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The micronation of Sealand.

Micronations — sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects — are entities that claim to be independent nations or states but which are unrecognized by world governments or major international organizations. These nations often exist only on paper, on the Internet, or in the minds of their creators.

Micronations differ from secession and self-determination movements in that they are largely viewed as being eccentric and ephemeral in nature, and are often created and maintained by a single person or family group. This criterion excludes entities such as the Republic of China (Taiwan) that have diplomatic relations with other recognized nation-states of the world without being formally recognized themselves by many nation-states or accepted by major international bodies.

Micronations are also distinguished from imaginary countries and from other kinds of social groups (such as eco-villages, campuses, tribes, clans, sects, and residential community associations) by expressing a formal and persistent, even if unrecognized, claim of sovereignty over some physical territory.

Some micronations have managed to extend some of their operations into the physical world by trying to enforce their alleged sovereignty. Several have issued coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items, which are rarely accepted outside of their own community.

The earliest known micronations date from the beginning of the 19th century. The advent of the Internet provided the means for the creation of many new micronations, whose members are scattered all over the world and interact mostly by electronic means. The differences between such Internet micronations, other kinds of social networking groups, and role playing games are often hard to define.

The term "micronation" to describe those entities dates at least to the 1970s [1] The term micropatrology is sometimes used to describe the study of both micronations and microstates by micronational hobbyists, some of whom refer to sovereign nation-states as "macronations".

Contents

History

Early history and evolution

The Old Light, Lundy

The earliest recognizable micronations on record date from the beginning of the 19th century. Most were founded by eccentric adventurers or business speculators, and several were remarkably successful. One early example of a micronation is the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, ruled by the Clunies-Ross family.

Less successful micronations are the Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia (1860–62) in southern Chile and Argentina; the Republic of Indian Stream (1832–35) in North America; and the Kingdom of Sedang (1888–90) in French Indochina. The oldest extant micronation to arise in modern times is the Kingdom of Redonda, founded in 1865 in the Caribbean. It failed to establish itself as a real country, but has nonetheless managed to survive into the present day as a unique literary foundation with its own king and aristocracy — although it is not without its controversies: there are presently at least four competing claimants to the Redondan throne.

Martin Coles Harman, owner of the British island of Lundy in the early decades of the 20th century, declared himself King and issued private coinage and postage stamps for local use. Although the island was ruled as a virtual fiefdom, its owner never claimed to be independent of the United Kingdom, so Lundy can at best be described as a precursor to later territorial micronations. Another example is the Principality of Outer Baldonia, a 16-acre (65,000 m2) rocky island off the coast of Nova Scotia, founded by Russell Arundel, chairman of the Pepsi Cola Company (later: PepsiCo), in 1945 and comprising a population of 69 fishermen.

History during 1960 to 1980

The 1960s and 1970s witnessed the foundation of a number of territorial micronations. The first of these, Sealand, was established in 1967 on an abandoned World War II gun platform in the North Sea just off the East Anglian coast of England, and has survived into the present day. Others were founded on libertarian principles and involved schemes to construct artificial islands, but only three are known to have had even limited success in realizing that goal.

The Republic of Rose Island was a 400 m² platform built in 1968 in Italian national waters in the Adriatic Sea, 7 miles (11 km) off the Italian town of Rimini. It is known to have issued stamps, and to have declared Esperanto to be its official language. Shortly after completion, however, it was seized and destroyed by the Italian Navy for failing to pay state taxes.

In the late 1960s, Leicester Hemingway, brother of author Ernest, was involved in another such project — a small timber platform in international waters off the west coast of Jamaica. This territory, consisting of an 8-foot (2.4 m) by 30-foot (9.1 m) barge, he called "New Atlantis". Hemingway was an honorary citizen and President; however, the structure was damaged by storms and finally pillaged by Mexican fishermen. In 1973, Hemingway was reported to have moved on from New Atlantis to promoting a 1,000-square-yard platform near the Bahamas. The new country was called "Tierra del Mar" (Land of the Sea). (Ernest Hemingway's adopted hometown of Key West would itself be part of another micronation; see Conch Republic.)

