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Intel 4004, the first general-purpose, commercial microprocessor
.A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC, or microchip).^ Microprocessor chips (MPU) are silicon devices that serve as the central processing unit (CPU) in computers.

^ The processor is also known as the CPU (Central Processing Unit).

^ Microprocessor Microprocessor MICROPROCESSOR A microprocessor, also known as a Central Processing Unit (CPU), is an electrical component of the computer.

[1] .The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words.^ The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using BCD arithmetic on 4-bit words.
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Designing 8 bit Microprocessor using VHDL .
  • Designing 8 bit Microprocessor using VHDL 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC cegt201.bradley.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This was the world's first 8-bit microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other embedded uses of 4- and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly.^ Other embedded uses of 4 and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals , printers , various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Embedded 32-bit microprocessor.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is followed by a section where the students learn how to use microprocessors and other system-level components to build complete computer systems.
  • 3336 Microprocessor Systems 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC web.ecs.baylor.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.^ Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This was the world's first 8-bit microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First 8-bit microprocessor.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

.Computer processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors.^ Computer processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors.
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Before this period, electronic CPUs were typically made from bulky discrete switching devices (and later small-scale integrated circuits) containing the equivalent of only a few transistors.
  • Microprocessor definition by Babylon's free dictionary 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Microprocessor A microprocessor is a processor whose elements are miniaturized into one or a few integrated circuits contained in a single silicon microchip.
  • SYSTEM UNIT Microprocessor Chips 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC home.olemiss.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • SYSTEM UNIT Microprocessor Chips 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC home.olemiss.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The integration of the whole CPU onto a single chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity.^ A central processing unit (CPU) contained within a single chip.
  • microprocessor - Computer Definition 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.yourdictionary.com [Source type: General]
  • Microprocessor: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The integration of the whole CPU onto a single VLSI chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity.
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC).
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

.From their humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.^ Search for more hardware and systems terms .

^ From their humble beginnings as the drivers for calculator s, the continued increase in power has led to the dominance of microprocessors over every other form of computer; every system from the largest mainframe s to the smallest handheld computer s now uses a microprocessor at its core.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See chip and embedded system .
  • microprocessor - Computer Definition 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.yourdictionary.com [Source type: General]
  • Microprocessor: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Microprocessor Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

.Since the early 1970s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has been known to generally follow Moore's Law, which suggests that the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost, doubles every two years.^ A measurement of the capacity of memory integrated circuits.
  • Documentation 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC support.dell.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the early 1970s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has been known to generally follow Moore's Law, which suggests that the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost, doubles every 18 months.
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The evolution of microprocessors have been known to follow Moore's Law when it comes to steadily increasing performance over the years.
  • Bambooweb: Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.In the late 1990s, and in the high-performance microprocessor segment, heat generation (TDP), due to switching losses, static current leakage, and other factors, emerged as a leading developmental constraint.^ In the late 1990s, heat generation (TDP), due to current leakage and other factors, emerged as a leading developmental constraint.
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.inhand.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The control monitors and detects high and low cabinet temperature, door openings, condenser performance, power loss and many other operational factors.
  • Traulsen | Technology - Temperature Control 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.traulsen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Intel 4004 was the first general purpose microprocessor that could be customized with software to perform different functions on different devices.
  • GetUSB.info: Computer History Museum Honors First Microprocessor Intel’s 4004 | Facebook 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

[5]

Contents

Firsts

.Three projects delivered a microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel's 4004, the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch's Central Air Data Computer (CADC).^ Intel® 4004 microprocessor .
  • Intel's First Microprocessor—the Intel 4004 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.intel.com [Source type: General]

^ Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project .
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ Three projects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel 's 4004 , the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch 's Central Air Data Computer (CADC).
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Intel 4004

File:C4004.JPG.jpg.jpg
The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).
.The Intel 4004 is generally considered the first microprocessor,[6][7] and cost in the thousands of dollars.^ The first microprocessor that came to mind was the Intel 4004.
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ Intel® 4004 microprocessor .
  • Intel's First Microprocessor—the Intel 4004 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.intel.com [Source type: General]

^ The first commercial microprocessor was the Intel 4004 which appeared in 1971.
  • Microprocessor Definition | Definition of Microprocessor at Dictionary.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • microprocessor from FOLDOC 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC foldoc.org [Source type: Reference]
  • microprocessor @ Computer-Dictionary-Online.org 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computer-dictionary-online.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Microprocessor definition by Babylon's free dictionary 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]
  • microprocessor from FOLDOC 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC winnie.kuis.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Source type: Reference]
  • microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC burks.brighton.ac.uk [Source type: Reference]

[8] .The first known advertisement for the 4004 is dated to November 1971; it appeared in Electronic News.^ Intel advertises the 4004 microprocessor in Electronic News Magazine.
  • 25th anniversary of microprocessor - Fast Forward Section Front 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerwriter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November 1971, Intel introduced the 4004 to the public in an Electronic News ad.

^ The first commercial microprocessor was the Intel 4004 which appeared in 1971.

[9] .The project that produced the 4004 originated in 1969, when Busicom, a Japanese calculator manufacturer, asked Intel to build a chipset for high-performance desktop calculators.^ A Japanese calculator manufacturer, Busicom, asked Intel to design a set of chips for a family of programmable calculators.
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project .
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1969 Intel were approached by a Japanese company called Busicom to produce chips for Busicom's electronic desktop calculator.
  • The Z80 Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC landley.net [Source type: Reference]

.Busicom original design called for a programmable chip set consisting of 7 different chips, three of them were used to make a special-purpose CPU with its program stored in ROM and its data stored in shift register read-write memory.^ B EEPROM is read/write persistant memory used for storing data.
  • x0x:microprocessor [AdaWiki] 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ladyada.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The program is permanently stored in ROM 18.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Why three different types of memory?
  • x0x:microprocessor [AdaWiki] 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ladyada.net [Source type: Reference]

.Ted Hoff, the Intel engineer assigned to evaluate the project, believed the Busicom design could be simplified by using dynamic RAM storage for data, rather than shift register memory, and a more traditional general-purpose CPU architecture.^ Dynamic random-access memory ( RAM ).
  • Documentation 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC support.dell.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The registers that can be used by the programmer to store arbitrary data, as needed, are called general purpose registers .
  • Microprocessor Design/Computer Architecture - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attached to the CPU are storage for code and data, also known as memory .
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

