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A Neumann U87 condenser microphone with shock mount
.A microphone (colloquially called a mic or mike (both pronounced /ˈmaɪk/)) is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.^ A device for turning acoustic power into electric power is called a microphone.

^ Microphone is a device used for converting acoustic sound waves into an electrical representation of the sound wave.

^ The frequency response of a microphone is a measure of the consistency with which it converts incoming sounds into electric signals to be transmitted.
  • JR.com: Product Guide - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.jr.com [Source type: General]

.In 1876, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter.^ The first application of a microphone was as a telephone transmitter.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blake Transmitter 1883 T he Blake transmitter was the first successful telephone transmitter (microphone).

^ The first microphone was invented as a telephone transmitter by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, karaoke systems, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, FRS radios, megaphones, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors.^ Used for professional sound reinforcement, broadcasting, and studio recording applications, the Be...
  • X-CART. Powerful PHP shopping cart software - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.justservice.com [Source type: General]

^ For the voice-to-note test, I used each microphone to record notes using my own voice.

^ Cyber Acoustics is the technology leader in affordable computer audio and speech recognition/voice interactive microphones and headsets.
  • Cordless microphones Headsets & Microphones at bizrate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

.Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphone), capacitance change (condenser microphone, pictured right), piezoelectric generation, or light modulation to produce the signal from mechanical vibration.^ The most common microphones for musical use are dynamic, ribbon, or condenser microphones.

^ Dynamic microphones are generally less responsive than a condenser microphone.
  • Microphones « Krishnageeks.com – Spiritualised Technology 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC krishnageeks.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Most temples use dynamic microphones for the PA system.
  • Microphones « Krishnageeks.com – Spiritualised Technology 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC krishnageeks.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Varieties

.The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its element or capsule. A complete microphone also includes a housing, some means of bringing the signal from the element to other equipment, and often an electronic circuit to adapt the output of the capsule to the equipment being driven.^ Uniden microphone, includes call button.
  • Prestigecom.net.au - UHF CB Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.prestigecom.net.au [Source type: General]

^ The output signal that a microphone produces will be related to the microphone (element) technology.

^ If the microphone uses an electronic circuit (transformerless) output, a low value of load impedance will likely stress the little microphone pre-amplifier, causing slew rate and compression at high levels.
  • Rupert Neve Designs – Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC rupertneve.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microphones are referred to by their transducer principle, such as condenser, dynamic, etc., and by their directional characteristics.^ Refers to the direction from which the microphone will receive sound.
  • Which computer microphone is right for you? 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.netyak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The condenser microphone works on a different principle.
  • Matrix Oral History Tutorial 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.historicalvoices.org [Source type: Reference]
  • AKUSTYK for Praat 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC bartus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are other operating principles used in microphones (such as ribbon, crystal, carbon, etc.
  • Church Multimedia - Sound, Video, Lighting & Design Concepts - Audio - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC church-multimedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes other characteristics such as diaphragm size, intended use or orientation of the principal sound input to the principal axis (end- or side-address) of the microphone are used to describe the microphone.^ Sensitive microphone can be used from 1" to 6" away from the microphone end.

^ The two sides of the microphone diaphragm receive sound from the two inlet ports.

^ In a studio situation a dynamic microphone such as the SM57 will be great for snare drums, guitar cabs and a hundred other uses.  They generally can take a fair amount of abuse such as a drum stick hitting the microphone.
  • Studio and home recording equipment - microphones and microphone types 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.recordproduction.com [Source type: General]

Condenser, capacitor or electrostatic microphone

Inside the Oktava 319 condenser microphone
.In a condenser microphone, also called a capacitor or electrostatic microphone, the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, and the vibrations produce changes in the distance between the plates.^ As incoming sound moves the diaphragm, those vibrations will cause changes in the distance between the plates.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ The front plate acts as a diaphragm.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So where does one get electret condenser microphones?

.There are two methods of extracting an audio output from the transducer thus formed: DC-biased and radio frequency (RF) or high frequency (HF) condenser microphones.^ Audio technica ATM11 condensator microphone .
  • Electronic parts, components and modules from CAD AUDIO DK 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.cadaudio.dk [Source type: General]

^ Type: High Impedience electret condenser audio microphone .
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.incredibow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Audio technica ATM21 condensator microphone .
  • Electronic parts, components and modules from CAD AUDIO DK 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.cadaudio.dk [Source type: General]

.With a DC-biased microphone, the plates are biased with a fixed charge (Q).^ The electret class of microphones are condenser microphones which use a permanently polarized electret material for their diaphragms, thus avoiding the necessity for the biasing DC voltage required for the conventional condenser.

^ Unlike the earlier condenser design with a fixed plate behind the vibrating diaphragm, this microphone used a wire coil behind the diaphragm that moved with a "velocity" independent of the sound frequency.

^ Condenser microphone: a microphone that picks up sounds via an electrically charged, metallized diaphragm, which is separated from a conductive back plate by a thin air layer.
  • Glossary of Basic Microphone Terms 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mixguides.com [Source type: General]

.The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation (C = Q / V), where Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts.^ The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation: .

^ Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts, resulting in a change in output voltage.

^ A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them.
  • Condenser Microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.mediacollege.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The capacitance of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between them for a parallel-plate capacitor.^ The capacitance of a plane-parallel capacitor of plate area A and separation h is C = 4πκεA/h F, where A is in m 2 and h is in m.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation: .

^ Even so, it is polarized enough to produce an active capacitive change in the voltage between the membrane and the back plate when it is moved by the pressure of a sound wave.

(See capacitance for details.) .The assembly of fixed and movable plates is called an "element" or "capsule."^ Here, it is preferable that the fixed element, the movable element and the spring are plated with gold.

^ By gold plating the fixed element 11, the movable element 12 and the spring 13, it is possible to enhance the electric characteristics.

^ The condenser microphone as claimed in claim 3, wherein said fixed element, said movable element and said spring are plated with gold.

.A nearly constant charge is maintained on the capacitor.^ In a condenser microphone , a thin membrane of the microphone acts as one plate of a capacitor and a nearly constant charge is maintained on the capacitor.

.As the capacitance changes, the charge across the capacitor does change very slightly, but at audible frequencies it is sensibly constant.^ Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts, resulting in a change in output voltage.

^ The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation: .

^ The electret is a modified version of the classic capacitor microphone , which exploits changes in capacitance due to mechanical vibrations to produce a small voltage proportional to sound waves.
  • Sound card microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hobby-hour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The capacitance of the capsule (around 5–100 pF) and the value of the bias resistor (100 megohms to tens of gigohms) form a filter which is highpass for the audio signal, and lowpass for the bias voltage.^ A - C D - G H - L M - S T - Z amplify Used to electronically magnify sound waves by increasing voltage, power or current to an audio signal for mixing, distribution, and/or transducing purposes.
  • Microphones Etc. — Understanding Microphone Pickup Patterns 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphonesetc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bias is needed for the small built-in FET follower which converts the very high impedance of the electret element (tens of megohms) to an acceptable level (several kohms).
  • Sound card microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hobby-hour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Powering two wire electret capsule from soundcard bias voltage output .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note that the time constant of an RC circuit equals the product of the resistance and capacitance.^ Referring to FIG. 6 , in this impedance converter, a constant current load circuit is used in place of the load resistance 3 used in FIGS. 1 and 5 .
  • Impedance converter for a condenser microphone - Patent 6453048 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Within the time-frame of the capacitance change (as much as 50 ms at 20 Hz audio signal), the charge is practically constant and the voltage across the capacitor changes instantaneously to reflect the change in capacitance.^ Maximum achieved SPL (sequenced packet exchange) is about 130dB (at 0.5% THD), frequency response is sleek across its 20 Hz-20 kHz curve.

^ The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation: .

^ The electret is a modified version of the classic capacitor microphone , which exploits changes in capacitance due to mechanical vibrations to produce a small voltage proportional to sound waves.
  • Sound card microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hobby-hour.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The voltage across the capacitor varies above and below the bias voltage.^ The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation: .

^ Elimination of the bias voltage and all its inconveniences makes the electret capacitor microphone a very desirable device.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the upper plate is the diaphragm of a microphone, the electric field E plays the same role as the field produced by the bias voltage in an ordinary capacitor microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The voltage difference between the bias and the capacitor is seen across the series resistor.^ The voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation: .

^ The original idea was to just determine the tension of condenser microphone capsule's diaphragm by measuring the difference (or the relation) between its capacitance once with and once without an applied high bias voltage.
  • Condenser Microphone Capsule Measurement 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the plates are shorted to each other (a "short" in this case can be a resistance of many megohoms) the voltage difference between them becomes zero.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The voltage across the resistor is amplified for performance or recording.^ The voltage measured across the resistor is an electrical image of the sound pressure which moves the membrane.

^ The output voltage is the voltage across an external drain resistor in the range 2kΩ to 50kΩ, which becomes the output impedance of the microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

AKG C451B small-diaphragm condenser microphone
.RF condenser microphones use a comparatively low RF voltage, generated by a low-noise oscillator.^ Low noise level microphone systems .
  • G.R.A.S. Sound & Vibration 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.gras.dk [Source type: Reference]

^ The most common instrumentation microphone uses a capacitive sensing element, hence, the name condenser microphone .
  • microphone - Developer Zone - National Instruments 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC zone.ni.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Sennheiser is a world leader in microphone technology, RF-wireless and infrared sound transmission, headphone transducer technology, and most recently, in the development of active noise-cancellation.
  • Sennheiser wireless microphone, microphones, headphones and mics 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphoneheaven.com [Source type: General]

.The oscillator may either be amplitude modulated by the capacitance changes produced by the sound waves moving the capsule diaphragm, or the capsule may be part of a resonant circuit that modulates the frequency of the oscillator signal.^ Either the capsule's capacitance is part of an oscillator's resonant circuit, so that the oscillator's frequency is modulated with the audio frequency and can be demodulated with a usual frequency demodulator or discriminator.
  • RF-Condenser Microphone Circuit 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or a fixed oscillator generates a fixed frequency and the capsule's capacitance is part of the frequency demodulator, so that with the audio frequency it detunes the demodulator and thus produces the audio signal.
  • RF-Condenser Microphone Circuit 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The velocity of the moving ribbon was independent of the sound frequency, producing a high-impedance signal.

.Demodulation yields a low-noise audio frequency signal with a very low source impedance.^ Input sensitivity is -40dB @ 1kHz and signal to noise is better than 73dB. Impedance is 200 ohms and the operating voltage is 48V DC. .

^ Either configuration provides a sensitive, low-noise, wide bandwidth signal through its' balanced, low-impedanced XLR output.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ The AF signal across C 8 is amplified by T 2 , T 3 and T 4 to become a low-impedance output signal.
  • RF-Condenser Microphone Circuit 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The absence of a high bias voltage permits the use of a diaphragm with looser tension, which may be used to achieve wider frequency response due to higher compliance.^ Of course, you always need high sensitivity, high SPL handling with low distortion, and extended frequency response.
  • AKG C 1000 S Condenser Microphone Condenser Microphones at Music123. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.music123.com [Source type: General]

^ Maximum achieved SPL (sequenced packet exchange) is about 130dB (at 0.5% THD), frequency response is sleek across its 20 Hz-20 kHz curve.

^ A nearly frequency-independent, polar pattern offers incredibly high gain before feedback and provides uncolored off-axis response.

.The RF biasing process results in a lower electrical impedance capsule, a useful byproduct of which is that RF condenser microphones can be operated in damp weather conditions which could create problems in DC-biased microphones whose insulating surfaces have become contaminated.^ Large capsule condenser microphone .

^ Therefore I connected the capsule to my RF-condenser microphone circuit : .
  • Condenser Microphone Capsule Measurement 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are other operating principles used in microphones (such as ribbon, crystal, carbon, etc.
  • Church Multimedia - Sound, Video, Lighting & Design Concepts - Audio - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC church-multimedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Sennheiser "MKH" series of microphones use the RF biasing technique.^ Sennheiser is a world leader in microphone technology, RF-wireless and infrared sound transmission, headphone transducer technology, and most recently, in the development of active noise-cancellation.
  • Sennheiser wireless microphone, microphones, headphones and mics 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphoneheaven.com [Source type: General]

^ The electret class of microphones are condenser microphones which use a permanently polarized electret material for their diaphragms, thus avoiding the necessity for the biasing DC voltage required for the conventional condenser.

^ Sennheiser Electronic Corporation Manufacturer of headphones, noise cancelling and reduction, microphones, aviation and broadcast headsets as well as IR and RF wireless systems.

.Condenser microphones span the range from telephone transmitters through inexpensive karaoke microphones to high-fidelity recording microphones.^ The first application of a microphone was as a telephone transmitter.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broadcaster - Condenser Microphone Manufacturer: R?DE Microphones Part Number: BROADCASTER Price range: $419.00 check prices .
  • Broadcaster - Condenser Microphone Microphone reviews - CNET Reviews 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC reviews.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the diaphragm is very light, the response of the condenser microphone is very accurate, often producing a recording that is extremely rich in both frequency and dynamic response.
  • AKUSTYK for Praat 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC bartus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They generally produce a high-quality audio signal and are now the popular choice in laboratory and studio recording applications.^ High enough quality that they could also be used in home recording studios for drummers.
  • Sennheiser wireless microphone, microphones, headphones and mics 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphoneheaven.com [Source type: General]

^ Microphone choices for studio and home recording .
  • Studio and home recording equipment - microphones and microphone types 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.recordproduction.com [Source type: General]

^ The ultimate high quality easy to use portable audio recorder.
  • Audio Equipment At Discount Prices -- Samson C02 Condenser Microphone 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.ultimatesoundrecorder.com [Source type: General]

.The inherent suitability of this technology is due to the very small mass that must be moved by the incident sound wave, unlike other microphone types which require the sound wave to do more work.^ It is very small and have a great sound.

^ The microphone works well and sounds natural.

^ This is due to the mass of the diaphragm , and that the sound wave must do work on the coil to cause the current .
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.They require a power source, provided either via microphone outputs as phantom power or from a small battery.^ Operates on battery or phantom power.
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

^ Phantom power feeding unit for microphone .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is why most condensers require phantom or battery power to operate.
  • Microphones - Kelly Industries - Sales & Information 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.kellyindustries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Power is necessary for establishing the capacitor plate voltage, and is also needed to power the microphone electronics (impedance conversion in the case of electret and DC-polarized microphones, demodulation or detection in the case of RF/HF microphones).^ Basic electret microphone powering circuits .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power is necessary for establishing the capacitor plate voltage, and is also needed for internal amplification of the signal to a useful output level.

^ Battery powered electret microphone .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Condenser microphones are also available with two diaphragms, the signals from which can be electrically connected such as to provide a range of polar patterns (see below), such as cardioid, omnidirectional and figure-eight.^ An electrical charge is placed on the diaphragm which polarizes it.
  • Microphones - Kelly Industries - Sales & Information 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.kellyindustries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar Pattern: cardioid .
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.mannmusic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professional diaphragm condenser microphone stereo .

It is also possible to vary the pattern smoothly with some microphones, for example the Røde NT2000 or CAD M179.

Electret condenser microphone

.
First patent on foil electret microphone by G. M. Sessler et al.
^ In 1962 and 1965 electret microphones in which the diaphragm was composed of a metalized thin foil of Mylar or Teflon, respectively, which has been converted into an electret were proposed.

^ The first large- scale application of electric transducers was during WWII, when wax-electret microphones were used in Japanese field equipment.

^ Unidirectional Foil Electret Condenser Microphone ...
  • China Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

(pages 1 to 3)
.An electret microphone is a relatively new type of capacitor microphone invented at Bell laboratories in 1962 by Gerhard Sessler and Jim West.^ Type: Electret condenser microphone .
  • Philips Conference Microphone 9172 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.recorders.com [Source type: General]

^ Condenser microphones are also called capacitor microphones ; some types of condenser microphone are called electret .
  • http://www.hrelp.org/archive/advice/microphones.html 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hrelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1962 and 1965 electret microphones in which the diaphragm was composed of a metalized thin foil of Mylar or Teflon, respectively, which has been converted into an electret were proposed.

[1] .The externally-applied charge described above under condenser microphones is replaced by a permanent charge in an electret material.^ V 9.7 x 4.5mm electret condenser microphone .
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Electret Condenser Microphone with Diameter of 4x1.
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ The electret is a stable dielectric material with a permanently-embedded static charge.

.An electret is a ferroelectric material that has been permanently electrically charged or polarized.^ An electrical charge is placed on the diaphragm which polarizes it.
  • Microphones - Kelly Industries - Sales & Information 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.kellyindustries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electret is a stable dielectric material with a permanently-embedded static charge.

^ An electret is a body with a permanent polarization, analogous to a magnet which has a permanent magnetization.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name comes from electrostatic and magnet; a static charge is embedded in an electret by alignment of the static charges in the material, much the way a magnet is made by aligning the magnetic domains in a piece of iron.^ Both pieces are charged with static electricity.

^ The electret is a stable dielectric material with a permanently-embedded static charge.

