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Michigan – Notre Dame football rivalry
Michigan logo This content has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on its removal. Notre Dame logo
Teams Michigan Wolverines
Notre Dame Fighting Irish
Originated 1887
Series Michigan leads, 21-15-1
Current Champion Michigan
Trophy None

Michigan (21)
1887 1888 (2)
1898 1899
1900 1902
1908 1942
1978 1981
1985 1986
1991 1994
1997 1999
2003 2006
2007 2009
Notre Dame (15)
1909 1943
1979 1980
1982 1987
1988 1989
1990 1993
1998 2002
2004 2005
Ties (1)
Did Not Play
Since 1978: 1983, 1984, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2001

The Michigan – Notre Dame football rivalry is a college football rivalry between the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan and the University of Notre Dame located in South Bend, Indiana.

Michigan football and Notre Dame football are considered to be among the most elite college programs. Michigan and Notre Dame respectively rank #1 and #2 in winning percentage. (Michigan and Notre Dame rank #1 and #3, respectively, in total wins; Texas ranks #2.) The rivalry is heightened by the two schools' competition for all-time win percentage, which each has held during their history, (UM currently leads in winning percentage as of 2009) as well as national championships, with each school claiming 11 (although Notre Dame has more consensus national championships). [1 ] Fierce competition for the same type of student-athletes as well as disputes over Notre Dame's potential conference membership in the Big Ten conference also serve to fuel the rivalry.[2]



Notre Dame and Michigan first played in 1887 in Notre Dame's introduction to football .[3] The Wolverines proceeded to win the first eight contests, then after Notre Dame notched its first win in the series in 1909,[3] Michigan canceled the following year's matchup and boycotted Notre Dame for years. Thanks to Elmer Layden, Michigan returned to the schedule in 1942, and the University of Michigan beat then #1 Notre Dame in Notre Dame Stadium. The next season, on October 9, 1943, Number 1 ranked Notre Dame defeated Number 2 Michigan in the first matchup of top teams since polls began in 1936. After that, the Wolverines did not schedule the Irish again until the series was renewed in 1978, thanks to the efforts of athletic directors (UM's) Don Canham and (ND's) Moose Krause. Including the 2009 season game, Michigan leads the overall series 21-15-1; In 2007, both teams were 0-2 for the first time ever.[4] The two programs agreed to a 25 year contract extension in 2007 that will keep the rivalry game going through the 2031 season.[5]

Origins and early years

The University of Michigan began its football program in 1879 in a game against Racine College at White Stockings Park in Chicago, Illinois.[6] This was the first football game played in both team's programs, and was won by Michigan 1-0 (by a touchdown and a "goal" in early football rules).[6] Michigan had already had a good program going in the 1880s, and had been playing other elite teams like Harvard University, Yale University, Dartmouth College, and Princeton University.[6] Notre Dame had no football team until 1887, when players came from the University of Michigan to teach them the game of football.[6] Notre Dame and Michigan were actually friendly, not rivals, at the time, so Notre Dame began its football program under the guidance of the University of Michigan.[6] The first unofficial demonstration of American football at the university was coordinated by the University of Michigan and two former Notre Dame students, George DeHaven and Billy Harless . Michigan dominated college football throughout the early years, winning national championships in 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, 1918 and 1923. Fielding H. Yost's bunch was known as the dominators of college football, averaging around 100 points per game in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Michigan won the first ever Rose Bowl Game against Stanford by a score of 49-0. [6]

"Mr. DeHaven writes from Ann Arbor that the boys from the University of Michigan have such pleasant
remembrances of their Thanksgiving game here that
they would like to play here again."[7]
The Scholastic newspaper report, March 27, 1888.

American football did not have a good beginning at the University of Notre Dame. In their inaugural game on November 23, 1887 the Irish lost to the Michigan Wolverines in a blowout.[6] Their first win came in the final game of the 1888 season when the Irish defeated Harvard Prep by a score of 20–0. At the end of the 1888 season, they had a record of 1–3 with all three losses being at the hands of Michigan by a large margin each time.[6] Michigan and Notre Dame did not play for the next ten years.[6]

Jesse Harper, an early coach of Notre Dame.

