Michael of Romania: Wikis

  
  

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Michael
King of the Romanians
Reign 20 July 1927 – 8 June 1930
(&0000000000000002.0000002 years, &0000000000000323.000000323 days)
Predecessor Ferdinand I
Successor Carol II
King of the Romanians
Reign 6 September 1940 – 30 December 1947
(&0000000000000007.0000007 years, &0000000000000105.000000105 days)
Coronation 6 September 1940
Predecessor Carol II
King of the Romanians
Pretendence 30 December 1947 – present
(&0000000000000062.00000062 years, &0000000000000075.00000075 days)
Spouse Anne of Bourbon-Parma
Issue
Princess Margarita
Princess Elena
Princess Irina
Princess Sofia
Princess Marie
House House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Father Carol II of Romania
Mother Elena of Greece and Denmark
Born 25 October 1921 (1921-10-25) (age 88)
Sinaia, Romania

Michael (born 25 October 1921) reigned as King of the Romanians (Romanian: Maiestatea Sa Mihai I Regele Românilor, literally "His Majesty Michael I King of the Romanians") from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930, and again from 6 September 1940, until forced to abdicate by the communists backed up by orders of Stalin to the Soviet armies of occupation on 30 December 1947. He is also a Prince of Hohenzollern [1][2][3].

A great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria by both of his parents and a third cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, he is one of the last surviving heads of state from World War II,[4][5][6][7] the others being Simeon II of Bulgaria [8] and former King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia.

Contents

Early life

Michael was born in the Foişor Castle or Peleş Castle, Sinaia, Romania, the son of Carol II of Romania (then-Crown Prince of Romania) and Princess Elena of Greece. He was born as the grandson of the then-reigning King Ferdinand of Romania. When Carol II eloped with his mistress Elena "Magda" Lupescu and renounced 'temporarily' his rights to the throne in December 1925, Michael was declared the heir apparent. He succeeded to the throne upon Ferdinand's death in July 1927. In August 1927 he appeared on the cover of Time magazine: he is the longest-surviving person to have appeared on the magazine's cover.[citation needed]

Rule

1930s and the Antonescu era

A Regency, which included his uncle, Prince Nicolae, Patriarch Miron Cristea, and the country's Chief Justice (Gheorghe Buzdugan, from October 1929 on Constantin Sărăţeanu) functioned on behalf of the 5-year-old Michael during the 1927–1930 period.[9] In 1930, Carol II returned to the country at the invitation of politicians dissatisfied with the Regency, and was proclaimed king by the Parliament, designating Michael as Crown Prince with the title "Grand Voievod of Alba-Iulia". In November 1939, Michael joined the Romanian Senate, as the 1938 Constitution guaranteed him a seat there upon reaching the age of eighteen.[10] In September 1940, the pro-German anti-Bolshevik régime of Prime Minister Marshal Ion Antonescu staged a coup d'état against Carol II, whom the Marshal claimed to be 'anti-German'. Antonescu suspended the Constitution, dissolved the Parliament, and re-installed the 18-year-old Michael as King by popular acclaim. (Although the Constitution was restored in 1944 and the Romanian Parliament in 1946, Michael did not either subsequently take a formal oath or have his reign approved retroactively by Parliament.) Michael was crowned[11] with the Steel Crown and anointed King of Romania by the Orthodox Patriarch of Romania, Nicodim Munteanu, in the Patriarchal Cathedral of Bucharest, on the day of his accession, 6 September 1940.[12] Although King Michael was formally the Supreme Head of the Army and entitled to appoint the Prime Minister with full powers named 'Leader of the people' = "Conducător", in reality he was forced to remain only a figurehead until August 1944.[13]

The young King Michael of Romania.

