the independence movement in 1810, Miguel Hidalgo visited Mexico City. On his way there, he passed through many towns of Toluca, gathering supporters among the people of Toluca. On October 24, 1810, Hidalgo fought against Agustin de Iturbide and won. On October 28, Hidalgo entered Toluca with his army and put the army of Torcuato Trujillo to flight.[10 ]

In this period, State of Mexico's population increased considerably; to around 12 million inhabitants, and became the state with the largest population.

During this period the State suffered a big transformation of the economic activities. The first type of industrial investment was done during this period. The State of Mexico with a stock-breeder history, transformed itself into an industrial economic Mexican place.[8] The manufactory industry became the major economic activity and the reason of an economic progress for the state.[10 ] Two cities from the state of Mexico, Lerma and Toluca, became the centers of many important industrial activities, not only for the state, but also for the country.

Due to the industrialization the State of Mexico's economic transformation during this period produced a dual society; an urban one and a rural one. The urban society was known as the rich group from the state, which considerably had the highest incomes of the country in comparison to other urban groups from other states. The rural society is characterized of being a population where the presence of poverty is really marked.

One of this period's consequences is the partition of land. Mexico State gained from the 50's land partition, after the Mexican Revolution, about 8,000 km2 (3,100 sq mi). In spite of new land for the state, it did not help to decrease the poverty rate.


In the 2005 census, the state had a population of about 14,007,495 people. (The population in 1900 was 934,468-largely Native American.) The majority of the present-day population in the state is located within the Greater Mexico City metropolitan area surrounding the Distrito Federal. The state's population is rapidly increasing due to urbanization. Mexico State is the most populous state in The Mexican Republic.[11] CONAPO has projected the population to be 14,837,000 in 2009.[12]

Migration is one of the most important problems in the society. The State of Mexico has a very high level of migration to The United States, making up about 75.7% of the total Mexican population that migrates. The three places with the highest population densities in Mexico are: Mexico City (5799 hab/km²), State of Mexico (586 hab/km²) and Morelos (318 hab/km²).[11]

The most significant indigenous groups in the State of Mexico are Mazahuas, Otomis and Nahuatls. Approximately 1.6% of the entire population is composed of these cultural groups. Other cultures that can be found in the state include Mixtecos, Zapotecos, Mazatecos, Totonacas and Mixes. 2.2% of Mexico's native population is distributed among the entire state.[11]

According to the data from the 2005 census, the rate of growth in the State of Mexico is 1.2%. In contrast with past decades, this means that the population growth in the state has decreased considerably, although the state is one of the most populated entities. This is a consequence of the states that are near by the region, as a lot of people migrate to Mexico City because of work and end up living in Mexico.[11]


The Principal Productive Activities are manufacturing, construction, commercial activities, restaurants and hotels, financial and non-financial services. Mexico State is a leader in metal products, food, clothes, and chemical products industry. There are eleven industrial parks and its Gross Internal Product is 49,463,122.23 USD. (2001)[13]

Outside of the urban areas, the principal industries of the state are agricultural, and principal products are cereals, sugar, maguey (from which pulque is made), coffee and fruit. Stock-raising has also had a profitable development, owing to the proximity of the national capital. The manufacturing industries produces useful items for community such as cotton and woollen fabrics, flour, dairy products, glass-ware, pottery, bricks, wines and spirits. To contrast, in 1900, the making of pulque from the sap of the maguey plant (Agave americana) was the chief industry of the state, and the product is exported in large quantities to the national capital. Also, the state was traversed by the Central, National, Mexican International and Interoceanic railways, and by short lines from the national capital to neighbouring towns.

Some of the most principal companies in Mexico State are Alpura, Bacardi y CIA., Bic, Bimbo, BMW, Central de Abastos, Comercial Mexicana, Daimler Chrysler, Holiday Inn, Jugos Del Valle, Nestlé, Nextel, Panasonic, Robert Bosch, Telemark and Yakult.[13]

Today, the auto industry is a major industry in the state, and for most people is considered the key activity for the Mexican economy.


Mexico State has a number of tourist attractions. Visitors have the opportunity to enjoy the most variable landscapes, warm climate; fertile and green valleys; lakes, forest and Great Mountains. The most notable tourist sites are Valle de Bravo and Ixtapan de la Sal.