.Hoff came up with a four–chip architectural proposal: a ROM chip for storing the programs, a dynamic RAM chip for storing data, a simple I/O device and a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU), which he felt could be integrated into a single chip, although he was not a chip designer.^ The program is permanently stored in ROM 18.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CPU Abbreviation of central processing unit .
  • Microprocessor Definition | Definition of Microprocessor at Dictionary.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Central processing unit.
  • Documentation 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC support.dell.com [Source type: Reference]

.This chip would later be called the 4004 microprocessor.^ The first Intel ‘microprocessor’ was delivered to Intel’s customer, Busicom in February 1971, and later that year Intel introduced its first microprocessor product, the 4004.” .
  • McGuire’s Law » Blog Archive » The Inventions: The Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC mcguireslaw.com [Source type: General]

^ The Intel 4004 was originally designed for use in a Busicom scientific calculator, but Intel engineers realized the design of the chip afforded multi-purpose use - thus the microprocessor was born.
  • Intel 4004 - the First Microprocessor from 1971 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cedmagic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In November, 1971, a company called Intel publicly introduced the world's first single chip microprocessor , the Intel 4004 (U.S. Patent #3,821,715), invented by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, .
  • Who Invented The Microprocessor? - Ask Jeeves Search 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC uk.ask.com [Source type: General]

.The architecture and specifications of the 4004 were the results of the interaction of Intel’s Hoff with Stanley Mazor, a software engineer reporting to Hoff, and with Busicom engineer Masatoshi Shima.^ Intel's first microprocessor, the 4004, was conceived by Ted Hoff and Stanley Mazor.
  • Computer History Museum - The Silicon Engine | 1971 - Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerhistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I wrote to Federico Faggin and to Marcian "Ted" Hoff, two of the four co-inventors of the 4004 (I was never able to contact the other inventors, Busicom's Masatoshi Shima or Intel's Stan Mazor).
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ The Intel 4004 was originally designed for use in a Busicom scientific calculator, but Intel engineers realized the design of the chip afforded multi-purpose use - thus the microprocessor was born.
  • Intel 4004 - the First Microprocessor from 1971 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cedmagic.com [Source type: Reference]

.In April 1970 Intel hired Federico Faggin to lead the design of the four-chip set.^ I wrote to Federico Faggin and to Marcian "Ted" Hoff, two of the four co-inventors of the 4004 (I was never able to contact the other inventors, Busicom's Masatoshi Shima or Intel's Stan Mazor).
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ The Intel 4004 was originally designed for use in a Busicom scientific calculator, but Intel engineers realized the design of the chip afforded multi-purpose use - thus the microprocessor was born.
  • Intel 4004 - the First Microprocessor from 1971 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cedmagic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory System for a Multi-Chip Digital Computer, in the names of Ted Hoff, Stan Mazor and Federico Faggin; and patent no.
  • The Intel 4004 Home 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.intel4004.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Faggin, who originally developed the silicon gate technology (SGT) in 1968 at Fairchild Semiconductor[10] (and also designed the world’s first commercial integrated circuit using SGT – the Fairchild 3708), had the correct background to lead the project since it was the SGT to make possible the design of a CPU into a single chip with the proper speed, power dissipation and cost.^ In 1968, he came to the US to join Fairchild in Palo Alto where he developed the original silicon gate technology.
  • Invent Now | Hall of Fame | Search | Inventor Profile 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.invent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Faggin also created the basic Methodology of Random Logic Design using silicon gate technology.
  • The Intel 4004 Home 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.intel4004.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A silicon chip that contains a CPU .
  • microprocessor - Ultrawideband Planet 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC uwb.webopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • microprocessor - Ultrawideband Planet 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC uwb.webopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • microprocessor - Webopedia.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC webvideouniverse.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

.Faggin also developed the new methodology for random logic design, based on silicon gate, that made the 4004 possible.^ Faggin also created the basic Methodology of Random Logic Design using silicon gate technology.
  • The Intel 4004 Home 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.intel4004.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1968, he came to the US to join Fairchild in Palo Alto where he developed the original silicon gate technology.
  • Invent Now | Hall of Fame | Search | Inventor Profile 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.invent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After having led from the beginning all of Intel's microprocessor development activity, at the time of his leaving Faggin was heading all of the MOS chip design activity, with the exception of dynamic memories.
  • The Intel 4004 Home 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.intel4004.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Production units of the 4004 were first delivered to Busicom in March 1971, and shipped to other customers in late 1971.

TMS 1000

The Smithsonian Institution says TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran succeeded in creating the first microcontroller (also called a microcomputer) in 1971. The result of their work was the TMS 1000, which went commercial in 1974.
.TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000, and stressed pre-programmed embedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC on September 17, 1971, which implemented a calculator on a chip.^ TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000, and stressed pre-programmed embedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC on September 17 , 1971 , which implemented a calculator on a chip.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000 and stressed pre-programmed embedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC on September 17 , 1971 , which implemented a calculator on a chip.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The TI TMS1802NC was released in September 1971 and the Intel 4004 was released in November 1971.
  • Questions about First Microprocessor - Ask.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.The Intel chip was the 4-bit 4004, released on November 15, 1971, developed by Federico Faggin who led the design of the 4004 in 1970–1971, and Ted Hoff who led the architecture in 1969. The head of the MOS Department was Leslie L. Vadász.^ Who had the first 32-bit single-chip design?
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-128.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was announced in November 1971, and was called the 4004.
  • The Microprocessor as a Modern Odysseus (Dennis Bathory-Kitsz) 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC maltedmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Intel 4004 was the first commercially available microprocessor, and was developed by a team led by Marcian "Ted" Hoff.
  • WikiAnswers - Who developed the microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor.^ TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TI invented the hand-held calculator in 1967, the single-chip microcomputer in 1971, and was assigned the first (almost simultaneous with Intel) patent on a single-chip microprocessor in 1973.
  • Molecular Expressions: Chip Shots Gallery 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC micro.magnet.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A nice history of these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyrix and Intel, with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gary Boone was awarded U.S. Patent 3,757,306 for the single-chip microprocessor architecture on September 4, 1973. It may never be known which company actually had the first working microprocessor running on the lab bench.^ Things are much calmer over Texas Instruments' way, where Gary Boone's 1973 patent for the single-chip microprocessor architecture has not been, as far as we know, ever been disputed.
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-128.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chip Company , Graphics , microprocessor , performance .
  • microprocessor stories - ZDNet Asia 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: General]

^ Chip , Chip Company , Graphics , microprocessor , graphics chip .
  • microprocessor stories - ZDNet Asia 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: General]

.In both 1971 and 1976, Intel and TI entered into broad patent cross-licensing agreements, with Intel paying royalties to TI for the microprocessor patent.^ In both 1971 and 1976 , Intel and TI entered into broad patent cross-licensing agreements, with Intel paying royalties to TI for the microprocessor patent.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intel 4004 - the First Microprocessor from 1971 .
  • Intel 4004 - the First Microprocessor from 1971 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cedmagic.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A nice history of these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyrix and Intel, with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent.^ A nice history of these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyrix and Intel, with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A very nice site to check the history of microprocessors can be found at Intel [2].
  • UNM - Xilinx University Program Website - Microprocessors 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.eece.unm.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor that combines the microprocessor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip.It is also called as micro-controller.^ Microprocessor/Micro controller Assembler .