Turning against Nazi Germany

In 1944, World War II was going badly for the Axis powers, but the military dictator Prime Minister Marshal Ion Antonescu was still in control of Romania. As of August 1944, the Soviet conquest of Romania had become inevitable, being expected in a few months according to Encyclopedia Britannica.[14] On 23 August 1944, Michael joined the pro-Allied politicians, a number of army officers, and armed communist-led civilians[15] in staging a coup against Antonescu, whereas it was recognized in the late 1970s that King Michael ordered his arrest by the Royal Palace Guard. On the same night, the new Prime Minister, Lt. General Constantin Sănătescu—who was appointed by King Michael—gave custody of Antonescu to the communists (in spite of alleged instructions to the contrary by the King), who delivered him to the Soviets on 1 September.[16][17] In a radio broadcast to the Romanian nation and army, Michael issued a cease-fire just as the Red Army was penetrating the Moldavian front,[15] proclaimed Romania's loyalty to the Allies, announced the acceptance of the armistice offered by Great Britain, the United States, and the USSR, and declared war on Germany.[18] However, this did not avert a rapid Soviet occupation and capture of about 130,000 Romanian soldiers, who were transported to the Soviet Union where many perished in prison camps.[15] Although the country's alliance with the Nazis was ended, the coup sped the Red Army's advance into Romania.[15] The armistice was signed three weeks later on 12 September 1944, on terms the Soviets virtually dictated.[15] Under the terms of the armistice, Romania recognized its defeat by the USSR and was placed under occupation of the Allied forces with the Soviets, as their representative, in control of media, communication, post, and civil administration behind the front. The coup effectively amounted to a "capitulation",[19] an "unconditional"[20] "surrender"[14][15]. It has been suggested that the coup may have shortened World War II by six months, thus saving hundreds of thousands of lives.[21]

King Michael was the last monarch behind the Iron Curtain to lose his throne. At the end of the war, King Michael was awarded the highest degree (Chief Commander) of the Legion of Merit by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. He was also decorated with the Soviet Order of Victory by Joseph Stalin "for the courageous act of the radical change in Romania's politics towards a break-up from Hitler's Germany and an alliance with the United Nations, at the moment when there was no clear sign yet of Germany's defeat," according to the official description of the decoration. He is the only surviving recipient as of 2009.[22]

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Romania (1881-1947)

*titled accordingly in new family rules

The reign under communism

In March 1945, political pressures forced King Michael to appoint a pro-Soviet government dominated by the Romanian Communist Party. Under the communist régime King Michael functioned again as little more than a figurehead. Between August 1945 and January 1946, during what was later known as the "royal strike," King Michael tried unsuccessfully to oppose the first communist government led by the communist Prime Minister Petru Groza, by refusing to sign its decrees. In response to Soviet, British, and American pressures,[23] King Michael eventually gave up his opposition to the communist government and stopped demanding its resignation.

He did not pardon former Marshal Antonescu, who was sentenced to death "for betrayal of the Romanian people for the benefit of Nazi Germany, for the economic and political subjugation of Romania to Germany, for cooperation with the Iron Guard, for murdering his political opponents, for the mass murder of civilians and crimes against peace". Nor did King Michael manage to save such leaders of the opposition as Iuliu Maniu and the Bratianus,[24] victims of communist political trials, as the Constitution prevented him from doing so without the counter-signature of communist Justice Minister Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu (who was, himself, later eliminated by Gheorghiu-Dej's opposing communist faction). The memoirs of King Michael's aunt Princess Ileana[25] quote Emil Bodnăraş—her alleged lover,[26] Romania's communist minister of defense, and a Soviet spy[27]—as saying: "Well, if the King decides not to sign the death warrant, I promise that we will uphold his point of view." Princess Ileana was skeptical: "You know quite well (...) that the King will never of his free will sign such an unconstitutional document. If he does, it will be laid at your door, and before the whole nation your government will bear the blame. Surely you do not wish this additional handicap at this moment!"

Forced abdication

Abdication act, 1947
The Standard of the King

In November, 1947, King Michael traveled to London for the wedding of his cousins, The Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen Elizabeth II) and The Duke of Edinburgh, an occasion during which he met Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma, who was to become his wife. According to unconfirmed claims by so-called Romanian 'royalists', King Michael did not want to return home, but certain Americans and Britons present at the wedding encouraged him to do so;[28] Winston Churchill is said to have counseled Michael to return because "above all things, a King must be courageous." According to his own account,[29] King Michael rejected any offers of asylum and decided to return to Romania, contrary to the confidential, strong advice of the British Ambassador to Romania.

