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A cluster of Escherichia coli Bacteria magnified 10,000 times.
.A microorganism (from the Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism"; also spelled micro organism or micro-organism) or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (usually too small to be seen by the naked human eye).^ Living organism invisible to the naked eye but visible under a microscope.

^ A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be visible to the naked eye).
  • Microorganism - Hwiki 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most are invisible without a microscope, but a few can be seen with the naked eye.
  • Unicellular Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC www.edhelper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design.^ Microorganisms were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 using a microscope of his own design.
  • Microorganism - definition from Biology-Online.org 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study of microorganisms is called microbiology .
  • Microorganism at AllExperts 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Microorganism - Hwiki 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not surprisingly, the field of microbiology began simultaneously with the discovery of microorganisms .

.Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (called green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian.^ Procaryotic microorganisms include bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).
  • Water Resource Characterization DSS - Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.water.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Possible candidates include the microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.

^ In plants, these bacteria are called chloroplasts.

.Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living.^ Some of these are bacteria , while others are viruses or protozoa .
  • Microorganisms, Bacteria, and Viruses in Drinking Water 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC extoxnet.orst.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viruses and prions , although microscopic, are not considered microorganisms by others because they are generally regarded as non-living .
  • Microorganism - definition from Biology-Online.org 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others are free-living, and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation.
  • Bacteria and the body - Wikiversity 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][2] .Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibiensis, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye.^ Legionella Bacterium - (plural bacteria) a microscopic, unicellular (or more rarely multicellular) organism.

^ An organism that is not visible to the naked eye, such as a bacteria, a virus, a fungus, or a parasite.
  • A definition of microorganism - from ecomii 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are a very large group of single-cell microorganisms.
  • http://www.resonancepub.com/bacteria.htm 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.resonancepub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.Microorganisms live in all parts of the biosphere where there is liquid water, including soil, hot springs, on the ocean floor, high in the atmosphere and deep inside rocks within the Earth's crust.^ Microorganisms live almost everywhere on Earth where there is liquid water, including hot springs, on the ocean floor, and deep inside rocks within Earth's crust.

^ Microorganisms live in all parts of the biosphere where there is liquid water , including hot springs , on the ocean floor, high in the atmosphere and deep inside rocks within the Earth's crust .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many micro-organisms which live in the soil including: .
  • Effects of Pesticides on Soil Micro-Organism - LoveToKnow Garden 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC garden.lovetoknow.com [Source type: News]

.Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers.^ Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers.

^ They play critical roles in many ecosystem processes and their interactions with other organisms can have important consequences for the diversity, ecology, physiology and evolution of macro-organisms.
  • Microbial Ecology and Evolution at the University of Washington 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC fish.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ To maintain itself, any ecosystem must have key gases (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide), nutrients , and organisms that can recycle these substances.
  • Cycling through the Food Web 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bigelow.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part of the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microbes may play a role in precipitation and weather.^ They are all examples of microorganisms that all play a role in our world.

^ Cyanobacteria also play a major role in the nitrogen cycle.
  • http://www.resonancepub.com/bacteria.htm 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.resonancepub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tiny organisms may play a big role in causing precipitation.
  • #88: Bacteria Can Control the Weather | Unusual Organisms | DISCOVER Magazine 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: News]

[4]
.Microbes are also exploited by people in biotechnology, both in traditional food and beverage preparation, and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering.^ Microbes are also exploited by people in biotechnology , both in traditional food and beverage preparation , and in modern technologies based on genetic engineering .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microbial Novoteqs develops technology platforms in yeast molecular genetics and pathway engineering, providing creative solutions for broad industrial needs.

^ Their method is based on the Taverna workflow technology, and was developed under myGrid, an e-Science project funded by the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
  • Grid computing reveals secrets about anthrax bacterium - Scientific Computing World 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.scientific-computing.com [Source type: News]

.However, pathogenic microbes are harmful, since they invade and grow within other organisms, causing diseases that kill millions of people, other animals, and plants.^ Disease-causing organisms remain to be discovered.
  • PLoS Pathogens: A Novel Bacterium Associated with Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as pathogens .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism - Hwiki 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pathogen:    A microorganism that is infectious and causes disease.
  • fightbac.org: Partnership for Food Safety Education (PFSE) - Food Safety Glossary 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fightbac.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Contents

History

Evolution

.Single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on Earth, approximately 3–4 billion years ago.^ Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life.
  • Understanding Intestinal Bacteria and the Gut Ecology 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.puristat.com [Source type: General]

^ Bacteria were here 3.5 billion years ago.
  • Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.amnh.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on earth, approximately 3–4 billion years ago .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7][8] .Further evolution was slow,[9] and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, all organisms were microscopic.^ Further evolution was slow, and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon , all organisms were microscopic.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For about 3 billion years, all organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Further evolution was slow, [5] and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, all organisms were microscopic.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[10] .So, for most of the history of life on Earth the only forms of life were microorganisms.^ Bacteria are the toughest life forms on Earth.
  • Bacteria | Sacramento Splash - Helping children understand and value their natural world 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sacsplash.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria were the only form of life on earth for 2 billion years.
  • bacteria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0805683.html 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sproutnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bacteria encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, for most of the history of life on Earth the only form of life were microorganisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[11] .Bacteria, algae and fungi have been identified in amber that is 220 million years old, which shows that the morphology of microorganisms has changed little since the triassic period.^ Microorganisms include bacteria, protozoans, and certain algae and fungi.
  • Microorganisms Definition | Definition of Microorganisms at Dictionary.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Microorganism Definition | Definition of Microorganism at Dictionary.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the photo above are specimens of the 250-million year old bacteria, B. permians .

^ October 19: 250 Million-year-old bacteria have been revived.
  • Bacteria: The Space Colonists. by Brig Klyce 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.panspermia.org [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly and microbes such as bacteria can also freely exchange genes by conjugation, transformation and transduction between widely-divergent species.^ Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly and microbes such as bacteria can also freely exchange genes by conjugation , transformation and transduction between widely-divergent species.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria can mutate by exchanging genes.
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission .

[13] .This horizontal gene transfer, coupled with a high mutation rate and many other means of genetic variation, allows microorganisms to swiftly evolve (via natural selection) to survive in new environments and respond to environmental stresses.^ DNA loss, rate of gene transfer...
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency - Fertilizers - Trade Memorandum T-4-119 - Explanatory Notes on the Information Useful for Safety assessmentsof Microorganisms in Fertilizers and Supplements 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.inspection.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ We simply provide the right environment for the genetic variant to arise naturally.” .
  • BREAKTHROUGH TECHNOLOGY HARNESSES MICROORGANISM FOR USE AS GREEN BIO-PESTICIDE | LifeSciencesWorld 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lifesciencesworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of horizontally transferred genes in D. radiodurans .
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the recent development of 'super-bugs' — pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to modern antibiotics.^ Among the most antibiotic resistant bacteria from humans .

^ This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the recent development of ' super-bugs ' — pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to modern antibiotics .
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Categories: Antibiotic resistance Antibiotics Bacteria Proteins .
  • Bacteria News - insciences 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC insciences.org [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Pre-Microbiology

.The possibility that microorganisms exist was discussed for many centuries before their actual discovery in the 17th century.^ The possibility that microorganisms might exist was discussed for many centuries before their actual discovery in the 17th century.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microorganisms were neither proven, observed, nor correctly and accurately described until the 17th century.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This remarkable new discovery shows that the thermal features of Yellowstone still hold many secrets, even after nearly half a century of reseach.
  • Thermal Biology Institute at Montana State University :: Hot Topics 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC tbi.montana.edu [Source type: Academic]

The earliest known idea to indicate the possibility of diseases spreading by yet unseen organisms was that of the Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro in a 1st century BC book titled On Agriculture in which he warns against locating a homestead near swamps:
…and because there are bred certain minute creatures which cannot be seen by the eyes, which float in the air and enter the body through the mouth and nose and there cause serious diseases.[15]
.In The Canon of Medicine (1020), Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected.^ In The Canon of Medicine (1020), Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pus and nasal secretions appear to have some protective effect such that the organism has been reported to survive for weeks to months outside the horse's body in a contaminated environment.
  • The Horse | Strangles in Horses 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.thehorse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria can cause disease by destroying cells, releasing toxins, contaminating food, or by the reaction of the body to the infecting bacteria.