^ A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the microprocessor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O ( input/output ) lines, all on one chip .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the software interface of various microprocessor memory system controllers.
  • ELC 254 � Advanced Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Reference]

.The computer-on-a-chip patent, called the "microcomputer patent" at the time, U.S. Patent 4,074,351, was awarded to Gary Boone and Michael J. Cochran of TI. Aside from this patent, the standard meaning of microcomputer is a computer using one or more microprocessors as its CPU(s), while the concept defined in the patent is perhaps more akin to a microcontroller.^ Using microprocessors and microcomputers: The Motorola family.
  • ELC 122 � Microprocessor Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The main microprocessor in a computer is called the central processing unit (CPU).
  • Microcessor definition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ More powerful computers may use 64-bit chips.
  • MICROPROCESSOR, 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pico/General Instrument

.In early 1971 Pico Electronics[11] and General Instrument introduced their first collaboration in ICs, a complete single chip calculator IC for the Monroe Royal Digital III calculator.^ David Campbell remembered the first IC development at Pico Electronics.
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TI invented the hand-held calculator in 1967, the single-chip microcomputer in 1971, and was assigned the first (almost simultaneous with Intel) patent on a single-chip microprocessor in 1973.
  • Molecular Expressions: Chip Shots Gallery 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC micro.magnet.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In November, 1971, a company called Intel publicly introduced the world's first single chip microprocessor , the Intel 4004 (U.S. Patent #3,821,715), invented by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, .
  • Who Invented The Microprocessor? - Ask Jeeves Search 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC uk.ask.com [Source type: General]

.This IC could also arguably lay claim to be one of the first microprocessors or microcontrollers having ROM, RAM and a RISC instruction set on-chip.^ One set of instructions is sent to the processor.
  • NewOrder - news: Microprocessor Pipelining 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC neworder.box.sk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of these chips, the 4004, became the first commercial microprocessor.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A single chip microprocessor may include other components such as memory ( RAM , ROM , PROM ), memory management , caches , floating-point unit , input/output ports and timers.
  • Microprocessor Definition | Definition of Microprocessor at Dictionary.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Microprocessor definition by Babylon's free dictionary 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pico was a spinout by five GI design engineers whose vision was to create single chip calculator ICs.^ TI invented the hand-held calculator in 1967, the single-chip microcomputer in 1971, and was assigned the first (almost simultaneous with Intel) patent on a single-chip microprocessor in 1973.
  • Molecular Expressions: Chip Shots Gallery 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC micro.magnet.fsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike a home computer, which is designed to do a wide variety of functions, a microprocessor is a single-chip processor designed to perform specific tasks for the product in which it is installed.
  • Business People-Vermont: Microprocessor Designs 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.vermontguides.com [Source type: News]

^ A Japanese calculator manufacturer, Busicom, asked Intel to design a set of chips for a family of programmable calculators.
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.They had significant previous design experience on multiple calculator chipsets with both GI and Marconi-Elliott.^ However, there was another microprocessor development happening in Glenrothes Scotland, also designed for the burgeoning calculator market which may have beat Intel to the market, both in timing and performance.
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The team had designs for calculators going back to the Elliott days for Bell Punch .
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The team already had a significant legacy in successful calculator chip design with one of the last jobs they had completed in GI being a five chip set for a Facit calculator.
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Pico and GI went on to have significant success in the burgeoning handheld calculator market.^ In the late 60s and early 70s there was significant interest from calculator companies to further reduce the size and cost of desktop calculators, and to create a new market for personal calculators.
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there was another microprocessor development happening in Glenrothes Scotland, also designed for the burgeoning calculator market which may have beat Intel to the market, both in timing and performance.
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Michael Cochran and TI's Single Chip Calculator                              GI Manufactured and Marketed Pico's Chip Designs George Stevenson and his team moved on to more complex chips including a single chip scientific calculator and went on to design all of GI's calculator chips.
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

CADC

.In 1968, Garrett AiResearch, with designer Ray Holt and Steve Geller, were invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy's new F-14 Tomcat fighter.^ This highly integrated computer chip set was designed for the US Navy F14A “TomCat” fighter jet by Mr. Steve Geller and Mr. Ray Holt while working for Garrett AiResearch Corp under contract from Grumman Aircraft, the prime contractor for the US Navy.

^ In 1968, Garrett AiResearch, with designer Ray Holt and Steve Geller, were invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy 's new F-14 Tomcat fighter.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1968 , Garrett was invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy 's new F-14 Tomcat fighter.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The design was complete by 1970, and used a MOS-based chipset as the core CPU. The design was significantly (approximately 20 times) smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models.^ The design was complete by 1970, and used a MOS -based chipset as the core CPU. The design was significantly (approximately 20 times) smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The design was complete by 1970 , and used a MOS -based chipset as the core CPU. The design was smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of application-specific or customer-specific Systems-On-a-Chip (SOCs), some with multiple processors, means that a uniform, reliable debugging interface is essential to reduce the task of redesigning the microprocessor emulator for each individual SoC design.
  • Ashling Microprocessor Development Systems 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ashling.com [Source type: Reference]

.This system contained a "a 20-bit, pipelined, parallel multi-microprocessor". However, the system was considered so advanced that the Navy refused to allow publication of the design until 1997. For this reason the CADC, and the MP944 chipset it used, are fairly unknown even today.^ However, the system was considered so advanced that the Navy refused to allow publication of the design until 1997.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the system was considered so advanced that the Navy refused to allow publication of the design, and continued to refuse until 1997 .
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the felony was mirrored alternately advanced that the navy refused to renew agenda of the warning until 1997.
  • Recently Tagged with « Intel microprocessor » 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.corra.org [Source type: General]

