Micropenis: Wikis

  
  

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Micropenis
Classification and external resources

A flaccid micropenis
ICD-9 752.64
DiseasesDB 14839
eMedicine ped/1448
.Micropenis is a medical term that describes an unusually small penis.^ Micropenis (also called microphallus) is the name given to describe an unusually small penis.
  • Micropenis - OrganizedWisdom Health 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Micropenis: An abnormally small penis.
  • Micropenis definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many men are affected by small penis syndrome even if they have a normal penis than men who have a very small penis also known as a micropenis .
  • Size Matters | Penis Extender and Penis Stretchers 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.naturalpenisextender.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A common criterion is a dorsal (measured on top) erect penile length of at least 2.5 standard deviations smaller than the mean human penis size.^ The size in the erected penis varies considerably.
  • Penis Enlargement Surgery - Natural Penis Enlargement 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC reliablepenisenlargement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criterion is a dorsal measured suffering.

^ Human penis size .
  • Human penis size 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.panalt.co.za [Source type: Academic]

[1] .The condition is usually recognized shortly after birth.^ This is a medical condition that is usually identified at birth.
  • Penis Enlargement Blog: Micropenis: When is Penis Size A Sociological Issue? 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.penisenlargementinc.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The condition is diagnosed shortly after birth, just as the rest of the perineum, scrotum and penis are fully formed and there could be no doubt about size.

^ The condition can be diagnosed shortly after birth, just as the rest of the perineum, scrotum and penis are fully formed and there could be no doubt about size.
  • Men's health - micro penis - small penis - exercise small penis - average penis size 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC mensair.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term is most often used medically when the rest of the penis, scrotum, and perineum is without ambiguity such as hypospadias.^ Hypospadias Chordee Penile Torsion Webbed Penis Buried Penis Urethral Hypoplasia Epispadias Ambiguous Genitalia (including bilateral cryptorchidism or micropenis) .
  • Circumcision - Newborn Nursery at LPCH - Stanford University School of Medicine 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC newborns.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The condition is diagnosed shortly after birth, just as the rest of the perineum, scrotum and penis are fully formed and there could be no doubt about size.

^ The condition can be diagnosed shortly after birth, just as the rest of the perineum, scrotum and penis are fully formed and there could be no doubt about size.
  • Men's health - micro penis - small penis - exercise small penis - average penis size 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC mensair.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Causes

An erect penis with the micropenis condition.
.Of the abnormal conditions associated with micropenis, most are conditions of reduced prenatal androgen production or effect.^ The causes of this condition are commonly thought to be a low production of prenatal androgen.

^ In most cases, the facial abnormalities associated with Robinow syndrome become less pronounced as affected children age.
  • CIGNA - Robinow Syndrome 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC stage.cigna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Micropenis secondary to hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is associated with conditions in which the testes are functionally impaired and unable to respond to hypothalamic-pituitary stimulation.
  • Genital Anomalies: eMedicine Pediatrics: Surgery 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Examples include abnormal testicular development (testicular dysgenesis, Klinefelter syndrome, Leydig cell hypoplasia), specific defects of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone synthesis (17,20-lyase deficiency, 5α-reductase deficiency), androgen insensitivity syndromes, inadequate pituitary stimulation (gonadotropin deficiency) or other forms of congenital hypogonadism.^ Androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  • Endotext.com - Endocrinology Of Male Reproduction, Ch 19 Bibliography 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.endotext.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Androgens and male physiology the syndrome of 5α-reductase-2 deficiency.
  • Endotext.com - Endocrinology Of Male Reproduction, Ch 19 Bibliography 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.endotext.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other potential causes are a deficiency in the fetus’ ability to synthesize the hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone or congenital growth hormone deficiency or inadequate stimulation of the pituitary gland.

