Michael Collins (film): Wikis

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Michael Collins

Theatrical release poster
Directed by Neil Jordan
Produced by Stephen Woolley
Written by Neil Jordan
Starring Liam Neeson
Aidan Quinn
Stephen Rea
Alan Rickman
and
Julia Roberts
Music by Elliot Goldenthal
Cinematography Chris Menges
Editing by J. Patrick Duffner
Tony Lawson
Studio Geffen Pictures
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) October 11, 1996
Running time 133 minutes
Country United Kingdom
France
Ireland
Language English
Budget $25,000,000
Gross revenue $11,092,559

Michael Collins is a 1996 British/French/Irish historical biopic about General Michael Collins, the Irish patriot and revolutionary who died in the Irish Civil War.[1] It won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival.[2]

Contents

Plot

The film opens in 1922, as a devastated Kitty Kiernan (Julia Roberts) mourns the death of her fiance, Michael Collins. With Kitty refusing even to leave her bed, Joe O'Reilly attempts to console her with tales of Collins' love for his country.

The film flashes back to 1916. The Easter Rising ends tragically, and Collins (Liam Neeson), Harry Boland (Aidan Quinn), and Éamon de Valera (Alan Rickman) surrender to the British Army. Although all other signatories of the Declaration of an Irish Republic are court martialed and shot, de Valera is spared as an American citizen and imprisoned in Britain, with Collins and Boland sent with the others to Frongoch internment camp in Wales.

After their release, Collins runs as a member of the illegal First Dáil. While giving a campaign speech, the rally is attacked by the Royal Irish Constabulary. Collins is severely beaten, but is rescued by Boland. While recovering, they meet Kitty, who soon strikes up a romance with Boland. In the meantime, she and Collins remain friends.

In 1918, Collins is tipped off by Detective Ned Broy (Stephen Rea), a sympathiser in the Dublin Metropolitan Police, that the British plan to arrest de Valera and his Cabinet. However, de Valera forbids anyone to go into hiding, stating that the ensuing public outcry will force their immediate release. Everyone—except Collins and Boland—are arrested and imprisoned in England, and there are no protests in response.

In the aftermath, Collins orders the IRA to begin raiding the barracks of the R.I.C. and D.M.P. to supply themselves with guns. He also issues a statement that all collaboration with the British will be punished by death without trial. In order to carry out this threat, Collins orders Harry to recruit an assassination squad from the IRA's Dublin Brigade. Then, using information supplied by Broy, Collins declares war on British Intelligence and the "G" Division of the D.M.P.

On Bloody Sunday, Collins' squad assassinates several officers of the Cairo Gang. In retaliation, a combined force of Black and Tans and British Army regulars fire into the crowd at a Gaelic football match at Croke Park. Ned Broy is caught burning documents in a hotel and lynched.

Later, Boland and Collins travel to England and break de Valera out of prison. Enraged to realize that Collins has overshadowed him, de Valera announces that he will travel to the United States in order to raise funds and seek diplomatic recognition from Woodrow Wilson. Hoping to keep Collins in line, he also orders Boland to accompany him. However, this cripples Collins' ability to wage war against the British. Before they depart, Collins informs Boland that de Valera fears leaving them alone together, "We might achieve that Republic he wants to talk to the world about."

After returning without any tangible results, de Valera expresses his belief that the IRA must fight a conventional war by attacking The Custom House in Dublin so that in the coming peace talks the British press will have no more grounds to criticise Irish guerrilla "tactics." The attack fails catastrophically, leaving six men dead and seventy captured. In the aftermath, Collins declares to de Valera that the IRA can only hold out for a month. Privately, however, he admits to Boland that he lied—the IRA will be lucky to hold out for another week. To his shock, however, the British soon call for a ceasefire.

Despite insisting that he is not a statesman, Collins is ordered by de Valera to go to London as leader of the negotiating team. During his absence, Kitty informs a devastated Boland that she is in love with Collins.

After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, de Valera is angry that the terms have been published without his sanction. Equally enraged, Collins accuses de Valera of deliberately trying to discredit him by sending him to the negotiations in the first place. Collins reminds de Valera that when he went to London he represented the Dáil and the Irish people. Therefore, it is for the Dáil and the Irish people to either accept or reject the Treaty and that he intends to stand by their verdict. Although he asks de Valera to do the same, de Valera remains sullenly silent.

Despite de Valera's best efforts, the Dáil approves the Treaty by 64-57. In response, de Valera, Boland, and their supporters resign in protest. During a nation-wide plebiscite, Collins makes speeches in support of the Treaty. Meanwhile, de Valera rouses support against it and states that, "in order to preserve the Republic, the Volunteers will have to wade through Irish blood!" In a parallel to the beginning of the film, Collins is again attacked during a rally and is nearly machine gunned to death by an Anti-Treaty Republican. In the aftermath, Collins asks Kitty Kiernan to marry him, and she accepts.