At the beginning of the 20th century college football began to increase in popularity and became more standardized with the introduction of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS) in 1906. That organization would become the The National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1910. Both Notre Dame and Michigan joined the IAAUS.[8]

Both programs enjoyed success during this time. In 1913, Notre Dame helped to transform the collegiate game in a single contest. In an effort to gain respect for a regionally successful but small-time Midwestern football program, coach Jesse Harper scheduled games in his first season with national powerhouses Texas, Penn State, and Army. On November 1, 1913, the Notre Dame squad stunned the Black Knights of the Hudson 35-13 in a game played at West Point. Led by quarterback Charlie "Gus" Dorais and end (soon to be legendary coach) Knute Rockne, the Notre Dame team attacked the Cadets with an offense that featured both the expected powerful running game but also long and accurate downfield forward passes from Dorais to Rockne. This game has been miscredited as the "invention" of the forward pass but is considered the first major contest in which a team used the forward pass regularly throughout the game. Not only did Notre Dame use the forward pass but Michigan was well known for this as well. The Wolverines' winged helmet was created because head coach Fritz Crisler (1938-1947)wanted his quarterbacks to be able to tell the difference between his receivers and the defense for at the time everyone wore the same colored helmet, so he had his players wear bright yellow stripes on their helmets. Michigan had an explosive offense from when it began playing football in the late 1800's to its back to back national titles in 1947 and 1948.

Michigan enjoyed great success. From 1894 to 1900, the Wolverines had a combined record of 40-5-2. Michigan won 4 consecutive national titles after this in 1901-04, called the "Point a Minute" team for their high scoring, scoring 100 points in several games. Fielding Yost led the Wolverines as a remarkable coach. Michigan dominated college football. [9] The team was also champions of the Big Ten Conference in 1898, 1901, 1902, 1903, 1904, and 1906.[10] These Wolverine teams were led by William McCauley in 1894 and 1895, William Ward in 1896, Gustave Ferbert in 1897, 1898, and 1899, and Langdon Lea in 1900.

In 1909, Notre Dame beat Michigan for the first time after losing every game against them since the first contest in 1888. The game took place on the University of Michigan campus, and was won by Notre Dame.[6] It is believed that the term "Fighting Irish" originated after this game, when a reporter from the Detroit Free Press commented on the game in the next day's newspaper issue:

"Eleven Fighting Irishman wrecked the Yost machine this afternoon. Three sons of Erin, individually and collectively representing the University of Notre Dame, not only beat the Michigan team, but dashed some of Michigan's greatest hopes and shattered Michigan's fairest dreams."[11]
Detroit Free Press report, November 7, 1909

1942 and 1943

Thanks to the efforts of Elmer Layden, the Wolverines returned to the Irish schedule for a home-and-home series. Layden was able to heal the rift between the two schools when he met with Fielding Yost. By the time the two teams actually met, Layden had left Notre Dame and Frank Leahy took his place. Michigan won, 32-20, in South Bend in 1942 in a game highlighted by a malfunctioning clock. The third quarter lasted 23 minutes instead of 15, and both coaches agreed to play a 7-minute fourth quarter. The following year, #1 Notre Dame beat #2 Michigan in Ann Arbor. The Wolverines decided not to schedule the Irish again.

1947 AP title dispute

In 1947, Notre Dame and Michigan both fielded undefeated teams that traded the top spot in the poll all year. Notre Dame was ranked #1 and Michigan #2 on October 6, October 27, November 3, November 10, November 24, December 1, and in the final poll on December 8. Michigan was ranked #1 and Notre Dame #2 on October 13, October 20, and November 17. After the final poll was released but before the bowls, as was the custom in those days, Notre Dame was awarded the AP National Title and trophy. Both schools were 9-0.

However, in the Rose Bowl, Michigan defeated #8 USC 49-0, the same team that Notre Dame had defeated 38-7 in the final regular season game. Notre Dame did not play in a bowl game. Following the Michigan-USC game, many sportswriters argued over who was the better team with many, including Grantland Rice, calling Michigan the superior team, especially offensively. As a result of the heated debate, an unofficial AP poll was conducted by Detroit Free Press sports editor Lyall Smith with Michigan and Notre Dame as the only two choices.[12] Michigan was selected as the nation's #1 team by a 226-119 margin over Notre Dame in the post-bowl ballot. Most independent publications recognize both schools as co-champions.