^ Permanent magnets are generally made from a neodymium iron boron compound.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to their good performance and ease of manufacture, hence low cost, the vast majority of microphones made today are electret microphones; a semiconductor manufacturer[2] estimates annual production at over one billion units.^ So where does one get electret condenser microphones?

^ Browse microphones made by the following Manufacturers: .
  • SavingLots.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.savinglots.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One example was the electret microphone.
  • Microphone - GHN 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.ieeeghn.org [Source type: Reference]

.Nearly all cell-phone, computer, PDA and headset microphones are electret types.^ We carry all types of microphones.
  • Hyper Cardiod Microphones - Headworn Microphones - Heil Microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphonesforless.com [Source type: General]

^ Ok, so all I needed was a headset with an electret condenser microphone element.

^ All modern telephones use electret mics, including mobiles (AKA cell phones), answering machines, computer headsets, and virtually every piece of electronic equipment that needs to hear voice commands, noise, etc.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are used in many applications, from high-quality recording and lavalier use to built-in microphones in small sound recording devices and telephones.^ High enough quality that they could also be used in home recording studios for drummers.
  • Sennheiser wireless microphone, microphones, headphones and mics 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphoneheaven.com [Source type: General]

^ Characteristics The Condenser microphone is good for crisp sound and can be used for high quality recordings.
  • Sensor Workshop at ITP | Reports / Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC itp.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pros : High sound quality.
  • DealExtreme: $11.65 Hi-Fi Dynamic Microphone for PC (3.5mm Jack) 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.dealextreme.com [Source type: General]

.Though electret microphones were once considered low quality, the best ones can now rival traditional condenser microphones in every respect and can even offer the long-term stability and ultra-flat response needed for a measurement microphone.^ So where does one get electret condenser microphones?

^ V 9.7 x 4.5mm electret condenser microphone .
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ And whats the best quality microphone?
  • The Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.Unlike other capacitor microphones, they require no polarizing voltage, but often contain an integrated preamplifier which does require power (often incorrectly called polarizing power or bias).^ Condenser microphones are powered, often by a small voltage from the PC. .
  • Which computer microphone is right for you? 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.netyak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other microphones are powered by the device that they are plugged into.

^ The microphone does not use phantom power.
  • Microphones « Krishnageeks.com – Spiritualised Technology 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC krishnageeks.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

.This preamplifier is frequently phantom powered in sound reinforcement and studio applications.^ Used for professional sound reinforcement, broadcasting, and studio recording applications, the Be...
  • X-CART. Powerful PHP shopping cart software - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.justservice.com [Source type: General]

^ Whether it be a wireless application or direct to an amp or console, our microphones are accurate, precise and manufactured for all of your live and studio sound requirements.
  • Applied Microphone Technology - microphones for trumpet, trombone, saxophone, clarinet, guitar, violin, harmonica, percussion, cello and more. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.appliedmicrophone.com [Source type: General]
  • Applied Microphone Technology on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether it be a wireless application or direct to an amp or console, these wireless microphones are accurate, precise and manufactured for all of your live and studio sound requirements.
  • AMT Microphones | Wireless Instrument Microphones | Cardioid Microphone, Guitar Microphone, Piano Microphone, Trumpet Microphone & more on Sale 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.musicalinstrumenthaven.com [Source type: General]

.Microphones designed for personal computer (PC) use, sometimes called multimedia microphones, use a stereo 3.5 mm plug (though a mono source) with the ring receiving power via a resistor from (normally) a 5 V supply in the computer; unfortunately, a number of incompatible dynamic microphones are fitted with 3.5 mm plugs too.^ In Use I tried out the microphones on acoustic guitar in mono and in stereo.

^ Powering electret microphones with 3.5 mm mono jack form SB16 .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Powering multimedia microphones using external power supply .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While few electret microphones rival the best DC-polarized units in terms of noise level, this is not due to any inherent limitation of the electret.^ Low noise level microphone systems .
  • G.R.A.S. Sound & Vibration 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.gras.dk [Source type: Reference]

^ Electret microphone , electret condenser microphone , condenser electret microphone , microphone unit, condenser microphone , MIC...
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Types of microphones include surface, outdoor, environmental, pressure, probe, window, noise level & random-incidence microphones .
  • Microphones on ThomasNet.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

.Rather, mass production techniques needed to produce microphones cheaply don't lend themselves to the precision needed to produce the highest quality microphones, due to the tight tolerances required in internal dimensions.^ Marshall and Harry of Bell Labs reported in 1941 that due to the reproducing characteristics of monaural sound systems in use, directivity needed to be supplied by the microphone in order to produce a more natural balance of direct-to-reverberant sound.

^ If an engineer specifies a cheap condenser microphone that functions just fine, but has an erratic frequency response, the manufacturer will produce a very poor quality microphone.
  • Sennheiser wireless microphone, microphones, headphones and mics 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.microphoneheaven.com [Source type: General]

^ In the crowded world of professional microphones, Audix has punched through the masses with good performing, well-priced products.

.These tolerances are the same for all condenser microphones, whether the DC, RF or electret technology is used.^ So where does one get electret condenser microphones?

^ Electret Condenser Microphone with Diameter of 4x1.
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Ok, so all I needed was a headset with an electret condenser microphone element.

Dynamic microphone

Patti Smith singing into a Shure SM58 (dynamic cardioid type) microphone
.Dynamic microphones work via electromagnetic induction.^ Dynamic microphone: a transducer that relies on the law of induction, with an output proportional to the velocity of a moving element within a magnetic field.
  • Glossary of Basic Microphone Terms 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mixguides.com [Source type: General]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) Japanese Recording DYNAMIC MICROPHONE Prop / display use only mic for sale Working condition unknown, so mic is for display / prop use only.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.They are robust, relatively inexpensive and resistant to moisture.^ They also tend to be relatively inexpensive (compared to professional condenser mics).
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ However, they are extremely resistant to moisture and to mechanical abuse.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

.This, coupled with their potentially high gain before feedback makes them ideal for on-stage use.^ Unidirectional "Cardiod" pattern enables high "gain before feedback".
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ To be able to get the most gain before feedback it uses a very tight ...
  • Applied Microphone (AMT) | from Full Compass 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.fullcompass.com [Source type: General]

^ A nearly frequency-independent, polar pattern offers incredibly high gain before feedback and provides uncolored off-axis response.

.Moving-coil microphones use the same dynamic principle as in a loudspeaker, only reversed.^ These are the dynamic moving coil , the dynamic ribbon , and the condenser microphones.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ A dynamic microphone is like a miniature loudspeaker working in reverse.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ A dynamic microphone in reverse becomes a loudspeaker.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A small movable induction coil, positioned in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, is attached to the diaphragm.^ The diaphragm of the mic is attached to a coil of fine wire, which is positioned in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s basically a diaphragm is attached to a coil of wire.
  • Microphones - Kelly Industries - Sales & Information 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.kellyindustries.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Surrounding the voice coil is a permanent magnet.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When sound enters through the windscreen of the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm.^ If it does not move, sound is not making it through your microphone.
  • How to Troubleshoot Microphone Issues 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC support.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ When sound enters the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm, which will in turn move the coil in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ The D 5 stands for a crisp sound that cuts through every mix.AKG made the first microphone diaphragm ever whose thickness varies across its diameter.

.When the diaphragm vibrates, the coil moves in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction.^ If the coil is moved by a diaphragm, a voltage is induced in the coil.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a current flows through the coil, forces are exerted that cause the coil to move.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sound causes the diaphragm to vibrate, which causes the voice coil to move on its axis.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A single dynamic membrane will not respond linearly to all audio frequencies.^ Of course, as all near-field monitors, it does not respond flat in the low frequencies (below 50Hz).

^ The Audio-Technica PRO 31QTR is a dynamic microphone with broad frequency response and low handling noise.

.Some microphones for this reason utilize multiple membranes for the different parts of the audio spectrum and then combine the resulting signals.^ As a result is giving strong audio signal comparing with dynamic microphones.

^ NEW Supercardioid Dynamic Microphone combines the vintage design of the original icon, with a contemporary upgrade in audio performance and the addition of vibrant blue color.
  • Shure - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.shure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some recorders have sensitivity settings to handle microphones of different impedances but you should always check compatibility before buying.
  • http://www.hrelp.org/archive/advice/microphones.html 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hrelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Combining the multiple signals correctly is difficult and designs that do this are rare and tend to be expensive. .There are on the other hand several designs that are more specifically aimed towards isolated parts of the audio spectrum.^ Its supercardioid design provides maximum isolation from other onstage sounds.
  • Shure - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.shure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed specifically for kick drum and other bass instruments.
  • Shure - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.shure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the sensitivity is quite low, no more than -90 dB or -100 dB, so amplification is essential.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The AKG D 112, for example, is designed for bass response rather than treble.^ Brass (trumpet, trombone, tuba): the lower brass instruments can benefit from the bass response of the D-112; the Audio Technica ATM25 also works well.
  • Microphone Selection & Placement 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC pullpud.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ We believe that building microphones designed for specific, rather than broad needs will ultimately produce the richest, purest tones.
  • Applied Microphone Technology - microphones for trumpet, trombone, saxophone, clarinet, guitar, violin, harmonica, percussion, cello and more. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.appliedmicrophone.com [Source type: General]

^ The AKG D112 is an interesting oddity, as it is designed strictly for bass drum use.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .In audio engineering several kinds of microphones are often used at the same time to get the best result.^ This was done 4 times for each microphone, and the overall results were averaged.

^ Use with a piezo preamp for best results.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ This was done 10 times for each microphone, and the results were averaged.

Edmund Lowe using a ribbon microphone
.Ribbon microphones use a thin, usually corrugated metal ribbon suspended in a magnetic field.^ Ribbon microphone: a type of dynamic microphone that uses a thin metal ribbon placed between the poles of a magnet.
  • Glossary of Basic Microphone Terms 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mixguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Dynamic: The dynamic microphone capsule uses a coil of wire; which is suspended in a magnetic field.

^ Ribbon: A very thin (wafer-like) piece of metal foil, also known as a ribbon, is suspended in a magnetic field.

.The ribbon is electrically connected to the microphone's output, and its vibration within the magnetic field generates the electrical signal.^ Splits microphone preamplifier output signal.
  • Larson Davis - Microphone Adaptors 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.lardav.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The coil is disrupted by sonic vibrations, which generate an electrical signal.

^ The condensor microphone required an amplifier built within the microphone to pick up the faint signals.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ribbon microphones are similar to moving coil microphones in the sense that both produce sound by means of magnetic induction.^ Depending on the type of microphone, displacement of the diaphragm may cause variations in the resistance of a carbon contact ( carbon microphone ), in electrostatic capacitance ( condenser microphone ), in the motion of a coil ( dynamic microphone ) or conductor ( ribbon microphone ) in a magnetic field , or in the twisting or bending of a piezoelectric crystal ( crystal microphone ).
  • microphone (electroacoustic device) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic microphone: a transducer that relies on the law of induction, with an output proportional to the velocity of a moving element within a magnetic field.
  • Glossary of Basic Microphone Terms 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mixguides.com [Source type: General]

^ So for either FET condensers or dynamic microphones, a significant amount of voltage gain was required for any purpose, whether live sound reinforcement or magnetic tape recording.
  • Naiant Studio - Microphone Design 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.naiant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Basic ribbon microphones detect sound in a bidirectional (also called figure-eight) pattern because the ribbon, which is open to sound both front and back, responds to the pressure gradient rather than the sound pressure.^ A microphone operated by the pressure gradient is called a pressure-gradient microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will create a microphone with a figure-8 directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A ribbon microphone has maximum sensitivity from front and back, and is insensitive to sound coming from the sides.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though the symmetrical front and rear pickup can be a nuisance in normal stereo recording, the high side rejection can be used to advantage by positioning a ribbon microphone horizontally, for example above cymbals, so that the rear lobe picks up only sound from the cymbals.^ Omnidirectional microphones pick up sound from all directions.
  • Which computer microphone is right for you? 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.netyak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way that a microphone picks up sound from various directions is known as its pickup pattern .
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meaning the BM-700 will only pick up sounds from ...
  • Microphones - Vocal Dynamic, Recording Condenser 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.swamp.net.au [Source type: General]

.Crossed figure 8, or Blumlein pair, stereo recording is gaining in popularity, and the figure 8 response of a ribbon microphone is ideal for that application.^ This is an ideal situation for any stereo recording.
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

^ The 404's can withstand high SPL. They have an extended frequency response which makes it ideal for recording musical instruments as well ...
  • Applied Microphone (AMT) | from Full Compass 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.fullcompass.com [Source type: General]

^ The new Rode NT4, a visually striking microphone that solves the age-old problem of stereo recording by eliminating the need to purchase matched pairs.
  • Microphone - BPMmusic.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.bpmmusic.com [Source type: General]
  • Microphone - BPMmusic.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.bpmmusic.com [Source type: General]

.Other directional patterns are produced by enclosing one side of the ribbon in an acoustic trap or baffle, allowing sound to reach only one side.^ The Planetary Society's Mars Microphone could have returned sounds from winds, sandstorms, dust devils, and other activities caused by local weather patterns.
  • Phoenix Mission Receives OK to Listen for Sounds on Mars - Planetary News | The Planetary Society 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That thing's (appropriately enough) called a Pop Filter , and it blocks the plosives by only allowing the sound to pass through, while blocking the blast of air.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ If the instrument is moved to the right side, the sound would first move the diaphragm to the left, producing a negative volage.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The classic RCA Type 77-DX microphone has several externally-adjustable positions of the internal baffle, allowing the selection of several response patterns ranging from "Figure-8" to "Unidirectional". Such older ribbon microphones, some of which still give very high quality sound reproduction, were once valued for this reason, but a good low-frequency response could only be obtained if the ribbon was suspended very loosely, and this made them fragile.^ Made in China and of very high quality gold plated diaphram.
  • Microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.basslab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will create a microphone with a figure-8 directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pros : High sound quality.
  • DealExtreme: $11.65 Hi-Fi Dynamic Microphone for PC (3.5mm Jack) 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.dealextreme.com [Source type: General]

.Modern ribbon materials, including new nanomaterials[4] have now been introduced that eliminate those concerns, and even improve the effective dynamic range of ribbon microphones at low frequencies.^ For low frequencies, this is an omnidirectional microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dynamic range of the KMS microphones is 132 dB, and the maximum sound pressure level is 150 dB. The low self-noise level of only 18 dB A permits the microphones to be used at high gain levels without the risk of additional noise.
  • Georg Neumann GmbH - Products/Current Microphones/KMS 104/105/Description 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.edition.neumann.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All Luna II microphones are manufactured with a close tolerance of no more than ±1dB variation from published curves across the entire frequency range.
  • M-AUDIO - Luna II - Professional Large-Diaphragm Condenser Microphone 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.m-audio.com [Source type: General]

.Protective wind screens can reduce the danger of damaging a vintage ribbon, and also reduce plosive artifacts in the recording.^ To protect these mics (some of which can actually be damaged by blowing in them) engineers will often mount a nylon screen between the mic and the artist.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Properly designed wind screens produce negligible treble attenuation. .In common with other classes of dynamic microphone, ribbon microphones don't require phantom power; in fact, this voltage can damage some older ribbon microphones.^ Phantom power feeding unit for microphone .
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dynamic mics do not need phantom power.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Phantom power is for condenser microphones.

.Some new modern ribbon microphone designs incorporate a preamplifier and, therefore, do require phantom power, and circuits of modern passive ribbon microphones, i.e., those without the aforementioned preamplifier, are specifically designed to resist damage to the ribbon and transformer by phantom power.^ The design of this microphone is inspired by classic ribbon microphones.
  • Peluso Microphone Lab | VintageKing.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC vintageking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DYNAMIC microphones do not require phantom power.
  • MICROPHONES: interested in Mics? This page is for you... 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.soundonsound.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some soundcards may require powered microphones.
  • Which computer microphone is right for you? 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.netyak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also there are new ribbon materials available that are immune to wind blasts and phantom power.^ "Phantom" is derived from the fact that there is no visible power cord and the voltage is not perceptible in the audio path.
  • Glossary of Basic Microphone Terms 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mixguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Thin Foil Available for Diaphragm           I recently bought a new micrometer and as a result have been able to more accurately measure various thin materials.
  • Condenser Microphone Amplifier 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.members.cox.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Either a battery will be inserted inside the microphone, a permanent charge is retained on the diaphragm or backplate thanks to some clever material scientist, or phantom power is used.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Carbon microphone

.A carbon microphone like the Berliner and Edison microphones use a capsule or button containing carbon granules pressed between two metal plates.^ Stereo is achieved by using a stereo microphone (actually a housing with two microphone capsules in it), or two mono microphones that you can place independently, or set up in a special configuration, such as ORTF .
  • http://www.hrelp.org/archive/advice/microphones.html 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hrelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Zoom Q3 aims to change that with TWO directional microphones that can be focused much like a lens zooms.
  • microphones - Gizmodo 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC gizmodo.com [Source type: General]

^ Condenser microphone: a microphone that picks up sounds via an electrically charged, metallized diaphragm, which is separated from a conductive back plate by a thin air layer.
  • Glossary of Basic Microphone Terms 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mixguides.com [Source type: General]

.A voltage is applied across the metal plates, causing a small current to flow through the carbon.^ In particular, e is proportional to the DC voltage across or the current through the button.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diode 1 A is a silicon diode in which a drop of a voltage is caused, when a current flows forward.
  • Impedance converter for a condenser microphone - Patent 6453048 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If a current flows through the coil, forces are exerted that cause the coil to move.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the plates, the diaphragm, vibrates in sympathy with incident sound waves, applying a varying pressure to the carbon.^ When sound enters the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm, which will in turn move the coil in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ The D 5 stands for a crisp sound that cuts through every mix.AKG made the first microphone diaphragm ever whose thickness varies across its diameter.