[16] .He also hypothesized that tuberculosis and other diseases might be contagious, i.e. that they were infectious diseases, and used quarantine to limit their spread.^ Other infectious diseases .
  • Scrub Typhus: essential data 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbwinfo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Dysentery: essential data 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.cbwinfo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hospitals must use protective precautions when caring for persons with infectious diseases so they do not spread to others.
  • SDNHM: Epidemic! Teacher's Guide 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sdnhm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also hypothesized that tuberculosis and other diseases might be contagious, i.e.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.When the Black Death bubonic plague reached Andalusia in Spain, in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima wrote that infectious diseases were caused by contagious "minute bodies" that enter the human body.^ Pathogen:    A microorganism that is infectious and causes disease.
  • fightbac.org: Partnership for Food Safety Education (PFSE) - Food Safety Glossary 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fightbac.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria can cause many diseases in humans.
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the Black Death bubonic plague reached al-Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[16] .Later, in 1546, Girolamo Fracastoro proposed that epidemic diseases were caused by transferable seedlike entities that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact, or even without contact over long distances.^ Sexually transmitted disease (STD): An infection generally transmitted by sexual contact.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fowl pox can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact.
  • issg Database: Ecology of Avipoxvirus 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.issg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.All these early claims about the existence of microorganisms were speculative and were not based on any data or science.^ All these early claims about the existence of microorganisms were speculative in nature and not based on any data or science.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These theories are worked out in the Isopathic Workshop , where above all the significance of the acid-base balance is thoroughly discussed, combined with the latest biochemical and pathophysiological findings.
  • Professor Enderlein's Isopathy and Milieu Therapy -- What is it? 22 September 2009 11:39 UTC www.explorepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A final assessment of risk based on all these considerations is therefore used to set the appropriate containment conditions for the experiment.
  • Belgian Classifications for Micro-organisms 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biosafety.be [Source type: Academic]

.Microorganisms were neither proven, observed, nor correctly and accurately described until the 17th century.^ Microorganisms were neither proven, observed, nor correctly and accurately described until the 17th century.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The existence of microorganisms was hypothesized during the Middle Ages but they were not observed or proven until the invention of the microscope in the 17th century.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ By using the staining agent of the present invention as described above, the microorganisms can be stained in a shorter period of time and detected more correctly as compared with conventional microorganism staining-detection methods.
  • Microorganism staining agent and use thereof - US Patent 7294154 Description 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.patentstorm.us [Source type: Reference]

.The reason for this was that all these early studies lacked the microscope.^ For all of these reasons, iron and sulfur bacteria may be able to survive a chlorine treatment that would kill other types of bacteria.
  • whole House IRON SULFUR BACTERIA Well Water Treatment System 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wholly-water.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Quality Water Service - We know how to treat you and your water 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC qws-online.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And yet not all of these pests can be discovered through the use of the traditional and extremely expensive methods of investigation, such as the electron microscope.
  • FWF Austrian Science Fund - Press - Micro-organisms love art 15 September 2009 23:10 UTC www.fwf.ac.at [Source type: Academic]

^ The difference is, these fluffy critters are a million times bigger, and contagious for all the right reasons.
  • Uglydolls - buy at Firebox.com 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.firebox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History of microorganisms' discovery

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first microbiologist and the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope.
.Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the one of the first people to observe microorganisms, using a microscope of his own design, and made one of the most important contributions to biology.^ Microorganisms were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1675 using a microscope of his own design.
  • Microorganism - definition from Biology-Online.org 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe microorganisms, using a microscope of his own design, thereby making him the first microbiologist .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Robert Hooke was the first to use a microscope to observe living things; his 1665 book Micrographia contained descriptions of plant cells.^ Is the cell wall contained in an animal cell or a plant cell?

^ Robert Hooke - describe cells.
  • Microorganisms Lesson Plans: Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protists 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lessonplansinc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ History of the discovery of cells Robert Hooke observed dead cork cells under a simple microscope in 1665.

.Before Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, it had been a mystery why grapes could be turned into wine, milk into cheese, or why food would spoil.^ When exposed to heat, the milk inside the container would turn into a solid - cheese.
  • What is Enzyme? 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.tip2000.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria turn milk into cheese and yogurt.
  • Bacteria | Sacramento Splash - Helping children understand and value their natural world 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.sacsplash.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, it had been a mystery as to why grapes could be turned into wine , milk into cheese , or why food would spoil.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leeuwenhoek did not make the connection between these processes and microorganisms, but using a microscope, he did establish that there were forms of life that were not visible to the naked eye.^ Living organism invisible to the naked eye but visible under a microscope.

^ When organisms or microorganisms are used to make products, the process is called biotechnology.
  • It's Your Health - Assessing and Managing the Health Risks of Living Biotechnology Products under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hc-sc.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be visible to the naked eye).
  • Microorganism - Hwiki 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19][20] .Leeuwenhoek's discovery, along with subsequent observations by Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur, ended the long-held belief that life spontaneously appeared from non-living substances during the process of spoilage.^ Leeuwenhoek's discovery, along with subsequent observations by Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur , ended the long-held belief that life spontaneously appeared from non-living substances during the process of spoilage.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ During the nineteenth century, the French scientist Louis Pasteur and the German physician Robert Koch demonstrated the role of bacteria as pathogens (causing disease).
  • Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Bacteria Cell Structure 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC micro.magnet.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three-domain system [ r ] : Add brief definition or description Louis Pasteur [ r ] : (1822 - 1895) Disproved abiogenesis, the theory of spontaneous generation of microbes.
  • Bacteria - Related Articles - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Lazzaro Spallanzani found that boiling broth would sterilise it and kill any microorganisms in it.^ He also found that boiling the broth would sterilise it and kill the microorganisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ I would think that bleach treatment or other methods of disinfecting plants would probably kill any populations currently on plants being added to a sterile aquarium.
  • Re: rotifers, vorticella and unicellular algae feeders 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC fins.actwin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The food processing procedures, including washing, sterilization, baking and frying, can greatly decrease the type and number of microorganisms in the food, or even kill them all.
  • The Analysis and Testing on the Relationship between Food Packages and Food Quality Guarantee Period 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.labthink.cn [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also found that new microorganisms could only settle in a broth if the broth was exposed to the air.^ Lazzarro Spallanzani found that microorganisms could only settle in a broth if the broth was exposed to the air.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For only the third time in 100 years, scientists have found a new group of bacteria that turns sunlight into chemical energy.
  • New bacterium found in microbial mats of Yellowstone 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.montana.edu [Source type: News]

^ Since bacteria had not been exposed to it before then, could their new capacity to consume nylon positively demonstrate evolutionary progress?
  • Nylon-Eating Bacteria and Evolutionary Progress 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.icr.org [Source type: Academic]

.Louis Pasteur expanded upon Spallanzani's findings by exposing boiled broths to the air, in vessels that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium, and also in vessels with no filter at all, with air being admitted via a curved tube that would not allow dust particles to come in contact with the broth.^ All Natural and contains no soaps.
  • Site Map - Unique-Arizona.com 11 September 2009 5:31 UTC unique-arizona.com [Source type: General]

^ Louis Pasteur expanded the meaning to cover any preventative inoculation.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No growth at all .

.By boiling the broth beforehand, Pasteur ensured that no microorganisms survived within the broths at the beginning of his experiment.^ By boiling the broth beforehand, Pasteur ensured that no microorganisms survived within the broths at the beginning of his experiment.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ However, if your internal milieu begins to change, then the microorganisms within you adapt to the new milieu and may no longer help you but actually contribute to dysfunction, damage, and disease.
  • Isopathic Products 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.drkaslow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also found that boiling the broth would sterilise it and kill the microorganisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Nothing grew in the broths in the course of Pasteur's experiment.^ Nothing grew in the broths in the course of Pasteur's experiment.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ By boiling the broth beforehand, Pasteur ensured that no microorganisms survived within the broths at the beginning of his experiment.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.This meant that the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than spontaneously generated within the broth.^ This meant that the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than spontaneously generated within the broth.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ In vitro: Outside a living organism, such as a test-tube experiment.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many living things, including microscopic life forms, were thought to arise through spontaneous generation (life coming from nonliving matter).
  • Bacteria Gram Stain Reaction: Test for Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacterial Identification 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC bacteriology.suite101.com [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, Pasteur dealt the death blow to the theory of spontaneous generation and supported germ theory.^ Thus, Pasteur dealt the death blow to the theory of spontaneous generation and supported germ theory .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, Pasteur dealt the death blow to the theory of spontaneous generation and supported germ theory.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Louis Pasteur - germ theory, immunization.
  • Microorganisms Lesson Plans: Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protists 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.lessonplansinc.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 1876, Robert Koch established that microbes can cause disease.^ In 1876, Robert Koch established that microbes can cause disease.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Pathogen —A disease-causing microbe.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The microorganisms below are disease-causing microbes.

.He found that the blood of cattle who were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis.^ Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis .

^ He did this by finding that the blood of cattle who were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacillus anthracis – anthrax in sheep and humans.

.Koch found that he could transmit anthrax from one animal to another by taking a small sample of blood from the infected animal and injecting it into a healthy one, and this caused the healthy animal to become sick.^ It is caused when one inhale infected microorganisms.
  • Bacterial Pneumonia 11 September 2009 5:31 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also found that he could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth, inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Koch also found that he could transmit anthrax from one animal to another by taking a small sample of blood from the infected animal and injecting it into a healthy one, causing the healthy animal to become sick.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.He also found that he could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth, then inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness.^ It's caused by bacteria commonly found in soil, dust and animal waste.
  • Bacteria Information, supplements vitamins herbs : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Info on frindly and good bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness.
  • Coliform and Bacteria - Washington State Dept of Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.doh.wa.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Coliform Bacteria News, Research 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: General]

^ He also found that he could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth, inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Based on these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microbe and a disease and these are now known as Koch's postulates.^ This led to the establishment of a causal link.
  • Background Information on Enterobacter Sakazakii (E. sakazakii) 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.babymilk.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Based upon these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microbe and a disease in what are now known as Koch's postulates.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1876, Robert Koch established that microbes can cause disease.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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[21] .Although these postulates cannot be applied in all cases, they do retain historical importance to the development of scientific thought and are still being used today.^ Indeed they are still on sale today.
  • Bacteria bottles, do they work? - The Free Freshwater and Saltwater Aquarium Encyclopedia Anyone Can Edit - The Aquarium Wiki 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.theaquariumwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though these postulates cannot be applied in all cases, they do retain historical importance in the development of scientific thought and can still be used today.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ If you start to hear more and more about probiotics, here's why: although these helpful bacteria were discovered a long time ago, new resarch indicates they may be useful battling a lot of ailments.
  • Bacteria - a comprehensive view - Wellsphere 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.wellsphere.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]

Classification and structure

.
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of all three domains of life.
^ AM: Carl Woese in the late 1970s discovered a group of microorganisms that he named Archaea, and he drew a new tree of life, in which the major subdivisions were three domains - Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya - rather than five kingdoms.
  • Bacteria Don't Have Species 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.astrobio.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This new phylogenetic taxonomy was based on the sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA, and divided prokaryotes into two evolutionary domains as part of the three-domain system.
  • Bacteria - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bacteria - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tree of life, divided between three major cell types, those with and without a nucleus (Bacterial Prokaryotes and Animal Eukaryotes), preceded by the root of the tree, Archea .
  • Bacteria Don't Have Species 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.astrobio.net [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green.^ Eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adding ethanol-alcohol as a decolorizing compound, the bacteria either retained the blue-purple color or turned red following a treatment with Safranin a counter-stain used for visibility purposes.
  • Algone.com - Bacteria and Antibiotics in the Aquarium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.algone.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I'd like to point out that microbes - the bacteria, the archaea, the eukaryotes - they're everywhere, or almost everywhere.
  • Microbes, Microbes Everywhere 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.astrobio.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Relative positions of some phyla are shown around the tree.
.Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere in the taxonomic organization of life on the planet.^ Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere in the taxonomic organization of life on the planet.
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^ It does not say that the microorganism is not found anywhere in a healthy animal; it means that the organism is not found in the same type of tissue of a healthy animal.
  • Koch's postulates - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The simple fact is that microorganisms create the ecological foundation for life on planet Earth - a foundation that supports humans and all over living things."
  • Microorganism Proliferation in Response to Specific Environmental Variables 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Microorganism Proliferation in the Duck Pond (Draft 3) 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists, some fungi, as well as some animals and plants.^ Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists , some fungi , as well as some animals and plants.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Bacteria, some Archaea .

^ Bacteria live both on and in animals and plants.
  • The Earth Life Web, Facinating Facts About Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.earthlife.net [Source type: Original source]

.Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore are not microbes, although the field of microbiology also encompasses the study of viruses.^ Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore are not microbes, although the field of microbiology also encompasses the study of viruses.
  • Microorganism 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Bacteriology [ r ] : The branch of microbiology concerned with the study, use, and control of bacteria [ e ] Biochemistry [ r ] : The chemistry of living things; a field of both biology and chemistry.
  • Bacteria - Related Articles - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC locke.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although they are generally not harmful themselves, they indicate the possible presence of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria, viruses, and protozoans that also live in human and animal digestive systems.
  • EPA > OWOW > Monitoring and Assessing Water Quality > Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual > Chapter 5 > 5.11 Fecal Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

Prokaryotes

.Prokaryotes are organisms that lack a cell nucleus and the other membrane bound organelles.^ Structure - Prokaryotic cells lack most of the organelles found in eukaryotic cells.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are simple, single-celled organisms that lack an organized nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles.
  • BioEd Online Slides: "microorganism", viruses, trichomoniasis, STD, HPV 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bioedonline.org [Source type: Academic]
  • K8 Science Slides: "microorganism", microbes, bacteria, viruses, STD 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.k8science.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prokaryote —A unicellular organism lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are almost always unicellular, although some species such as myxobacteria can aggregate into complex structures as part of their life cycle.^ Myxobacteria: Bacteria that have a complex developmental cycle.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As some microorganisms can also fix nitrogen, they are an important part of the nitrogen cycle.

^ Prokaryotes are almost always unicellular, although some species such as myxobacteria can aggregate into complex structures as part of their life cycle .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consisting of two domains, bacteria and archaea, the prokaryotes are the most diverse and abundant group of organisms on Earth and inhabit practically all environments where some liquid water is available and the temperature is below +140 °C. They are found in sea water, soil, air, animals' gastrointestinal tracts, hot springs and even deep beneath the Earth's crust in rocks.^ They inhabit deserts, ice caps, oceans and hot springs.
  • Bacteria: More Than Pathogens (ActionBioscience) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.actionbioscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prokaryotes can be divided into two groups or domains, Eubacteria or true bacteria and the Archaea or ancient organisms.
  • Cyano Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.uni.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can reproduce independently, and inhabit virtually every environment on earth, including soil, water , hot springs, ice packs, and the bodies of plants and animals.
  • Bacteria vs. Viruses - DrGreene.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.drgreene.com [Source type: General]

[24] .Practically all surfaces which have not been specially sterilized are covered by prokaryotes.^ Practically all surfaces which have not been specially sterilized are covered in bacteria.
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^ It is critical when monitoring bacteria that all containers and surfaces with which the sample will come into contact be sterile.
  • EPA > OWOW > Monitoring and Assessing Water Quality > Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual > Chapter 5 > 5.11 Fecal Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Spread the liquid all over the plate surface using a sterile spoon.

.The number of prokaryotes on Earth is estimated to be around five million trillion trillion, or 5 × 1030, accounting for at least half the biomass on Earth.^ It has recently been estimated that the number of bacteria on earth is  five million trillion trillion.
  • http://www.resonancepub.com/bacteria.htm 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.resonancepub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number of bacteria in the world is estimated to be around five million trillion trillion, or 5 × 10 30 .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ This microbial community is as diverse as any found in Earth's seas or soils, numbering up to 100 trillion individuals and representing more than 1,000 different species.
  • The Huge Entity: Mu Haiku: Ode to a Trillion Unicellular Love-Machines 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC www.huge-entity.com [Source type: General]

[25]

Bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus bacteria magnified about 10,000x
.Bacteria are practically all invisible to the naked eye, with a few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis.^ Bacteria are practically all invisible to the naked eye, with a few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacteria are practically all invisible to the naked eye, with few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis .
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ All living things which are individually visible to the naked eye are eukaryotes (with few exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis ), including humans .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .They lack membrane-bound organelles, and can function and reproduce as individual cells, but often aggregate in multicellular colonies.^ The bacterial cell lacks a membrane-bound nucleus.

^ They are unicellular organisms and lack organelles.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ They are unicellular organisms and lack membrane-bound organelles.
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[27] .Their genome is usually a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of DNA called plasmids.^ Their genome is usually a single loop of DNA , although they can also harbor small pieces of DNA called plasmids.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Note that the entire DNA is not usually transferred, only a small piece.