The debate over who was actually the greater team has not ceased to this day among fans and sportswriters. Michigan won each of its 10 games by an average of 34.1 points per game and defeated 6 teams that finished with winning records. Notre Dame won each of its 9 games by an average of 26.6 points per game and defeated 3 teams that finished with winning records.

Second hiatus

35 years would elapse before Notre Dame and Michigan would meet again on the gridiron, even though they competed against each other in other sports. Don Canham succeeded Fritz Crisler as Michigan's athletic director in 1968 and made boosting attendance at home football games a major priority. The Wolverines had slid into mediocrity by the 1960s and as a result, home attendance had dwindled to an average of 67,000 fans per game in a stadium that seated over 90,000. Newly hired football coach Bo Schembechler was delighted at the chance to face his close friend and former mentor Ara Parseghian. When the contracts were signed in 1970, Bo said to Ara, "Ara, I'm gonna whip your ass!" Parseghian made what turned out to be a prophetic statement when he responded, "I'll be long gone by then." By the time the two teams squared off in 1978, Ara had indeed left Notre Dame and Dan Devine had taken his place.

1980s and 1990s

1978 - Michigan 28, Notre Dame 14

Finally on September 23, 1978, the Irish and Wolverines met in South Bend. Defending national champion Notre Dame, coming off a stunning 3-0 loss to Missouri in their season opener, led 14-7 at the half before the Wolverines got going and prevailed.

1979 - Notre Dame 12, Michigan 10

Notre Dame squeaked out a 12-10 win on four field goals. The Wolverines led at the half, 10-6 and were shut down in the second half. Michigan had a chance to win it in the closing seconds, but a field goal attempt was blocked by linebacker Bob Crable, who climbed up an opposing player's back to gain additional elevation. A new rule was adopted the following season prohibiting this tactic.

1980 - Notre Dame 29, Michigan 27

The 1980 contest (the only one not to have been televised nationally) was a see-saw affair that saw Notre Dame take a 14-0 lead, only to have Michigan erase it by halftime and go up 21-14 in the third quarter. John Krimm's interception for a touchdown brought the Irish to within one, but Harry Oliver missed the extra point. The Irish scored again to take a 26-21 lead, only to have Michigan come back to score a late touchdown and take a 27-26 lead with less than a minute to go. With one last shot, The Irish moved into field goal range and Oliver atoned for his earlier missed extra point by drilling a 51-yard field goal as time ran out for a 29-27 Irish victory. It is interesting to note that a breeze had been blowing from the south all afternoon long, but when Oliver kicked the game-winner, the wind died down at that very moment.

1981 - Michigan 25, Notre Dame 7

Dan Devine retired after the 1980 season and was succeeded by Gerry Faust. The 1981 season opened for the top-ranked Wolverines with a disastrous 21-14 loss to Wisconsin while the Irish made Faust's debut a memorable one with a 27-9 victory over LSU. The win propelled Notre Dame to the top spot in the polls as they traveled to Ann Arbor for a showdown with the Wolverines. It was no contest as Michigan romped, holding the Irish without a first down through the second and third quarters. For Faust, it was all downhill as the Irish tumbled to a final 5-6 mark, their first losing season since 1963.

1982 - Notre Dame 23, Michigan 17

The 1982 contest was the first night game in Notre Dame Stadium history. Notre Dame's defense held Michigan to 41 rushing yards and despite a freak pass that was plucked off the back of an Irish defender and taken for a Wolverine touchdown, the Irish prevailed.

1985 - Michigan 20, Notre Dame 12

After a two-hear hiatus, the two teams met in the 1985 season opener. Faust's teams had struggled through four seasons of inconsistency and it was hoped that they would be able to put it all together this year. Michigan meanwhile was coming off its worst season under Bo Schembechler, a 6-6 campaign. Notre Dame led 9-3 at the half, but their inability to score touchdowns raised some eyebrows. Michigan took control in the second half and won, 20-12. Schembechler remarked afterwards that he expected much more from the Irish.