However, on 30 December 1947, King Michael I was forced at gun point (by either Petru Groza or Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, depending on the source) to abdicate Romania's throne in his own Royal Palace which was surrounded by the Tudor Vladimirescu army units loyal to the Communists.[30][31][32] Later the same day, the Communist-dominated government announced the 'permanent' abolition of the monarchy and its replacement by a People's Republic, broadcasting the King's pre-recorded radio proclamation[33] of his own abdication. On 3 January 1948, Michael was forced to leave the country, followed[34] over a week later by Princesses Elisabeth and Ileana, who collaborated so closely with the Russians that they became known as the King's "Red Aunts."[35]

There are several accounts as to why King Michael abdicated. As recounted by Michael himself, the Communist Prime Minister Petru Groza had threatened him at gun point[36][37][38][39] and blackmailed him that the government was to shoot 1,000 arrested students if King Michael didn't abdicate.[40] In an interview with The New York Times from 2007, Michael recalls the events: “It was blackmail. They said, ‘If you don’t sign this immediately we are obliged’ — why obliged I don’t know — 'to kill more than 1,000 students' that they had in prison.”[7] According to Time magazine,[1] the communist government threatened Michael that it would arrest thousands and steep the country in blood if he did not abdicate.

However, according to the book Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness -- A Soviet Spymaster, the autobiography of the former leader of the Soviet intelligence agency NKVD, Major General Pavel Sudoplatov, the Deputy Soviet Foreign Commissar Andrey Vyshinsky personally conducted negotiations with King Michael for his abdication, guaranteeing part of a pension to be paid to Michael in Mexico.[41] According to a few articles in Jurnalul Naţional,[42][43] Michael's abdication was the result of his negotiations with the Communist government, not of a blackmail, which allowed him to leave the country accompanied by the goods he requested and by some of the royal retinue.[43]

According to the Albanian communist leader Enver Hoxha,who recounts his conversations with the Romanian Communist leaders on the monarch's abdication, King Michael was threatened with a pistol by the Romanian Communist Party leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej rather than Petru Groza so as to abdicate—recount which lacks any factual evidence. He was allowed to leave the country accompanied by some of his entourage and, as confirmed also by the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev recounting Dej's confessions,[44] with whatever properties he desired, including gold and rubies.[45] Hoxha does say in his book that the Romanian communist leaders had threatened King Michael with their loyal army troops, which had encircled the royal palace and its troops loyal to King Michael.

According to Time magazine,[46] in early 1948 there had been negotiations between King Michael and the communist government over the properties he left behind in Romania and those negotiations delayed his denunciation of the abdication as illegal.

There are reports[47][48][49][50][51] that Romanian communist authorities, obedient to Stalin, allowed King Michael to part with 42 valuable Crown-owned paintings in November 1947, so that he would leave Romania faster.[49] Some of these paintings[52] were reportedly sold through the famed art dealer Daniel Wildenstein. One of the paintings belonging to the Romanian Crown which was supposedly taken out of the country by King Michael in November 1947, returned to Romania in 2004 as a donation [47][53][54] made by John Kreuger, the former husband of King Michael's daughter Princess Irina.

In 2005 Romanian Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu[55] denied these accusations about King Michael, stating that the Romanian government has no proof of any such action by King Michael and that, prior to 1949, the government had no official records of any artwork taken over from the former royal residences. However, according to some historians, such records existed as early as April 1948, having been, in fact, officially published in June 1948.[56]

According to Ivor Porter's authorized biography,[57] Michael of Romania: The King and The Country (2005), which quotes Queen-Mother Helen's daily diary, the Romanian royals took out paintings belonging to the Romanian Royal Crown on their November 1947 trip to London to the wedding of the future Queen Elizabeth II; two of these paintings, signed by El Greco, were sold in 1976.

According to recently declassified Foreign Office documents, when he left Romania, the exiled king Michael's only assets amounted to 500,000 Swiss francs.[58] Recently declassified Soviet transcripts of talks between Joseph Stalin and the Romanian Prime-Minister Petru Groza[59][60] show that shortly before his abdication, King Michael received from the communist government assets amounting to 500,000 Swiss francs. King Michael, however, repeatedly denied[61] [62][63] that the communist government had allowed him to take into exile any financial assets or valuable goods besides four personal automobiles loaded on two train cars.