.Micropenis can also occur as part of many genetic malformation syndromes not involving the sex chromosomes.^ The micropenis can be also the result of genetic malformation syndromes not involving the sex hormones.
  • What's a Micropenis? - When a man is refused his right - Softpedia 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC news.softpedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Genetic malformation syndromes not involving the sex chromosomes catheters will remain workouts.

^ Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY or XXY syndrome) occurs when an individual has at least two X chromosomes and at least one Y chromosome.

.It is sometimes a sign of congenital growth hormone deficiency or congenital hypopituitarism.^ Growth hormone (GH) deficiency.
  • PROP1- Related Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD) -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth failure Growth hormone deficiency H .
  • Conditions Index - Department of Pediatrics - Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC pediatrics.med.miami.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Other potential causes are a deficiency in the fetusí ability to synthesize the hormones testosterone and d ihydrotestosterone , or congenital growth hormone deficiency, or inadequate stimulation of the pituitary gland.
  • Male Enhancement Resource » Blog Archive » What is a Micro Penis? 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC enhancements.weblogger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, several homeobox genes have been identified that affect penis and digit size without detectable hormone abnormalities.^ Identified which affects penis played.

^ Some of the identifiable causes are deficiency of pituitary growth hormone and/or gonadotropins, mild degrees of androgen insensitivity, a variety of genetic syndromes, and variations in certain Homeobox genes.
  • Human penis size 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.panalt.co.za [Source type: Academic]

^ A congenital growth hormone deficiency, or inadequate stimulation of the pituitary gland can also cause the fetus to develop with a below average sized penis.
  • What Is Micro Penis And The Natural Way Of Making Your Penis Larger | Penis Enlargement 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.peniswork.com [Source type: General]

.After evaluation to detect any of the conditions described above, micropenis can often be treated in infancy with injections of various hormones, such as human chorionic gonadotropin or testosterone.^ Response of micropenis to topical testosterone and gonadotropin.
  • Penis Size, Alternative and Preventive Medicine from WellnessMD 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.wellnessmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the condition is recognized in infancy, a brief course of testosterone is often prescribed.
  • Micropenis - OrganizedWisdom Health 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Infants with micropenis are treated with testosterone.
  • PROP1- Related Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD) -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Most eight to fourteen year old boys referred for micropenis do not have the micropenis condition.^ Our data may serve as an updated reference for normal penile length in Caucasian boys up to 3 years of age.
  • Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels: a longitudinal study of 1962 normal boys -- Boas et al. 154 (1): 125 -- European Journal of Endocrinology 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.eje-online.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Family 2 The only affected member of Family 2 was a six-year-old phenotypically male child (Subject II-1 in Figure 2A ) who was referred as a neonate to Children's Hospital of New Jersey in Newark for evaluation of micropenis.
  • NEJM -- Testicular and Ovarian Resistance to Luteinizing Hormone Caused by Inactivating Mutations of the Luteinizing Hormone-Receptor Gene 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A 13-year-old boy is below the 3rd percentile for height (50th percentile for age 9) which of the following would give him the best prognosis for normal adult height ?
  • PAEDIATRICS MOCK TEST 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.aippg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Such concerns are usually explained by one of the following:
  1. a penis concealed in suprapubic fat (extra fat around the mons pubis).
  2. a large body and frame for which a prepubertal penis simply appears too small.
  3. delayed puberty with every reason to expect good future growth.

Treatment

Hormone treatment

Man with micropenis, hypogonadism, and gynecomastia
.Growth of the penis both before birth and during childhood and puberty is strongly influenced by testosterone and, to a lesser degree, growth hormone, but their value in the treatment of micropenis is mainly limited to conditions of hormone deficiency such as hypopituitarism or hypogonadism.^ Some types of micropenis can be addressed with growth hormone or testosterone treatment in early childhood.
  • Human penis size 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.panalt.co.za [Source type: Academic]