^ The electret is a modified version of the classic capacitor (or condensor) microphone, which exploits changes in capacitance due to mechanical vibrations to produce voltage variations proportional to sound waves.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The changing pressure deforms the granules, causing the contact area between each pair of adjacent granules to change, and this causes the electrical resistance of the mass of granules to change.^ It produces its effects by the changes of intensity in an electric current, occasioned by the variations in the contact resistance of conducting bodies, especially of imperfect conductors, under the action of acoustic vibrations.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ When used for collecting body sounds, it's important to keep the area still as pressure fluctuations within the cup will cause the mic to clip.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ As incoming sound moves the diaphragm, those vibrations will cause changes in the distance between the plates.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

.The changes in resistance cause a corresponding change in the current flowing through the microphone, producing the electrical signal.^ By running a current through the carbon, the changing resistance produced by the sound changes the amount of current that flows in proportion to the sound waves.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a current flows through the coil, forces are exerted that cause the coil to move.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It produces its effects by the changes of intensity in an electric current, occasioned by the variations in the contact resistance of conducting bodies, especially of imperfect conductors, under the action of acoustic vibrations.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Carbon microphones were once commonly used in telephones; they have extremely low-quality sound reproduction and a very limited frequency response range, but are very robust devices.^ It is useful in a frequency range where other microphones are unresponsive.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The performance of a microphone includes its sensitivity, frequency range, frequency response curve, and sound quality.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ Frequency response calculation of microphone cables .
  • Microphone Techniques, Dynamic microphones, Condenser Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Reference]

.The Boudet Microphone of 1880 using carbon balls was a similar invention like the granule carbon button microphones.^ Shure UHF U4D (Like New) Up for sale is a gently used Shure UHF Series U4D dual wireless microphone receiver.

^ The outstanding disadvantage of the carbon microphone is noise, the so-called "carbon hiss," that could not be eliminated, though it could be reduced by careful preparation of the granules.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then wire the cartridge like in the picture above (if you want to use the RJ11 connector in the handset then the microphone is connected to the wires in the outside pair).
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Unlike other microphone types, the carbon microphone can also be used as a type of amplifier, using a small amount of sound energy to produce a larger amount of electrical energy.^ Any electrical noise produced by the microphone will also be amplified, so even slight amounts are intolerable.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the different types of microphones and where are they used?

^ The Planetary Society's Mars Microphone could have returned sounds from winds, sandstorms, dust devils, and other activities caused by local weather patterns.
  • Phoenix Mission Receives OK to Listen for Sounds on Mars - Planetary News | The Planetary Society 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carbon microphones found use as early telephone repeaters, making long distance phone calls possible in the era before vacuum tubes.^ Zoom when used in microphone allowing capturing sound from long distance.

^ For my sample measurements I used a prototype of a large diaphragm cardioid capsule from Ralf Falk , who himself is designing a tube microphone .
  • Condenser Microphone Capsule Measurement 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He mounts a gain control and a Cannon plug directly on the classic microphone, making it ideal for hand-held use by harmonica players.
  • MICROPHONE MUSEUM - TELEGRAPH & SCI INSTRUMENT MUSEUMS 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These repeaters worked by mechanically coupling a magnetic telephone receiver to a carbon microphone: the faint signal from the receiver was transferred to the microphone, with a resulting stronger electrical signal to send down the line.^ If a faint beep is sounded in front of two microphones and one puts out a stronger signal (higher voltage), that microphone is said to have higher sensitivity.
  • JR.com: Product Guide - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.jr.com [Source type: General]

^ Please note that these signal levels do vary quite a bit from microphone to microphone.

^ In RF or electrically noisy environments, the stronger microphone level may improve RF feedback immunity through the microphone.

.One illustration of this amplifier effect was the oscillation caused by feedback, resulting in an audible squeal from the old "candlestick" telephone if its earphone was placed near the carbon microphone.^ If the microphone is placed a reasonable distance from the microphone in an anechoic chamber, so that it is activated by what is essentially a plane wave, the result is a free-field curve.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Place one 9V battery into the battery housing of the AWX6030 microphone with the battery polarity oriented as indicated.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.mannmusic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feedback is caused by the microphone picking up signals from the speaker, amplifying them in a feedback loop .
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.The Boudet Microphone of 1881 using carbon balls was the offspring of the powdered carbon button microphones.^ A single-button carbon microphone as a telephone transmitter is shown in the figure.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EARLY S. H. COUCH HAM RADIO STATION MICROPHONE:(8KB) This early desk-mounted carbon microphone was used in a 1920's vintage Ham Radio Station.
  • MICROPHONE MUSEUM - TELEGRAPH & SCI INSTRUMENT MUSEUMS 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hunnings devised a microphone using carbon granules from coke, which was the starting point for Edison's search for a better transmitter.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Piezoelectric microphone

.A crystal microphone uses the phenomenon of piezoelectricity — the ability of some materials to produce a voltage when subjected to pressure — to convert vibrations into an electrical signal.^ Microphones just convert a real sound wave into an electrical audio signal .
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This refers to the way the microphone converts sound into an electric signal.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ A microphone is a transducer which converts acoustic energy into electrical energy.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.An example of this is Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate), which is a piezoelectric crystal that works as a transducer, both as a microphone and as a slimline loudspeaker component.^ Rochelle salt is sodium-potassium tartrate tetrahydrate, NaKC 4 H 4 O 6 ·4H 2 O, which easily forms large orthorhombic crystals.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) AMERICAN D-4 "SALT SHAKER" MICROPHONE Mic works and sounds good as a harp mic.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Rochelle salt was used extensively in microphones, and is of considerable interest besides, so the discussion here will focus on it.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crystal microphones were once commonly supplied with vacuum tube (valve) equipment, such as domestic tape recorders.^ The directional microphone which can be used in various ways such as recording a lecture and a field sound The metal cutting body realized high rigidity The grip which can be attached to the microphone stand and the tripod is supplied More .
  • Olympus - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.olympus.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ So for either FET condensers or dynamic microphones, a significant amount of voltage gain was required for any purpose, whether live sound reinforcement or magnetic tape recording.
  • Naiant Studio - Microphone Design 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.naiant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) SONY F-96 LOW-Z DYNAMIC MICROPHONE mic for sale Small tape recorder Dynamic Sony Low-Z microphone with original case.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.Their high output impedance matched the high input impedance (typically about 10 megohms) of the vacuum tube input stage well.^ On the other hand, if we wish the maximum voltage (as for the input to a high input impedance amplifier), then the load resistance should be made as high as possible.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This impedance converter includes a heater circuit 10 for heating cathodes of the amplifier tubes 2 and 4 .
  • Impedance converter for a condenser microphone - Patent 6453048 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Variable impedance, 150 ohm or "high" for tube circuits.
  • Commercial Microphones & Handsets 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.surplussales.com [Source type: General]

.They were difficult to match to early transistor equipment, and were quickly supplanted by dynamic microphones for a time, and later small electret condenser devices.^ V 9.7 x 4.5mm electret condenser microphone .
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Electret Condenser Microphone with Diameter of 4x1.
  • Electret Condenser Microphone, Electret Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Verified Member ] China 2 Matching Results electret condenser microphone .
  • China Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.The high impedance of the crystal microphone made it very susceptible to handling noise, both from the microphone itself and from the connecting cable.^ Again, these cables are for High-Impedance mics.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ The advantage of T-power is that the shield of the microphone cable need not be connected at both ends, thus this allows the common practice of disconnecting one end of the shield to a microphone in order to prevent hum (earth loops).
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These noise canceling microphones work well for CB, SSB and 10-meter operations and are made from heavy-duty plastics, feature noise canceling...

.Piezoelectric transducers are often used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic musical instruments, to sense drum hits, for triggering electronic samples, and to record sound in challenging environments, such as underwater under high pressure.^ Samples: Reactive Sounds sample recording (WMA).
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

^ The Beta 57A is an excellent microphone designed for use with amplified or acoustic instruments.
  • Shure - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.shure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Sound Professionals Clip-on musical instrument microphone .
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

.Saddle-mounted pickups on acoustic guitars are generally piezoelectric devices that contact the strings passing over the saddle.^ As driven elements, piezoelectric devices are used as telephone receivers, acoustic transducers and record cutters.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Acoustic Guitar Strings .
  • HoffmanMusic.com - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hoffmanmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Electric Guitars Acoustic-Electric Guitars Acoustic Guitars Classical/Nylon-String Guitars Folk/Traditional Instruments Guitar Amplifiers & Effects Guitar Accessories Guitar Value Packages Featured Products .
  • Buy MXL 990 Condenser Microphone with Shock Mount | Condenser Microphones | Musician's Friend 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC pro-audio.musiciansfriend.com [Source type: General]

.This type of microphone is different from magnetic coil pickups commonly visible on typical electric guitars, which use magnetic induction, rather than mechanical coupling, to pick up vibration.^ Depending on the type of microphone, displacement of the diaphragm may cause variations in the resistance of a carbon contact ( carbon microphone ), in electrostatic capacitance ( condenser microphone ), in the motion of a coil ( dynamic microphone ) or conductor ( ribbon microphone ) in a magnetic field , or in the twisting or bending of a piezoelectric crystal ( crystal microphone ).
  • microphone (electroacoustic device) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Among the noisiest of these might be the vibrators that are part of the sample delivery mechanism within TEGA. Such sounds would be transmitted not only through Mars' thin air but also as vibrations within the spacecraft itself, which might be easier for the MARDI microphone to pick up.
  • Phoenix Mission Receives OK to Listen for Sounds on Mars - Planetary News | The Planetary Society 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Picks up speach perfectly with incredible clarity and ease of use.
  • Wireless Microphones and Wired Mics for PA Systems from AmpliVox 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.ampli.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fiber optic microphone

The Optoacoustics 1140 fiber optic microphone
.A fiber optic microphone converts acoustic waves into electrical signals by sensing changes in light intensity, instead of sensing changes in capacitance or magnetic fields as with conventional microphones.^ Microphones just convert a real sound wave into an electrical audio signal .
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting change of capacitance is converted into an electrical signal by various means.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ This refers to the way the microphone converts sound into an electric signal.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

[6][7]
.During operation, light from a laser source travels through an optical fiber to illuminate the surface of a tiny, sound-sensitive reflective diaphragm.^ When sound enters the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm, which will in turn move the coil in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ The D 5 stands for a crisp sound that cuts through every mix.AKG made the first microphone diaphragm ever whose thickness varies across its diameter.

^ When sound pressure differentials hit the diaphragm, its surface vibrates along with the sound waves, and in turn causes the coil to vibrate in exactly the same fashion.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Sound causes the diaphragm to vibrate, thereby minutely changing the intensity of the light it reflects.^ Sound causes the diaphragm to vibrate, which causes the voice coil to move on its axis.
  • How microphone is made - material, history, used, parts, industry, machine, History, Raw Materials, Design, The Manufacturing Process of microphone, Quality Control, By products/Waste 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.madehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A certain voltage, usually 48V, is applied to the diaphragm, so that when sound strikes the diaphragm and causes it to move, the distance between the plates changes, altering the capacitance of the condenser, and ultimately inducing a varying voltage in the second plate which is an analog of the original sound waves.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ As incoming sound moves the diaphragm, those vibrations will cause changes in the distance between the plates.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

.The modulated light is then transmitted over a second optical fiber to a photo detector, which transforms the intensity-modulated light into analog or digital audio for transmission or recording.^ A digital camera works by exposing its detector to light from the environment, then closing the shutter and reading out the image into an internal buffer.
  • Phoenix Mission Receives OK to Listen for Sounds on Mars - Planetary News | The Planetary Society 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The frequency modulated 'carrier' is then fed to a detector stage to be converted back to audio.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) AUDIO-TECHNICA AT811 AT-811 CARDIOID / UNI-DIRECTIONAL CONDENSER / ELECTRET RECORDING MICROPHONE SOLD 9/10/08 .
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.Fiber optic microphones possess high dynamic and frequency range, similar to the best high fidelity conventional microphones.^ TheBeta 87C premium vocal microphone delivers studio-grade performance and a smooth, extended high-end frequency response in a cardioid condenser design.
  • Microphones - Vocal Dynamic, Recording Condenser 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.swamp.net.au [Source type: General]

^ The Shure Model 450 Series II is a high output dynamic desktop microphone designed for paging and dispatching applications.

^ (MIC) 631B ElectroVoice 631B dynamic high / low impedance microphone.
  • Commercial Microphones & Handsets 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.surplussales.com [Source type: General]

.Fiber optic microphones do not react to or influence any electrical, magnetic, electrostatic or radioactive fields (this is called EMI/RFI immunity).^ When sound enters the microphone, the sound wave moves the diaphragm, which will in turn move the coil in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ As the acoustic sound waves hit this diaphragm, the coil of wire vibrates in the magnetic field causing an electrical signal to be produced.

^ If the upper plate is the diaphragm of a microphone, the electric field E plays the same role as the field produced by the bias voltage in an ordinary capacitor microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fiber optic microphone design is therefore ideal for use in areas where conventional microphones are ineffective or dangerous, such as inside industrial turbines or in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment environments.^ For my sample measurements I used a prototype of a large diaphragm cardioid capsule from Ralf Falk , who himself is designing a tube microphone .
  • Condenser Microphone Capsule Measurement 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Very sensitive designs require elastic shock mountings, and mics intended to be held in the hand need to have such mountings built inside the shell.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designed to provide 360° quality pickup, this omnidirectional boundary microphone is ideal for business conference rooms.
  • Omni-Directional Business Microphone - RadioShack.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.radioshack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fiber optic microphones are robust, resistant to environmental changes in heat and moisture, and can be produced for any directionality or impedance matching.^ The resistance varies slightly when the diaphragm is displaced, causing a change in the current and a consequent change in voltage, which is the output of the microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical dynamic microphone has a very low internal impedance, seldom as large as 10Ω, and this impedance is approximately resistive over the whole frequency bandwidth.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the microphone element is made up of carbon granules, speech activating the diaphragm will compress and release the granules, changing the resistance significantly.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The distance between the microphone's light source and its photo detector may be up to several kilometers without need for any preamplifier and/or other electrical device, making fiber optic microphones suitable for industrial and surveillance acoustic monitoring.^ Recording in stereo, the close mic, which captures all the nuances close to the instrument, may be set up within 6 inches of the source, depending how loud it is.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ If you look at a range of ICOM microphone schematics and other microphone sources, you will see the polarity specified in both directions.

^ Silver and light device is not only a nice decorating gadget at your desk; it is also high quality compact and powerful sound capturing microphone.

.Fiber optic microphones are used in very specific application areas such as for infrasound monitoring and noise-canceling.^ Affordable, application-specific microphones.
  • Shure - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.shure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideally you are using a very quiet computer, and you have a microphone that is either highly directional, or otherwise very far away from the computer.
  • Microphone Guide | Sygyt Software 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.sygyt.com [Source type: General]

^ Sennheiser is a world leader in microphone technology, RF-wireless and infrared sound transmission, headphone transducer technology, and most recently, in the development of active noise-cancellation.
  • Sennheiser wireless microphone, microphones, headphones and mics 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphoneheaven.com [Source type: General]

.They have proven especially useful in medical applications, such as allowing radiologists, staff and patients within the powerful and noisy magnetic field to converse normally, inside the MRI suites as well as in remote control rooms.^ Large diaphragm mics are best suited for studio work in controlled environments, where they can be placed on a stand, preferably with a shock mount and a pop-filter.
  • Transom Tools: Recording/Interviewing: What Microphone Do I Get? 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.transom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Andrea Electronics Noise Canceling Bluetooth Headset, BT-200, is the ideal solution for hands free mobile communications in all life's noisy environments allowing users to have clear, noise free conversations while using a cell phone, PC applications such as VoIP and speech recognition programs or gaming systems such as PlayStation®3 and Xbox 360®.

^ We suit the needs of real world entertainment by producing a product that complements amplifiers, sound reinforcement and recording equipment as well as the instruments for which they are designed.
  • Applied Microphone Technology on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]) .Other uses include industrial equipment monitoring and sensing, audio calibration and measurement, high-fidelity recording and law enforcement.^ The 700Mhz band that is currently allocated the TV channels is being allocated for other uses that don’t include TV stations, and summiraly do not include wireless mics.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COMPAQ manual calls the microphone powering method to be phantom powering, but as the measurements revelal the powerin method is not phantom powering in the the sense as understood by audio professionals.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These mics are useful for location sound recording (for movies or TV), nature recordings, and anywhere else where very high discrimination is needed.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Laser microphone

Laser microphones are often portrayed in movies as spy gadgets. .A laser beam is aimed at the surface of a window or other plane surface that is affected by sound.^ Placing any mic too close to an instrument, sound source or surface affects its response.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The slight vibrations of this surface displace the returned beam, causing it to trace the sound wave.^ Sound waves cause the foil to vibrate, causing fluctuations in the electrical current.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Planetary Society's Mars Microphone could have returned sounds from winds, sandstorms, dust devils, and other activities caused by local weather patterns.
  • Phoenix Mission Receives OK to Listen for Sounds on Mars - Planetary News | The Planetary Society 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.planetary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the acoustic sound waves hit this diaphragm, the coil of wire vibrates in the magnetic field causing an electrical signal to be produced.