In June 1922, the Irish people vote to approve the Treaty. However, the Anti-Treaty IRA refuses to accept the results and seizes the Four Courts. After the Irish Cabinet orders him to clear them out, Collins agonizes over the possibility of having to fight and kill his former comrades. Arthur Griffith, however, informs him that, if the Irish Army won't deal with the situation, Winston Churchill and the British Army will.

Soon after, in the Battle of Dublin, Anti-Treaty forces inside the Four Courts are attacked with artillery and driven from the city. Despite Collins' attempts to capture him alive, a wounded Harry Boland is fatally shot by a Free State sentry while trying to swim the Liffey.

Devastated by Harry's death, Collins travels home to County Cork. He reaches out to de Valera, asking for a peace conference. De Valera listens from a hiding place as Collins addresses an intermediary. "Tell him that he was always my Chief," declares Collins emotionally. "I would have followed him to Hell if he asked me, and maybe I did." He declares that Boland's death was enough. He adds that he is sorry he didn't bring back an Irish republic from the negotiations, but that nobody could have. He concludes by saying that that all Irishmen must join together to build a nation. Although moved to tears, de Valera departs without giving any message in response. Without de Valera's knowledge or sanction, the intermediary (Jonathan Rhys Meyers) informs Collins that de Valera will be waiting for him in a farmhouse near Béal na mBláth.

While traveling along an isolated country road, Collins jokes about inviting de Valera and the British Cabinet to attend his wedding to Kitty. Suddenly, Anti-Treaty IRA men ambush the convoy from a nearby hillside. As Collins runs for cover, he is shot in the head by the intermediary from the previous night. A devastated Kitty is informed of his death just after trying on her wedding gown.

Completing his story, O'Reilly explains to Kitty that Collins gave his life so that all Irishmen, no matter what their stance on the Treaty, might one day live together in peace. He also tells her that Collins wouldn't want her to mourn as long as she has. Although deeply moved, Kitty says, "He would have said it better, Joe."

The film ends with a montage of actual footage from Michael Collins' funeral, accompanied by a eulogy commenting on the ironic fact that, although a career soldier, Collins died in a failed effort to remove the gun from Irish politics. A quote taken from a 1966 speech by Eamon de Valera is then superimposed:

It is my considered opinion that in the fullness of time, history will record the greatness of Michael Collins, and it shall be forever recorded at my expense.

Cast

Production

Michael Cimino wrote a script and was involved in pre-production work on a possible Collins film for over a year in the early 1990s with Gabriel Byrne attached to star. Cimino was fired over budget concerns. Neil Jordan mentions in his film diary that Kevin Costner had also been interested in developing a movie about Collins and had visited Béal na mBláth and the surrounding areas.[3]

The film was scripted and directed by Neil Jordan. The soundtrack was written by Elliot Goldenthal. The film was an international co-production between companies in Ireland and the United States.[4] With a budget estimated at $25 million, with 10%-12% from the Irish Film Board, it was one of the most expensive films ever produced in Ireland.[5] While filming, the breakdown of the IRA ceasefire caused the film's release to be delayed from June to December which caused Warner Bros. executive Rob Friedman to pressure the director to reshoot the ending to focus on the love story between Collins and Kiernan, in an attempt to downplay the breakdown of Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations.[5]

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Casting

A number of Irish actors auditioned for the part of de Valera but Jordan felt they weren't able to find a real character and were playing a stereotype of de Valera. Jordan met with John Turturro about the role before casting Alan Rickman. Jordan initially envisioned Stephen Rea playing Harry Boland, but then decided the role of Broy would give Rea more of a challenge. Matt Dillon and Adam Baldwin also auditioned for the role.[3]

Historical alterations

Although based on historical events, the film does contain some alterations and fictionalizations:

  • In the scene in which Dáil Éireann is meeting in secret, Collins is referred to as the Minister for Intelligence. In fact, he was the Dáil Minister for Finance and the Director of Intelligence for the IRA; the roles had no formal link, and neither position had control over the other.
  • Harry Boland did not die in the manner suggested by the film. He was shot in a skirmish with Irish Free State soldiers in The Grand Hotel, Skerries, North Co. Dublin during the Battle of Dublin. The hotel has since been demolished but a plaque was put where the building used to be. His last words in the film - "Have they got Mick Collins yet?" - are however, based on a well-known tradition.[6]
  • In the film, Collins heads the delegation to London that negotiates the Anglo-Irish Treaty; in reality, it was led by Arthur Griffith, with Collins as his deputy.
  • The character of Edward "Ned" Broy of the Dublin Metropolitan Police is a composite of many different police officers. The real Broy was a member of G Division, an intelligence branch of the Dublin Metropolitan Police, based not in Dublin Castle but in Marlborough Street. Michael Collins' main agent in Dublin Castle was David Neligan. Like Broy, he also survived the conflict and later headed the Irish Special Branch. In the film the Broy character is killed during Bloody Sunday.
  • In the film Collins is told that Frank Thornton was shot in West Cork, a week before his own trip to Cork. Thornton however was wounded in an ambush outside Clonmel, County Tipperary, a day before Collins himself was killed.
  • The film is ambiguous in the scene involving Collins's assassination, only showing the assassin asking de Valera if he has a message for Collins. It then cuts to the assassin returning to meet Collins and telling him where de Valera will meet him the next day. Neil Jordan denies on the DVD documentary that it was his intention to portray De Valera having anything to do with Collins' murder.
  • Joe O'Reilly was Collins bodyguard but was not present at Collins death.
  • In the scene depicting the events of Bloody Sunday, an armoured car drives onto the pitch at Croke Park and mows down GAA player Michael Hogan with its machine gun before firing into the crowd. In real life the armoured car remained outside the gates of Croke Park as it would not fit through the archway and it only fired warning shots in the air over the crowd fleeing from the initial shooting by a mixed group of Royal Irish Constabulary, Dublin Metropolitan Police, and Auxiliary Division officers, who were responsible for the twelve fatalities and numerous casualties in the grounds. On the DVD commentary, Neil Jordan said he could not figure out a way of showing the reality of the event without making the British Army look like "bad guys".
  • The film depicts a carload of hardline northern unionist detectives sent to "deal" with Collins and the IRA being blown up in Dublin Castle. In fact, no killings of police took place in Dublin Castle and car-bombs were largely unknown at the time. Some commentators have contended that the filmmakers were trying to draw a connection between the Irish War of Independence and the later Troubles, when car-bombs were common. Neil Jordan has also denied this.
  • In the movie, the surrender at the end of the Easter Rising appears to take place outside the General Post Office, whereas it actually took place on Moore Street.
  • Collins says "I would have followed him through hell..." in reference to de Valera; in reality, he was referring to James Connolly, comparing him to Pádraig Pearse:
"Of Pearse and Connolly I admire the latter most. Connolly was a realist, Pearse the direct opposite ... I would have followed him [Connolly] through hell had such action been necessary. But I honestly doubt very much if I would have followed Pearse — not without some thought anyway."[7]
  • A statement in the film that the Irish Free State was formed at the beginning of 1922, following the Dáil's approval of the Treaty, even though the Irish Free State did not officially come into being until December 1922.

Neil Jordan defended his film by saying that it could not provide an entirely accurate account of events, given that it was a two-hour film that had to be understandable to an international audience who would not know the minutiae of Irish history.[8] The documentary on the DVD release of the film also discusses its fictional aspects.

Soundtrack

The score was written by acclaimed composer Elliot Goldenthal, and features performances by Sinéad O'Connor. Frank Patterson also performs with the Cafe Orchestra in the film and on the album.

Ratings

The Irish Film Censor initially intended to give the film an over-15 Certificate, but later decided that it should be released with a PG certificate because of its historical importance. The censor issued a press statement defending his decision, claiming the film was a landmark in Irish cinema and that "because of the subject matter, parents should have the option of making their own decision as to whether their children should see the film or not".[4] The video release was, however, given a 12 certificate.

Reception

The film became the top grossing film ever in Ireland upon its release, making IR£ 4 million. In 2000, it was second only to Titanic in this category.[4] It received generally positive reviews, but was mildly criticized for some historical inaccuracies.[9]

References

  1. ^ The Irish Filmography 1896-1996; Red Mountain Press; 1996. Page 80
  2. ^ The awards of the Venice Film Festival
  3. ^ a b Neil Jordan, Michael Collins, Plume Press, 1996
  4. ^ a b c Between Irish National Cinema and Hollywood: Neil Jordan’s Michael Collins
  5. ^ a b Goldstone, Patricia. Making the world safe for tourism, Yale University Press, 2001. p. 139
  6. ^ Fitzpatrick, David. Harry Boland's Irish Revolution, Cork University Press. p. 8.
  7. ^ Collins to Kevin O'Brien, Frongoch, 6 October 1916, quoted in Tim Pat Coogan, Michael Collins, Hutchinson, 1990.
  8. ^ "Michael Collins", The South Bank Show, 27 October 1996.
  9. ^ Flynn, Roderick and Patrick Brereton. "Michael Collins", Historical Dictionary of Irish Cinema, Scarecrow Press, 2007. Page 252.

External links


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