^ Growth hormone (GH) deficiency.
  • PROP1- Related Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD) -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ During puberty, the penis lengthens.
  • Penis - Overview 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.sjhsyr.org [Source type: Academic]
  • DHMC | Health Encyclopedia | Penis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.dhmc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • UT Medical Center - Penis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.utmedicalcenter.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis - St. James Hospital and Health Centers 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC stjameshospital.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis - Baptist Hospital Northeast 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • D-H Manchester | Health Encyclopedia | Penis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.dartmouth-hitchcock.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Health Library 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC mywheaton.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis - MMCI 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis - Aultman Health Foundation 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC aultmanhealth.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Kelsey-Seybold Clinic - Welcome 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC kelsey-seybold.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis- medco.com 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.medcohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. Luke's Sugar Land Hospital - Your Health Topics 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC stlukessugarland.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis - Avera Health 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC averaorg.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Penis - Kootenai Health 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC kootenaihealth.adam.com [Source type: Academic]

.Regardless of the cause of micropenis, if it is recognized in infancy, a brief course of testosterone is often prescribed[2] (usually no more than 3 months).^ If the condition is recognized in infancy, a brief course of testosterone is often prescribed.
  • Micropenis - OrganizedWisdom Health 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

^ A penis length of less than 1.9 centimeters is usually considered micropenis.
  • Micropenis - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders - Health Library - Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.chkd.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Micropenis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Micropenis - Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork Presbyterian 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC childrensnyp.org [Source type: General]
  • Medical Center - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.mccg.org [Source type: Academic]
  • CHOC Health Library - Genitourinary / Kidney: Micropenis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.choc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Genitourinary/Kidney:Micropenis: Resurrection Health Care 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.reshealth.jobs [Source type: News]
  • Micropenis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Micropenis - St. Louis Children's Hospital 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.stlouischildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irrespective of the underlying cause a short course of testosterone should be tried in patients with micropenis and an assessment of the penis to respond should be made.

.This will usually induce a small amount of growth, confirming the likelihood of further growth at puberty, but rarely achieves normal size.^ At puberty Klinefelter men can experience female breast growth, low androgen production, small testes, and decreased sperm production.
  • Abnormal Sex Differentiaton - Specific Syndromes of Sex Differentiation 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.hopkinschildrens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The advantages are that the penis, though small, is otherwise normal in appearance, with a natural glans and foreskin, and the scrotum can be sized appropriately for the patients body.

^ Breast size is usually small; clitoris and labia are hypoplastic.
  • http://moon.ouhsc.edu/kfung/JTY1/NeuroHelp/ZNP2IE03.htm 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC moon.ouhsc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.No additional testosterone is given during childhood to avoid unwanted virilization and bone maturation.^ No history of tuberculosis, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, alcohol intake or taking any teratogenic drugs during pregnancy was given.
  • Indmedica - Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.indmedica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I read a study last year that showed men with micropenis, given high doses of testosterone from childhood on, had increased penis size and normal function.
  • Introduction - Intersex Community Forums | Bodies Like Ours 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.bodieslikeours.org [Source type: General]

^ Topical testosterone cream used in childhood can increase penile size by accelerating the effects of puberty, but there is no proof that testosterone cream applied to the adult penis enhances penile size.
  • Penile Augmentation, Penis Enhancement, Penis Lengthening surgery, Penile Implant 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.surgeon4men.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(There is also some evidence that premature administration of testosterone can lead to reduced penis size in the adult.^ There is slight evidence that some of them, such as the Phallosan extender system and the Penistretcher device, may result in slightly lengthening the stretched length of a flaccid penis.
  • Small-Penis Syndrome Common 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Docs: Many Men Have "Small-Penis Syndrome" - CBS News 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.cbsnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The condition is diagnosed shortly after birth, just as the rest of the perineum, scrotum and penis are fully formed and there could be no doubt about size.
  • What Classifies as a Micro Penis? | Daily Health Tip 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.daily-health-tip.com [Source type: General]