1986 - Michigan 24, Notre Dame 23

Faust resigned at the end of the 1985 season and was succeeded by Lou Holtz. In the 1986 opener, the Irish did everything but beat the Wolverines. They never punted and amassed 455 yards of total offense as the Michigan defense, not knowing what to expect, was on its heels all afternoon. Several turnovers deep in Michigan territory proved costly for Notre Dame. Tight end Joel Williams caught an apparent touchdown pass in the back of the end zone, but was ruled out of bounds even though it appeared otherwise. Ultimately, it all came down to a field goal attempt. Unlike 1980, John Carney's attempt was off the mark and Michigan escaped with a 24-23 vistory. Irish fans gave the team a standing ovation as the teams left the field and Notre Dame was voted #20 in the polls the following week, the first time a team had ever ascended into the Top 20 after a loss.

1987 - Notre Dame 26, Michigan 7

Seven Wolverine turnovers proved to be the difference as Notre Dame parlayed them into 17 points.

1988 - Notre Dame 19, Michigan 17

Ricky Watters' 81-yard punt return for a touchdown was the key play of the game. Notre Dame led at the half, 13-0 and both of Michigan's touchdowns were set up by long kickoff returns. Reggie Ho proved to be the unsung hero for the Irish with four field goals, the last one coming with 1:13 left to put the Irish ahead for good. Michigan had one last shot, but Mike Gillette missed a 48-yard field goal attempt at the final gun.

1989 - Notre Dame 24, Michigan 19

This was a memorable game for Irish fans, as Rocket Ismail returned two consecutive Michigan kickoffs for touchdowns. Notre Dame attempted only two passes the entire game which was played in the rain. Schembechler retired from coaching after the 1989 season and handpicked Gary Moeller as his successor.

1990 - Notre Dame 28, Michigan 24

Notre Dame notched its fourth straight win over the Wolverines with a come-from-behind win. Trailing 24-14 in the third quarter, the Irish got a lucky bounce, or carom when an errant third down pass intended for Raghib Ismael found its way into the arms of receiver Lake Dawson and kept a scoring drive alive. Adrian Jarrell caught the winning touchdown late in the fourth quarter.

1991 - Michigan 24, Notre Dame 14

Michigan kept possession for over 40 minutes and quarterback Elvis Grbac completed 20 of 22 passes, a record for a Notre Dame opponent.

1992 - Notre Dame 17, Michigan 17

This game is remembered for Reggie Brooks scoring Notre Dame's first touchdown after being knocked unconscious as he fell into the end zone. The Irish came back from a 17-7 deficit to salvage a tie. {fact|date=August 2008}}

1993 - Notre Dame 27, Michigan 23

The Irish took a 27-10 lead in the third quarter and were poised to put the game out of reach when fullback Marc Edwards was stuffed on fourth and goal from the Michigan one-yard-line. Michigan then drove 99 yards for a touchdown and closed the gap to four with less than a minute to go before Notre Dame recovered an onside kick to preserve a 27-23 victory.

1994 - Michigan 26, Notre Dame 24

A last-second field goal by Remy Hamilton enabled the Wolverines to escape with a victory.

1997 - Michigan 21, Notre Dame 14

After another two-year hiatus, the two teams met again in 1997. By then Holtz had left Notre Dame and defensive coordinator Bob Davie was named head coach. Gary Moeller resigned after the 1994 season and was succeeded by Lloyd Carr. Notre Dame took a 14-7 halftime lead before the Wolverines tied the score and eventually took a 21-14 lead. In the fourth quarter, Notre Dame managed to recover three Wolverine fumbles deep in Michigan territory, but came away empty each time. Michigan would go undefeated and capture a share of the national championship that season.

1998 - Notre Dame 36, Michigan 20

The Irish opened the 1998 season with their best game under Davie with an impressive 36-20 victory over the defending national champion Wolverines. It marked the most points the Irish had ever scored against Michigan. The Wolverines led at the half, but Notre Dame seized the momentum in the third quarter and won going away.