^ Their genome is usually a single loop of DNA , although they can also harbor small pieces of DNA called plasmids .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These plasmids can be transferred between cells through bacterial conjugation.^ T : Origin of transfer of conjugative plasmids.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some plasmids can transfer themselves between bacterial cells through bacterial conjugation.
  • Bacterial Plasmids 11 September 2009 5:31 UTC www.mun.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These plasmids will be supercoiled in the cell.
  • Bacterial Plasmids 11 September 2009 5:31 UTC www.mun.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall, which provides strength and rigidity to their cells.^ Many groups of bacteria have a cell wall, a structure surrounding the cell.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall , which provides strength and rigidity to their cells.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cell wall surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane of most bacteria.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.They reproduce by binary fission or sometimes by budding, but do not undergo sexual reproduction.^ They reproduce by binary fission or sometimes by budding , but do not undergo sexual reproduction .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They reproduce by binary fission or sometimes by budding.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria reproduce by binary fission , a form of asexual reproduction.
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species form extraordinarily resilient spores, but for bacteria this is a mechanism for survival, not reproduction.^ Some species form extremely resilient spores, but for bacteria this is a mechanism for survival, not reproduction.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitrifying bacteria do not form spores and cannot survive drying.
  • Auto vs Hetero Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.bioconlabs.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spores: Some bacteria produce spores, which are an inactive (dormant) form.
  • Introduction: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under optimal conditions bacteria can grow extremely rapidly and can double as quickly as every 10 minutes.^ Under optimal conditions bacteria can grow extremely rapidly and can double as quickly as every 10 minutes.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria can replicate every 20 minutes under ideal conditions.
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • bacteria@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under optimal conditions, bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and bacterial populations can double as quickly as every 9.8 minutes.
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]

Archaea

.Archaea are also single-celled organisms that lack nuclei.^ Bacteria are living, single-celled organisms.
  • EXPLORIT SCIENCE CENTER: Science Facts 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.explorit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Archaea Archaea are also single-celled organisms that lack nuclei.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are single-celled organisms without cell nuclei.

.In the past, the differences between bacteria and archaea were not recognised and archaea were classified with bacteria as part of the kingdom Monera.^ In the past, the differences between bacteria and archaea were not recognised and archaea were classified with bacteria as part of the kingdom Monera.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In the past, the differences between bacteria and archaea were not recognised and archaea were classified with bacteria as part of the kingdom Monera .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, bacteria are classified in the kingdom Procaryotae.
  • Bacteria - humans, body, used, water, process, Earth, life, plants, type, chemical, characteristics, form, energy, methods, animals, system, oxygen, air, cells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in 1990 the microbiologist Carl Woese proposed the three-domain system that divided living things into bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes.^ Bacteria : One of the three domains, along with Archaea and Eukarya .
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eukaryotic signalling domain homologues in archaea and bacteria.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These organisms are divided into two groups, the archaea and the bacteria.
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[29] .Archaea differ from bacteria in both their genetics and biochemistry.^ "Comparative biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are genetically distinct from the archaea .
  • bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Archaea differ from bacteria in both their genetics and biochemistry.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, while bacterial cell membranes are made from phosphoglycerides with ester bonds, archaean membranes are made of ether lipids.^ For example, while bacterial cell membranes are made from phosphoglycerides with ester bonds, archaean membranes are made of ether lipids .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacterial cell walls and membranes, p.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, while bacterial cell membranes are made from phosphoglycerides with ester bonds, archaean membranes are made of ether lipids.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[30]
.Archaea were originally described in extreme environments, such as hot springs, but have since been found in all types of habitats.^ Archaea were originally described in extreme environments, such as hot springs , but have since been found in all types of habitats.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archaea were originally described in extreme environments, such as hot springs, but have since been found in all types of habitats.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, the object of examination can also be all media that can be contaminated by bacteria such as foods and beverages that can be food poisoned or contaminated, waters in the environment such as hot spring waters or filters of air cleaners.
  • PRIMER FOR BACTERIUM GENOME AMPLIFICATION REACTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[31] .Only now are scientists beginning to realize how common archaea are in the environment, with crenarchaeota being the most common form of life in the ocean, dominating ecosystems below 150 m in depth.^ Now he aims to build a life form that will .
  • Bacteria: News & Videos about Bacteria - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Bacteria: News & Videos about Bacteria - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Only now are scientists beginning to appreciate how common archaea are in the environment, with crenarchaeota being the most common form of life in the ocean, dominating ecosystems below 150 m in depth.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ So, for most of the history of life on Earth the only form of life were microorganisms.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[32][33] .These organisms are also common in soil and play a vital role in ammonia oxidation.^ These organisms are also common in soil and play a vital role in ammonia oxidation.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ For the purpose of this guideline, common vehicle and vectorborne transmission will be discussed only briefly, because neither play a significant role in typical nosocomial infections.
  • Portable Hospital Isolation Enclosure Mobile Isolation Room TB Tuberculosis Bronchoscopy Aerosolized Medications Endotracheal Intubation Sputum 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.biologicalcontrols.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most are found in the soil, and they include some of the most common soil life, playing an important role in decomposition of organic materials, such as cellulose and chitin.
  • Bacteria and the body - Wikiversity 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]

Eukaryotes

Ostreococcus is the smallest known free living eukaryote with an average size of 0.8 µm
.Most living things which are visible to the naked eye in their adult form are eukaryotes, including humans.^ Most bacteria are beneficial to living things.
  • 2b. Bacteria: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly [Beyond Books - Life Science: Part 2] 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All living things which are individually visible to the naked eye are eukaryotes (with few exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis ), including humans .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Eukaryote All living things which are individually visible to the naked eye are eukaryotes (with few exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis ), including humans.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.However, a large number of eukaryotes are also microorganisms.^ However, a large number of eukaryotes are also microorganisms.
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^ Biological insights through comparative genomics are now possible for a large number of prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic genomes.
  • u-Genome: A database on genome design in unicellular genomes 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC www.bioinfo.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Prokaryotes normally regulate their signal transduction processes through two-component systems, however, the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed a large number of eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases.

.Unlike bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes contain organelles such as the cell nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria in their cells.^ They consequently lack a nucleus , mitochondria , chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells, such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls , and contain organelles such as chloroplasts in addition to the organelles in other eukaryotes.
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^ It has no organelles such as a nucleus or mitochondria inside its cell wall.
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.The nucleus is an organelle which houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome.^ The nucleus is an organelle which houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nucleus is an organelle which houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome.
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^ In all other organisms except cyanobacteria (blue-green alg), the DNA is in the nucleus, a part of the cell separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane.
  • Bacteria. - Dr. Sayeed Ahmad 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC homeoint.org [Source type: Reference]

.DNA itself is arranged in complex chromosomes.^ DNA itself is arranged in complex chromosomes.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ DNA itself is arranged in complex chromosomes .
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^ The genetic material of bacteria is carried on double-stranded molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is arranged into a circular structure called the chromosome.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

[35] .Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as they are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.^ Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as they are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are microscopic and mostly unicellular, with a relatively simple cell structure lacking a cell nucleus, cytoskeleton, and organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.

^ Indeed they lack any of the intracellular organelles so characteristic of eukaryotic cells, such that they do not have the golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes nor mitochondria.

.They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome.^ They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome.
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^ Anaerobic bacteria have evolved ways of using substances other than oxygen, such as compounds of nitrogen, to obtain the energy they need to survive and grow.
  • Bacteria - humans, body, used, water, process, Earth, life, plants, type, chemical, characteristics, form, energy, methods, animals, system, oxygen, air, cells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regardless of the debate, bacteria have been around since the dawn of life on Earth, and they have continued to evolve.
  • Bacteria - humans, body, used, water, process, Earth, life, plants, type, chemical, characteristics, form, energy, methods, animals, system, oxygen, air, cells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain organelles such as chloroplasts in addition to the organelles in other eukaryotes.^ The cell wall contained Lys and Gly .

^ In plants, these bacteria are called chloroplasts.

^ Cell walls and chloroplasts entirely absent.
  • Domains and Kingdoms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC www.cals.ncsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chloroplasts produce energy from light by photosynthesis, and were also originally symbiotic bacteria.^ Chloroplasts produce energy from light by photosynthesis , and were also originally symbiotic bacteria.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria and chloroplasts produce energy in a very similar way to bacteria.
  • Notes About Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: General]

^ Chloroplasts produce energy from light by photosynthesis , and were also originally symbiotic bacteria .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
.Unicellular eukaryotes are those eukaryotic organisms that consist of a single cell throughout their life cycle.^ Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms.
  • Introduction: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Protozoan parasites are unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

^ Bacteria are these single-celled organisms.
  • NOVA | scienceNOW | Profile: Bonnie Bassler: Bacteria Talk | PBS 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

.This qualification is significant since most multicellular eukaryotes consist of a single cell called a zygote at the beginning of their life cycles.^ This qualification is significant since most multicellular eukaryotes consist of a single cell called a zygote at the beginning of their life cycles.
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^ Unicellular eukaryotes are those eukaryotic organisms that consist of a single cell throughout their life cycle.
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^ Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history.
  • Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Microbial eukaryotes can be either haploid or diploid, and some organisms have multiple cell nuclei (see coenocyte).^ Eukaryotic cells have nuclei.