Life after the loss of the throne

Monarchical styles of
King Michael I of Romania
Kingdom of Romania - Big CoA.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

In January 1948,[1] Michael began using one of his family's ancestral titles, "Prince of Hohenzollern,"[2][64] instead of using the title of "King of Romania." After denouncing his abdication as forced and illegal in March 1948, Michael resumed use of the kingly title.

On 10 June 1948 in Athens, Greece, he married Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma (b. Paris, 18 September 1923). They lived first in Britain[65] and later settled in Switzerland. The Communist Romanian authorities illegally stripped him of his Romanian citizenship in 1948. He became a commercial pilot and worked for an aircraft equipment company. He and his wife have five daughters.

In 1992, three years after the revolution which overthrew the Communist dictatorship, the Romanian government allowed Michael to return to his country for Easter celebrations, where he drew large crowds. In Bucharest over a million people turned out to see him.[66] Michael's popularity alarmed the government of President Ion Iliescu, so Michael was forbidden to visit Romania again for five years. In 1997, after Iliescu's defeat by Emil Constantinescu, the Romanian Government restored Michael's citizenship and again allowed him to visit the country. He now lives partly in Switzerland at Aubonne and partly in Romania, either at Săvârşin Castle in Arad county or in an official residence in Bucharest—the Elisabeta Palace—voted by the Romanian Parliament by a law concerning arrangements for former heads of state.

According to the succession provisions of the Romanian kingdom's last democratically approved monarchical constitution of 1923, upon the death of King Michael without sons, the claim to the Crown devolves once again upon the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen family, (see "Line of succession to the Romanian throne").

However, on 30 December 2007, on the 60th anniversary of his abdication, King Michael signed the Fundamental Rules of the Royal Family of Romania,[11][67] by which he designated Princess Margarita as heiress to the throne with the titles of "Crown Princess of Romania" and "Custodian of the Romanian Crown." On the same occasion, Michael also asked the Romanian Parliament that, should it consider restoring the monarchy, it should also abolish the salic law of succession.

Political positions

Michael cannot be said to have encouraged monarchist agitation in Romania and royalist parties have made little impact in post-communist Romanian politics. He takes the view that the restoration of the monarchy in Romania can only result from a decision by the Romanian people. "If the people want me to come back, of course, I will come back," he said in 1990. "Romanians have had enough suffering imposed on them to have the right to be consulted on their future." King Michael's belief is that there is still a role for, and value to, the monarchy today: "We are trying to make people understand what the Romanian monarchy was, and what it can still do" (...for them).[68] According to a 2007 opinion poll conducted at the request of the Romanian Royal House, only 14% of Romanians were in favor of the restoration of the monarchy.[69] Another 2008 poll found that only 16% of Romanians are monarchists.[70]

Michael has undertaken some quasi-diplomatic roles on behalf of post-communist Romania. In 1997 and 2002 he toured Western Europe, lobbying for Romania's admission into NATO and the European Union, and was received by heads of state and government officials.

In December 2003, allegedly to the "stupefaction of the public opinion in Romania",[71][72] Michael awarded the "Man of The Year 2003"[73] prize to the then Prime Minister Adrian Năstase, leader of the PSD party, on behalf of the tabloid[74] VIP. The daily Evenimentul Zilei subsequently complained that 'such an activity was unsuited to a king and that Michael was wasting away his prestige', with the majority of the political analysts 'considering his gesture as a fresh abdication'.[71] One notes that such commentaries implicitly admit that Michael still is a king of Romania, albeit without his throne, and that they would like to retain the status quo on the 'basis' of unproven speculations which are often repeated that "he might be unfit to rule again as a parliamentary king".[citation needed]

Personality and personal interests

Michael has had a reputation for taciturnity. He once said to his grandmother, "I have learned not to say what I feel, and to smile at those I most hate." Before getting to know his future wife, Anne of Bourbon-Parma, Michael had a romantic relationship with, among others, a Greek woman, Dodo Chrisolegos, a protégée of the former Romanian Communist Party leader Ana Pauker.[75] Some claim that political influences had been exerted upon King Michael through this liaison.[75][76]

Michael is passionate about cars,[77] especially military jeeps.[78][79] He is also interested in aircraft,[80] having worked as a commercial flight pilot[81] during his exile.