The Republic of Minerva was set up in 1972 as a libertarian new-country project by Nevada businessman Michael Oliver. Oliver's group conducted dredging operations at the Minerva Reefs, a shoal located in the Pacific Ocean south of Fiji. They succeeded in creating a small artificial island, but their efforts at securing international recognition met with little success, and near-neighbour Tonga sent a military force to the area and annexed it.

On April 1, 1977, bibliophile Richard George William Pitt Booth declared the Welsh town of Hay-on-Wye an independent kingdom with himself as its monarch. The town has subsequently developed a healthy tourism industry based on literary interests, and "King Richard" (whose sceptre consists of a recycled toilet plunger) continues to award Hay-on-Wye peerages and honours to anyone prepared to pay for them.[2]

Australian developments

Micronational activities were disproportionately common throughout Australia in the final three decades of the 20th century.

Effects of the Internet

Micronationalism shed much of its traditionally eccentric anti-establishment mantle and took on a distinctly hobbyist perspective in the mid-1990s, when the emerging popularity of the Internet made it possible to create and promote statelike entities in an entirely electronic medium with relative ease. An early example is the Kingdom of Talossa, a micronation created in 1979 by then 14-year-old Robert Ben Madison, which went online on November 1995, and was reported in the New York Times and other print media in 2000.[5] As a result, the number of exclusively online, fantasy or simulation-based micronations expanded dramatically.

The activities of these types of micronations are almost exclusively limited to simulations of diplomatic activity (including the signing of "treaties" and participation in "supra-micronational" forums such as the League of Micronations and the Micronational News Network), the conduct and operation of simulated elections and parliaments, and participation in simulated wars — all of which are carried out through online bulletin boards, mailing lists and blogs.

A number of older-style territorial micronations, including the Hutt River Province, Seborga, and Sealand, maintain websites that serve largely to promote their claims and sell merchandise.

Categories

In the present day, eight main types of micronations are prevalent:

  1. Social, economic, or political simulations.
  2. Exercises in personal entertainment or self-aggrandisement.
  3. Exercises in fantasy or creative fiction.
  4. Vehicles for the promotion of an agenda.
  5. Entities created for fraudulent purposes.
  6. Historical anomalies and aspirant states.
  7. New-country projects.
  8. Exercises in historical revisionism.

Social, economic, or political simulations

These micronations tend to have a reasonably serious intent, and often involve significant numbers of people interested in recreating the past or simulating political or social processes. Examples include:

  • Freetown Christiania, a semi-legal district in Copenhagen, Denmark where there are lax laws on drugs and squatting.
  • Talossa, a political simulation founded in 1979, with more than 130 members ("citizens") and an invented culture and language, recently split into three separate groups.[6][7][8]
  • Holy Empire of Reunion (Sacro Império de Reunião) — a Brazilian micronation founded in 1997 as an online constitutional monarchy simulation. It claims several dozen members around the world, and mints its own coins and medals.
  • Nova Roma, a group claiming a worldwide membership of several thousand that has minted its own coins, maintains its own wiki, and which engages in real-life Roman-themed re-enactments.

Exercises in personal entertainment or self-aggrandisement

President Kevin Baugh of Molossia.

With literally thousands in existence, micronations of the second type are by far the most common. This type can also be known as "political simulationism" or simply "simulationism" They generally exist "for fun," have relatively few participants, are ephemeral, Internet-based, and many do not survive more than a few months — although there are notable exceptions. They are usually concerned solely with arrogating to their founders the outward symbols of statehood. The use of grand-sounding titles, awards, honours, and heraldic symbols derived from European feudal traditions, the conduct of "wars" (often known as recwars) and "diplomacy" with other micronations, and simulated continents or planets are common manifestations of their activities. Examples include:

Exercises in fantasy or creative fiction

Micronations of the third type include stand-alone artistic projects, deliberate exercises in creative online fiction, and artistamp creations. Examples include:

  • The Republic of Kugelmugel, founded by an Austrian artist and based in a ball-shaped house in Vienna, which quickly became a tourist attraction.
  • The Copeman Empire, run from a caravan park in Norfolk, England, by its founder Nick Copeman, who changed his name by deed poll to HM King Nicholas I. He and his empire are the subject of a book (ISBN 0-09-189920-6) and a website where King Nicholas sells Knighthoods.
  • San Serriffe, an April Fool's Day hoax created by the British newspaper The Guardian, in its April 1, 1977 edition. The fictional island nation was described in an elaborate seven-page supplement and has been revisited by the newspaper several times.
  • Republic of Saugeais (République du Saugeais), a fifty-year-old "republic" in the French département of Doubs, bordering Switzerland. The republic is made of the 11 municipalities of Les Allies, Arcon, Bugny, La Chaux-de-Gilley, Gilley, Hauterive-la-Fresne, La Longeville, Montflovin, Maisons-du-Bois-Lievremont, Ville-du-Pont, and its capital Montbenoit. It had a "president" — Georgette Bertin-Pourchet, elected in 2006 — a "prime minister" and numerous "citizens". It was born from a joke between a Sauget resident and the local Préfet.

Vehicles for agenda promotion

"Welcome to the Conch Republic" - a sign at Key West International Airport.

These types of micronation are typically associated with a political or social reform agenda. Some are maintained as media and public relations exercises, and examples of this type include:

  • Akhzivland is a self-declared and officially tolerated "independent republic" established by Israeli hippie and former sailor Eli Avivi on the Mediterranean beach at Akhziv in Israel.[10]
  • The Conch Republic, which began in 1982 as a protest by residents and business owners in the Florida Keys against a United States Border Patrol roadblock. It has since been maintained as a tourism booster, though the group has engaged in other protests.
  • The Gay and Lesbian Kingdom of the Coral Sea Islands, founded in June 2004 on the uninhabited Coral Sea Islands off the coast of Queensland, in response to the Australian government's refusal to recognize same-sex marriage.
  • The Republic of New Afrika, a controversial separatist group seeking the creation of an independent black nationalist state across much of the Southeastern USA.
  • Republic of Lakotah, a proposed republic for the American Indian Lakota people of North and South Dakota, eastern Montana and eastern Wyoming, and northern Nebraska.
  • Republic of Aztlan, a movement calling for independence and restoration of Hispanic-Mexican rule of the Southwestern U.S. in parts of Arizona, California and New Mexico.
  • The Maritime Republic of Eastport, a part of the City of Annapolis, Maryland, that "seceded" from the rest of the city. It still exists as a charitable and publicity vehicle, and runs a unique fund-raiser in the form of a cross-water Tug of War.
  • In 1977, the town of Kinney, Minnesota, unable to obtain funding to replace a failing water system, formed the Republic of Kinney. The Republic of Kinney, in a 'tongue-in-cheek' secession letter to U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance sought foreign aid and, failing that offered to declar war and quickly surrender, similar to The Mouse That Roared. Kinney holds an annual "secession days" celebration.

Entities created for allegedly fraudulent purposes

A number of micronations have been established for fraudulent purposes, by seeking to link questionable or illegal financial actions with seemingly legitimate nations.

  • The Territory of Poyais was invented by Scottish adventurer and South American independence hero Gregor MacGregor in the early 19th century. On the basis of a land grant made to him by the Anglophile native King of the Mosquito people in what is present-day Honduras, MacGregor wove one of history's most elaborate hoaxes, managing to charm the highest levels of London's political and financial establishment with tales of the bucolic, resource-rich country he claimed to rule as a benevolent sovereign prince, or "Cazique", when he arrived in the UK in 1822.
  • The Dominion of Melchizedek has been widely condemned for promoting fraudulent banking activities and other financial scams, and for the involvement by one of its founders in the attempted secession of the Fijian island of Rotuma.[11], [12]
  • New Utopia, operated by Oklahoma City longevity promoter Howard Turney as a libertarian new country project was stopped by a United States federal court temporary restraining order from selling bonds and bank licenses. New Utopia has claimed for a number of years to be on the verge of commencing construction of an artificial island territory located approximately midway between Honduras and Cuba, on the Misteriosa Bank but no such project has yet been undertaken.
  • The Kingdom of EnenKio, which claims Wake Atoll in the Marshall Islands belonging to the US minor outlying islands, has been condemned for selling passports and diplomatic papers by the governments of the Marshall Islands and of the United States.[13] On April 23, 1998, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of the Marshall Islands issued an official Circular Note, denouncing representatives of both "EnenKio" and "Melchizedek" for making fraudulent representations.[14],
  • The United Kingdom of Atlantis operated a website that ceased to function in 2005, and claimed to be located in the Pacific Ocean near Australia. The "kingdom" published maps of its alleged location; however, the islands shown did not exist. Atlantis' leader, the self-styled Sheikh Yakub Al-Sheikh Ibrahim, was wanted in the US for various crimes including fraud and money laundering. At one point, Atlantis sent a delegation to the legitimate state of Palau to offer a low interest loan of $100 million.[15]