The vibrating laser spot is then converted back to sound. .In a more robust and expensive implementation, the returned light is split and fed to an interferometer, which detects frequency changes due to the Doppler effect.^ Condenser Microphone s have a much wider frequency response curve than dynamics, due to their lighter and more sensitive transducer .
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

The former implementation is a tabletop experiment; the latter requires an extremely stable laser and precise optics.
.A new type of laser microphone is a device that uses a laser beam and smoke or vapor to detect sound vibrations in free air.^ Used in smoke free environment.

^ Used in a single smoke-free studio.
  • MICROPHONES: interested in Mics? This page is for you... 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.soundonsound.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spider-Type Shock Mount with 4" Outside Ring Diameter for use on all Microphones with Shafts from 0.7-1.02" with Cylindrical or Conical Bodies, Dark Gray .

.On 25 August 2009, U.S. patent 7,580,533 issued for a Particulate Flow Detection Microphone based on a laser-photocell pair with a moving stream of smoke or vapor in the laser beam's path.^ Current produced by the microphone will flow down one wire of the twisted pair, and back along the other one.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the potential difference between the A and B conductors, a current will flow through a dynamic (moving coil) microphone if it is connected to this sort of phantom power.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sound pressure waves cause disturbances in the smoke that in turn cause variations in the amount of laser light reaching the photo detector.^ When used for collecting body sounds, it's important to keep the area still as pressure fluctuations within the cup will cause the mic to clip.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ Others used uncertain mechanical contacts, or flames whose conductance varied with height, which in turn varied with acoustical pressure.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the acoustic sound waves hit this diaphragm, the coil of wire vibrates in the magnetic field causing an electrical signal to be produced.

A prototype of the device was demonstrated at the 127th Audio Engineering Society convention in New York City from 9 through 12 October 2009.

Liquid microphone

.Early microphones did not produce intelligible speech, until Alexander Graham Bell made improvements including a variable resistance microphone/transmitter.^ The D 5 stands for a crisp sound that cuts through every mix.AKG made the first microphone diaphragm ever whose thickness varies across its diameter.

^ Berliner invented a variable-resistance solid transmitter using the contact between a metal diaphragm and a metal ball 1877.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, active transmitters of greater output that varied their resistance in time with the acoustic signal seemed the only answer.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell's liquid transmitter consisted of a metal cup filled with water with a small amount of sulfuric acid added.^ Some used liquids, such as the Bell liquid transmitter itself, and others that employed jets of electrolytes.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A sound wave caused the diaphragm to move, forcing a needle to move up and down in the water.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ As the acoustic sound waves hit this diaphragm, the coil of wire vibrates in the magnetic field causing an electrical signal to be produced.

^ The bias voltage causes an attraction force between diaphragm and backplate.
  • Condenser Microphone Capsule Measurement 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.beis.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The electrical resistance between the wire and the cup was then inversely proportional to the size of the water meniscus around the submerged needle.^ This is a close-up shot of the toupee clip with the elastic tied between the two holes on either side, and the mic wire threaded through and wrapped around the elastic.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diode 1 A is disposed between the grid and the plate of the amplifier tube 2 , the diode 1 B is disposed in parallel inversely between the diode 1 A and the plate of the amplifier tube 2 , and the bias resistance 1 C is disposed in parallel with the diodes 1 A and 1 B. Thereby, an inward flow of the current from the grid of the amplifier tube is output at a bias voltage.
  • Impedance converter for a condenser microphone - Patent 6453048 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Elisha Gray filed a caveat for a version using a brass rod instead of the needle. .Other minor variations and improvements were made to the liquid microphone by Majoranna, Chambers, Vanni, Sykes, and Elisha Gray, and one version was patented by Reginald Fessenden in 1903. These were the first working microphones, but they were not practical for commercial application.^ Microphones are made with certain applications in mind.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first application of a microphone was as a telephone transmitter.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they can find one that still works that is).
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.The famous first phone conversation between Bell and Watson took place using a liquid microphone.^ Basic Contact Microphone - 1/4" Stereo Set This stereo set comes with two 1/4" mono male phone plugs and can be used as is or pulled apart to make two mono mics.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ The principle of the dynamic microphone was known in 1877 when Bell developed the telephone, but it was impossible to use because of the lack of electronic amplification.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first microphones had a 45° X-cut bar, 1-2 cm long, 0.4-1 cm wide and 0.1 to 0.2 cm thick, cemented between a diaphragm and a backing plate.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

MEMS microphone

.The MEMS (MicroElectrical-Mechanical System) microphone is also called a microphone chip or silicon microphone.^ The diaphragm of a microphone is a mechanical system that vibrates under the influence of the sound waves that reach it.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pressure-sensitive diaphragm is etched directly into a silicon chip by MEMS techniques, and is usually accompanied with integrated preamplifier.^ We shall usually assume that the pressure at the microphone diaphragm is the pressure in the undisturbed sound wave.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the microphone is sensitive to pressure, then a force f drives the diaphragm, and we want the displacement x = v/jω to be independent of frequency, or v to be proportional to frequency.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In either design, as the diaphragm is moved by sound pressure changes, the microphone translates that movement into electrical impulses.
  • Transom Tools: Recording/Interviewing: What Microphone Do I Get? 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.transom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most MEMS microphones are variants of the condenser microphone design.^ Condenser microphone is an new design with separate construction, it has special talking light, Feeling extremely touch switch...
  • China Condenser Microphone Manufacturers & Suppliers 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ A conventional impedance converter as described above is shown in a circuit of FIG. 10 , which was used for various condenser microphones.
  • Impedance converter for a condenser microphone - Patent 6453048 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With its dual diaphragm design and switchable polar patterns, KSM9 reveals nuance and subtlety in a microphone optimized for the most demanding live environments.
  • Shure - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.shure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often MEMS microphones have built in analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuits on the same CMOS chip making the chip a digital microphone and so more readily integrated with modern digital products.^ If required, the DSP functions integrated into the microphone can be configured and controlled remotely via the DMI-2 digital microphone interface and the RCS remote control software.
  • Georg Neumann GmbH - Products/Current Microphones/KM D/Description 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.neumann.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And you'll never get bored singing the same karaoke system songs again as Magic Microphones karaoke microphones lets you add more song chips, provides by EnterTech and Leadsinger , which will provide you with even more songs making it the very best karaoke machines available .
  • All-in-One Karaoke Machines | Karaoke Player | Karaoke Systems 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.magicmicrophones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you build this circuit inside the microphone case (or to small external box) you can make yourself an universal microphone out of an electret capsule.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major manufacturers producing MEMS silicon microphones are Wolfson Microelectronics (WM7xxx), Analog Devices, Akustica (AKU200x), Infineon (SMM310 product), Knowles Electronics, Memstech (MSMx), NXP Semiconductors, Sonion MEMS, AAC Acoustic Technologies,[9] and Omron.^ Beyerdynamic is one of few microphone manufacturers worldwide that still produce ribbon microphones.

^ Applied Microphone Technology builds microphones that suit the needs of the musician and sound engineer, while always producing a stellar performance from any instrument.
  • AMT Microphones | Wireless Instrument Microphones | Cardioid Microphone, Guitar Microphone, Piano Microphone, Trumpet Microphone & more on Sale 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.musicalinstrumenthaven.com [Source type: General]
  • Applied Microphone Technology on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This has lead to the creation of large-diaphragm condenser microphones, which use the same basic technology, but have special larger high-quality diaphragms to produce a more flattering sound.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Speakers as microphones

.A loudspeaker, a transducer that turns an electrical signal into sound waves, is the functional opposite of a microphone.^ Microphones just convert a real sound wave into an electrical audio signal .
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electrical signal is the same frequency as the original sound wave.

^ A microphone is a transducer which converts acoustic energy into electrical energy.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.Since a conventional speaker is constructed much like a dynamic microphone (with a diaphragm, coil and magnet), speakers can actually work "in reverse" as microphones.^ Dynamic microphones work on the “moving coil” principle.

^ A dynamic microphone in reverse becomes a loudspeaker.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A dynamic ribbon microphone is similar to the moving coil mic ; it contains a very thin, corrugated metal ribbon stretched inside the air gap of a magnet, which is tied down at the ends and free to move in the middle.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

.The result, though, is a microphone with poor quality, limited frequency response (particularly at the high end), and poor sensitivity.^ Sensitive microphone can be used from 1" to 6" away from the microphone end.

^ The 404's can withstand high SPL. They have an extended frequency response which makes it ideal for recording musical instruments as well ...
  • Applied Microphone (AMT) | from Full Compass 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.fullcompass.com [Source type: General]

^ In order to maintain intelligibility of speech, the microphone will need a frequency response that compensates for the loss of consonants.

.In practical use, speakers are sometimes used as microphones in applications where high quality and sensitivity are not needed such as intercoms, walkie-talkies or Xbox Live chat peripherals.^ Sensitive microphone can be used from 1" to 6" away from the microphone end.

^ Whether it be a wireless application or direct to an amp or console, our microphones are accurate, precise and manufactured for all of your live and studio sound requirements.
  • Applied Microphone Technology on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Description: Small, high quality Cardioid and Shotgun microphone systems for live recording in less than ideal situations (noisy audiences, bad acoustics, far from the source, etc.
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

.However, there is at least one other practical application of this principle: Using a medium-size woofer placed closely in front of a "kick" (bass drum) in a drum set to act as a microphone.^ However, there are useful generalization s.
  • microphone@Everything2.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC everything2.com [Source type: General]

^ Granted, there are better microphones out there, but for emergency use, the 61HE rises above all the others.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This often influences the choice of microphone type for different tasks - for example, there are mics that are favoured for bass (kick) drums that may be deemed unsuited for anything else.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The use of relatively large speakers to transduce low frequency sound sources, especially in music production, is becoming fairly common.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Frequency response claims are meaningless without a graph showing the actual response, and for directional mics this should also indicate the distance of the mic from the sound source.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because ribbon mics use a relatively large diaphragm (much larger than most other mics), they can be very sensitive to air movement - even at subsonic frequencies.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A product example of this type of device is the Yamaha Subkick, a 12-inch (300 mm) woofer used in front of kick drums.^ This often influences the choice of microphone type for different tasks - for example, there are mics that are favoured for bass (kick) drums that may be deemed unsuited for anything else.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be placed a few inches away from the front kick drum head or sometimes engineers place them inside the drum.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Since a relatively massive membrane is unable to transduce high frequencies, placing a speaker in front of a kick drum is often ideal for reducing cymbal and snare bleed into the kick drum sound.^ Reduces 20dB of low frequency wind noise Ideal for outdoor recordings with windy conditions More .
  • Olympus - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.olympus.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ They have acoustical properties yielding frequency responses with peaks and dips in the wrong places, causing programs to sound either nasal or muddy or both.

^ The EV PL33 dynamic supercardioid kick drum mic delivers tight, low-end and punctuation for kick drums and low frequency instruments, and the PL35 dynamic supercardioid tom and snare microphone, with its unique body design, integrated swivel and drum rim clamp is voiced for exceptionally natural tom and snare drum sounds.

.Less commonly, microphones themselves can be used as speakers, almost always as tweeters.^ The transformer is almost always in the same housing as the microphone element itself.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experienced vocalists and producers have used this phenomenon to great effect, especially in simulating a punchy, 'live' effect by almost eating the microphone while singing.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a concert recording, where the point is to document reality, and where individual microphones would be awkward at best, it is most common to use two mics, one for each speaker.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is less common, since microphones are not designed to handle the power that speaker components are routinely required to cope with.^ Instead of bulky karaoke machines that require a wireless microphone , screen, CD player and speakers, a Magic Microphone puts everything into the palm of your hand.
  • All-in-One Karaoke Machines | Karaoke Player | Karaoke Systems 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.magicmicrophones.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If powered correctly the microphone will be able to handle sound pressure levels up to 144 dB SPL before clipping occurs.
  • Microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.basslab.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two moving coil driver transducers are used for speakers, producing a full range frequency response of 20-20,000Hz power handling capacity of 0.5 watts.

.One instance of such an application was the STC microphone-derived 4001 super-tweeter, which was successfully used in a number of high quality loudspeaker systems from the late 1960s to the mid-70s.^ Description: Small, high quality Cardioid and Shotgun microphone systems for live recording in less than ideal situations (noisy audiences, bad acoustics, far from the source, etc.
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

^ Electret microphone occupies (at a rough guess) the lower 90% of applications, quality wise.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intermod is an application that uses MSExcel and Visual Basic to calculate possible intermodulation products within wireless microphone systems.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A well-known example of this use was the Bowers & Wilkins DM2a model.

Capsule design and directivity

.The inner elements of a microphone are the primary source of differences in directivity.^ Many dual element microphones combine an omni and figure 8 capsule to allow switchable directivity.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Factory-Shielded Piezo Film Tab Contact Microphone This little PVDF film tab has been fold-shielded at the factory so the bare surface of the film can be put into direct contact with your sound source.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ One has to keep an eye on them, but it doesn’t make too much difference if you are using omni-directional microphones.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A pressure microphone uses a diaphragm between a fixed internal volume of air and the environment, and responds uniformly to pressure from all directions, so it is said to be omnidirectional.^ Whether it be a wireless application or direct to an amp or console, these wireless microphones are accurate, precise and manufactured for all of your live and studio sound requirements.
  • AMT Microphones | Wireless Instrument Microphones | Cardioid Microphone, Guitar Microphone, Piano Microphone, Trumpet Microphone & more on Sale 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.musicalinstrumenthaven.com [Source type: General]

^ Sound information exists as patterns of air pressure; the microphone changes this information into patterns of electric current.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Granted, there are better microphones out there, but for emergency use, the 61HE rises above all the others.
  • Audio: Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC home.pacific.net.sg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A pressure-gradient microphone uses a diaphragm which is at least partially open on both sides; the pressure difference between the two sides produces its directional characteristics.^ A microphone operated by the pressure gradient is called a pressure-gradient microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sound levels between two microphones are different.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.mannmusic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have used these along side of AKG 414 and Neumann U87 microphones with no loss in the...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other elements such as the external shape of the microphone and external devices such as interference tubes can also alter a microphone's directional response.^ Designed for Digital recorders such as MiniDisc, MP3, and any recorder featuring a microphone port for external microphones.
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

^ Manufacturer's Description: Unit is a ballpoint pen modified to hold an omni-directional microphone element.
  • MDCP: Microphones Product Table 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.minidisc.org [Source type: General]

^ Other constitutional elements can be identical with or regarded to be identical with the impedance converter for a condenser microphone shown in FIG. 1 explained previously.
  • Impedance converter for a condenser microphone - Patent 6453048 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.A pure pressure-gradient microphone is equally sensitive to sounds arriving from front or back, but insensitive to sounds arriving from the side because sound arriving at the front and back at the same time creates no gradient between the two.^ A microphone operated by the pressure gradient is called a pressure-gradient microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the way any diaphragm will behave if sound can strike the front and back equally.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A ribbon microphone has maximum sensitivity from front and back, and is insensitive to sound coming from the sides.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The characteristic directional pattern of a pure pressure-gradient microphone is like a figure-8. Other polar patterns are derived by creating a capsule that combines these two effects in different ways.^ A microphone operated by the pressure gradient is called a pressure-gradient microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will create a microphone with a figure-8 directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each capsule offers the recordist a different tonal characteristic and pickup pattern.

.The cardioid, for instance, features a partially closed backside, so its response is a combination of pressure and pressure-gradient characteristics.^ Featuring Class A FET circuitry, the new 2010 is a pressure gradient co...

^ The cosine sensitivity of the ribbon microphone can be combined with the isotropic sensitivity of a pressure microphone to make a microphone with a response proportional to (1 + cos θ).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Studio Projects CS1 is an externally polarized cardioid pressure gradient transducer microphones with FET...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Microphone polar patterns

(Microphone facing top of page in diagram, parallel to page):
.A microphone's directionality or polar pattern indicates how sensitive it is to sounds arriving at different angles about its central axis.^ To see how these patterns are produced, here's a sidebar on directioal microphones.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sound information exists as patterns of air pressure; the microphone changes this information into patterns of electric current.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Offering outstanding speech intelligibility and transparent sound quality for surface-mount applications, the U851RW boundary mic accepts interchangeable condenser elements-available for boundary microphones in cardioid, hypercardioid and omnidirectional polar patterns.

.The polar patterns illustrated above represent the locus of points that produce the same signal level output in the microphone if a given sound pressure level is generated from that point.^ The cardioid polar pattern reduces pickup of sounds from the sides and rear, improving isolation, while the Hi-ENERGY neodymium magnet delivers a hot signal with articulate vocal reproduction.