1999 - Michigan 26, Notre Dame 22

Notre Dame took a 22-19 lead in the fourth quarter before Michigan scored late to retake the lead, 26-22. Poor clock management proved costly for Notre Dame. Out of time outs, the Irish drove frantically downfield only to have time run out when they could not get out of bounds.

2000 to present

2002 - Notre Dame 25, Michigan 23

The two teams took another two-year hiatus in 2000 and 2001. By the time they met again in 2002, Bob Davie had been fired and Tyrone Willingham was named to succeed him. Notre Dame prevailed, 25-23.

2003 - Michigan 38, Notre Dame 0

2003 proved to be a dismal season for Notre Dame. Michigan notched the first shutout in the series since 1902, a 38-0 blowout.

2004 - Notre Dame 28, Michigan 20

In 2004, the Irish, coming off a disappointing 20-17 loss to Brigham Young, beat the Wolverines, 28-20. Freshman tailback Darius Walker rushed for 115 yards for the Irish.

2005 - Notre Dame 17, Michigan 10

Willingham was dismissed at the end of the 2004 season and was succeeded by Notre Dame alumnus Charlie Weis. In the 2005 contest, the Irish took a quick 14-0 lead as they drove impressively for touchdowns early. Michigan's defense stiffened and would only allow a field goal in the second half. The Wolverines managed to come to within a touchdown, but would not get any closer as Notre Dame prevailed, 17-10.

2006 - Michigan 47, Notre Dame 21

Michigan scored the most points (47) either team has scored in the history of the rivalry en route to a 47-21 blowout.

2007 - Michigan 38, Notre Dame 0

Both teams came into this game at 0-2 for the first time in the series' history. Michigan won a much needed game against a rebuilding Notre Dame team. The victory helped propel Michigan to an 8-4 regular season and a victory in the Capital One Bowl against Florida, while Notre Dame finished 3-9.

2008 - Notre Dame 35, Michigan 17

Notre Dame jumped out to a quick 21-0 lead, including a long touchdown from Jimmy Clausen to wideout Golden Tate, who beat the Michigan secondary for an easy score. Michigan tried to mount a comeback, closing the score to 28-17 before a Brian Smith fumble recovery and score ensured a 35-17 victory for the Irish. The Irish would capitalize on 6 Michigan turnovers in all. Michigan's program was transitioning to a new coach and offense, while Notre Dame was looking to rebound from a 3-9 season. Notre Dame finished 7-6 while Michigan finished 3-9.

2009 - Michigan 38, Notre Dame 34

With Michigan trailing 31-34 with 16 seconds left, Wolverines quarterback Tate Forcier threw a touchdown pass with 11 seconds left on the clock to seal a 38-34 comeback win for Michigan. This game set a record for the most total points in the history of the rivalry.[13]


In 2007, both schools agreed to a 20-year extension of the series, which would have ended in 2012, to 2031. [14]

Series facts

Statistic ND UM
Games played 37
Wins 15 21
Home wins 8 12
Road wins 7 8
Neutral site wins 0 1
Consecutive wins 4 (1987-1990) 8 (1887-1908)
Total points scored in the series 613 774
Most points scored in a game by one team in a win 36 (1998) 47 (2006)
Most points scored in a game by both teams 72 (2009 – UM 38, ND 34)
Most points scored in a game by one team in a loss 34 (2009) 27 (1980)
Fewest points scored in a game by both teams 7 (1900 – UM 7, ND 0)
Fewest points scored in a game by one team in a win 11 (1909) 7 (1900)
Largest margin of victory 23 (1943) 38 (2003, 2007)
Smallest margin of victory 2 (1979, 1988, 2002)      1 (1986)     

Source: [3]

Game results

Notre Dame victories are shaded ██ green. Michigan victories shaded in ██ blue. Ties shaded white.