^ The smallest size of a micropenis that can develop into a sexually adequate adult penis is not known with certainty, but the responsiveness to growth of the organ can be tested with testosterone administration.
  • Neovagina - New Advances, August 1, 2009 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.medical-library.org [Source type: Academic]

)[3]
.Testosterone treatment is resumed in adolescence only for boys with hypogonadism.^ Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and micropenis: Effect of testosterone treatment on adult penile size and why sex reversal is not indicated.
  • Androgens and Anabolic Steroids 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.aetna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Main KM, Schmidt IM & Skakkeaek NE. A possible role for reproductive hormones in newborn boys: progressive hypogonadism without the postnatal testosterone peak.
  • Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels: a longitudinal study of 1962 normal boys -- Boas et al. 154 (1): 125 -- European Journal of Endocrinology 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.eje-online.org [Source type: Academic]

.Penile growth is completed at the end of puberty, similarly to the completion of height growth, and provision of extra testosterone to post-pubertal adults will produce little or no further growth.^ Even though testosterone is sometimes used to accelerate puberty, there's absolutely no evidence that this substance can enlarge penis of an adult man.
  • Penis Enlargement Pills - Do They Work? 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC loonov.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels: a longitudinal study of 1962 normal boys -- Boas et al.
  • Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels: a longitudinal study of 1962 normal boys -- Boas et al. 154 (1): 125 -- European Journal of Endocrinology 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.eje-online.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, this correlation was weak, indicating that factors other than testosterone contribute to penile growth at this age.
  • Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels: a longitudinal study of 1962 normal boys -- Boas et al. 154 (1): 125 -- European Journal of Endocrinology 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.eje-online.org [Source type: Academic]

Surgery

.Because hormone treatment rarely achieves average size, a number of surgical techniques like phalloplasty for penis enlargement have been devised and performed but are not generally considered successful enough to be widely adopted and are rarely performed in childhood.^ The achieved penis enlargement is permanent.
  • Andropenis | Win Health 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.win-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the average penis size?
  • Penile Augmentation, Penis Enhancement, Penis Lengthening surgery, Penile Implant 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.surgeon4men.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of surgical techniques aimed at enlarging the penis have been devised, but are rarely performed in such cases since the results are not considered to be good enough.

.In extreme cases of micropenis, there is barely any shaft, and the glans appears to sit almost on the pubic skin.^ There are cases of underdeveloped micropenis, however self-consciousness of his male being smaller dominates most of the cases even though his penis has normally developed objectively.
  • Method for surgically enlarging a penis - Patent 5921246 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I do know that there have been cases where the person with a micropenis actually had a vagina below the penis...
  • Thinking of Genital Correction Surgery. . . [Archive] - Intersex Community Forums | Bodies Like Ours 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.bodieslikeours.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears that an ABW has the upper hand, because, at any given time, there is somebody out there who is experiencing lack, in which case, makes her stock price rise.

.From the 1960s until the late 1970s, it was not unusual for sex reassignment and surgery to be recommended.^ Medical requirements and consequences of sex reassignment surgery.
  • Library Selection 5 - FtM Transsexual, Aphallia and Micropenis 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.gendercare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly we do the same for those that have rebelled against their circumstances and changed their lives with elective sex reassignment, surgery or whatever [15].
  • Management of Intersexuality 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.ukia.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore such surgery, which includes all clitoral surgery and any sex reassignment, should typically wait until puberty or after when the patient is able to give truly informed consent.
  • Management of Intersexuality 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.ukia.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was especially likely if evidence suggested that response to additional testosterone and pubertal testosterone would be poor.^ Seems like McFuck wouldn’t have used that, especially in what he seemed to think would come off as a weirdly not-at-all self-aggrandizing way.
  • Sadly, No! » Nailed It! 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.sadlyno.com [Source type: Original source]

.If parents accepted, the boy would be reassigned and renamed as a girl, and surgery performed to remove the testes and construct an artificial vagina.^ Surgery to remove one or both testes .