^ Applied Microphone Technology builds microphones that suit the needs of the musician and sound engineer, while always producing a stellar performance from any instrument.
  • AMT Microphones | Wireless Instrument Microphones | Cardioid Microphone, Guitar Microphone, Piano Microphone, Trumpet Microphone & more on Sale 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.musicalinstrumenthaven.com [Source type: General]

^ Sennheiser E845 Super-Cardioid Dynamic Microphone with Mic Clip SKU: 670108 Extended high frequency response and supercardioid pick-up pattern for higher signal output, cuts through high on-stage sound levels.

.How the physical body of the microphone is oriented relative to the diagrams depends on the microphone design.^ Like any other piece of gear, the same microphone can give tremendously different results depending on how it is used.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ There is a large amount of interesting physics and engineering in microphone design.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For large-membrane microphones such as in the Oktava (pictured above), the upward direction in the polar diagram is usually perpendicular to the microphone body, commonly known as "side fire" or "side address". For small diaphragm microphones such as the Shure (also pictured above), it usually extends from the axis of the microphone commonly known as "end fire" or "top/end address".
.Some microphone designs combine several principles in creating the desired polar pattern.^ This will create a microphone with a figure-8 directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The microphone's supercardioid pickup pattern delivers higher gain-before-feedback than normal cardioid designs too.

^ The ADX51 Cardioid Condenser Mic is a pre-polarized condenser microphone designed to handle a wide variety of live,...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This ranges from shielding (meaning diffraction/dissipation/absorption) by the housing itself to electronically combining dual membranes.

Omnidirectional

.An omnidirectional (or nondirectional) microphone's response is generally considered to be a perfect sphere in three dimensions.^ A flat frequency response has been the main goal of microphone companies for the last three or four decades.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the real world, this is not the case. .As with directional microphones, the polar pattern for an "omnidirectional" microphone is a function of frequency.^ This will create a microphone with a figure-8 directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For low frequencies, this is an omnidirectional microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As frequency decreases, the directional pattern commonly approaches omni-directional, although some mics maintain excellent directivity even at very low frequencies (the secret is in the rear chamber).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The body of the microphone is not infinitely small and, as a consequence, it tends to get in its own way with respect to sounds arriving from the rear, causing a slight flattening of the polar response.^ When used for collecting body sounds, it's important to keep the area still as pressure fluctuations within the cup will cause the mic to clip.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ Omni-directional refers to the frequency response being essentially flat, regardless of the direction of the arriving sound waves.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resistance varies slightly when the diaphragm is displaced, causing a change in the current and a consequent change in voltage, which is the output of the microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This flattening increases as the diameter of the microphone (assuming it's cylindrical) reaches the wavelength of the frequency in question.^ A pressure microphone is fundamentally omnidirectional at lower frequencies (wavelength larger than the physical size of the microphone).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, the smallest diameter microphone will give the best omnidirectional characteristics at high frequencies.^ For low frequencies, this is an omnidirectional microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is acted upon by the acoustic overpressure, so that the microphone is a pressure microphone, with omnidirectional characteristics.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pressure microphone is fundamentally omnidirectional at lower frequencies (wavelength larger than the physical size of the microphone).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The wavelength of sound at 10 kHz is little over an inch (3.4 cm) so the smallest measuring microphones are often 1/4" (6 mm) in diameter, which practically eliminates directionality even up to the highest frequencies.^ The directionality of a microphone is often of interest in applications.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The D 5 stands for a crisp sound that cuts through every mix.AKG made the first microphone diaphragm ever whose thickness varies across its diameter.

^ Audix D6 Large Format Bass Drum Microphone The D6 has a frequency response of 30 Hz - 15 kHz and is characterized with a cardioid pick-up pattern.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Omnidirectional microphones, unlike cardioids, do not employ resonant cavities as delays, and so can be considered the "purest" microphones in terms of low coloration; they add very little to the original sound.^ For low frequencies, this is an omnidirectional microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The tremendously successful KM 184 cardioid microphone has become a standard within the global studio community in just a very short time.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) SONY F-96 LOW-Z DYNAMIC MICROPHONE mic for sale Small tape recorder Dynamic Sony Low-Z microphone with original case.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.Being pressure-sensitive they can also have a very flat low-frequency response down to 20 Hz or below.^ Frequency response range of 20 - 20 000 Hz.
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

^ The port V is to help low-frequency response.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have a vast frequency response range in excess of 0.001 HZ to over 1 billion HZ. To download a PDF version of the complete technical manual for PVDF film, please click here .
  • Cold Gold Contact Microphones - Online Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC contactmicrophones.com [Source type: General]

.Pressure-sensitive microphones also respond much less to wind noise than directional (velocity sensitive) microphones.^ This kind of microphone is known as velocity sensitive.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ribbon mics have extremely low impedance, typically (much) less than 1 Ohm.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over-the-head microphone and earphone, directional This directional microphone is much like the LA-262, but has separate cabling for the attached earphone (portable receiver required).
  • Lowest prices on microphones for simultaneous interpretation/translation 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC barinas.com [Source type: Reference]

An example of a nondirectional microphone is the round black eight ball.[12]

Unidirectional

.A unidirectional microphone is sensitive to sounds from only one direction.^ Whether it be a wireless application or direct to an amp or console, these wireless microphones are accurate, precise and manufactured for all of your live and studio sound requirements.
  • AMT Microphones | Wireless Instrument Microphones | Cardioid Microphone, Guitar Microphone, Piano Microphone, Trumpet Microphone & more on Sale 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.musicalinstrumenthaven.com [Source type: General]

^ It shows my quess on the electronics inside the soundcard and one typical wiring for a typical Sound Blaster microphone.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typical computer sound interfaces which supply power to microphone supply only +5V voltage (PC soundcards, SUN workstations, Apple Macintosh).
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The diagram above illustrates a number of these patterns. The microphone faces upwards in each diagram. The sound intensity for a particular frequency is plotted for angles radially from 0 to 360°. .(Professional diagrams show these scales and include multiple plots at different frequencies.^ A polar response graph will also show the directivity at a number of different frequencies.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The diagrams given here provide only an overview of typical pattern shapes, and their names.^ Usually fairly long, they have an extreme directional pattern, and typically only pick up sound from the general vicinity directly in front of the mic.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Cardioids

US664A University Sound Dynamic Supercardioid Microphone
.The most common unidirectional microphone is a cardioid microphone, so named because the sensitivity pattern is heart-shaped.^ The most common directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Audix D6 Large Format Bass Drum Microphone The D6 has a frequency response of 30 Hz - 15 kHz and is characterized with a cardioid pick-up pattern.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The Shure KSM141 is an end-addressed condenser microphone with mechanically switching dual polar patterns (cardioid...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A hyper-cardioid microphone is similar but with a tighter area of front sensitivity and a smaller lobe of rear sensitivity.^ Beyerdynamic M69 TG. Hyper-cardioid microphone.
  • Trew Audio: Consignment & Used Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.trewaudio.com [Source type: General]

^ Rode RODE NT3 w/ Free Gear Studio and Location Multi Powered 3/4” Condenser Microphone, hyper-cardioid polar response .

^ A cardioid microphone at the front of a stage will pick up sounds originating onstage, and reject those coming from the direction of the audience.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A super-cardioid microphone is similar to a hyper-cardioid, except there is more front pickup and less rear pickup.^ Samson R21 - Vocal/Recording Microphone The R21 features a tight Cardioid pickup pattern for [ More Info...
  • Recording Microphones - Instrument Pro 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.instrumentpro.com [Source type: General]

^ When you record with a quality microphone you will find there is more bass in your environment than you thought.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable) Tweak: Every studio needs one.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.These three patterns are commonly used as vocal or speech microphones, since they are good at rejecting sounds from other directions.^ They just sounded "real" to me where ever I used them.

^ I have used these along side of AKG 414 and Neumann U87 microphones with no loss in the...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To see how these patterns are produced, here's a sidebar on directioal microphones.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A cardioid microphone is effectively a superposition of an omnidirectional and a figure-8 microphone; for sound waves coming from the back, the negative signal from the figure-8 cancels the positive signal from the omnidirectional element, whereas for sound waves coming from the front, the two add to each other.^ A ribbon microphone has maximum sensitivity from front and back, and is insensitive to sound coming from the sides.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is usually done with a stereo microphone in which one element is omnidirectional, and the other bidirectional.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardioid microphones favor sound coming from 0°, and discriminate against sounds coming from 180°.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A hypercardioid microphone is similar, but with a slightly larger figure-8 contribution. .Since pressure gradient transducer microphones are directional, putting them very close to the sound source (at distances of a few centimeters) results in a bass boost.^ A microphone operated by the pressure gradient is called a pressure-gradient microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The condenser microphone consists of a thin conductive membrane stretched very close to a stationary plate.
  • Microphones - Guitar, Amps, Basses, and more! At George's Music - Musician's Super Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.georgesmusiconline.com [Source type: General]

^ AKG D112 Large Diaphragm Microphone Absolutely free of distortion even at high sound pressure levels, very low diaphragm resonance, a relatively narrow-band rising high frequency...

This is known as the proximity effect[13]

Bi-directional

."Figure 8" or bi-directional microphones receive sound from both the front and back of the element.^ This will create a microphone with a figure-8 directional pattern.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether it be a wireless application or direct to an amp or console, these wireless microphones are accurate, precise and manufactured for all of your live and studio sound requirements.
  • AMT Microphones | Wireless Instrument Microphones | Cardioid Microphone, Guitar Microphone, Piano Microphone, Trumpet Microphone & more on Sale 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.musicalinstrumenthaven.com [Source type: General]

^ The figure-8 mic picks up sound equally well from the front and back, but rejects sound coming from the sides (as well as top, bottom, etc.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most ribbon microphones are of this pattern.^ The most important pressure-gradient microphone is the ribbon microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shotgun

An Audio-Technica shotgun microphone
."Shotgun" microphones are the most highly directional.^ Shotgun Handheld Microphone, Directional Click For More Details .
  • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

.They have small lobes of sensitivity to the left, right, and rear but are significantly less sensitive to the side and rear than other directional microphones are.^ If the instrument is moved to the right side, the sound would first move the diaphragm to the left, producing a negative volage.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because ribbon mics use a relatively large diaphragm (much larger than most other mics), they can be very sensitive to air movement - even at subsonic frequencies.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Directional microphones are also called 'pressure gradient' mics, because their directional characteristics are created by means of varying pressure to the front and rear of the diaphragm (the pressure gradient).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This results from placing the element at the end of a tube with slots cut along the side; wave cancellation eliminates much of the off-axis sound.^ I have heard the results where an engineer mounted a pair of these as if the axis were at the end.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bidirectional element is oriented with the axis running parallel to the stage, rejecting sound from the center.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them (when they do work at all) are very "thin" sounding with not much low end.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.Due to the narrowness of their sensitivity area, shotgun microphones are commonly used on television and film sets, in stadiums, and for field recording of wildlife.^ I use it to record interviews in the field instead of a shotgun set up.

^ Sensitive microphone can be used from 1" to 6" away from the microphone end.

^ Its a small condenser that comes with both Omni and Cardioid heads, making the set truly useful many instrument and ambient recordings.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

Boundary or "PZM"

.Several approaches have been developed for effectively using a microphone in less-than-ideal acoustic spaces, which often suffer from excessive reflections from one or more of the surfaces (boundaries) that make up the space.^ AKG C414B XLS Studio Condenser Microphone The AKG C 414 B XLS is a reference-quality microphone especially used for accurate, beautifully-detailed pickup of any acoustic instrument.

^ I was using a Sampson (I don't remember which model) and the AT actually makes my voice sound much nicer (possibly nicer than...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you record with a quality microphone you will find there is more bass in your environment than you thought.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.If the microphone is placed in, or in very close proximity to, one of these boundaries, the reflections from that surface are not sensed by the microphone.^ Loud sounds are encountered more often than you might think, especially if you place the mic very close to instruments.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The microphones will usually be placed rather close to the instruments.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The directional characteristics are frequency dependent, and refer to the free field response - placing a microphone very close to any surface changes its directional characteristics, and they become unpredictable because of the almost infinite number of possibilities.
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.Initially this was done by placing an ordinary microphone adjacent to the surface, sometimes in a block of acoustically transparent foam.^ Sometimes microphones are specified in terms of output power for a given acoustical input, often as dB re 1 mW per pascal.
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.Sound engineers Ed Long and Ron Wickersham developed the concept of placing the diaphgram parallel to and facing the boundary.^ The ribbon mic has a special place in the heart of many a sound engineer.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .While the patent has expired, "Pressure Zone Microphone" and "PZM" are still active trademarks of Crown International, and the generic term "boundary microphone" is preferred.^ The Pressure Zone Microphone™ (also known as a boundary mic) is a special application of the electret mic.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NEW LISTING 8/26/09 (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) REALISTIC / CROWN PZM MICROPHONE "BOUNDARY" MIC Cat.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Crown Model PZM-30D Pressure Zone Microphone .
  • Table of Contents 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.coutant.org [Source type: Academic]

.While a boundary microphone was initially implemented using an omnidirectional element, it is also possible to mount a directional microphone close enough to the surface to gain some of the benefits of this technique while retaining the directional properties of the element.^ Intermod is an application that uses MSExcel and Visual Basic to calculate possible intermodulation products within wireless microphone systems.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have spoken of a "surface" to avoid using the word "diaphragm," which gives the wrong idea when used of a pressure-gradient microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many dual element microphones combine an omni and figure 8 capsule to allow switchable directivity.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crown's trademark on this approach is "Phase Coherent Cardioid" or "PCC," but there are other makers who employ this technique as well.^ Crown Models PCC-160 and PCC-160W Phase Coherent Cardioid Condenser Microphones .
  • Table of Contents 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.coutant.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The cardioid is as good as any other out there, and can run right along with the "big guns" in the industry.

^ Hi there, I was wondering how you would go about micing a person who is bald with the halo technique, or would you utilize some other method for stage micing?
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Application-specific designs

.A lavalier microphone is made for hands-free operation.^ Headset microphones, of course, leave the users hands free for deskwork, hold documents or other resources, etc.

^ Hands Free Condenser Lapel Microphone 12 foot cable with 3.5mm mini plug Part # CES-ZCONDENSORMIC *$5.85 for a 3 pack.

.These small microphones are worn on the body.^ A side-effect is that a small lobe is created at the rear of the microphone, so these mics must never be 'aimed' so that the rear lobe points towards a floor monitor (for example).
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^ In that year, Hughes suggested that the contact between small grains might be superior to that of larger bodies, and named transmitters using this principle microphones to distinguish them.
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.Originally, they were held in place with a lanyard worn around the neck, but more often they are fastened to clothing with a clip, pin, tape or magnet.^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) SONY F-96 LOW-Z DYNAMIC MICROPHONE Small tape recorder Dynamic Sony Low-Z microphone with stand clip, original case and original paperwork.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Loud sounds are encountered more often than you might think, especially if you place the mic very close to instruments.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have an inherent figure-8 pattern, although this is often modified to produce more 'conventional' patterns.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lavalier cord may be hidden by clothes and either run to an RF transmitter in a pocket or clipped to a belt (for mobile use), or run directly to the mixer (for stationary applications).^ If the transmitter technology is not built into the microphone, the user will have a small transmitter either clipped to a belt or in their pocket.

^ Most lavalier (tie-clip) microphones, consumer video camera microphones and microphones used with computer soundcards are electret microphones.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My question is about transmitter belt packs and a fabric that can be used for protecting against moisture and perspiration of the actors?
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A wireless microphone is one in which the artist is not limited by a cable.^ Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable) Tweak: Every studio needs one.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Save: $25.01 off Sennheiser E-Pak All in one package that include clip, stand, cable, and E 835 Dynamic, cardioid microphone.
  • Microphones : Steve's Music Store, Guitars, Drums, Keyboards, Recording, PA, etc... 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.stevesmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Peluso Microphone Lab 2247 LE - Limited Edition Vacuum Tube Microphone with German Telefunken Steel Tube-Microphone, PSU, 7 Conductor Cable, and Shock Mount.
  • Peluso Microphone Lab | VintageKing.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC vintageking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It usually sends its signal using a small FM radio transmitter to a nearby receiver connected to the sound system, but it can also use infrared light if the transmitter and receiver are within sight of each other.^ Wireless mics are a system with a microphone, receiver (if needed -- ie, if not Bluetooth) and transmitter.

^ Intermod is an application that uses MSExcel and Visual Basic to calculate possible intermodulation products within wireless microphone systems.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To be useful for recording or other electronic processes, the signal must be amplified by a factor of over a thousand.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A contact microphone is designed to pick up vibrations directly from a solid surface or object, as opposed to sound vibrations carried through air.^ All security microphones feature clear pick-up of sound while filtering out ambient background noise like machinery and heating/cooling systems.
  • Audio Surveillance Microphones Security Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.a1securitycameras.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The figure-8 mic picks up sound equally well from the front and back, but rejects sound coming from the sides (as well as top, bottom, etc.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I picked up a 22 251 through GC Pro to try on a session with a pop group I am producing called Jump 5.