On 10 May 2007, King Michael received the Prague Society for International Cooperation and Global Panel Foundation's 6th Annual Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award, previously awarded to Vladimir Ashkenazy, Madeleine Albright, Václav Havel, Lord Robertson, and Miloš Forman.[82] On 8 April 2008, King Michael and Patriarch Daniel were elected as Honorary Members of the Romanian Academy.[83][84]

The family

King Michael and Queen Anne have the following five daughters:

Both Elena and Irina have sons as well as daughters. Sofia, whose marriage was not accepted by her father,[citation needed] has a daughter.

For further details, see the genealogical listing.[85]

Honours

King Michael retaining his dignity as fons honorum is Grand Master of the Romanian Royal Orders, such as

The King also received numerous foreign Honors and decorations among those are:

Ancestors

Michael of Romania
Cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern
Born: 25 October 1921
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ferdinand I
King of the Romanians
20 July 1927 – 8 June 1930
Succeeded by
Carol II
Preceded by
Carol II
King of the Romanians
6 September 1940 – 30 December 1947
Vacant
Political offices
Preceded by
Ferdinand I
as King of the Romanians
Head of State of Romania
20 July 1927 – 8 June 1930
Succeeded by
Carol II
as King of the Romanians
Preceded by
Carol II
as King of the Romanians
Head of State of Romania
6 September 1940 – 30 December 1947
Succeeded by
Constantin Ion Parhon
as President of the Provisional Presidium
of the Socialist Republic of Romania
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of the Romanians
30 December 1947 – present
Incumbent
Heir:
Frederick William, Prince of Hohenzollern
or
Princess Margarita of Romania
[86]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c "Compression", Time, 12 January 1948
  2. ^ a b "Milestones", Time, 21 June 1948
  3. ^ Genealogy of the Royal Family of Romania, retrieved 2 October 2006
  4. ^ World War II—"60 Years After: Former Romanian Monarch Remembers Decision To Switch Sides", RFE/RL, 6 May 2005
  5. ^ Oliver North, “Looking for Leadership”, Human Events, 14 April 2006
  6. ^ Peter Kurth, "Michael of Romania"
  7. ^ a b Craig S. Smith, "Romania’s King Without a Throne Outlives Foes and Setbacks", The New York Times, 27 January 2007
  8. ^ Simeon Saxecoburggotski, Encyclopædia Britannica
  9. ^ Rulers of Romania
  10. ^ "Ce citeau românii acum 68 de ani?", Ziua, 29 November 2007.
  11. ^ a b Fundamental Rules of the Royal Family of Romania, The Romanian Royal Family website as retrieved on 8 January 2008
  12. ^ (Romanian) "The Joys of Suffering," Volume 2, "Dialogue with a few intellectuals", by Rev. Fr. Dimitrie Bejan - "Orthodox Advices" website as of 9 June 2007
  13. ^ (Romanian) Ioan Scurtu, Theodora Stănescu-Stanciu, Georgiana Margareta Scurtu, "The History of the Romanians between 1918-1940" ("Istoria românilor între anii 1918–1940"), page 280.
  14. ^ a b "Bulgaria - Bulgarian resistance to the Axis alliance," Encyclopædia Britannica
  15. ^ a b c d e f Country Studies: Romania, Chap. 23, Library of Congress
  16. ^ "Marshal Ion Antonescu",WorldWar2.ro, Romanian Armed Forces in the Second World War
  17. ^ “23 august - radiografia unei lovituri de Palat”, paragraph ”Predaţi comuniştilor”, Dosare Ultrasecrete, Ziua, 19 August 2006
  18. ^ (Romanian) "The Dictatorship Has Ended and along with It All Oppression" - From The Proclamation to The Nation of King Michael I on The Night of August 23 1944, Curierul Naţional, 7 August 2004
  19. ^ "Hitler Resorts To 'Puppets' In Romania", Washington Post, 25 August 1944
  20. ^ "King Proclaims Nation's Surrender and Wish to Help Allies", The New York Times, 24 August 1944
  21. ^ (Romanian) Constantiniu, Florin, O istorie sinceră a poporului român ("An Honest History of the Romanian People"), Ed. Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureşti, 1997, ISBN 973-9243-07-X