^ All other organisms are eukaryotic, meaning that their cells contain nuclei.
  • Bacteria Information, supplements vitamins herbs : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. Info on frindly and good bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microbial eukaryotes can be either haploid or diploid , and some organisms have multiple cell nuclei (see coenocyte ).
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, not all microorganisms are unicellular as some microscopic eukaryotes are made from multiple cells.^ However, a large number of eukaryotes are also microorganisms.
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^ However, not all microorganisms are unicellular as some microscopic eukaryotes are made from multiple cells.
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^ They will then use radiation to kill the chromosome in a normal M. genitalium and replace it with the lab-made DNA. Venter said the cell will retain some of its functioning parts, such as enzymes and RNA, but that all of its genetic structure will be synthetic.
  • Scientists Hope to Make New Bacterium - CareCure Forums 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC sci.rutgers.edu [Source type: News]

Protists

.Of eukaryotic groups, the protists are most commonly unicellular and microscopic.^ Main article: Protista Of eukaryotic groups, the protists are most commonly unicellular and microscopic.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Of eukaryotic groups, the protists are most commonly unicellular and microscopic.
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^ A portal into the various groups of protists (and other eukaryotes) with many illustrations in color.
  • The Protists 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a highly diverse group of organisms that are not easy to classify.^ This is a highly diverse group of organisms that are not easy to classify.
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^ Definition: Single-celled organisms that are classified as prokaryotes, a group whose DNA is not enclosed in a cell nucleus.

^ Print this section Algae , diverse group of simple, plantlike organisms.
  • Algae - MSN Encarta 18 September 2009 9:24 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37][38] .Several algae species are multicellular protists, and slime molds have unique life cycles that involve switching between unicellular, colonial, and multicellular forms.^ Several algae species are multicellular protists, and slime molds have unique life cycles with unicellular, colonial, and multicellular stages.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Algae can be either unicellular or filamentous, forming algal slimes or mats.
  • Thermidaire Industrial Water Treatment Chemicals Microorganism control 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.thermidaire.on.ca [Source type: Reference]

^ Several algae species are multicellular protists, and slime molds have unique life cycles that involve switching between unicellular, colonial, and multicellular forms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .The number of species of protozoa is uncertain, since we may have identified only a small proportion of the diversity in this group of organisms.^ CSF positive in only small proportion .
  • ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINGITIS 11 September 2009 5:31 UTC www.uwo.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of species of protozoa is uncertain, since we may have identified only a small proportion of the diversity in this group of organisms.
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^ This is a diverse group of organisms which are not easy to classify.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[40][41]
A microscopic mite Lorryia formosa.

Animals

.Mostly animals are multicellular,[42] but some are too small to be seen by the naked eye.^ All animals are multicellular, but some are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
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^ Main article: Micro-animals All animals are multicellular, but some are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Although single-celled, some are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
  • The Protists 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microscopic arthropods include dust mites and spider mites.^ Microscopic arthropods include dust mites and spider mites.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Microscopic arthropods include dust mites and spider mites .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microscopic crustaceans include copepods and the cladocera, while many nematodes are too small to be seen with the naked eye.^ Microscopic crustaceans include copepods and the cladocera.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye).

^ Although single-celled, some are large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
  • The Protists 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another particularly common group of microscopic animals are the rotifers, which are filter feeders that are usually found in fresh water.^ Found in fresh water.
  • The Protists 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of this genus are usually found in the intestines of cold-blooded animals and in fresh water.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another particularly common group of microscopic animals are the rotifers , which are filter feeders that are usually found in fresh water.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Micro-animals reproduce both sexually and asexually and may reach new habitats as eggs that survive harsh environments that would kill the adult animal.^ Micro-animals reproduce both sexually and asexually and may reach new habitats as eggs that survive harsh environments that would kill the adult animal.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But they note that there would be significant regulatory hurdles surrounding the release of a new organism into the environment to overcome.
  • Entire Synthetic Genome Created:  DNA of the smallest knownfree-living bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium, stitched together. JOHN ROACH /National Geographic News 25jan2008 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a seed culture can stimulate the rapid onset of biodegradation, bioaugmentation would have a significant advantage over biostimulation because biostimulation relies on indigenous microbes that may need time to adapt to the new conditions of their environment.
  • Bioremediation of the Herbicide Atrazine 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www2.heidelberg.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, some simple animals, such as rotifers and nematodes, can dry out completely and remain dormant for long periods of time.^ However, some simple animals, such as rotifers and nematodes, can dry out completely and remain dormant for long periods of time.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Periphyton (Biotecton) are the organisms (both plant and animal) attached or clinging to the submerged plant or other surfaces projecting above the bottom An organism may remain as periphyton throughout its life or during some period of its life cycle.
  • Microorganism & Water Pollution 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ These concentrates are often required to withstand storage for prolonged periods and after such storage, to be capable of dilution with water in order to form aqueous preparations which remain homogeneous for a sufficient time to enable them to be applied by conventional spray equipment.
  • Anti-bacterial process using substituted thiadiazoles - Patent 3881010 22 September 2009 11:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[43]

Fungi

.The fungi have several unicellular species, such as baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe).^ Main article: Fungus The fungi have several unicellular species, such as baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ).
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Preferably, said yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fungi have several unicellular species, such as baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ).
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some fungi, such as the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, can undergo phenotypic switching and grow as single cells in some environments, and filamentous hyphae in others.^ Hyphae: Filamentous cellular extensions from some fungi.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unicellular: An organism that grows a single cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Only bacteria and some other single-celled organisms were alive.
  • 2a. The Average Bacterium [Beyond Books - Life Science: Part 2] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.beyondbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .Fungi reproduce both asexually, by budding or binary fission, as well by producing spores, which are called conidia when produced asexually, or basidiospores when produced sexually.^ Fungi reproduce both asexually, by budding or binary fission, as well by producing spores, which are called conidia when produced asexually, or basidiospores when produced sexually.
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^ They reproduce by binary fission or sometimes by budding , but do not undergo sexual reproduction .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asexual (spores) or sexual (fusion of germinated spores) .

Plants

.The green algae are a large group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that include many microscopic organisms.^ The green algae are a large group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that include many microscopic organisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Algae: Photosynthetic eukaryotic aquatic organisms.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Plant The green algae are a large group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that include many microscopic organisms.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Although some green algae are classified as protists, others such as charophyta are classified with embryophyte plants, which are the most familiar group of land plants.^ Although some green algae are classified as protists , others such as charophyta are classified with embryophyte plants, which are the most familiar group of land plants.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their closest relatives are the green algae and land plants .
  • The Protists 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although some green algae are classified as protists, others such as charophyta are classified with embryophyte plants, which are the most familiar group of land plants.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Algae can grow as single cells, or in long chains of cells.^ Algae can grow as single cells, or in long chains of cells.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unicellular: An organism that grows a single cell.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any of numerous types of growing organisms that range from single-cell to larger and include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms.
  • What is the definition of microorganism? 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates, usually but not always with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid, and filamentous forms.^ Amphitrichous : Flagella at two ends of the cell.
  • Lesson 5: Bacteria 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC water.me.vccs.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell splits and two independent cells are formed.
  • Topic 1 - Bacteria Everywhere 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ageds.iastate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beta-hemolysis : complete hemolysis; clear zone around colonies on blood agar medium Alpha-hemolysis : partial hemolysis, usually with greening of the medium due to the reduction of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes to methemoglobin Gamma hemolysis : no hemolysis Hepatocyte: liver cell .
  • BSCI 424 Pathogenic Microbiology -- Basic Definitions 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.life.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In the Charales, which are the algae most closely related to higher plants, cells differentiate into several distinct tissues within the organism.^ The phylum is most closely related to Bacteroidetes.

^ In the Charales , which are the algae most closely related to higher plants, cells differentiate into several distinct tissues within the organism.
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^ Close-up of an algae cell .
  • Microorganisms Stock Footage and Video. 66 Microorganisms royalty free videos and movie clips available to search from over 20 buyout motion companies. 15 September 2009 23:10 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.There are about 6000 species of green algae.^ There are about 6000 species of green algae.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]

Habitats and ecology

.Microorganisms are found in almost every habitat present in nature.^ Microorganisms are found in almost every habitat present in nature.
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^ Habitats and ecology Microorganisms are found in almost every habitat present in nature.