.One use for this is to detect sounds of a very low level, such as those from small objects or insects.^ It is very small and have a great sound.

^ Low sound level.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.mannmusic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.The microphone commonly consists of a magnetic (moving coil) transducer, contact plate and contact pin.^ The condenser microphone consists of a thin conductive membrane stretched very close to a stationary plate.
  • Microphones - Guitar, Amps, Basses, and more! At George's Music - Musician's Super Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.georgesmusiconline.com [Source type: General]

^ In the magneto-dynamic, commonly called dynamic, microphone, sound waves cause movement of a thin metallic diaphragm and an attached coil of wire.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The many active transducers proposed as telephone transmitters that used microscopic contacts were dubbed "microphones" by Hughes.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The contact plate is placed against the object from which vibrations are to be picked up; the contact pin transfers these vibrations to the coil of the transducer.^ It also picked up a lot more room noise, so make sure you have a nice quiet place to record.

^ Placed at the front of a stage, it can pick up sound coming from the stage, and reject that coming from the audience.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contact microphones have been used to pick up the sound of a snail's heartbeat and the footsteps of ants.^ All security microphones feature clear pick-up of sound while filtering out ambient background noise like machinery and heating/cooling systems.
  • Audio Surveillance Microphones Security Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.a1securitycameras.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The figure-8 mic picks up sound equally well from the front and back, but rejects sound coming from the sides (as well as top, bottom, etc.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

A portable version of this microphone has recently been developed. .A throat microphone is a variant of the contact microphone, used to pick up speech directly from the throat, around which it is strapped.^ All security microphones feature clear pick-up of sound while filtering out ambient background noise like machinery and heating/cooling systems.
  • Audio Surveillance Microphones Security Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.a1securitycameras.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Others used uncertain mechanical contacts, or flames whose conductance varied with height, which in turn varied with acoustical pressure.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are a great many variations, the details above cover the majority of microphones in general use.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC sound.westhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allows the device to be used in areas with ambient sounds that would otherwise make the speaker inaudible.^ I was using a Sampson (I don't remember which model) and the AT actually makes my voice sound much nicer (possibly nicer than...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, Samson would appear to have a winner with this little wonder, whether it’s used in conjunction with a computer to record full-frequencied music or “realistic”-sounding narration.

^ In a concert recording, where the point is to document reality, and where individual microphones would be awkward at best, it is most common to use two mics, one for each speaker.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A parabolic microphone uses a parabolic reflector to collect and focus sound waves onto a microphone receiver, in much the same way that a parabolic antenna (e.g.^ We shall usually assume that the pressure at the microphone diaphragm is the pressure in the undisturbed sound wave.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This same method was also suitable for powering microphones in studios so it was used also there.
  • Powering microphones 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.epanorama.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

satellite dish) does with radio waves. .Typical uses of this microphone, which has unusually focused front sensitivity and can pick up sounds from many meters away, include nature recording, outdoor sporting events, eavesdropping, law enforcement, and even espionage.^ Traffic, railroads, airplanes even if far away can be picked up.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Sensitive microphone can be used from 1" to 6" away from the microphone end.

^ Designed with a large, highly sensitive 32mm condenser capsule, MXL 2006captures the details and nuances of vocals, acoustic guitar, electric guitar cabinets, and even steps up for recording...
  • Microphones - Guitar, Amps, Basses, and more! At George's Music - Musician's Super Store 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.georgesmusiconline.com [Source type: General]

.Parabolic microphones are not typically used for standard recording applications, because they tend to have poor low-frequency response as a side effect of their design.^ The port V is to help low-frequency response.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find they tend to pull to the side.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For low frequencies, this is an omnidirectional microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A stereo microphone integrates two microphones in one unit to produce a stereophonic signal.^ K&M 235/1 Stereo Microphone Bar Easily mount two mics in one stand.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Now the signals from the two microphones are not merely kept in two channels and played back over individual speakers.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can then say that instruments on one side of the stage are 180 degrees out of phase with those on the other side, and the closer they are to the center, the weaker the signal produced.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A stereo microphone is often used for broadcast applications or field recording where it would be impractical to configure two separate condenser microphones in a classic X-Y configuration (see microphone practice) for stereophonic recording.^ The directionality of a microphone is often of interest in applications.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neumann SKM 185 (nickel) Stereo Pair of Small-Diaphragm Condenser Microphones (Nickel) .

^ The MXL 990 USB Stereo Condenser Microphone has an extremely smooth, natural sound quality.
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some such microphones have an adjustable angle of coverage between the two channels.^ Now the signals from the two microphones are not merely kept in two channels and played back over individual speakers.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And it pays to try the traditional techniques such as the X-Y technique, where two mics have their capsules very close (without touching) pointing to the instrument at a 90 degree angle from each other.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The angle between the microphones is critical, depending on the actual pickup pattern of the microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A noise-canceling microphone is a highly directional design intended for noisy environments.^ ETS SM1-WP Weather Proof, Harsh Environment, omni-directional Microphone .
  • Audio Surveillance Microphones Security Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.a1securitycameras.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Logitech ClearChat Pro USB Headset, w/ Noise Canceling Microphone&SoundSwitch Equalizer.
  • Computer Headphone Microphone Headset Microphone PC Microphone USB Microphone Wireless Headphones Phone Headset-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

^ Logitech ClearChat PC Wireless Stereo Headset, w/ Noise Canceling Microphone.
  • Computer Headphone Microphone Headset Microphone PC Microphone USB Microphone Wireless Headphones Phone Headset-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

.One such use is in aircraft cockpits where they are normally installed as boom microphones on headsets.^ Boom Articulating boom can be used to mount/hold handheld microphone.

^ The Warranty excludes defects caused by normal wear, modification, shipping damage or failure to use the microphone as per RODE's Instruction Guide.
  • Rode nt1a studio condenser microphone Musical Instrument Microphones at BizRate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

^ Using big names is a great marketing ploy, but my concern was not so much how they stacked up as clones, but rather how they stacked up as microphones in general.

Another use is on loud concert stages for vocalists. .Many noise-canceling microphones combine signals received from two diaphragms that are in opposite electrical polarity or are processed electronically.^ Any electrical noise produced by the microphone will also be amplified, so even slight amounts are intolerable.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To be useful for recording or other electronic processes, the signal must be amplified by a factor of over a thousand.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now the signals from the two microphones are not merely kept in two channels and played back over individual speakers.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In dual diaphragm designs, the main diaphragm is mounted closest to the intended source and the second is positioned farther away from the source so that it can pick up environmental sounds to be subtracted from the main diaphragm's signal.^ The farther away it is, the "longer" the sound becomes.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Very sensitive designs require elastic shock mountings, and mics intended to be held in the hand need to have such mountings built inside the shell.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All security microphones feature clear pick-up of sound while filtering out ambient background noise like machinery and heating/cooling systems.
  • Audio Surveillance Microphones Security Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.a1securitycameras.com [Source type: Academic]

.After the two signals have been combined, sounds other than the intended source are greatly reduced, substantially increasing intelligibility.^ On the other hand, not only is the internal impedance very small (less than an ohm), but the velocity can be made higher by reducing the mass m to a minimum value.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This effect creates phase differences between the two channels, which results in severe frequency response problems when the signals are combined.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A -10 pad reduces the sensitivity of the microphone by 10 decibels so it can withstand louder sounds like drums, cymbals, screaming vocalists and other awfully loud things.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Other noise-canceling designs use one diaphragm that is affected by ports open to the sides and rear of the microphone, with the sum being a 16 dB rejection of sounds that are farther away.^ The farther away it is, the "longer" the sound becomes.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ I have used these along side of AKG 414 and Neumann U87 microphones with no loss in the...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first problem is that sounds from the back are not completely rejected, but merely reduced about 10-30 dB. This can surprise careless users.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One noise-canceling headset design using a single diaphragm has been used prominently by vocal artists such as Garth Brooks and Janet Jackson.^ AKG C3000B Single Cardioid Large Diaphragm Mic The C 3000 B is a large-diaphragm cardioid condenser microphone for universal use, designed and made specifically to suit the needs of musicians as well as the rigors of the stage.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ A common varient of this design uses a material with a permanently imprinted charge for the diaphragm.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC artsites.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AKG C3000B Large Diaphragm CardioidMicrophone The AKG C3000B is a large-diaphragm cardioid condenser microphone for universal use, designed and made specifically to suit the needs...

[15] .A few noise-canceling microphones are throat microphones.^ Logitech ClearChat Stereo Headset, w/ Noise Canceling Microphone.
  • Computer Headphone Microphone Headset Microphone PC Microphone USB Microphone Wireless Headphones Phone Headset-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

^ Noise Canceling Microphone Click For More Details .
  • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

^ Logitech ClearChat Pro USB Headset, w/ Noise Canceling Microphone&SoundSwitch Equalizer.
  • Computer Headphone Microphone Headset Microphone PC Microphone USB Microphone Wireless Headphones Phone Headset-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

Connectors

Electronic symbol for a microphone.
The most common connectors used by microphones are:
.
  • Male XLR connector on professional microphones
  • ¼ inch (sometimes referred to as 6.5 mm) jack plug also known as 1/4 inch TRS connector on less expensive consumer microphones.^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
    • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Wired microphone plugged into sound card via 3.5mm jack This is the type of microphone currently provided with the NaturallySpeaking product.

    ^ "RARE AS HENS' TEETH" CENTER PIN 2501F SCREW-ON TYPE MICROPHONE PLUG TO MALE XLR / A3M PLUG MADE IN THE USA! VINTAGE STYLE MICROPHONE MIC CABLE CABLES FOR SALE New vintage mic cables for many older mics using screw-on, center-pin Amphenol connectors ~5/8" in diameter .
    • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

    .Many consumer microphones use an unbalanced 1/4 inch phone jack.^ Microphone for use with TR820, TI810, TI410 & TI50 when audio output jacks are not available on TV/VCR Click For More Details .
    • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The many active transducers proposed as telephone transmitters that used microscopic contacts were dubbed "microphones" by Hughes.
    • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rode NT4 Stereo Condenser Microphone The Rode NT4 is a stereo condenser microphone with both XLR and mini jack connectors making it great for location recordings with many standard devices.
    • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

    Harmonica microphones commonly use a high impedance 1/4 inch TS connection to be run through guitar amplifiers.
  • 3.5 mm (sometimes referred to as 1/8 inch mini) stereo (wired as mono) mini phone plug on very inexpensive and computer microphones
.Some microphones use other connectors, such as a 5-pin XLR, or mini XLR for connection to portable equipment.^ Uses 2-pin screw-on female connector.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ LA-260 Microphone Y Input Cable for LT-700 provides a Y-connection for the LT-700 to use two separate microphones.
  • Pro AV Products and Providers - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC catalogs.infocommiq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some lavalier (or 'lapel', from the days of attaching the microphone to the news reporters suit lapel) microphones use a proprietary connector for connection to a wireless transmitter.^ Intermod is an application that uses MSExcel and Visual Basic to calculate possible intermodulation products within wireless microphone systems.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such microphones were used in recording and broadcasting in the early days, and gave very good service.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New info; We have been informed that this connector possibly fits the Astatic T-3 microphone.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.Since 2005, professional-quality microphones with USB connections have begun to appear, designed for direct recording into computer-based software.^ The MXL 990 USB Stereo Condenser Microphone has an extremely smooth, natural sound quality.
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you record with a quality microphone you will find there is more bass in your environment than you thought.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

Impedance-matching

.Microphones have an electrical characteristic called impedance, measured in ohms (Ω), that depends on the design.^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The electrical analogy was a help in designing dynamic microphones, since the results of different arrangements could be studied easily without building actual microphones.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, the pressure calibration reflects the fundamental properties of the microphone, and is useful in designing measuring instruments.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Typically, the rated impedance is stated.[16] Low impedance is considered under 600 Ω. .Medium impedance is considered between 600 Ω and 10 kΩ.^ This can be raised by a factor of 10 using a transformer, which gives 1.0-1.8 V at an impedance level of 5 kΩ, a very creditable output.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.High impedance is above 10 kΩ.^ This can be raised by a factor of 10 using a transformer, which gives 1.0-1.8 V at an impedance level of 5 kΩ, a very creditable output.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Condenser microphones typically have an output impedance between 50 and 200 ohms.^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ A curve of dB vs. A bandwidth of 50 Hz to 5000 Hz between -3 dB points is not bad, but most microphones exceed this, and 30 Hz to 10,000 Hz is often found.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sensitivity of a ribbon microphone may be -90 dB or -105 dB, but more than 40 dB can be gained at once with a transformer, so its output of -50 dB is comparable to that of a dynamic microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.The output of a given microphone delivers the same power whether it is low or high impedance.^ Sometimes microphones are specified in terms of output power for a given acoustical input, often as dB re 1 mW per pascal.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ A typical dynamic microphone has a very low internal impedance, seldom as large as 10Ω, and this impedance is approximately resistive over the whole frequency bandwidth.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a microphone is made in high and low impedance versions, the high impedance version will have a higher output voltage for a given sound pressure input, and is suitable for use with vacuum-tube guitar amplifiers, for instance, which have a high input impedance and require a relatively high signal input voltage to overcome the tubes' inherent noise.^ Dynamic microphones are low-noise, require no bias voltages or other nuisances, and are relatively rugged.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High Output of -45dB; requires only low-gain amplifier.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ A microphone with a low internal impedance, say 50Ω or less, is normally used with a step-up transformer that provides 40 dB of gain effortlessly (with a 1:100 transformer) and matches well to the high input impedance of many amplifiers.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most professional microphones are low impedance, about 200 Ω or lower.^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ A typical dynamic microphone has a very low internal impedance, seldom as large as 10Ω, and this impedance is approximately resistive over the whole frequency bandwidth.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piezoelectric microphones give low output at a moderate internal impedance, and must always be used with amplification.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Professional vacuum-tube sound equipment incorporates a transformer that steps up the impedance of the microphone circuit to the high impedance and voltage needed to drive the input tube; the impedance conversion inherently creates voltage gain as well.^ A microphone with a low internal impedance, say 50Ω or less, is normally used with a step-up transformer that provides 40 dB of gain effortlessly (with a 1:100 transformer) and matches well to the high input impedance of many amplifiers.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, if we wish the maximum voltage (as for the input to a high input impedance amplifier), then the load resistance should be made as high as possible.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A transformer of turns ratio 1:10 can be used to increase the voltage output, and to make the internal impedance about 800Ω for the usual 8Ω speaker.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.External matching transformers are also available that can be used in-line between a low impedance microphone and a high impedance input.^ There is usually a transformer at the microphone to match it to a transmission line, and another transformer at the amplifier input.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A microphone with a low internal impedance, say 50Ω or less, is normally used with a step-up transformer that provides 40 dB of gain effortlessly (with a 1:100 transformer) and matches well to the high input impedance of many amplifiers.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Low-impedance microphones are preferred over high impedance for two reasons: one is that using a high-impedance microphone with a long cable will result in loss of high frequency signal due to the capacitance of the cable which forms a low-pass filter with the microphone output impedance; the other is that long high-impedance cables tend to pick up more hum (and possibly radio-frequency interference (RFI) as well).^ It is useful in a frequency range where other microphones are unresponsive.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is specifically used for low frequencies and for infrasonic signals.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have used these along side of AKG 414 and Neumann U87 microphones with no loss in the...
  • Studio Condenser Mic - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nothing will be damaged if the impedance between microphone and other equipment is mismatched; the worst that will happen is a reduction in signal or change in frequency response.^ It is useful in a frequency range where other microphones are unresponsive.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical dynamic microphone has a very low internal impedance, seldom as large as 10Ω, and this impedance is approximately resistive over the whole frequency bandwidth.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The impedance mismatch between air and a diaphragm is much greater than the mismatch between water and a crystal hydrophone, so microphones are much more difficult to devise.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most microphones are designed not to have their impedance matched by the load to which they are connected;[18] doing so can alter their frequency response and cause distortion, especially at high sound pressure levels.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, if we wish the maximum voltage (as for the input to a high input impedance amplifier), then the load resistance should be made as high as possible.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its wide frequency response, low noise characteristics, and low RF susceptibility have made it a standard for applications involving acoustic instruments, especially guitar, piano, and cymbals.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Certain ribbon and dynamic microphones are exceptions, due to the designers' assumption of a certain load impedance being part of the internal electro-acoustical damping circuit of the microphone.^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ A microphone with a high capacitive internal impedance cannot be used with a cable of any length, so the amplifier must be very near.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electro-Voice Model 643 Cardiline Cardioid-line Dynamic Microphone .
  • Table of Contents 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.coutant.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]

Digital microphone interface

.The AES 42 standard, published by the Audio Engineering Society, defines a digital interface for microphones.^ ElectroVoice RE20 Classic Cardioid Dynamic Microphone Industry Standard Variable-D dynamic cardioid microphone is a favorite among broadcasters and sound engineers worldwide.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Microphones conforming to this standard directly output a digital audio stream through an XLR male connector, rather than producing an analog output.^ Standard XLR connector.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Either configuration provides a sensitive, low-noise, wide bandwidth signal through its' balanced, low-impedanced XLR output.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ Shotgun Microphone XLR 5-pin connector is supported as audio out cable.Adapted Newly Developed Bi-Directional Electric Condenser Mic Supported MS mic layout for a natural sound and live performance sound shootout .
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

.Digital microphones may be used either with new equipment which has the appropriate input connections conforming to the AES 42 standard, or else by use of a suitable interface box.^ Either way, the pad will filter down the input into a more reasonable useful signal.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Uses a standard XLR-XLR cable such as our OTSJ-25 mic cable shown on this page (sold separately) NEW $139.99 ea.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Home : Used Equipment : Microphones Consignment & Used Microphones .
  • Trew Audio: Consignment & Used Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.trewaudio.com [Source type: General]

.Studio-quality microphones which operate in accordance with the AES 42 standard are now appearing from a number of microphone manufacturers.^ The tremendously successful KM 184 cardioid microphone has become a standard within the global studio community in just a very short time.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Headset Microphone The HS-13 is a superlight and very thin head wom microphone ideal for event production, public speaking and broadcast studio operations.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ The NT1A Anniversary Model is a complete redesign of the now legendary NT1 classic studio microphone.
  • Rode nt1a studio condenser microphone Musical Instrument Microphones at BizRate - Price Comparison and Consumer Reviews 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.bizrate.com [Source type: General]

Measurements and specifications

A comparison of the far field on-axis frequency response of the Oktava 319 and the Shure SM58
Because of differences in their construction, microphones have their own characteristic responses to sound. This difference in response produces non-uniform phase and frequency responses. .In addition, microphones are not uniformly sensitive to sound pressure, and can accept differing levels without distorting.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ REAL microphone without the BS hype that's sounds incredible and is very affordable and has physical appeal as well.