Historical anomalies and aspirant states

A small number of micronations are founded on historical anomalies or eccentric interpretations of law. These types of micronations are usually located on small (usually disputed) territorial enclaves, generate limited economic activity founded on tourism and philatelic and numismatic sales, and are tolerated or ignored by the nations from which they claim to have seceded. This category includes:

  • Seborga, a town in the region of Liguria, Italy, near the southern end of the border with France, which traces its history back to the Middle Ages.
  • The Principality of Hutt River (formerly "Hutt River Province"), a farm in Western Australia, claims to have seceded from Australia to become an independent principality, with a worldwide population numbered in the tens of thousands.
  • The Principality of Sealand, a World War II-era anti-aircraft platform built in the North Sea beyond Britain's then territorial limit, seized by a pirate radio group in 1967 as a base for their operations, and currently used as the site of a secure web-hosting facility. Sealand has continued to promote its independence by issuing stamps, money, and appointing an official national athlete. It has been described as the world's best-known micronation.[16]
  • The Crown Dependency of Forvik is an island in Shetland, currently recognized as part of UK. Stuart Hill claims that independence comes from an arrangement struck in 1468 between King Christian I of Denmark/Norway and Scotland's James III, whereby Christian pawned the Shetland Islands to James in order to raise money for his daughter's dowry. Hill claims that the dowry was never paid and therefore it is not part of UK and should be a crown dependency like the Isle of Man. Hill has also encouraged the rest of the Shetlands to declare independence.[17]

New-country projects

Landing on Minerva.

New-country projects are attempts to found completely new nation-states. They typically involve plans to construct artificial islands (few of which are ever realised), and a large percentage have embraced or purported to embrace libertarian or democratic principles. Examples include:

  • Operation Atlantis, an early 1970s New York–based libertarian group that built a concrete-hulled ship called Freedom, which they sailed to the Caribbean, intending to anchor it permanently there as their "territory". The ship sank in a hurricane and the project foundered with it.
  • Republic of Minerva, another libertarian project that succeeded in building a small man-made island on the Minerva Reefs south of Fiji in 1972 before being ejected by troops from Tonga, who later formally annexed it.
  • Principality of Freedonia, a libertarian project that tried to lease territory from the Sultan of Awdal in Somaliland in 2001. Resulting public dissatisfaction led to rioting, and the reported death of a Somali.
  • Oceania (also known as "The Atlantis Project", but unrelated to the 1970s project listed above), another libertarian artificial island project that raised US $400,000 before going bankrupt in 1994.[18]
  • Seasteading, a project aiming at building competitive governments at sea.
  • Global Country of World Peace, "a country without borders for peace loving people everywhere", was declared by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 2000. It made several attempts to buy or lease land for a sovereign territory.[19] It is currently governed by Maharaja Tony Nader.[20] Its currency is the RAAM and its capital is Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa.

Exercises in historical revisionism

In Germany, numerous individuals and groups – collectively labeled Kommissarische Reichsregierungen (KRR) – assert that the German Empire continues to exist in its pre-World War II borders and that they are its government.[21]

Legitimacy

In international law, the Montevideo Convention on the Right and Duties of States sets down the criteria for statehood in article 1: The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.

The first sentence of article 3 of the Montevideo Convention explicitly states that "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states."

Under these guidelines, any entity which meets all of the criteria set forth in article 1 can be regarded as sovereign under international law, whether or not other states have recognized it. Most micronations have failed to meet one or more of these criteria.

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta, as an independent subject of international law does not meet all the criteria for recognition as a State (however it does not claim itself a State either), but is and has been recognized as a sovereign nation for centuries.