^ The present invention provides a reporter bacterium, comprising a bacterium that occurs naturally in a biological sludge and that contains a nucleic acid that encodes a reporter protein not found in the naturally occurring bacterium.
  • Bioluminescent reporter bacterium - Patent 6110661 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks, and the deep sea.^ Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks, and the deep sea, some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles.

^ Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks , and the deep sea, some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria inhabit practically all environments where some liquid water is available and the temperature is below +140 °C. They are found in sea water , soil, animals' gastrointestinal tracts, hot springs and even deep beneath the Earth's crust in rocks .
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles.^ Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks, and the deep sea, some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles.

^ Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks , and the deep sea, some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Even in hostile environments such as the poles , deserts , geysers , rocks , and the deep sea , some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extremophiles have been isolated from rocks as much as 7 kilometres below the Earth's surface,[46] and it has been suggested that the amount of living organisms below the Earth's surface may be comparable with the amount of life on or above the surface.^ Epilithic: Organism that grows on the surface of a rock.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypolithic: Growth of organisms on surface of rocks.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria are the oldest living organisms on the earth.
  • Bonnie Bassler on how bacteria "talk" | Video on TED.com 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Extremophiles have been known to survive for a prolonged time in a vacuum, and can be highly resistant to radiation, which may even allow them to survive in space.^ Extremophiles have been known to survive for a prolonged time in a vacuum, and can be highly resistant to radiation , which may even allow them to survive in space.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Strains of Staphylococcus aureus that lacked these new genes were killed by penicillin, allowing the remaining penicillin-resistant bacteria to reproduce and over time become dominant.
  • Introduction: Bacterial Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is an aerobic, large (1- to 2-µm) tetrad-forming soil bacterium that is best known for its supreme resistance to ionizing radiation.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[47] .Many types of microorganisms have intimate symbiotic relationships with other larger organisms; some of which are mutually beneficial (mutualism), while others can be damaging to the host organism (parasitism).^ Mutualism: mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship between two species .
  • BSCI 424 Pathogenic Microbiology -- Basic Definitions 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.life.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Host: An organism on which a parasite or pathogen can grow.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many types of microorganisms have intimate symbiotic relationships with other larger organisms; some of which are mutually beneficial ( mutualism ), while others can be damaging to the host organism ( parasitism ).
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as pathogens.^ If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as pathogens .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pathogen —A disease-causing microbe.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease-causing agents are called pathogens .
  • Chapter 19 lecture- Viruses & Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Extremophiles

.Extremophiles are microorganisms which have adapted so that they can survive and even thrive in conditions that are normally fatal to most life-forms.^ So, for most of the history of life on Earth the only form of life were microorganisms.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Extremophile Certain microbes have adapted so that they can survive and even thrive in conditions that are normally fatal to most lifeforms.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ They tend to multiply very rapidly under favorable conditions, forming colonies of millions or even billions of organisms within a space as small as a drop of water.
  • Bacteria - humans, body, used, water, process, Earth, life, plants, type, chemical, characteristics, form, energy, methods, animals, system, oxygen, air, cells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, some species have been found in the following extreme environments:
.
  • Temperature: as high as 130 °C (266 °F),[48] as low as −17 °C (1.4 °F)[49]
  • Acidity/alkalinity: less than pH 0,[50] up to pH 11.5[51]
  • Salinity: up to saturation[52]
  • Pressure: up to 1,000-2,000 atm, down to 0 atm (e.g.^ Alkaliphiles: Organisms that inhabit alkaline lakes and grow at a pH up to 11.5.
    • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ C. and saturated with 1% BSA in 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.4) for 2 h at room temperature.
    • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Preferably, the decrease in pH is less than 1 unit, more preferably less than 0.7 unit.
    • Shelf-Stable Product with Living Micro-Organisms - Food Industry News 15 September 2009 23:10 UTC www.flex-news-food.com [Source type: Reference]

    vacuum of space)[53]
  • Radiation: up to 5kGy[54]
.Extremophiles are significant in different ways.^ Radiation : up to 5k Gy Extremophiles are significant in different ways.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They extend terrestrial life into much of the Earth's hydrosphere, crust and atmosphere, their specific evolutionary adaptation mechanisms to their extreme environment can be exploited in bio-technology, and their very existence under such extreme conditions increases the potential for extraterrestrial life.^ They extend terrestrial life into much of the Earth's hydrosphere , crust and atmosphere, their specific evolutionary adaptation mechanisms to their extreme environment can be exploited in bio-technology , and their very existence under such extreme conditions increases the potential for extraterrestrial life .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments ".
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They could also cause unhealthy metabolic activities, too much stimulation of the immune system, or gene transfer (insertion of genetic material into a cell).
  • An Introduction to Probiotics [NCCAM Health Information] 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC nccam.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[55]

Soil microbes

.The nitrogen cycle in soils depends on the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.^ Nitrogen fixation: Reduction of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The nitrogen cycle in soils depends on the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In soil, microorganisms which reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation, converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds.
  • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]

.One way this can occur is in the nodules in the roots of legumes that contain symbiotic bacteria of the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium.^ One way this can occur is in the nodules in the roots of legumes that contain symbiotic bacteria of the genera Rhizobium , Mesorhizobium , Sinorhizobium , Bradyrhizobium , and Azorhizobium .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ These bacteria live in a mutualistic relationship with the roots of legumes where they are able to "fix" nitrogen (N 2 ) in the air into compounds that can be used by living things.
  • Bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC users.rcn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the common name given to a group of small, rod-shaped, gram negative bacteria, which are able to produce nodules on the roots, or on some cases the stems, of leguminous plants.
  • Testing Lab - Asbestos, Mold, Lead, Microbiology, Radon, MRSA, Environmental, Industrial Hygiene, Materials, Chemical, Forensics, Metallurgical, Food, Water, Soil, Air, Dust, PLM, PCM, TEM, SEM, Hexavalent Chromium, ASTM, Contract, Independent, Accredited 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.emsl.com [Source type: Academic]

[56]

Symbiotic microbes

.Symbiotic microbes such as fungi and algae form an association in lichen.^ In association with fungi, they form lichens , which can grow on rock.
  • Mono-cell Organisms 20 September 2009 3:16 UTC universe-review.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most fungi, such as mushrooms, molds and rusts, are multicellular and are not microbes.
  • BioEd Online Slides: "microorganism", yeast, pond water, paramecium 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.bioedonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.Certain fungi form mycorhizzal symbioses with trees that increase the supply of nutrients to the tree.^ In contrast, DRA0145 is distinctly closer to certain peroxidases from fungi, such as Galactomyces geotrichum , than to bacterial forms from Neisseria, E. coli , and actinomycetes.
  • Genome of the Extremely Radiation-Resistant Bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans Viewed from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics -- Makarova et al. 65 (1): 44 -- Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC mmbr.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

Importance

.Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth's element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle, as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems, such as recycling other organisms' dead remains and waste products through decomposition.^ They similarly drive the biogeochemical cycles of the major elements carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen.
  • bacteria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about bacteria 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth's element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle , as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems, such as recycling other organisms' dead remains and waste products through decomposition .
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth's element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle , as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems , such as recycling other organisms' dead remains and waste products through decomposition .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microbes also have an important place in most higher-order multicellular organisms as symbionts.^ Microbes also have an important place in most higher-order multicellular organisms as symbionts .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Charales , which are the algae most closely related to higher plants, cells differentiate into several distinct tissues within the organism.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is taking place for a number of reasons, the most of important of which will be revealed in the upcoming months.
  • L-form Bacteria and Mollicutes 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.dogtorj.net [Source type: Original source]

.Many blame the failure of Biosphere 2 on an improper balance of microbes.^ Many blame the failure of Biosphere 2 on an improper balance of microbes.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[57]

Use in food

.Microorganisms are used in brewing, winemaking, baking, pickling and other food-making processes.^ DNA microorganisms used in food production; .
  • Foods Derived from Biotechnology 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A) uses of living microorganisms in food production; .
  • Foods Derived from Biotechnology 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using a microorganism to make a protein or polypeptide: .
  • Class Definition for Class 435 - CHEMISTRY: MOLECULARBIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They are also used to control the fermentation process in the production of cultured dairy products such as yogurt and cheese.^ They are used in various industrial processes, especially in the food industry (e.g., the production of yogurt, cheeses, and pickles).
  • bacteria -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are important in many foodstuffs, such as cheeses and yogurts.
  • Testing Lab - Asbestos, Mold, Lead, Microbiology, Radon, MRSA, Environmental, Industrial Hygiene, Materials, Chemical, Forensics, Metallurgical, Food, Water, Soil, Air, Dust, PLM, PCM, TEM, SEM, Hexavalent Chromium, ASTM, Contract, Independent, Accredited 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.emsl.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Microbes can also be used in production processes.
  • Introduction to the Microbial World 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The cultures also provide flavour and aroma, and inhibit undesirable organisms.^ The cultures also provide flavour and aroma, and to inhibit undesirable organisms.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The cultures also provide flavour and aroma, and inhibit undesirable organisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, in the case of yoghurt, information should be provided on the growth of the organism and culture conditions.
  • Foods Derived from Biotechnology 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