^ A ribbon microphone has maximum sensitivity from front and back, and is insensitive to sound coming from the sides.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although for scientific applications microphones with a more uniform response are desirable, this is often not the case for music recording, as the non-uniform response of a microphone can produce a desirable coloration of the sound.^ The directionality of a microphone is often of interest in applications.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) SONY F-96 LOW-Z DYNAMIC MICROPHONE mic for sale Small tape recorder Dynamic Sony Low-Z microphone with original case.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ When you record with a quality microphone you will find there is more bass in your environment than you thought.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.There is an international standard for microphone specifications,[16] but few manufacturers adhere to it.^ Sony ECM-16 and ECM-31M microphone specification sheet (PDF) .
  • Table of Contents 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.coutant.org [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, comparison of published data from different manufacturers is difficult because different measurement techniques are used.^ Like any other piece of gear, the same microphone can give tremendously different results depending on how it is used.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.The Microphone Data Website has collated the technical specifications complete with pictures, response curves and technical data from the microphone manufacturers for every currently listed microphone, and even a few obsolete models, and shows the data for them all in one common format for ease of comparison.^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ The manufacturer of NaturallySpeaking has always believed that NaturallySpeaking should include a working microphone, so that the product is completely usable without additional purchase, regardless of where the purchaser got the product.

^ Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable) Tweak: Every studio needs one.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

[2]. Caution should be used in drawing any solid conclusions from this or any other published data, however, unless it is known that the manufacturer has supplied specifications in accordance with IEC 60268-4.
.A frequency response diagram plots the microphone sensitivity in decibels over a range of frequencies (typically at least 0–20 kHz), generally for perfectly on-axis sound (sound arriving at 0° to the capsule).^ We generally want the sensitivity of a microphone to be independent of frequency, or "flat."
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its bandwidth is 20 Hz to 12 kHz, and its sensitivity is advertised at -64 dB (without specifying the load resistor, which is unfortunate), or 0.63 mV/μbar.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

.Frequency response may be less informatively stated textually like so: "30 Hz–16 kHz ±3 dB". This is interpreted as meaning a nearly flat, linear, plot between the stated frequencies, with variations in amplitude of no more than plus or minus 3 dB. However, one cannot determine from this information how smooth the variations are, nor in what parts of the spectrum they occur.^ HOWEVER, this one is not like that anymore.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ The response is essentially level for frequencies less than a tenth of the resonant frequency.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CEMC-6 comes with a cardioid capsule and has an integrated three-position pad (0, -10, and -20 dB) and a three-position shelving filter switch (linear, 75, 150 Hz).

.Note that commonly-made statements such as "20 Hz–20 kHz" are meaningless without a decibel measure of tolerance.^ Its bandwidth is 20 Hz to 12 kHz, and its sensitivity is advertised at -64 dB (without specifying the load resistor, which is unfortunate), or 0.63 mV/μbar.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The capacitance measures 786 pF, which gives a capacitive reactance of 20.2 kΩ at 1 kHz.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Directional microphones' frequency response varies greatly with distance from the sound source, and with the geometry of the sound source.^ Audix D6 Large Format Bass Drum Microphone The D6 has a frequency response of 30 Hz - 15 kHz and is characterized with a cardioid pick-up pattern.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Most microphones, especially the ones popular today, are rather small, and do not disturb the sound field greatly.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

.IEC 60268-4 specifies that frequency response should be measured in plane progressive wave conditions (very far away from the source) but this is seldom practical.^ This was, in fact, the origin of the important field of ultrasonics, which used acoustic waves of greater frequency than 20 kHz, which were inaudible but very useful.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relations between the quantities in a harmonic plane wave of displacement x = Ae j(ωt - kz) , where ω is the angular frequency, k is the wave vector 2π/λ, and ω/k = c.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Close talking microphones may be measured with different sound sources and distances, but there is no standard and therefore no way to compare data from different models unless the measurement technique is described.^ The sensitivity of a ribbon microphone may be -90 dB or -105 dB, but more than 40 dB can be gained at once with a transformer, so its output of -50 dB is comparable to that of a dynamic microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CABLE MOUNT MICROPHONE CONNECTORS OUR PART # OT3F-W/ C (with collar) No, we don't know what these fit, so study the photos and your mic or connector closely .
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ All the microphones so far described are operated by the acoustic overpressure acting on one side of a diaphragm, and so may be called pressure microphones .
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The self-noise or equivalent noise level is the sound level that creates the same output voltage as the microphone does in the absence of sound.^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ The resistance varies slightly when the diaphragm is displaced, causing a change in the current and a consequent change in voltage, which is the output of the microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the upper plate is the diaphragm of a microphone, the electric field E plays the same role as the field produced by the bias voltage in an ordinary capacitor microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This represents the lowest point of the microphone's dynamic range, and is particularly important should you wish to record sounds that are quiet.^ I should point out that microphones sound better with excellent preamps .
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ (Click on above thumbnails to enlarge photo) SONY F-96 LOW-Z DYNAMIC MICROPHONE mic for sale Small tape recorder Dynamic Sony Low-Z microphone with original case.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ When you record with a quality microphone you will find there is more bass in your environment than you thought.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.The measure is often stated in dB(A), which is the equivalent loudness of the noise on a decibel scale frequency-weighted for how the ear hears, for example: "15 dBA SPL" (SPL means sound pressure level relative to 20 micropascals).^ The sound pressure level (SPL) is dB re 2 x 10 -4 dyne/cm 2 , or SPL = 20 log (p/2 x 10 -4 ).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

The lower the number the better. .Some microphone manufacturers state the noise level using ITU-R 468 noise weighting, which more accurately represents the way we hear noise, but gives a figure some 11–14 dB higher.^ This adds 10 dB, so manufacturers like to use it to imply that their microphones are more sensitive.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ UME Voice "theBoom" Over-the-ear, noise canceling Microphone (Terrific fidelity -- this mic is used by floor traders at the NYSE!) MSRP = $149.95 (Some cell telephone attachments also available.

.A quiet microphone will measure typically 20 dBA SPL or 32 dB SPL 468-weighted.^ The generator voltage is typically specified in dB re 1 V per μbar, or e = 20 log p, where p is the acoustic overpressure in dyne/cm 2 or μbar.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If V = 200V, then S = 2 mV/μbar, or -54 dB. This happens to be a relatively typical value for a capacitor microphone.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sound pressure level (SPL) is dB re 2 x 10 -4 dyne/cm 2 , or SPL = 20 log (p/2 x 10 -4 ).
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Very quiet microphones have existed for years for special applications, such the Brüel & Kjaer 4179, with a noise level around 0 dB SPL. Recently some microphones with low noise specifications have been introduced in the studio/entertainment market, such as models from Neumann and Røde that advertise noise levels between 5–7 dBA. Typically this is achieved by altering the frequency response of the capsule and electronics to result in lower noise within the A-weighting curve while broadband noise may be increased.^ The port V is to help low-frequency response.
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^ The tremendously successful KM 184 cardioid microphone has become a standard within the global studio community in just a very short time.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Its wide frequency response, low noise characteristics, and low RF susceptibility have made it a standard for applications involving acoustic instruments, especially guitar, piano, and cymbals.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.The maximum SPL (sound pressure level) the microphone can accept is measured for particular values of total harmonic distortion (THD), typically 0.5%.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ A ribbon microphone has maximum sensitivity from front and back, and is insensitive to sound coming from the sides.
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^ We shall usually assume that the pressure at the microphone diaphragm is the pressure in the undisturbed sound wave.
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.This amount of distortion is generally inaudible, so one can safely use the microphone at this SPL without harming the recording.^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

^ Using big names is a great marketing ploy, but my concern was not so much how they stacked up as clones, but rather how they stacked up as microphones in general.

^ Miscellaneous : Other mics exist including small "pod" "lollipop-style" microphones for use with recorders.

.Example: "142 dB SPL peak (at 0.5% THD)". The higher the value, the better, although microphones with a very high maximum SPL also have a higher self-noise.^ Maximum SPL of 128 db.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet the chances of getting a great take are consistently better with a high quality microphone.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The KSM44/SL is a multiple pattern (cardioid, large diaphragm condenser microphone with extremely low self-noise (7dB).
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.The clipping level is perhaps a better indicator of maximum usable level,[citation needed] as the 1% THD figure usually quoted under max SPL is really a very mild level of distortion, quite inaudible especially on brief high peaks.^ Mic looks much better in real life than in these very compressed photos.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.Harmonic distortion from microphones is usually of low-order (mostly third harmonic) type, and hence not very audible even at 3-5%.^ Sennheiser MD421II Dynamic Cardioid Microphone This Sennheiser microphone is a low-impedance (200 ohms) balanced output unit terminating in a standard 3-pin XLR-type connector.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ A typical dynamic microphone has a very low internal impedance, seldom as large as 10Ω, and this impedance is approximately resistive over the whole frequency bandwidth.
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^ Without the resonator, the sensitivity of the hot-wire microphone is very low, so practical devices are all resonant.
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.Clipping, on the other hand, usually caused by the diaphragm reaching its absolute displacement limit (or by the preamplifier), will produce a very harsh sound on peaks, and should be avoided if at all possible.^ On the other hand, if we wish the maximum voltage (as for the input to a high input impedance amplifier), then the load resistance should be made as high as possible.
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^ All three mics sounded very similar in the upper mids.

^ The resistance varies slightly when the diaphragm is displaced, causing a change in the current and a consequent change in voltage, which is the output of the microphone.
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For some microphones the clipping level may be much higher than the max SPL.
.The dynamic range of a microphone is the difference in SPL between the noise floor and the maximum SPL. If stated on its own, for example "120 dB", it conveys significantly less information than having the self-noise and maximum SPL figures individually.^ Maximum SPL of 128 db.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Equally important is the specification of the internal impedance of the microphone, which varies over an extremely wide range for different microphone types, from less than 1Ω for a ribbon microphone to many megohms for a capacitor microphone.
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^ Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable) Tweak: Every studio needs one.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.Sensitivity indicates how well the microphone converts acoustic pressure to output voltage.^ Sometimes microphones are specified in terms of output power for a given acoustical input, often as dB re 1 mW per pascal.
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^ The resistance varies slightly when the diaphragm is displaced, causing a change in the current and a consequent change in voltage, which is the output of the microphone.
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^ If the microphone is sensitive to pressure, then a force f drives the diaphragm, and we want the displacement x = v/jω to be independent of frequency, or v to be proportional to frequency.
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.A high sensitivity microphone creates more voltage and so will need less amplification at the mixer or recording device.^ Samson R21 - Vocal/Recording Microphone The R21 features a tight Cardioid pickup pattern for [ More Info...
  • Recording Microphones - Instrument Pro 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.instrumentpro.com [Source type: General]

^ When you record with a quality microphone you will find there is more bass in your environment than you thought.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable) Tweak: Every studio needs one.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.This is a practical concern but is not directly an indication of the mic's quality, and in fact the term sensitivity is something of a misnomer, 'transduction gain' being perhaps more meaningful, (or just "output level") because true sensitivity will generally be set by the noise floor, and too much "sensitivity" in terms of output level will compromise the clipping level.^ Either configuration provides a sensitive, low-noise, wide bandwidth signal through its' balanced, low-impedanced XLR output.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ Line to mic level XLR cable + phantom power for use with line level Solo Desktops Click For More Details .
  • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, if you are recording in an ugly sounding reflective room, you have a good argument for choosing a quality dynamic mic to minimize interaction with the room.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

There are two common measures. The (preferred) international standard is made in millivolts per pascal at 1 kHz. A higher value indicates greater sensitivity. The older American method is referred to a 1 V/Pa standard and measured in plain decibels, resulting in a negative value. Again, a higher value indicates greater sensitivity, so −60  dB is more sensitive than −70 dB.

Measurement microphones

.Some microphones are intended for testing speakers, measuring noise levels and otherwise quantifying an acoustic experience.^ A good microphone with level response from 60 Hz to nearly 10 kHz, except for some wiggles of a few dB near the upper limit, was created.
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^ Samson MM01 Omni-Directional Measuring Mic Samson MM01 Omni-Directional Measuring Mic Precise electret-condenser test measurement microphone Uniform ...
  • Audio Equipment Microphones Hanging Microphones at Markertek.com 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.markertek.com [Source type: General]

^ The condenser, or capacitor, microphone was perfected by C. H. Wente in 1917 as a much-needed low-noise substitute for the carbon microphone, and as a standard microphone for acoustical measurements.
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.These are calibrated transducers and will usually be supplied with a calibration certificate stating absolute sensitivity against frequency.^ The calibration curve of microphone sensitivity in dB vs. This is usually done in one of two ways.
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^ The sensitivity is specified at some reference frequency, usually 1000 Hz.
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.The quality of measurement microphones is often referred to using the designations "Class 1," "Type 2" etc., which are references not to microphone specifications but to sound level meters.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

^ AKG C3000B Single Cardioid Large Diaphragm Mic The C 3000 B is a large-diaphragm cardioid condenser microphone for universal use, designed and made specifically to suit the needs of musicians as well as the rigors of the stage.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

[20] .A more comprehensive standard[21] for the description of measurement microphone performance was recently adopted.^ The NT-1 is a high performance professional recording microphone which will re-de fine recording industry standards.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The condenser, or capacitor, microphone was perfected by C. H. Wente in 1917 as a much-needed low-noise substitute for the carbon microphone, and as a standard microphone for acoustical measurements.
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.Measurement microphones are generally scalar sensors of pressure; they exhibit an omnidirectional response, limited only by the scattering profile of their physical dimensions.^ Using big names is a great marketing ploy, but my concern was not so much how they stacked up as clones, but rather how they stacked up as microphones in general.

^ Because pressure is a scalar quantity, these microphones are omnidirectional, except for diffraction effects that depend on frequency.
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^ On the other hand, the pressure calibration reflects the fundamental properties of the microphone, and is useful in designing measuring instruments.
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.Sound intensity or sound power measurements require pressure-gradient measurements, which are typically made using arrays of at least two microphones, or with hot-wire anemometers.^ A microphone operated by the pressure gradient is called a pressure-gradient microphone.
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^ Hot-wire microphone, pp.
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^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

Microphone calibration techniques

Like most manufactured products there can be variations, which may change over the lifetime of the device. Accordingly, it is regularly necessary to test the test microphones. This service is offered by some microphone manufacturers and by independent certified testing labs. .Microphone calibration is ultimately traceable to primary standards at one of the national laboratories such as PTB in Germany and NIST in the USA. Some test enough microphones to justify an in-house calibration lab.^ The calibration curve of microphone sensitivity in dB vs. This is usually done in one of two ways.
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.Depending on the application, measurement microphones must be tested periodically (every year or several months, typically) and after any potentially damaging event, such as being dropped (most such mikes come in foam-padded cases to reduce this risk) or exposed to sounds beyond the acceptable level.^ Neumann TLM103 Anniversary Microphone with Shockmount and Case The TLM 103 is the ideal large diaphragm microphone for all professional and semi-professional applications requiring the utmost in sound quality on a limited budget.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Mic works and sounds GREAT! Comes with original case and correct "clamp" type clip.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ I must say that the R84 sounded more pleasing right off the bat in this test.

Pistonphone apparatus

.A pistonphone is an acoustical calibrator (sound source) using a closed coupler to generate a precise sound pressure for the calibration of instrumentation microphones.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Recording in stereo, the close mic, which captures all the nuances close to the instrument, may be set up within 6 inches of the source, depending how loud it is.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Since putting your microphone into use, I find myself not worrying about getting the sound, or having to work as hard once it's been recorded.