Other tourist attractions are the pre-Hispanic monuments of Teotihuacan, a civic and religious center. Malinalco with its archeological zone carved over the mountain rocks and the archeological zone of Teotenango "El lugar de la muralla sagrada" (The place of the sacred wall).[4] See also "Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve"

Valle de Bravo

This place was originally named Temascaltepec and San Francisco del Valle de Temascaltepec later. The peculiar urban physiognomy of this place is given by typical houses of white walls with "guardapolvos" of rust color, wide rooftops and portals and balconies. The sloping streets and cobblestone alleys, reach "Plaza Principal" or beautiful neighborhoods like "Santa Maria" and "El Santuario". Art production in Valle de Bravo is based on ceramic and fabric. Valle de Bravo since four decades has become one of the most important tourist places in Mexico. In Valle de Bravo, one can practice golf, equitation, tennis, paragliding and hang-gliding, waterskiing and fishing.[4]

Ixtapan de la Sal

Ixtapan de la Sal is located 66 km from Toluca and 120 km from Mexico City. Its original name means "over the salt" and it is 1,900 meters above sea level. Its principal attractions are thermal springs and water parks with indoor pools and other services like private pools and spa. The Church of El señor del Perdón (Lord of Forgiveness) has kept its original facade from the 16th century. 16 km away are located the Grutas de la Estrella (Caves of the Star).[4]

Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve

The Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve is located mostly in the eastern part of the state of Michoacán with some being in the western part of the State of Mexico in the central Mexican highlands. The Reserve was created to protect the wintering habitat of the monarch butterfly and contains over 56,000 hectares of land.

Government and politics

The Constitution of the State of Mexico provides that the government of the State of Mexico, like the government of every other state in Mexico, consists of three powers: the executive, the legislative and the judiciary.

Executive power rests in the Governor of Mexico State, who is directly elected by the citizens, using a secret ballot, to a 6-year term with no possibility of reelection. Legislative power rests in the Congress of the State of Mexico which is a unicameral legislature. Judicial power is invested in the Superior Court of Justice of the State of Mexico.


Mexico State is divided into 125 municipalities (counties), each headed by a municipal president (mayor). Most municipalities are named after the city that serves as municipal seat; e.g. the municipal seat of the Municipality of Nezahualcóyotl is the City of Nezahualcóyotl (aka Ciudad Neza). Typically, the city contains the majority of the population within the municipality.

Major communities


  1. ^ La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano -
  2. ^ a b c Gobierno del Estado de México (1994) (in Spanish). Perfil socioeconómico del Estado de México. México: Gobierno del Estado de México. ISBN 27279.  
  3. ^ Salgado, J. (1993) (in Spanish). Estado de México: Evolución socioeconomica. México: UAEM. ISBN 058318.  
  4. ^ a b c d INEGI, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (2001). Estado de México/Guía Turística Estatal. México: INEGI. ISBN 970-13-3559-7.  
  5. ^ a b Conapo (1999) (in Spanish). Situación demográfica del Estado de México. México: Consejo Nacional de Población. ISBN 26645.  
  6. ^ a b c Enciclopedia Universal de México (2001) (in Spanish). Enciclopedia Universal de México. México: EuroMexico.  
  7. ^ Elizabeth Hill Boone, "Pictorial Documents and Visual Thinking in Postconquest Mexico", p. 158.
  8. ^ a b El Colegio Mexiquense, A.C. (1998). Historia General del Estado de México. México: Corporación Editorial Mac.. ISBN 970-669-002-6.  
  9. ^ Obra preparada por el Centro de Estudios Históricos (2006). Historia general de México versión 2000. México: El Colegio de México, A.C.. ISBN 968-12-0969-9.  
  10. ^ a b c d Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. (2001). Estado de México Guía Turística. México. ISBN 9701335597.  
  11. ^ a b c d INEGI. "Estadísticas sociodemográficas" (in Spanish). Retrieved October 4, 2007.  
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ a b Estructura socioeconómica de México (2004). México: Editorial Limusa. ISBN 9681854071.  

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

External links

Coordinates: 19°21′15″N 99°37′51″W / 19.35417°N 99.63083°W / 19.35417; -99.63083


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