[58]

Use in water treatment

.Specially-cultured microbes are used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial waste effluent, a process known as bioaugmentation.^ Main article: Sewage treatment Microbes are used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial waste effluents..
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Microbes can also be used in production processes.
  • Introduction to the Microbial World 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Microbes are used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial waste effluents.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[59]

Use in energy

.Microbes are used in fermentation to produce ethanol,[60] and in biogas reactors to produce methane.^ Main article: Ethanol fermentation Microbes are used in fermentation to produce ethanol.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste.
  • Bacteria - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]
  • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Bacteria - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, it's worth pointing out the dangers of mass-producing genetically engineered microbes for use in uncontrolled settings.
  • Technology Review: Better Bug to Make Cellulosic Ethanol 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

[61] .Scientists are researching the use of algae to produce liquid fuels,[62] and bacteria to convert various forms of agricultural and urban waste into usable fuels.^ Shapes and grouping forms of various bacteria.

^ Scientists are researching the use of algae to produce liquid fuels , and bacteria to convert various forms of agricultural and urban waste into usable fuels .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the first bacterium to be used to prove that bacteria caused diseases, when Robert Koch (1877) produced anthrax spores and injected them into animals.
  • Free Bacteria Essays 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

[63]

Use in science

.Microbes are also essential tools in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology.^ Microbes are also essential tools in biotechnology , biochemistry , genetics , and molecular biology .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microbes are also essential tools in biotechnology, biochemistry , genetics, and molecular biology.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of their ability to quickly grow, and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria have historically been the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology , genetics and biochemistry .
  • Bacteria - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Academic]
  • Bacteria - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.The yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are important model organisms in science, since they are simple eukaryotes that can be grown rapidly in large numbers and are easily manipulated.^ Preferably, said yeast is Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  • INDUCTION OF MUCOSAL TOLERANCE TO ANTIGENS - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, a large number of eukaryotes are also microorganisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fungi have several unicellular species, such as baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and fission yeast ( Schizosaccharomyces pombe ).
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64] .They are particularly valuable in genetics, genomics and proteomics.^ They are particularly valuable in genetics , genomics and proteomics .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65][66] .Microbes can be harnessed for uses such as creating steroids and treating skin diseases.^ Microbes can be harnessed for uses such as creating steroids and treating skin diseases.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Antimicrobial therapy of Legionnaires' disease requires the use of drugs that are active against intracellular Legionella spp., such as tetracyclines, macrolides, azalides and antibacterial quinolones.

^ Medical microbiologists that work in research institutes and universities study topics such as how diseases develop, or the interactions between pathogenic microbes and host cells.
  • Introduction to the Microbial World 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC bioinfo.bact.wisc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Scientists are also considering using microbes for living fuel cells,[67] and as a solution for pollution.^ Scientists are also considering using microbes for living fuel cells , and as a solution for pollution.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The findings could be applied to help in the development of new microbe-based technologies such as fuel cells, or ‘bio-batteries’, powered by animal or human waste, and agents to clean up areas polluted by oil or uranium.
  • Bacteria // Current 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Production of electricity from acetate or butyrate using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell".

[68]

Use in warfare

.In the Middle Ages, diseased corpses were thrown into castles during sieges using catapults or other siege engines.^ In the Middle Ages, dead corpses were thrown over walls during sieges using catapults or other siege engines, this meant that any bacteria carrying the disease that killed the person/creature would multiply in the vicinity of the opposing side.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the first bacterium to be used to prove that bacteria caused diseases, when Robert Koch (1877) produced anthrax spores and injected them into animals.
  • Free Bacteria Essays 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Biological warfare In the Middle Ages, dead corpses were thrown over walls during sieges, this meant that any bacteria carrying the disease that killed the person/creature would multiply in the vicinity of the opposing side.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Individuals near the corpses were exposed to the deadly pathogen and were likely to spread that pathogen to others.^ It is important to note that the response to these and other foodborne pathogens may vary depending upon the health status of the infected individual.
  • FSHN05-16/FS127: A Reference Guide for Foodborne Pathogens 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In order to survive in nature, a pathogen must be able to replicate in the host and spread to other hosts.

^ Carrier ( carrier state ): a symptomless ( asymptomatic ) individual who is host to a pathogenic microorganism and who has the potential to pass ( transmit ) the pathogen to others .
  • BSCI 424 Pathogenic Microbiology -- Basic Definitions 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.life.umd.edu [Source type: Academic]

[69]

Importance in human health

Human digestion

.Microorganisms can form an endosymbiotic relationship with other, larger organisms.^ Microorganisms can form an endosymbiotic relationship with other, larger organisms.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Many types of microorganisms have intimate symbiotic relationships with other larger organisms; some of which are mutually beneficial ( mutualism ), while others can be damaging to the host organism ( parasitism ).
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many types of microorganisms have intimate symbiotic relationships with other larger organisms; some of which are mutually beneficial (mutualism), while others can be damaging to the host organism (parasitism).
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.For example, the bacteria that live within the human digestive system contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid and biotin, and ferment complex indigestible carbohydrates.^ Lactic acid bacteria: Bacteria that produce lactic acid by fermentation.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the presence of over 1,000 bacterial species in the normal human gut flora of the intestines can contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid , vitamin K and biotin , convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus ), as well as fermenting complex undigestible carbohydrates .
  • Bacteria (Kingdom) 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the bacteria that live within the human digestive system contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid and biotin , and ferment complex indigestible carbohydrates .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[70]

Diseases and immunology

.Microorganisms are the cause of many infectious diseases.^ Microorganisms are the cause of many infectious diseases.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Most microorganisms do not cause disease and many are beneficial.
  • Utah Elementary Science Core Curriculum 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.usoe.k12.ut.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Macroscopic helminths also cause infectious disease.

.The organisms involved include pathogenic bacteria, causing diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax; protozoa, causing diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and toxoplasmosis; and also fungi causing diseases such as ringworm, candidiasis or histoplasmosis.^ Disease-causing organisms remain to be discovered.
  • PLoS Pathogens: A Novel Bacterium Associated with Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.plospathogens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The organisms involved include pathogenic bacteria , causing diseases such as plague , tuberculosis and anthrax ; protozoa, causing diseases such as malaria , sleeping sickness and toxoplasmosis ; and also fungi causing diseases such as ringworm , candidiasis or histoplasmosis .
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^ Virulence or pathogenicity is the ability of the infecting organism to cause disease symptoms.

.However, other diseases such as influenza, yellow fever or AIDS are caused by pathogenic viruses, which are not usually classified as living organisms and are not therefore microorganisms by the strict definition.^ If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as pathogens .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Virulence or pathogenicity is the ability of the infecting organism to cause disease symptoms.

^ Pathogen —A disease-causing microbe.
  • Bacteria: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

.As of 2007, no clear examples of archaean pathogens are known,[71] although a relationship has been proposed between the presence of some methanogens and human periodontal disease.^ Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
  • MeSH Semantic Type: Bacterium [T007] 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.slicksurface.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As of 2007, no clear examples of archaean pathogens are known, [33] although a relationship has been proposed between the presence of some methanogens and human periodontal disease.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ As of 2007, no clear examples of archaean pathogens are known, although a relationship has been proposed between the presence of some methanogens and human periodontal disease .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]

Importance in ecology

.Microbes are critical to the processes of decomposition required to cycle nitrogen and other elements back to the natural world.^ Microbes are critical to the processes of decomposition required to cycle nitrogen and other elements back to the natural world.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth's element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle , as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems , such as recycling other organisms' dead remains and waste products through decomposition .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Students should come to enjoy science as a process of discovering the natural world.
  • Utah Elementary Science Core Curriculum 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.usoe.k12.ut.us [Source type: Academic]