.The principle relies on a piston mechanically driven to move at a specified cyclic rate, pushing on a fixed volume of air to which the microphone under test is exposed.^ The operation of a microphone is very greatly affected by the motion of the diaphragm, sometimes influenced by air volumes and passages behind it.
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^ The air in the small volume beneath the diaphragm acts as another stiffness element (s 1 ), while the kinetic energy of the air moving in and out from under the diaphragm through the silk cloth contributes mass (m 1 ), as well as a larger resistance (r 1 ).
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^ The diaphragm of a microphone is a mechanical system that vibrates under the influence of the sound waves that reach it.
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.The air is assumed to be compressed adiabatically and the sound pressure level in the chamber can be calculated from internal physical dimensions of the device and the adiabatic gas law, which requires that PVγ is a constant, where P is the pressure in the chamber, V is the volume of the chamber, and γ is the ratio of the specific heat of air at constant pressure to its specific heat at constant volume.^ The sound pressure level (SPL) is dB re 2 x 10 -4 dyne/cm 2 , or SPL = 20 log (p/2 x 10 -4 ).
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^ Dry air obeys the ideal gas law with a molecular weight M = 28.97, and the ratio of the specific heats is 1.402.
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^ In general, you need a mics that, above all, can handle a high SPL (sound pressure level).
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

.The pistonphone method only works at low frequencies, but it can be accurate and yields an easily calculable sound pressure level.^ As a matter of fact, both the R?121 and R84 sounded a tad harsh in the upper frequencies in comparison; hyped, and actually lacking in the low end as if it was sacrificed.

^ The sound pressure level (SPL) is dB re 2 x 10 -4 dyne/cm 2 , or SPL = 20 log (p/2 x 10 -4 ).
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^ Looks good with only most minor cosmetic wear, sounds & works great!
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

.The standard test frequency is usually around 250 Hz.^ The sensitivity is specified at some reference frequency, usually 1000 Hz.
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Reciprocal method

.This method relies on the reciprocity of one or more microphones in a group of 3 to be calibrated.^ The calibration curve of microphone sensitivity in dB vs. This is usually done in one of two ways.
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^ AN-Mini Deluxe Package w/ One WH-6000 Wireless Handheld Microphone - Red Click For More Details .
  • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

^ AN-Mini Deluxe Package w/ One WH-6000 Wireless Handheld Microphone - Black Click For More Details .
  • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

It can be performed in a closed coupler or in the free field. .Only one of the microphones need be reciprocal (exhibits equal response when used as a microphone or as a loudspeaker).^ This is easily recognized in the oscilloscope traces when the output of a small loudspeaker is used as a microphone, since it tends to ring at this frequency.
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^ Shure SM57LC Cardioid Dynamic Microphone (Less Cable) Tweak: Every studio needs one.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately this one has an open element so it is for display / photo / prop use only.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

Microphone array and array microphones

A microphone array is any number of microphones operating in tandem. There are many applications:
.
  • Systems for extracting voice input from ambient noise (notably telephones, speech recognition systems, hearing aids)
  • Surround sound and related technologies
  • Locating objects by sound: acoustic source localization, e.g.^ It was developed during the 1914-1918 war as a sound ranging device, for acoustic location of artillery to aid counterbattery fire.
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    ^ Assistive listening system for your radio, TV, hi-fi system or similar sound sources Click For More Details .
    • Williams Sound Assistive Listening Devices for Every Day - TV, Conversation, Small Groups, Churches, Tour Groups, Courtrooms, Schools and more from Listen Technologies, Anchor Audio, Sonic Alert, and Phonic Ear. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.assistedaudio.com [Source type: General]

    ^ First is the acoustic input, sound waves in air.
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    military use to locate the source(s) of artillery fire. Aircraft location and tracking.
  • High fidelity original recordings
  • 3D spatial beamforming for localized acoustic detection of subcutaneous sounds
.Typically, an array is made up of omnidirectional microphones distributed about the perimeter of a space, linked to a computer that records and interprets the results into a coherent form.^ Acoustic instruments I can talk about acoustic guitars best as I have been recording them a long time with numerous techniques and types of microphones.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

Microphone windscreens

.Windscreens are used to protect microphones that would otherwise be buffeted by wind or vocal plosives from consonants such as "P", "B", etc.^ Such microphones were used in recording and broadcasting in the early days, and gave very good service.
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^ This effect may be relied upon to lift the response of the microphone at high frequencies, when it would otherwise begin to droop.
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Most microphones have an integral windscreen built around the microphone diaphragm. .A screen of plastic, wire mesh or a metal cage is held at a distance from the microphone diaphragm, to shield it.^ A capacitor microphone consists of a metallized diaphragm that forms one plate of a capacitor, a backing plate forming the other.
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^ Drum Microphone Package Featuring 4 C518M MicroMics, 1 D112 Large Diaphragm Dynamic Microphone, 2 C1000S Condenser Microphones and Metal Road Case .

^ Drum Microphone Package Featuring 4 C518M MicroMics, 1 D112 Large Diaphragm Dynamic Microphone, SA60 Clamp and Metal Road Case .

This cage provides a first line of defense against the mechanical impact of objects or wind. .Some microphones, such as the Shure SM58, may have an additional layer of foam inside the cage to further enhance the protective properties of the shield.^ These will also fit, with a slight modification to the plug, some Shure mics such as the Shure 545 , 545S , 565 / Uni-Sphere.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ Shure Model SM58 Cardioid Dynamic Microphone .
  • Table of Contents 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.coutant.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Shure SM58 Dynamic Handheld Microphone .
  • Hyper Cardiod Microphones - Headworn Microphones - Heil Microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphonesforless.com [Source type: General]

Beyond integral microphone windscreens, there are three broad classes of additional wind protection.
.One disadvantage of all windscreen types is that the microphone's high frequency response is attenuated by a small amount, depending on the density of the protective layer.^ We carry all types of microphones.
  • Hyper Cardiod Microphones - Headworn Microphones - Heil Microphone 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.microphonesforless.com [Source type: General]

^ Spider-Type Shock Mount with 4" Outside Ring Diameter for use on all Microphones with Shafts from 0.7-1.02" with Cylindrical or Conical Bodies, Dark Gray .

^ Because pressure is a scalar quantity, these microphones are omnidirectional, except for diffraction effects that depend on frequency.
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Microphone covers

Microphone covers are often made of soft open-cell polyester or polyurethane foam because of the inexpensive, disposable nature of the foam. Optional windscreens are often available from the manufacturer and third parties. .A very visible example of an optional accessory windscreen is the A2WS from Shure, one of which is fitted over each of the two Shure SM57 microphones used on the United States president's lectern.^ United States Navy mystery microphone.
  • Table of Contents 12 September 2009 6:57 UTC www.coutant.org [Source type: Academic]

^ K&M 235/1 Stereo Microphone Bar Easily mount two mics in one stand.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ Not that anyone would want to use one anyway, but original element is non-functional in this one, so it is being offered as a display, photo / prop unit .
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

[22] One disadvantage of polyurethane foam microphone covers is that they can deteriorate over time. .Windscreens also tend to collect dirt and moisture in their open cells and must be cleaned to prevent high frequency loss, bad odor and unhealthy conditions for the person using the microphone.^ Shotgun Microphone Designed specifically for use with mini DV cameras the SGM-X is a professional super-cardioid shotgun microphone with a wide frequency response and low noise levels.
  • Azden Pro Audio System - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.expandore.com [Source type: General]

^ In this region, the displacement drops off very rapidly with frequency, so it is not useful for a pressure microphone.
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^ It is useful in a frequency range where other microphones are unresponsive.
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.On the other hand, a major advantage of concert vocalist windscreens is that one can quickly change to a clean windscreen between users, reducing the chance of transferring germs.^ On the other hand, not only is the internal impedance very small (less than an ohm), but the velocity can be made higher by reducing the mass m to a minimum value.
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.Windscreens of various colors can be used to distinguish one microphone from another on a busy, active stage.^ In that year, Hughes suggested that the contact between small grains might be superior to that of larger bodies, and named transmitters using this principle microphones to distinguish them.
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^ Every mic "colors" the sound in one way or another, much like the way speakers color the sound of your home stereo.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The many active transducers proposed as telephone transmitters that used microscopic contacts were dubbed "microphones" by Hughes.
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Pop filters

.Pop filters or pop screens are used in controlled studio environments to minimize plosives when recording.^ As a result of uncompromising dedication and today's advanced production abilities, Studio Projects has broken the barrier of quality vs price for today's recording studio environment.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ I have been recording for over 25 years, and I have used many 47s in commercial studios.

.A typical pop filter is composed of one or more layers of acoustically transparent gauze-like material, such as woven nylon stretched over a circular frame and a clamp and a flexible mounting bracket to attach to the microphone stand.^ However, it is typical of all such materials.
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^ The Variable-D design and heavy-duty, internal P-pop filter reduce proximity effect while the internal element shock mount reduces vibration-induced noise.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ K&M 235/1 Stereo Microphone Bar Easily mount two mics in one stand.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

The pop shield is placed between the vocalist and the microphone. The need for a pop filter increases the closer a vocalist brings his lips the microphone. .Singers can be trained either to soften their plosives or direct the air blast away from the microphone, in which cases they don't need a pop filter.^ Then you above all need a uni-directional mic so when close miking they pick of what it is pointing at, not everything in the room, like an omni directional mic does.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

Pop filters also keep spittle off the microphone. Most condenser microphones can be damaged by spittle.

Blimps

Two recordings being made—the microphone on the left is using a blimp, the one on the right an open-cell foam windscreen.
.Blimps (also known as Zeppelins) are large, hollow windscreens used to surround microphones for outdoor location audio, such as nature recording, electronic news gathering, and for film and video shoots.^ Ideal for use with moving sound source, eliminates the "hollow effect" caused by conference recordings, handles loud sound sources with minimal distortion levels.
  • Vintage Microphone Microphones that are Used / Preowned Pre-owned Mics / Mic's for sale from the 1950's, 1960's, 1970's & 1980's. 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

^ The principle of the dynamic microphone was known in 1877 when Bell developed the telephone, but it was impossible to use because of the lack of electronic amplification.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such microphones were used in recording and broadcasting in the early days, and gave very good service.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They can cut wind noise by as much as 25 dB, especially low-frequency noise.^ Its wide frequency response, low noise characteristics, and low RF susceptibility have made it a standard for applications involving acoustic instruments, especially guitar, piano, and cymbals.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

^ The condenser, or capacitor, microphone was perfected by C. H. Wente in 1917 as a much-needed low-noise substitute for the carbon microphone, and as a standard microphone for acoustical measurements.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discreet Capsule, Studio Quality, Low Noise and Extended Frequency Response Condenser Capsule.

The blimp is essentially a hollow cage or basket with acoustically transparent material stretched over the outer frame. .The blimp works by creating a volume of still air around the microphone.^ The operation of a microphone is very greatly affected by the motion of the diaphragm, sometimes influenced by air volumes and passages behind it.
  • Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC mysite.du.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microphone works very well with lots of output volume.
  • Vintage Microphones. Used / Deco / Retro � Photo Gallery 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC oaktreeent.com [Source type: General]

The microphone is often further isolated from the blimp by an elastic suspension inside the basket. .This reduces wind vibrations and handling noise transmitted from the cage.^ The Variable-D design and heavy-duty, internal P-pop filter reduce proximity effect while the internal element shock mount reduces vibration-induced noise.
  • How to Buy a Microphone for Your Home Studio 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.tweakheadz.com [Source type: General]

To extend the range of wind speed conditions in which the blimp will remain effective, many have the option of fitting a secondary cover over the outer shell. This is usually an acoustically transparent, synthetic fur material with long, soft hairs. The hairs act as shock absorbers to any wind turbulence hitting the blimp. A synthetic fur cover can reduce wind noise by an additional 12 dB.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sessler, G.M.; West, J.E. (1962). "Self-biased condenser microphone with high capacitance". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 34: 1787–1788. doi:10.1121/1.1909130. 
  2. ^ http://www.national.com/nationaledge/dec02/article.html
  3. ^ "AKG D 112 - Large-diaphragm dynamic microphone for bass instruments"
  4. ^ "Local firms strum the chords of real music innovation". Mass High Tech: the Journal of New England Technology. February 8, 2008. http://www.bizjournals.com/masshightech/stories/2008/02/11/story8.html. 
  5. ^ [1]Boudet Microphone
  6. ^ Paritsky, Alexander; Kots, A. (1997). "Fiber optic microphone as a realization of fiber optic positioning sensors". Proc. of International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) 3110: 408–409. 
  7. ^ US6,462,808 (PDF version) (2002-10-08) Alexander Paritsky and Alexander Kots, Small optical microphone/sensor. 
  8. ^ "Case Study: Can You Hear Me Now?". rt image. Valley Forge Publishing. pp. 30–31. http://www.rt-image.com/Case_Study_Can_You_Hear_Me_Now_Technology_for_better_communication_in_the_MRI_su/content=9004J05E48B6A686407698724488A0441. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  9. ^ "MEMS Microphone Will Be Hurt by Downturn in Smartphone Market". Seeking Alpha. http://seekingalpha.com/article/157790-mems-microphone-will-be-hurt-by-downturn-in-smartphone-market. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  10. ^ "OMRON to Launch Mass-production and Supply of MEMS Acoustic Sensor Chip -World's first MEMS sensor capable of detecting the lower limit of human audible frequencies-". http://www.omron.com/media/press/2009/11/c1125.html. Retrieved 2009-11-24. 
  11. ^ Bartlett, Bruce. "How A Cardioid Microphone Works". http://www.prosoundweb.com/install/spotlight/cardioid/cardioidmics.shtml. Retrieved 8/11/2008. 
  12. ^ History & Development of Microphone. Lloyd Microphone Classics.
  13. ^ Proximity Effect. Geoff Martin, Introduction to Sound Recording.
  14. ^ (US patent 4361736)
  15. ^ Crown Audio. Tech Made Simple. The Crown Differoid Microphone
  16. ^ a b International Standard IEC 60268-4
  17. ^ Eargle, John; Chris Foreman (2002). Audio Engineering for Sound Reinforcement. Milwaukee: Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 66. ISBN 0634043552. http://books.google.com/books?id=YWzZe6z4xdAC. 
  18. ^ http://www.shure.com/ProAudio/Products/us_pro_ea_imepdance
  19. ^ Robertson, A. E.: "Microphones" Illiffe Press for BBC, 1951-1963
  20. ^ IEC Standard 61672 and/or ANSI S1.4
  21. ^ IEC 61094
  22. ^ Shure - Accessories - A2WS Microphone Windscreens
  23. ^ Full Windshield System. Rycote Microphones.

External links


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ Thanks in advance, and I’m more than happy to read a guide rather than take up your time if you can point me in the right direction.
  • » Microphone Placement Techniques for Theatre 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.brightandloud.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A microphone is an input device capable of recording sound.^ Sound recording: Microphones .
  • http://www.hrelp.org/archive/advice/microphones.html 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.hrelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sound input Microphones .
  • SecuritySpy Installation Manual - Sound input - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.bensoftware.com [Source type: General]

^ Naturally, you cannot expect your recordings to sound good if the microphone picks up sound poorly.
  • Bill Wall's DIRECT APPROACH - Microphones 17 January 2010 9:40 UTC www.directap.com [Source type: Original source]

Typical microphone uses in games range from team communication (i.e. in most online games like the Xbox Live service), to pitch detection (i.e. Karaoke Revolution), to blowing detection (i.e. Warioware: Touched!, Feel the Magic: XX/XY and Yoshi Touch n' Go), to voice playback and music making (Electroplankton, Warioware: Touched!, Jam with the Band) to voice activated control (Odama, Mario Party 6, Hey You, Pikachu!, Tom Clancy's Rainbow Six 3, Nintendogs).

This article uses material from the "Microphone" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|100px|An Oktava condenser microphone.]]

File:Microphone
A Neumann U87 capacitor microphone

A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: [maɪk]), converts sound into an electrical signal.

Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, tape recorders, hearing aids, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, in radio and television broadcasting and in computers for recording voice.

Kinds of Microphones

Sound passes through the air in waves, and as was said above, the microphone turns this into an electrical wave. Different kinds of microphones will turn the sound waves into electricity in different ways.

Dynamic Microphone - A Dynamic Microphone uses a round plastic or rubber disk connected to a wire coil in order to turn sound into electricity. Basically, the sound wave will hit the disk which vibrates as a result. This vibration will move the coil back and forth near a magnet very quickly in order to create an electrical current. This is the exact opposite of a speaker which uses an electrical current to move the coil, which moves the disk. Then the disk makes sound.

Condenser Microphone - A condenser microphone uses two small metal plates to create an electrical current. Basically two small metal plates are placed right next to each other and electricity is run through the plates. This creates an electric field in between the two plates. When sound hits these plates, the plates vibrate. The vibration makes small changes in the electric field. These changes create the electrical signal.

Ribbon Microphone - This is somewhat similar to a Dynamic microphone. You take a thin, small sheet of metal (tin or aluminum usually), and place it in between two magnets. When sound hits the thin piece of metal, the metal vibrates. That vibration creates an electrical signal in the metal.

Other pages

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 19, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Microphone, which are similar to those in the above article.








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