[13]
.The design engineer[14] Ray Holt, a graduate of California Polytechnical University, Pomona CA, in 1968, began his computer design career with the F14 CADC.^ In 1970 Steve Geller and Ray Holt of Garrett AiResearch designed the MP944 chip set to implement the F-14A Central Air Data Computer on six metal-gate chips fabricated by AMI. .
  • Computer History Museum - The Silicon Engine | 1971 - Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerhistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1968, Garrett AiResearch, with designer Ray Holt and Steve Geller, were invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy 's new F-14 Tomcat fighter.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ February 2005 by Will Knight Details of a novel microprocessor design that could supercharge many computing applications were released at an industry conference in California, US, on Monday.
  • 'Supercomputer-on-a-chip' microprocessor revealed - tech - 07 February 2005 - New Scientist 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

The central air data computer was shrouded in secrecy for over 30 years from its creation (the year being 1968), it was not publicly known until 1998 at which time, at the request of Mr. Ray Holt, the US Navy allowed the documents into the public domain. .Since then several have debated if, in fact, this was the first microprocessor.^ In-Start/MDR Description: Microprocessor Report has been the leading technical publication for the microprocessor industry since it was first introduced by Michael Slater in 1987.
  • Microprocessor Report | Product | Web Buyer's Guide 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dellhpcc.ziffdavis.com [Source type: General]

^ Manufacturers were busy building microprocessors to compete with standard logic modules for embedded-control applications, since to a first approximation, embedded-control applications represented 100 percent of the market for microprocessors.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s, the early 2000s have seen the introduction of 64-bit microchips targeted at the PC market.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To date, no one has taken on the task of comparing this microprocessor with those that came later.^ Packaging today's microprocessor on the one hand entails tailoring the package to enable microprocessor performance, a complex task considering the rapid rate of microprocessor performance growth.
  • Architectural trends in today’s microprocessor - Free Computer Science Tutorials - Provided by Laynetworks.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.laynetworks.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Reply No Subject by xsilver , 1762 days ago nice, definitley one of those "sit down reads"....
  • AnandTech: Understanding the Cell Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.anandtech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one at HP had ever designed a microprocessor before, not even at the much vaunted HP Labs.
  • Hybrid Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hp9825.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .The scientific papers and literature published around 1971 reveal that the MP944 digital processor used for the F-14 Tomcat aircraft of the US Navy qualifies as the first microprocessor.^ This chip was used in the F-14 Tomcat used by the US Navy.
  • WikiAnswers - Who developed the microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Course: microprocessor PC Processors used in the PC .
  • Operating of microprocessor system 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: Reference]

^ Who developed the first microprocessor in 1971?
  • WikiAnswers - Who developed the microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Although interesting, it was not a single-chip processor, and was not general purpose – it was more like a set of parallel building blocks you could use to make a special-purpose DSP form.^ Coprocessor chip : This is one of the specialized processors.
  • SYSTEM UNIT Microprocessor Chips 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC home.olemiss.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Well considering they’re known for their sophisticated, low-power chips, Apple could use their chips for use in future iPhones or iPods.
  • Apple Acquires Microprocessor Design Company 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC cybernetnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Unlike a home computer, which is designed to do a wide variety of functions, a microprocessor is a single-chip processor designed to perform specific tasks for the product in which it is installed.
  • Business People-Vermont: Microprocessor Designs 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.vermontguides.com [Source type: News]

.It indicates that today’s industry theme of converging DSP-microcontroller architectures was started in 1971.[16] This convergence of DSP and microcontroller architectures is known as a Digital Signal Controller.^ DSP processors are designed and optimized to work with digital signals, performing operations based on programmed instructions.
  • CyberVision, Inc USA | Microprocessor Design Development | DSP | Software Development Company | Offshore Outsourcing Ukraine 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cybervisiontech.com [Source type: General]

^ The most common examples are microcontrollers , digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU).
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microcontroller emulates numerically controlled oscillator : 02/21/2002 EDN - Design Ideas / Microcontrollers commonly add intelligence or digital functions to products, but they can also provide a variety of analog signals.
  • Microprocessor Circuits - Microcontroller - Electronic Projects 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hobbyprojects.com [Source type: Reference]

Gilbert Hyatt

.Gilbert Hyatt was awarded a patent claiming an invention pre-dating both TI and Intel, describing a "microcontroller".[17] The patent was later invalidated, but not before substantial royalties were paid out.^ See a webpage claiming an invention pre-dating both TI and Intel, describing a "microcontroller".
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a rebuttal and a commentary , the patent was later invalidated, but not before substantial royalties were paid out.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See a webpage claiming an inventor pre-dating both TI and Intel, describing a "microcontroller", which may or may not count as a "microprocessor".
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18][19]

Lee Boysel

.Lee Boysel designed Four Phase Systems AL1 in 1969, which was 8-bit CPU slice.^ The correct answer is Four-Phase Systems.
  • Questions about First Microprocessor - Ask.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Building on 8-bit arithmetic logic units (3800/3804) he designed earlier at Fairchild, in 1969 Lee Boysel created the Four-Phase Systems Inc.
  • Computer History Museum - The Silicon Engine | 1971 - Microprocessor Integrates CPU Function onto a Single Chip 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerhistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This was the CPU member of a set of four LSI integrated circuits called the MCS-4, which was originally designed for use in a calculator but was marketed as "programmable controller for logic replacement".
  • Microprocessor Definition | Definition of Microprocessor at Dictionary.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Microprocessor definition by Babylon's free dictionary 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

[20][21][22]

8-bit designs

.The Intel 4004 was followed in 1972 by the Intel 8008, the world's first 8-bit microprocessor.^ What was Intel's first microprocessor ?
  • Questions about First Microprocessor - Ask.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ The first microprocessor that came to mind was the Intel 4004.
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ The result was the first microprocessor, the 4004, announced by Intel in 1971.
  • MICROPROCESSOR, 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to A History of Modern Computing, (MIT Press), pp. 220–21, Intel entered into a contract with Computer Terminals Corporation, later called Datapoint, of San Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal they were designing.^ Intel entered into a contract with Computer Terminals Corporation, later called Datapoint , of San Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal they were designing.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measuring only 1/8th by 1/6th of an inch it was as powerful as the ENIAC built in 1946 and is, according to Intel, one of the smallest microprocessor designs to go into commercial production.
  • 7 technologies to thank the 1970s for... - HardcoreWeather 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hardcoreweather.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intel followed a different path, having no minicomputers to emulate, and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086 , the first member of the x86 family which powers most modern PC type computers.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Datapoint later decided not to use the chip, and Intel marketed it as the 8008 in April, 1972. This was the world's first 8-bit microprocessor.^ The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008, developed in 1972 to run computer terminals.
  • ...trailing the Transistor : Applications : Microprocessors 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC autocww.colorado.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The 4004 was later followed in 1972 by the 8008 , the world's first 8-bit microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intel® 8008 Microprocessor Die, 1972 .
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