  22. ^ (Romanian)(English) Armata Română în Al Doilea Război Mondial. Romanian Army in World War II. Bucharest: "Meridiane" publishing house, 1995, page 196
  23. ^ (Romanian) "What was done in Romania between 1945 and 1947 it has also been done since 1989", Ziua, 24 August 2000
  24. ^ (Romanian) Brief history of Sighet prison, BBC, 18 April 2007
  25. ^ "I Live Again" by Ileana, Princess of Romania, Chapter 21
  26. ^ (Romanian)"History as a Soap Opera - The Gossips of a Secret Report (III)", Jurnalul Naţional, 18 June 2006
  27. ^ "Development of the Romanian Armed Forces after World War II", Library of Congress Country Studies
  28. ^ "Churchill Advised Mihai to Return", The Washington Post, 31 December 1947
  29. ^ Speech By His Majesty Michael I, King of Romania to the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, London, 26 March 1997
  30. ^ (Romanian) "King Michael between the ascension to the throne and abdication - VII", Ziarul financiar, 24 June 2001
  31. ^ (Romanian) "The Republic was installed by way of the gun", undated interview with H.M. King Michael in Ziua, as of 15 October 2008
  32. ^ (Romanian) Mircea Ionnitiu : "December 30 1947", site dedicated to HM King Mihai I of Romania and to the Romanian Monarchy as of 15 October 2008
  33. ^ "Friends & Enemies, Presidents & Kings" by Tammy Lee McClure, Accendo Publishing, page 99. Another account comes from the Romanian anti-communist dissident Paul Goma's (Romanian) "Skipped Diary" ("Jurnal pe sarite"), page 57.
  34. ^ "2 Princesses Exiled By Romanian Regime", The New York Times, 13 January 1948
  35. ^ W. H. Lawrence,"Aunts of Michael May Be Exiled Too", The New York Times, 7 January 1948
  36. ^ "The Rescue of the Bulgarian Jews", as retrieved on 21 January 2008
  37. ^ (Romanian)"The Republic was installed with a pistol", Ziua, May 1996
  38. ^ (Romanian) Timeline, semi-official site dedicated to HM King Michael I, as retrieved on 21 January 2008
  39. ^ (Romanian)"Princess Margareta, designated dynastic successor", Antena 3, 30 December 2007
  40. ^ "A king and his coup", The Daily Telegraph, 12 June 2005
  41. ^ Pavel Sudoplatov, Anatoli Sudoplatov, Jerrold L. Schecter, Leona P. Schecter, Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness—A Soviet Spymaster. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1994, page 232. ISBN 0-316-77352-2 : "Vyshinsky personally conducted negotiations with King Michael of Romania for his abdication, guaranteeing part of his pension in Mexico."
  42. ^ (Romanian)"The return from London and the abdication," Jurnalul Naţional, 17 November 2005
  43. ^ a b (Romanian) "Communism - King Michael I's Abdication", Jurnalul Naţional, 11 December 2006
  44. ^ Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, Sergeĭ Khrushchev.Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Statesman, 1953-1964, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007, page 701, ISBN 0-271-02935-8 : "As Dej reminisced, 'We told him he could take everything with him that he considered necessary, but he had to leave his kingdom.'"
  45. ^ Enver Hoxha.The Titoites. The "Naim Frasheri" publishing house, Tirana, 1982, pages 519-522, 572
  46. ^ "Anne & I", Time, 15 March 1948
  47. ^ a b Miscellaneous, Evenimentul Zilei, 24 March 2005
  48. ^ Miscellaneous, Evenimentul Zilei, 14 March 2005
  49. ^ a b The Lia Roberts hope, Evenimentul Zilei, 19 January 2004
  50. ^ (Romanian) Monarchy, the only bastion against the communists, Adevărul, 29 December 2007
  51. ^ (Romanian) Mihai Pelin has died, Romania libera, 17 December 2007
  52. ^ Michel van Rijn, "Hot Art, Cold Cash", pages 177, 184, Little Brown & Co., October 1994. For more on the credentials of the UK police expert in art smuggling Michel van Rijn, see 1 and 2.