Hygiene

.Hygiene is the avoidance of infection or food spoiling by eliminating microorganisms from the surroundings.^ Main article: Hygiene Hygiene is the avoidance of infection or food spoiling by eliminating microorganisms from the surroundings.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Hygiene is the avoidance of infection or food spoiling by eliminating microorganisms from the surroundings.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, it had been a mystery as to why grapes could be turned into wine , milk into cheese , or why food would spoil.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As microorganisms, particularly bacteria, are found practically everywhere, this means in most cases the reduction of harmful microorganisms to acceptable levels.^ As microorganisms, particularly bacteria , are found practically everywhere, this means in most cases the reduction of harmful microorganisms to acceptable levels.
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^ Bacteria can be found everywhere.
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^ Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly and microbes such as bacteria can also freely exchange genes by conjugation , transformation and transduction between widely-divergent species.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, in some cases it is required that an object or substance be completely sterile, i.e. devoid of all living entities and viruses. .A good example of this is a hypodermic needle.^ A good example of this is a hypodermic needle.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A good example of this is a hypodermic needle .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In food preparation microorganisms are reduced by preservation methods (such as the addition of vinegar), clean utensils used in preparation, short storage periods or by cool temperatures.^ Microorganism preservation, storage, or transport apparatus .
  • Class Schedule for Class 435 CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ DNA microorganisms used in food production; .
  • Foods Derived from Biotechnology 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In food preparation microorganisms are reduced by preservation methods (such as the addition of vinegar), clean utensils used in preparation, short storage periods or by cool temperatures.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.If complete sterility is needed, the two most common methods are irradiation and the use of an autoclave, which resembles a pressure cooker.^ If complete sterility is needed, the two most common methods are irradiation and the use of an autoclave , which resembles a pressure cooker .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The methods could also be useful for detecting and quantifying a specific virulent or contagious natural or bioengineered mutation of an otherwise common or benign microorganism.
  • Methods for Detecting and Quantifying Specific Microorganisms - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Autoclave: An instrument that uses heat and steam under pressure to destroy all microbes present.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are several methods for investigating the level of hygiene in a sample of food, drinking water, equipment etc.^ There are several methods for investigating the level of hygiene in a sample of food, drinking water, equipment etc.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This chlorine residual must be maintained for several minutes depending on chlorine level and water quality.
  • WQ102 Bacteria in Drinking Water | University of Missouri Extension 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, rapid, simple and cost-effective methods are needed for detecting the presence of microbial pathogens in foods, water and soils.
  • Direct stain specific binding assays for microorganisms - Patent # 5741662 - PatentGenius 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

.Water samples can be filtrated through an extremely fine filter.^ Water samples can be filtrated through an extremely fine filter.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ To test the water quality in a point of use filter, take a sample first thing in the morning - do not run the water before sampling.
  • American Ground Water Trust - Bacteria and Water Wells 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.agwt.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It involves filtering several hundred gallons of water and identifying the cysts through microscopic examination by a trained analyst.
  • WQ102 Bacteria in Drinking Water | University of Missouri Extension 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This filter is then placed in a nutrient medium.^ This filter is then placed in a nutrient medium.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This filter is then placed in a nutrient medium .
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microorganisms on the filter then grow to form a visible colony.^ Microorganisms on the filter then grow to form a visible colony.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Colony: A visible assemblage of microorganisms growing on a solid surface.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Leeuwenhoek did not make the connection between these processes and microorganisms, but using a microscope, he did establish that there were forms of life that were not visible to the naked eye.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Harmful microorganisms can be detected in food by placing a sample in a nutrient broth designed to enrich the organisms in question.^ Harmful microorganisms can be detected in food by placing a sample in a nutrient broth designed to enrich the organisms in question.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a food sample might be analyzed on three different nutrient mediums designed to indicate the presence of "total" bacteria (conditions where many, but not all, bacteria grow), molds (conditions where the growth of bacteria is prevented by e.g.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Observe and report on microorganisms’ harmful effects on food (e.g., causes fruits and vegetables to rot, destroys food bearing plants, makes milk sour).
  • Utah Elementary Science Core Curriculum 20 September 2009 17:43 UTC www.usoe.k12.ut.us [Source type: Academic]

.Various methods, such as selective media or PCR, can then be used for detection.^ Various methods, such as selective media or PCR, can then be used for detection.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The methods could also be useful for detecting and quantifying a specific virulent or contagious natural or bioengineered mutation of an otherwise common or benign microorganism.
  • Methods for Detecting and Quantifying Specific Microorganisms - Patent application 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In food preparation microorganisms are reduced by preservation methods (such as the addition of vinegar), clean utensils used in preparation, short storage periods or by cool temperatures.
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The hygiene of hard surfaces, such as cooking pots, can be tested by touching them with a solid piece of nutrient medium and then allowing the microorganisms to grow on it.^ Culture medium: A liquid or solid nutrient on which microorganisms can be grown.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The hygiene of hard surfaces, such as cooking pots, can be tested by touching them with a solid piece of nutrient medium and then allowing the microorganisms to grow on it.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microorganism: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Colony: A visible assemblage of microorganisms growing on a solid surface.
  • Microbial Life: Glossary 17 September 2009 0:44 UTC www.sinauer.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are no conditions where all microorganisms would grow, and therefore often several different methods are needed.^ There are no conditions where all microorganisms would grow, and therefore often several different methods are needed.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HISTORICAL PROFILE There is no convincing evidence of the disease prior to the Middle Ages, but several epidemics have occurred in recent centuries.
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN HISTORY 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC urbanrim.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This would have given us an idea of which methods and materials were working and which ones needed to be reconsidered.
  • The Real Truth About Bathroom Bacteria! 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC jrscience.wcp.muohio.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a food sample might be analyzed on three different nutrient mediums designed to indicate the presence of "total" bacteria (conditions where many, but not all, bacteria grow), molds (conditions where the growth of bacteria is prevented by e.g.^ Bacteria are associated with many illnesses and conditions.
  • Bacterial Infections: Online References For Health Concerns 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, a food sample might be analyzed on three different nutrient mediums designed to indicate the presence of "total" bacteria (conditions where many, but not all, bacteria grow), molds (conditions where the growth of bacteria is prevented by e.g.
  • Microorganism encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, the object of examination can also be all media that can be contaminated by bacteria such as foods and beverages that can be food poisoned or contaminated, waters in the environment such as hot spring waters or filters of air cleaners.
  • PRIMER FOR BACTERIUM GENOME AMPLIFICATION REACTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 11:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.antibiotics) and coliform bacteria (these indicate a sewage contamination).^ However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.
  • WikiSlice 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, water supplies are tested for an indicator of human or animal waste — coliform bacteria.
  • WQ102 Bacteria in Drinking Water | University of Missouri Extension 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have found that more than 40 percent of private water supplies are contaminated with coliform bacteria.
  • WQ102 Bacteria in Drinking Water | University of Missouri Extension 19 January 2010 8:48 UTC extension.missouri.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

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  72. ^ Lepp P, Brinig M, Ouverney C, Palm K, Armitage G, Relman D (2004). "Methanogenic Archaea and human periodontal disease". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (16): 6176–81. doi:10.1073/pnas.0308766101. PMID 15067114. 

External links


Simple English

magnified 10,000 times.]]

A microorganism or microbe is a living thing (organism) that is too small to be visible to the human eye (microscopic). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology. Microorganisms can be bacteria, fungi, archaea or protists.

Viruses and prions are not called microorganisms because they are classified as non-living. Micro-organisms are often described as single-celled, or unicellular organisms, but there are unicellular protists that are visible to the human eye, and some multicellular species are microscopic.

Microorganisms live almost everywhere on earth where there is liquid water, including hot springs on the ocean floor and deep inside rocks within the earth's crust. Such habitats are lived in by extremophiles.

Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems, because they act as decomposers. Because some microorganisms can also take nitrogen out of the air, they are an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Pathogenic, or harmful, microbes can invade other organisms and cause disease.

Contents

The good microbes

There are many types of microorganisms, but there are good ones and bad ones. The good ones feed on things that were once living, such as fallen leaves and dead animals, causing them to breakdown or decay. The decayed materials mix with soil, providing essential nutrients for plants to use. Without this process, the nutrients in the soil would run out. These types of organisms are called decomposers. They are the natural recyclers of living things on our planet. Microbes also help us make some of our foods, such as bread, cheese, yogurt, beer, and wine. They feed on the sugar in grain, fruit, or milk, giving these foods a special texture and taste. [1]

The bad microbes

Some microbes, often called germs, can cause illness or disease. Chickenpox, mumps, and measles are caused by the bad microbes.[1] They are infectious diseases. Some microbes can cause food to decay. Moldy bread or fruit, sour milk, and rotten meat are examples of decayed food. If eaten, this rotten food and drink can cause stomach upsets. Other microbes cause tooth decay. [1]You can protect yourself from harmful microbes by storing and preparing food properly, cleaning your teeth, washing your hands, and by avoiding close contact with ill people.[1]

Other websites

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 English through Science (2003). Blue Planet. McGrawHill. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bacteria, which are similar to those in the above article.








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