It was the basis for the famous "Mark-8" computer kit advertised in the magazine Radio-Electronics in 1974.
.The 8008 was the precursor to the very successful Intel 8080 (1974), Zilog Z80 (1976), and derivative Intel 8-bit processors.^ Intel® 8080 Microprocessor Package, 1974 .
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel® 8080 Microprocessor Die, 1974 .
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Early Intel: 4004, 8008, and 8080 .
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-106.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-128.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The competing Motorola 6800 was released August 1974 and the similar MOS Technology 6502 in 1975 (designed largely by the same people).^ The competing Motorola 6800 was released August 1974.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motorola entered the CPU market in 1975 with its 8-bit 6800, and the 6502 was developed around the same time by MOS Technology.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Designing such processors takes hundreds of people organized into large teams.
  • High-Performance Energy-Efficient Microprocessor Design 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: Academic]

.The 6502 rivaled the Z80 in popularity during the 1980s.^ Its architecture was cloned and improved in the MOS Technology 6502 in 1975, rivaling the Z80 in popularity during the 1980s .
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its architecture was cloned and improved in the MOS Technology 6502 in 1975, rivaling the Z80 in popularity during the 1980s.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A low overall cost, small packaging, simple computer bus requirements, and sometimes circuitry otherwise provided by external hardware (the Z80 had a built in memory refresh) allowed the home computer "revolution" to accelerate sharply in the early 1980s, eventually delivering such inexpensive machines as the Sinclair ZX-81, which sold for US$99.
.The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several firms.^ (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several firms.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several companies which became the core of the Apple IIc and IIe personal computers, medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrilators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65816 16-bit upgrade of the WDC CMOS 65C02 in 1984.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was used as the CPU in the Apple IIe and IIc personal computers as well as in medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrilators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices.^ In the world of personal computers , the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably.

^ It became the core of the Apple IIc and IIe personal computers, medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrilators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several companies which became the core of the Apple IIc and IIe personal computers, medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrilators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor designs, later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990s.^ WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor technology which was later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990's.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor technology which was later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990’s.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper introduces the original Mobile Intelligent System MIS. The system is based on an embedded Co-Design FPGA architecture, including a microprocessor core and several dedicated IP Intellectual Property.
  • Embedded Microprocessor: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Motorola introduced the MC6809 in 1978, an ambitious and thought through 8-bit design source compatible with the 6800 and implemented using purely hard-wired logic.^ In 1978 Motorola introduced its first 16-bit CPU: the 68000.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motorola introduced numerous variations of the 6800.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To prove the design concept we built a fully functional but not very reliable breadboard using off the shelf  TTL logic chips soldered onto a number of stripboards which were just connected together by wires."
  • Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.xnumber.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Subsequent 16-bit microprocessors typically used microcode to some extent, as design requirements were getting too complex for purely hard-wired logic only.^ Use of application-specific or customer-specific Systems-On-a-Chip (SOCs), some with multiple processors, means that a uniform, reliable debugging interface is essential to reduce the task of redesigning the microprocessor emulator for each individual SoC design.
  • Ashling Microprocessor Development Systems 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ashling.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1979, Intel delivered the 8088 and IBM engineers used it for the first PC. The combination of the new 16 bit microprocessor and the name IBM shifted the personal computer from a techie toy in the garage to a mainstream business tool.
  • History of CPU, Intel CPU History, CPU History, History of the CPU, Microprocessor History 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.geeks.com [Source type: General]

^ However, reducing register le ports requires arbitration logic that is complex and slow and thus may stretch the cycle time.
  • Citations: Superscalar Microprocessor Design - Johnson (ResearchIndex) 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Academic]

)
.Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650, which enjoyed a brief surge of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture.^ Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650 , which enjoyed a brief flurry of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650 , which enjoyed a brief surge of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The important characteristics of a microprocessor are the widths of its internal and external address bus and data bus (and instruction), its clock rate and its instruction set .
  • Microprocessor definition by Babylon's free dictionary 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

.A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976), which was used in NASA's Voyager and Viking spaceprobes of the 1970s, and onboard the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995).^ A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA 's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976) which was used in NASA's Voyager and Viking spaceprobes of the 1970s, and onboard the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995).
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From RCA Engineer v22n5, February/March 1977: [RCA] Solid State Division's microprocessor business is built around the CDP1802 microprocessor, a CMOS implementation of Joe Weisbecker's COSMAC architecture, which is radically different from the Intel and Motorola architectures.
  • RCA COS/MAC Microprocessor Trainers 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.decodesystems.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This let the Voyager / Viking / Galileo spacecraft use minimum electric power for long uneventful stretches of a voyage.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.RCA COSMAC was the first to implement CMOS technology.^ RCA COSMAC was the first to implement C-MOS technology.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RCA COSMAC was the first to implement C-MOS technology.The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power , * and because its production process ( Silicon on Sapphire ) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharge s than that of any other processor of the era.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From RCA Engineer v22n5, February/March 1977: [RCA] Solid State Division's microprocessor business is built around the CDP1802 microprocessor, a CMOS implementation of Joe Weisbecker's COSMAC architecture, which is radically different from the Intel and Motorola architectures.
  • RCA COS/MAC Microprocessor Trainers 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.decodesystems.com [Source type: Reference]