  53. ^ (Romanian) "Raibolini's Madonna at the National Museum of Art of Romania", Ziua, 20 November 2004
  54. ^ (Romanian) "A Prestigious Donation: Madonna with the Infant by Francesco Raibolini, named "Il Francia"", Online Gallery site as of 8 December 2006
  55. ^ (Romanian) "There Are No Proofs That King Michael Took Paintings out of Romania", Adevărul, 19 April 2005
  56. ^ (Romanian) "Testimonials of contemporary history - Peles, January-April 1948. The inventorying of the former royal art works (III)," by Radu Bogdan, Ph.D. in history, Magazin istoric, October 1998
  57. ^ (Romanian) Andrei Pippidi, "The King and The Country", "Revista 22", 8 March 2006
  58. ^ "Exiled king 'should become pilot'", BBC News, 2 January 2005
  59. ^ (Romanian) "King Michael in exile - from poultry grower to test pilot and broker", ROMPRES, 13 April 2005
  60. ^ (Romanian) "King Michael in exile - from poultry grower to test pilot and broker", Jurnalul de Botosani si Dorohoi, 13 April 2005
  61. ^ (Romanian) "Romania under King Michael I", the Royal Family website, as of 12 April 2008
  62. ^ Translation of King Michael's interview to Ziua daily, undated.
  63. ^ (Romanian) ""NATO was more important militarily, but Europe is politically more than we realize now", states H.M. King Michael", Adevărul, 3 May 2005
  64. ^ Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, Sergeĭ Khrushchev. Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Statesman, 1953-1964, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007, page 947, ISBN 0-271-02935-8
  65. ^ "EX-KING MICHAEL OF RUMANIA BECOMES MARKET GARDENER, 1953", British Pathe, as retrieved on October 17, 2009
  66. ^ Kings Without Crowns Michael of Romania, Danish Norsk Television
  67. ^ (Romanian) "Princess Margarita, heiress to the throne of Romania," Evenimentul Zilei, 30 December 2007
  68. ^ "King Mihai I Turns 85", Ziua, 25 October 2006
  69. ^ (Romanian) "NLP: Monarchy saves Basescu-mania" ("PNL: Monarhia salvează Băsescu-mania"), Cotidianul, 31 August 2008
  70. ^ (Romanian) "Monarchy: desired by only 16% of the population" ("Monarhia, dorită de doar 16% din populaţie"), Cotidianul, 21 September 2008
  71. ^ a b "The King and The Jester," Evenimentul Zilei, 18 December 2003
  72. ^ (Romanian) "Adrian Nastase received his prize from King Michael's hand, Adevarul, 17 December 2003
  73. ^ "100 %" Talk Show on Realitatea TV, Prince Radu's website, April 12, 2004
  74. ^ (Romanian) VIP - Advertising, The "VIP" website as of 22 July 2008
  75. ^ a b (Romanian) Guy des Cars. Inimoasele Regine ale României (original title in French: Les Reines de cœur de Roumanie), Dorana publishing house, Braşov, 1995, ISBN 97396211, page 197
  76. ^ (Romanian) The Party and State Sex, România liberă, 7 July 2007
  77. ^ (Romanian) Andrei Săvulescu. King Michael - Car Driver, Mechanic, Professional Pilot, Humanitas publishing house, Bucharest, 1996
  78. ^ "King Michael of Romania driving down steps leading out of Sinaia palace," Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images, April 1, 1946
  79. ^ "King Michael of Rumania driving down steps leading out of Sinaia palace," Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images, April 1, 1946
  80. ^ "King Mihai in an airplane", Site dedicated to HM King Mihai I of Romania, retrieved 26 November 2006
  81. ^ "Ex-King Michael, in Switzerland where he works for an American aircraft company", Time Life Pictures/Getty Images, 1 January 1957
  82. ^ "Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award", [1]
  83. ^ (Romanian) Communique, The Royal Family website, 8 April 2008
  84. ^ (Romanian) Patriarch Daniel and King Michael have become members of the Romanian Academy, Antena 3, 19 December 2007
  85. ^ "Genealogy of the Romanian Royal Family," web site as of October 2, 2006
  86. ^ see Line of succession to the Romanian throne







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