The doctrine of territorial integrity does not effectively prohibit unilateral secession from established states in international law, per the relevant section from the text of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, also known as the Helsinki Final Act, Helsinki Accords or Helsinki Declaration:[22]

IV. Territorial integrity of States

The participating States will respect the territorial integrity of each of the participating States.

Accordingly, they will refrain from any action inconsistent with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations against the territorial integrity, political independence or the unity of any participating State, and in particular from any such action constituting a threat or use of force.

The participating States will likewise refrain from making each other's territory the object of military occupation or other direct or indirect measures of force in contravention of international law, or the object of acquisition by means of such measures or the threat of them. No such occupation or acquisition will be recognized as legal.

In effect, this states that other states (i.e., third parties), may not encourage secession in a state. This does not make any statement as regards persons within a state electing to secede of their own accord.

Academic, literary and media attention

Micronations: The Lonely Planet Guide to Home-made Nations

There has been a small but growing amount of attention paid to the micronation phenomenon in recent years. Most interest in academic circles has been concerned with studying the apparently anomalous legal situations affecting such entities as Sealand and the Hutt River Province, in exploring how some micronations represent grassroots political ideas, and in the creation of role-playing entities for instructional purposes.

In 2000, Professor Fabrice O'Driscoll, of the Aix-Marseille University, published a book about micronations: "Ils ne siègent pas à l'ONU" ("They are not in the United Nations"), with more than 300 pages dedicated to the subject.

In May 2000, an article in the New York Times entitled "Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online" brought the phenomenon to a wider audience for the first time. Similar articles were published by newspapers such as the French "Liberation", Italian La Repubblica, Greek "Ta Nea", O Estado de São Paulo in Brazil and Portugal's Visão at around the same time.

Several recent publications have dealt with the subject of particular historic micronations, including Republic of Indian Stream (University Press), by Dartmouth College geographer Daniel Doan, and The Land that Never Was, about Gregor MacGregor and the Principality of Poyais, by David Sinclair (Review, 2003, ISBN 0-7553-1080-2).

In August 2003, a summit of micronations took place in Helsinki at Finlandia Hall, the site of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE). The summit was attended by delegations of the Principality of Sealand, the Kingdoms of Elgaland-Vargaland, NSK-State in Time, Ladonia, the Transnational Republic, the State of Sabotage and by scholars from various academic institutions.

From 7 November through 17 December 2004, the Reg Vardy Gallery at the University of Sunderland (UK) hosted an exhibition on the subject of micronational group identity and symbolism. The exhibition focused on numismatic, philatelic and vexillological artifacts, as well as other symbols and instruments created and used by a number of micronations from the 1950s through to the present day. A summit of micronations conducted as part of this exhibition was attended by representatives of Sealand, Elgaland-Vargaland, New Utopia, Atlantium, Frestonia and Fusa. The exhibition was reprised at the Andrew Kreps Gallery in New York City from 24 June–29 July of the following year and organized by R. Blackson and Peter Coffin. Peter Coffin organized a more extensive exhibition about micronations at Paris' Palais de Tokyo Museum in early 2007 called ÉTATS (faites-le vous-même)/GROW YOUR OWN.

The Sunderland summit was later featured in a 5-part BBC light entertainment television series called How to Start Your Own Country presented by Danny Wallace. The series told the story of Wallace's experience of founding a micronation, Lovely, located in his London flat. It screened in the UK in August 2005.

Similar programs have also aired on television networks in other parts of Europe. In France, several Canal+ programs have centered on the satirical Presipality of Groland, while in Belgium a series by Rob Vanoudenhoven and broadcast on the Flemish commercial network VTM in April 2006 was reminiscent of Wallace's series, and centred around the producer's creation of Robland. Among other things Vanoudenhoven minted his own coins denominated in "Robbies".

On September 9, 2006, The Guardian newspaper reported that the travel guide company Lonely Planet had published the world's first travel guide devoted to micronations, the Lonely Planet Guide to Home-Made Nations.