.The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power, and because its production process (Silicon on Sapphire) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharges than that of any other processor of the era.^ The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power , and because its production process ( Silicon on Sapphire ) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharges than that of any other processor of the era.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RCA COSMAC was the first to implement C-MOS technology.The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power , * and because its production process ( Silicon on Sapphire ) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharge s than that of any other processor of the era.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well considering they’re known for their sophisticated, low-power chips, Apple could use their chips for use in future iPhones or iPods.
  • Apple Acquires Microprocessor Design Company 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC cybernetnews.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, the 1802 is said to be the first radiation-hardened microprocessor.^ Thus, the 1802 is said to be the first radiation-hardened microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A pressure regulating arrangement according to claim 7, further comprising a pressure responsive device having an input coupled to an output of said first pressure regulating valve assembly and having an output coupled to said microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor controlled gas pressure regulator - Patent 5047965 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The assembly mechanism needed to be keyed so that the hybrid microprocessor could not be mounted in the wrong orientation (thus smoking the processor when first powered on).
  • Hybrid Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hp9825.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The RCA 1802 had what is called a static design, meaning that the clock frequency could be made arbitrarily low, even to 0 Hz, a total stop condition.^ The RCA 1802 had what is called a static design , meaning that the clock frequency could be made arbitrarily low, even to 0 Hz, a total stop condition.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1802 is interesting for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that it uses static CMOS circuitry, meaning it has no minimum clock frequency.
  • RCA COS/MAC Microprocessor Trainers 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.decodesystems.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The combination of high speed, large (16 megabyte) memory space and fairly low costs made it the most popular CPU design of its class.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This let the Voyager/Viking/Galileo spacecraft use minimum electric power for long uneventful stretches of a voyage.^ This let the Voyager / Viking / Galileo spacecraft use minimum electric power for long uneventful stretches of a voyage.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it could be fabricated to be radiation resistant, so it was used on the Voyager 1 , Viking , and Galileo space probes (where rapidly executed commands aren't a necessity).
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA 's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976) which was used in NASA's Voyager and Viking spaceprobes of the 1970s, and onboard the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995).
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Timers and/or sensors would awaken/improve the performance of the processor in time for important tasks, such as navigation updates, attitude control, data acquisition, and radio communication.^ Timing signals control the data transfer.
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Timers and/or sensors would awaken/speed up the processor in time for important tasks, such as navigation updates, attitude control, data acquisition, and radio communication.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ultimately, this advance should make computers better at playing video games, editing movies, and performing other processor-intense tasks.
  • Technology Review: Intel, IBM Overhaul Material for Next-Generation Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

12-bit designs

.The Intersil 6100 family consisted of a 12-bit microprocessor (the 6100) and a range of peripheral support and memory ICs.^ Peripheral/Memory Interface ICs 10.5.
  • The 68000 Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.yorku.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ DAC 12-bit ADC- Compatible with all Microprocessor trainer .

^ The microprocessor 12 (see FIG. 2) is an Intel 8085 single chip 8-bit N-channel microprocessor.
  • Built-in apparatus and method for testing a microprocessor system - Patent 4433413 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The microprocessor recognised the DEC PDP-8 minicomputer instruction set.^ DEC (PDP-11) compatible microprocessor .
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650 , which enjoyed a brief flurry of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two years later in 1974 Intel produced the 8080 microprocessor ; it had a much larger instruction set and only ...
  • 8086 Microprocessor Instruction Set - Results By Free Computer Training Search 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.edcomp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As such it was sometimes referred to as the CMOS-PDP8. Since it was also produced by Harris Corporation, it was also known as the Harris HM-6100. .By virtue of its CMOS technology and associated benefits, the 6100 was being incorporated into some military designs until the early 1980's.^ It can also be incorporated into multiple lavatories or showers because of its compact tankless design, one pipe plumbing and elimination of the requirement for a thermostatic/pressure balancing valve.
  • Microprocessor controlled tankless water heater system - Patent 5504306 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using Qt Designer also fell into line with another of our project's goals — being an open source project.
  • Microprocessor Simulator on Linux LG #118 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC linuxgazette.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The non-pipelined paradigm of microprocessor design and architecture was the standard for microprocessors up until recently (although pipelined processors are getting more and more popular, and the concept is being implemented on a standard basis for some processors now).
  • NewOrder - news: Microprocessor Pipelining 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC neworder.box.sk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

16-bit designs

.The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16, introduced in early 1973. An 8-bit version of the chipset was introduced in 1974 as the IMP-8. During the same year, National introduced the first 16-bit single-chip microprocessor, the National Semiconductor PACE, which was later followed by an NMOS version, the INS8900.^ Who had the first 32-bit single-chip design?
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^ In 1978 Motorola introduced its first 16-bit CPU: the 68000.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16 , introduced in early 1973.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other early multi-chip 16-bit microprocessors include one used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the LSI-11 OEM board set and the packaged PDP 11/03 minicomputer, and the Fairchild Semiconductor MicroFlame 9440, both of which were introduced in the 1975 to 1976 timeframe.^ We use one set when executing one program, and we use the other set to execute the other program.
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Today, microprocessors use both techniques.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16 , introduced in early 1973.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900, which was also compatible with their TI-990 line of minicomputers.^ The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900 , which was also compatible with their TI-990 line of minicomputers.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newer single chip EEROM microprocessors, e.g.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900 , which was also compatible with their TI 990 line of minicomputers.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 9900 was used in the TI 990/4 minicomputer, the TI-99/4A home computer, and the TM990 line of OEM microcomputer boards.^ The 9900 was used in the TI 990/4 minicomputer, the TI-99/4A home computer, and the TM990 line of OEM microcomputer boards.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the 1976 TI TMS 9900, which was also compatible with the TI 990 line of minicomputers and was used in the TM 990 line of OEM microcomputer boards.
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^ The computer-on-a-chip patent, called the "microcomputer patent" at the time, , was awarded to Gary Boone and Michael J. Cochran of TI. Aside from this patent, the standard meaning of microcomputer is a computer using one or more microprocessors as its CPU(s), while the concept defined in the patent is perhaps more akin to a microcontroller .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chip was packaged in a large ceramic 64-pin DIP package, while most 8-bit microprocessors such as the Intel 8080 used the more common, smaller, and less expensive plastic 40-pin DIP. A follow-on chip, the TMS 9980, was designed to compete with the Intel 8080, had the full TI 990 16-bit instruction set, used a plastic 40-pin package, moved data 8 bits at a time, but could only address 16 KB.^ Intel senior chip designer on microprocessor futures .
  • Manufacturing microprocessor articles - Techworld.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC search.techworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The TI TMS 9900 had a strong beginning, but was packaged in a large (for the time) ceramic 64-pin package which pushed the cost out of range compared with the much cheaper 8-bit Intel 8080 and 8085.
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^ Color slide of the Intel® 8080 microprocessor package.
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A third chip, the TMS 9995, was a new design.^ A third chip, the TMS 9995, was a new design.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon, a new industry was born as third-party vendors started manufacturing add-ons and improved models of the basic design.
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 23, 2006 Its third such chip plant, the facility will help the company push ahead with a new line of multicore goods.
  • microprocessor news on CNET 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cnet.com [Source type: General]