Date Site Winning team Losing team Series
November 23, 1887   South Bend, IN   Michigan  8  Notre Dame     0  UM 1-0
April 20, 1888 South Bend, IN Michigan 26 Notre Dame 6 UM 2-0
April 21, 1888 South Bend, IN Michigan 10 Notre Dame 4 UM 3-0
October 21, 1898 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 23 Notre Dame 0 UM 4-0
October 18, 1899 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 12 Notre Dame 0 UM 5-0
November 17, 1900 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 7 Notre Dame 0 UM 6-0
October 18, 1902 Toledo, OH Michigan 23 Notre Dame 0 UM 7-0
October 17, 1908 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 12 Notre Dame 6 UM 8-0
November 6, 1909 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame    11 Michigan 3 UM 8-1
November 14, 1942 South Bend, IN Michigan 32 Notre Dame 20 UM 9-1
October 9, 1943 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame 35 Michigan 12 UM 9-2
September 23, 1978 South Bend, IN Michigan 28 Notre Dame 14 UM 10-2
September 15, 1979 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame 12 Michigan 10 UM 10-3
September 20, 1980 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 29 Michigan 27 UM 10-4
September 19, 1981 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 25 Notre Dame 7 UM 11-4
September 18, 1982 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 23 Michigan 17 UM 11-5
September 14, 1985 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 20 Notre Dame 12 UM 12-5
September 13, 1986 South Bend, IN Michigan 24 Notre Dame 23 UM 13-5
September 12, 1987 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame 26 Michigan 7 UM 13-6
September 10, 1988 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 19 Michigan 17 UM 13-7
September 16, 1989 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame 24 Michigan 19 UM 13-8
September 15, 1990 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 28 Michigan 24 UM 13-9
September 14, 1991 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 24 Notre Dame 14 UM 14-9
September 12, 1992 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 17 Michigan 17 UM 14-9-1
September 11, 1993 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame 27 Michigan 23 UM 14-10-1
September 10, 1994 South Bend, IN Michigan 26 Notre Dame 24 UM 15-10-1
September 27, 1997 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 21 Notre Dame 14 UM 16-10-1
September 5, 1998 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 36 Michigan 20 UM 16-11-1
September 4, 1999 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 26 Notre Dame 22 UM 17-11-1
September 14, 2002 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 25 Michigan 23 UM 17-12-1
September 13, 2003 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 38 Notre Dame 0 UM 18-12-1
September 11, 2004 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 28 Michigan 20 UM 18-13-1
September 10, 2005 Ann Arbor, MI Notre Dame 17 Michigan 10 UM 18-14-1
September 16, 2006 South Bend, IN Michigan 47 Notre Dame 21 UM 19-14-1
September 15, 2007 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 38 Notre Dame 0 UM 20-14-1
September 13, 2008 South Bend, IN Notre Dame 35 Michigan 17 UM 20-15-1
September 12, 2009 Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 38 Notre Dame 34 UM 21-15-1

Source: [3]

See also


  1. ^ "Past Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (Division I FBS) National Champions (formerly called Division I-A)". Retrieved 2008-06-12.  
  2. ^ Sperber, Murray (2002-09). Shake Down The Thunder: The Creation of Notre Dame Football. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21568-4.  
  3. ^ a b c d "2007 Notre Dame Media Guide: History and Records (pages 131-175)". Retrieved 2008-06-12.  
  4. ^ Evans, Thayer (September 16, 2007). "After 0-3 Start, Weis and Irish Plan to Start Over". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-16.  
  5. ^ Associated Press. "Michigan, Notre Dame agree to 20-year contract extension". ESPN. Retrieved 2008-06-16.  
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kyrk, John (2004). Natural Enemies: Major College Football's Oldest, Fiercest Rivalry-Michigan vs. Notre Dame. Taylor Trade Publications. ISBN 1589790901.  
  7. ^ The Scholastic newspaper report, March 27, 1888.
  8. ^ "The History of the NCAA". NCAA. Retrieved 2008-06-09.  
  9. ^ "All-Time University of Michigan Football Record". University of Michigan. Retrieved 2008-06-09.  
  10. ^ "Michigan Football History Database". Big Ten Conference. Retrieved 2008-06-09.  
  11. ^ Detroit Free Press report, November 7, 1909
  12. ^ Kyrk, John. Natural Enemies. p. 142–7. ISBN 1589790901.  
  13. ^ "Forcier's TD pass in final seconds seals Michigan's upset of Irish". 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-09-14.  
  14. ^ Associated Press. "Michigan, Notre Dame agree to 20-year contract extension". ESPN. Retrieved 2009-09-12

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