The Democratic Empire of Sunda, which claims to be the Government of the Kingdom of Sunda (an ancient kingdom, in present-day Indonesia) in exile in Switzerland, made media headlines when two so-called princesses, Lamia Roro Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misri, 21, and Fathia Reza Wiranatadikusumah Siliwangi Al Misiri, 23, were detained by Malaysian authorities at the border with Brunei, on 13 July 2007, and are charged for entering the country without a valid pass. Hearing continues.[23]

Coins of micronations

See also

References

  1. ^ The People's Almanac #2, page 330.
  2. ^ BBC - Mid Wales Arts - Richard Booth
  3. ^ The Principality of Snake Hill
  4. ^ Miletic, Daniella (2005-07-05). "'Prince' found guilty of tax fraud". The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/prince-found-guilty-of-tax-fraud/2005/07/06/1120329501217.html. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  5. ^ Stephen Mimh (2000) Utopian Rulers, and Spoofs, Stake Out Territory Online. New York Times, May 25, 2000
  6. ^ Kingdom of Talossa (1)
  7. ^ Kingdom of Talossa (2)
  8. ^ Republic of Talossa
  9. ^ http://www.escapeartist.com/unique_lifestyles/for_a_new_nation.htm
  10. ^ Miller, Colin. "A World of His Own: Eli Avivi". Go World Travel Online Magazine. http://www.goworldtravel.com/ex/aspx/articleGuid.%7B672DD612-3DFA-4C10-8A9E-0690F5D275F6%7D/xe/article.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  11. ^ http://www.occ.treas.gov/ftp/Alert/98-38.txt
  12. ^ Litigation Release No. 16368 / November 23, 1999
  13. ^ Richard’s Ramblings... History of Wake Island
  14. ^ Official Marshall Islands Notices
  15. ^ [1] [2] (also contains an image of the flag)[3]
  16. ^ "JOURNEYS – THE SPIRIT OF DISCOVERY: Simon Sellars braves wind and waves to visit the unlikely North Sea nation of Sealand". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22726244-5002031,00.html. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  17. ^ Hill, Stuart (2008-06-21). "Forvik Declaration of Direct Dependence". The Crown Dependency of Forvik. http://www.forvik.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=44&Itemid=53. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  18. ^ The Oceania Project, accessed November 9, 2006
  19. ^ McGirk, Jan (June 8, 2001). The Independent (London (UK)): p. 17. 
  20. ^ MIZROCH, AMIR (July 23, 2006). "Forget the F-16s, Israel needs more Yogic Flyers to beat Hizbullah. 30-strong TM group, sole guests at Nof Ginnosar Hotel, say they need another 235 colleagues to make the country safe". Jerusalem Post: p. 04. http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1153291974316&pagename=JPArticle%2FShowFull. 
  21. ^ Thiriet, Maurice (11 March 2009). "«Reichsführerschein» im Thurgau nicht gültig" (in German). Tages-Anzeiger. http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/panorama/vermischtes/Reichsfuehrerschein-im-Thurgau-nicht-gueltig/story/27903000. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  22. ^ http://www.osce.org/documents/mcs/1975/08/4044_en.pdf
  23. ^ The Borneo Post Online » Print » DPP: Sunda princesses ‘Prohibited Immigrants’

Further reading

  • Anonymous (2003-07-24). "Prince finds if all else fails, secede". Australian Daily Telegraph. 
  • Alex Blumberg (03-2000). "It's Good to Be King". Wired. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.03/kingdoms.html. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  • Adam Clanton, "The Men Who Would Be King: Forgotten Challenges to U.S. Sovereignty," UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 1–50.
  • Mark Dapin (2005-02-12). "If at first you don't secede...". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  • Bruno Fuligni (1997). L'État C'est Moi: Histoire des monarchies privées, criptarchies (L'État C'est Moi: History of private monarchies and cryptarchies). Max Chaleil. 
  • Kochta & Kalleinen, editors. Amorph! 03 Summit of Micronations–Documents/Asiakirjoja, 2003, ISBN 3-936919-45-3
  • Menefee, Samuel Pyeatt. "'Republics of the Reefs': Nation-Building on the Continental Shelf and in the World's Oceans," California Western International Law Journal, vol. 25, no. 1, Fall 1994, pp. 81–111
  • Peter Needham (2006-09-26). "Born to rule". The Australian. 
  • Nick Squires (2005-02-24). "Mini-states Down Under are sure they can secede". The Daily Telegraph. 
  • Strauss, Erwin S. How to start your own country, ISBN 0-915179-01-6

External links








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