The family later expanded to include the 99105 and 99110.
.The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65816 16-bit upgrade of the WDC CMOS 65C02 in 1984. The 65816 16-bit microprocessor was the core of the Apple IIgs and later the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, making it one of the most popular 16-bit designs of all time.^ The most famous of the 32-bit designs is the MC68000 , introduced in 1979.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65816 16-bit upgrade of the WDC CMOS 65C02 in 1984.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Western Design Center * STMicroelectronics * 2006 microprocessors directory .
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intel followed a different path, having no minicomputers to emulate, and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086, the first member of the x86 family, which powers most modern PC type computers.^ Intel's 8086 and 8088: The Birth of the PC .
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intel followed a different path, having no minicomputers to emulate, and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086 , the first member of the x86 family which powers most modern PC type computers.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 386DX chip was the first of the 386 family members that Intel introduced.
  • InformIT: Microprocessor Types and Specifications > P3 (386) Third-Generation Processors 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intel introduced the 8086 as a cost effective way of porting software from the 8080 lines, and succeeded in winning much business on that premise.^ The 8080 was originally introduced by Intel.
  • The Chip Collection - TI Microprocessor Object Listing - Smithsonian Institution 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC smithsonianchips.si.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel introduced the 8086 as a cost effective way of porting software from the 8080 lines, and succeeded in winning much business on that premise.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first microprocessor to make it into a home computer was the Intel 8080, a complete 8-bit computer on one chip, introduced in 1974.
  • Howstuffworks "How Microprocessors Work" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 8088, a version of the 8086 that used an external 8-bit data bus, was the microprocessor in the first IBM PC, the model 5150. Following up their 8086 and 8088, Intel released the 80186, 80286 and, in 1985, the 32-bit 80386, cementing their PC market dominance with the processor family's backwards compatibility.^ But the truth is, the 8088 was not the first microprocessor released.
  • Smart Computing Article - Is There Life After 88: Upgrading The 8088 Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: General]

^ Embedded 32-bit microprocessor based on Intel 80386.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The benefit of using an 8086 is its 16-bit external data bus.
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.The integrated microprocessor memory management unit (MMU) was developed by Childs et al.^ The integrated microprocessor memory management unit (MMU) was developed by Childs et al.
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the software interface of the microprocessor and memory system display unit coprocessor.
  • ELC 254 � Advanced Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The system components mounted on the MCM are the CPU and floating-point accelerator, the primary instruction- and data-caches, and a memory management unit (MMU).

of Intel, and awarded U.S. patent number 4,442,484.

32-bit designs

Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 die.
.16-bit designs had only been on the market briefly when 32-bit implementations started to appear.^ The company's commercial 32-bit designs implemented the interlocks in hardware.
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^ We can designate whether each segment is 16-bit or 32-bit.
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Continues the study of microprocessors through the introduction of 16/32 bit microprocessor(s), advanced microprocessor control, memory control systems, coprocessor and other processor support circuits, and advanced I/O circuits.
  • ELC 254 � Advanced Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Reference]

.The most significant of the 32-bit designs is the MC68000, introduced in 1979. The 68K, as it was widely known, had 32-bit registers but used 16-bit internal data paths and a 16-bit external data bus to reduce pin count, and supported only 24-bit addresses.^ The most famous of the 32-bit designs is the MC68000 , introduced in 1979.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The benefit of using an 8086 is its 16-bit external data bus.
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 68K, as it was widely known, had 32-bit registers but used 16-bit internal data paths, and a 16-bit external data bus to reduce pin count, and supported only 24-bit addresses.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Motorola generally described it as a 16-bit processor, though it clearly has 32-bit architecture.^ Third generation of 80x86 processors: 32 bit architecture, new processor modes.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The processor has 32, 32-bit, general purpose registers.
  • Toward a 3D Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ece.neu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Internal architecture: 16 bits.
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The combination of high performance, large (16 megabytes or 224 bytes) memory space and fairly low cost made it the most popular CPU design of its class.^ Low cost was the most important feature.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-performance version of Pentium 4 CPU. .
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The combination of high speed, large (16 megabyte) memory space and fairly low costs made it the most popular CPU design of its class.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Apple Lisa and Macintosh designs made use of the 68000, as did a host of other designs in the mid-1980s, including the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga.^ The Apple Lisa and Macintosh designs made use of the 68000, as did a host of other designs in the mid-1980s, including the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It and others born from it go on to be part of products such as the Atari ST, Commodore Amiga and NeXT. Only the Mac survives.
  • 25th anniversary of microprocessor - Fast Forward Section Front 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerwriter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each time I made design changes I did so by updating the schematics first and then the actual prototype.
  • Building an Intel 8008 Computer "Clock" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.8008chron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The world's first single-chip fully-32-bit microprocessor, with 32-bit data paths, 32-bit buses, and 32-bit addresses, was the AT&T Bell Labs BELLMAC-32A, with first samples in 1980, and general production in 1982[23][24] After the divestiture of AT&T in 1984, it was renamed the WE 32000 (WE for Western Electric), and had two follow-on generations, the WE 32100 and WE 32200. These microprocessors were used in the AT&T 3B5 and 3B15 minicomputers; in the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer; in the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer; and in "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer, featuring ROM-pack memory cartridges similar to today's gaming consoles.^ Today, microprocessors use both techniques.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world's first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor was the AT&T Bell Labs BELLMAC-32A, with first samples in 1980, and general production in 1982 (See this bibliographic reference and this general reference ).
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 4004 was later followed in 1972 by the 8008 , the world's first 8-bit microprocessor.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All these systems ran the UNIX System V operating system.^ All these systems ran the UNIX System V operating system.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Digitally programmable, all similar functions are presented in common groups making these Adjustable Frequency Drives easy to install and operate.
  • KB Electronics AC Motor | DC Motor Drives > Fan Speed Controls 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.kbelectronics.com [Source type: General]

^ The processor processes these instructions, does all according managing of the system, and passes on the program to memory.
  • NewOrder - news: Microprocessor Pipelining 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC neworder.box.sk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432, which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success.^ Embedded 32-bit microprocessor based on Intel 80386.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432 , which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first commercial RISC microprocessors introduced an extended pipeline.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It had an advanced capability-based object-oriented architecture, but poor performance compared to contemporary architectures such as Intel's own 80286 (introduced 1982), which was almost four times as fast on typical benchmark tests.^ Intel® 80286 Processor, 1982 .
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It had an advanced capability-based object-oriented architecture, but poor performance compared to other competing architectures such as the Motorola 68000.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982).
  • Howstuffworks "How Microprocessors Work" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the results for the iAPX432 was partly due to a rushed and therefore suboptimal Ada compiler.
.The ARM first appeared in 1985. This is a RISC processor design, which has since come to dominate the 32-bit embedded systems processor space due in large part to its power efficiency, its licensing model, and its wide selection of system development tools.^ The romulator is an equally powerful development tool.
  • Microprocessor Experiments 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Who had the first 32-bit single-chip design?
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^ Embedded 32-bit microprocessor.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