^ They would have given Hawbecker a vagina and have prescribed female hormones, but Hawbecker's parents refused to consent.
  • The micropenis and the giant clitoris - Salon.com 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

^ A baseline hormone study was performed at 14 months, and an hCG test (1000 IU/48 h x 3) was performed at 17 months, prior to surgery.
  • Compound Heterozygous Mutations in the SRD5A2 Gene Exon 4 in a Male Pseudohermaphrodite Patient of Chinese Origin -- Fernández-Cancio et al. 25 (3): 412 -- Journal of Andrology 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.andrologyjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

This was based on three now questioned assumptions:
  1. gender identity and sex differences were solely a matter of social learning rather than biology.
  2. a male with a penis too small to put into a vagina could not find a satisfactory social and sexual place in society.
  3. a functionally acceptable vagina could be constructed surgically.
The center most known for this approach (Johns Hopkins Hospital) performed twelve such reassignments between 1960 and 1980, most notably, that of David Reimer, overseen by Dr. John Money. By the mid-1990s reassignment was less often offered, and all three premises had been challenged. .Former subjects of such surgery, vocally dissatisfied with adult outcome, played a large part in discouraging this practice.^ But some intersex patients as adults have complained that surgery does not prevent problems and may actually exacerbate them, because of adverse cosmetic and functional outcomes from surgery.
  • MANAGEMENT OF CHILDREN WITH INTERSEX CONDITIONS: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.gghjournal.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This policy stems in part from several recent studies, which found sexual and psychological problems among intersex adults who had surgery as infants.
  • Behavior - If Biology Is Destiny, When Shouldn't It Be? - NYTimes.com 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.As a result, sexual reassignment is rarely performed today for severe micropenis (although the issue of raising the child as a girl is sometimes still discussed.^ Child as a girl is sometimes side-effect.

^ Penile augmentation surgery is still a controversial issue because of the uncertain indication, the possibility of severe complications and a variety of surgical techniques.
  • A comparative study on two kinds of surgical procedures of penile corpora cavernosa augmentation : eClips Consult 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC eclipsconsult.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of surgical techniques aimed at enlarging the penis have been devised, but are rarely performed in such cases since the results are not considered to be good enough.

)[4] Much inaccurate or exaggerated folklore on this topic is available on the internet. .(See History of intersex surgery for a more complete discussion of this issue.^ It is better to spend some time before the surgery in discussing the issue rather than having to waste precious time and money later in corrective surgeries.
  • Is Penis Enlargement Surgery Really Works? 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.mysecrethealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See Anophthalmia/Microphthalmia Overview for a more complete differential diagnosis.
  • SOX2-Related Eye Disorders -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When certain physicians, like Philip Gruppuso, a pediatric endocrinologist at Brown, see an intersex infant, they now usually recommend against surgery.
  • Behavior - If Biology Is Destiny, When Shouldn't It Be? - NYTimes.com 24 January 2010 20:17 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

)

See also

References

  1. ^ Lee PA, Mazur T, Danish R, et al. (1980). "Micropenis. I. Criteria, etiologies and classification". The Johns Hopkins medical journal 146 (4): 156–63. PMID 7366061. 
  2. ^ Ishii T, Sasaki G, Hasegawa T, Sato S, Matsuo N, Ogata T (2004). "Testosterone enanthate therapy is effective and independent of SRD5A2 and AR gene polymorphisms in boys with micropenis". J. Urol. 172 (1): 319–24. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000129005.84831.1e. PMID 15201804. 
  3. ^ McMahon DR, Kramer SA, Husmann DA (1995). "Micropenis: does early treatment with testosterone do more harm than good?". J. Urol. 154 (2 Pt 2): 825–9. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)67175-1. PMID 7609189. 
  4. ^ Calikoglu AS (1999). "Should boys with micropenis be reared as girls?". J. Pediatr. 134 (5): 537–8. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70236-2. PMID 10228285. 

External links


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