.Semiconductor manufacturers generally license cores such as the ARM11 and integrate them into their own system on a chip products; only a few such vendors are licensed to modify the ARM cores.^ It and others born from it go on to be part of products such as the Atari ST, Commodore Amiga and NeXT. Only the Mac survives.
  • 25th anniversary of microprocessor - Fast Forward Section Front 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerwriter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the turn of the century, the semiconductor manufacturing process has become so sophisticated that not only one, but two or more CPUs, are built on a single chip (see dual core and multicore ).
  • Microprocessor: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Its FA626 ARM v4 core, announced a few weeks ago, and the technology on which it is based are communicated in detail to the world at large, not just to the few prospective licensers associated with the huge corporations leading the communications and networking markets.
  • Microprocessor Watch #120; 05/31/2004 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.mdronline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most cell phones include an ARM processor, as do a wide variety of other products.^ Unlike a home computer, which is designed to do a wide variety of functions, a microprocessor is a single-chip processor designed to perform specific tasks for the product in which it is installed.
  • Business People-Vermont: Microprocessor Designs 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.vermontguides.com [Source type: News]

^ Other companies have attacked niches in the market, notably ARM , originally intended for home computer use but since focussed on the embedded processor market.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other companies have attacked niches in the market, notably ARM , originally intended for home computer use but since focussed at the embedded processor market.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are microcontroller-oriented ARM cores without virtual memory support, as well as SMP applications processors with virtual memory.^ Virtual memory support.
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continues the study of microprocessors through the introduction of 16/32 bit microprocessor(s), advanced microprocessor control, memory control systems, coprocessor and other processor support circuits, and advanced I/O circuits.
  • ELC 254 � Advanced Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Virtualization puts some additional load on the processor, so the CPU needs to be fairly quick, and it uses a fair bit more memory than non-virtualized systems.
  • SAMG Home Page 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC samg.yi.org [Source type: General]

.Motorola's success with the 68000 led to the MC68010, which added virtual memory support.^ Virtual memory support.
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motorola's success with the 68000 led to the MC68010 , which added virtual memory support.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An increasing number of archiectures provide virtual memory support through software-managed TLBs.

.The MC68020, introduced in 1985 added full 32-bit data and address busses.^ The MC68020 , introduced in 1985 added full 32-bit data and address busses.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a code or data segment is 32-bit, the segment can be as large as 4G (allowing full 32-bit addressing).
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The world's first single-chip fully-32-bit microprocessor, with 32-bit data paths, 32-bit buses, and 32-bit addresses, was the AT&T Bell Labs BELLMAC-32A, with first samples in 1980, and general production in 1982 (See this bibliographic reference and this general reference ).
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 68020 became hugely popular in the Unix supermicrocomputer market, and many small companies (e.g., Altos, Charles River Data Systems) produced desktop-size systems.^ The 68020 became hugely popular in the Unix supermicrocomputer market, and many small companies (e.g., Altos, Charles River Data Systems) produced desktop-size systems.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B5 and 3B15 minicomputers the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer All ran the original Bell Labs UNIX. .
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^ Market forces have "weeded out" many of these designs, with almost no desktop or laptop RISC processors and with the SPARC being used in Sun designs only.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The MC68030 was introduced next, improving upon the previous design by integrating the MMU into the chip.^ Intel entered into a contract with Computer Terminals Corporation, later called Datapoint , of San Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal they were designing.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first microprocessor to make it into a home computer was the Intel 8080, a complete 8-bit computer on one chip, introduced in 1974.
  • Howstuffworks "How Microprocessors Work" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A major focus of this work is advanced packaging, which supports partitioning of the design into multiple integrated cirucits, each having an integration level that should be achievable in CGaAs.

.The continued success led to the MC68040, which included an FPU for better math performance.^ The continued success led to the MC68040 , which included an FPU for better math performance.
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs.^ A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs.
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The invention of RISC merely split the CPU market segment into PCs and workstations, in the same way the invention of the PC had split the microprocessor market into CPUs and embedded controllers.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RISC has inherent architecture advantages over CISC. RISC implementations are cheaper and faster, and they get to market quicker.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 68K family faded from the desktop in the early 1990s.^ The 68K family faded from the desktop in the early 1990s.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other large companies designed the 68020 and follow-ons into embedded equipment.^ Other large companies designed the 68020 and follow-ons into embedded equipment.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In keeping with these objects and others which will become apparent hereinafter, one object of the invention resides, briefly stated, in a security arrangement for, and method of, rendering electronic equipment, e.g.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.At one point, there were more 68020s in embedded equipment than there were Intel Pentiums in PCs[25].^ This is more than one bit length.
  • Microprocessor Circuits - Microcontroller - Electronic Projects 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hobbyprojects.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At one point, there were more 68020s in embedded equipment than there were Intel Pentiums in PCs (See this webpage for this embedded usage information).
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Microprocessor issue supplement) Oct 27, 1988; Microprocessors: The brains in cars' central nervous systems There is more of life than making inferences.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The ColdFire processor cores are derivatives of the venerable 68020.
.During this time (early to mid-1980s), National Semiconductor introduced a very similar 16-bit pinout, 32-bit internal microprocessor called the NS 16032 (later renamed 32016), the full 32-bit version named the NS 32032.^ The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16 , introduced in early 1973.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NS 32032 In 1983, National Semiconductor introduced a 16-bit pinout, 32-bit internal microprocessor called the NS 16032, the full 32-bit NS 32032, and a line of 32-bit industrial OEM microcomputers.
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ A 16-bit microprocessor has an internal data bus width of 16 bits, a 32-bit microprocessor internal bus has a width of 32 bits, and a 64-bit microprocessor internal bus has a width of 64 bits.
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

.Later the NS 32132 was introduced which allowed two CPUs to reside on the same memory bus, with built in arbitration.^ This paper evaluates the performance of 3.2 Gbyte/s peak bandwidth, low-latency arbitration bus connecting a GaAs superscalar CPU to a GaAs memory management unit.

^ Simple, flexible bus protocols allowed the microprocessor to work with a variety of memory and peripheral chips on a common bus.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Address bus: The size of the address bus determines the maximum amount of memory that can be addressed by the CPU. Internal cache: The internal cache is high-speed memory built into the processor.
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The NS32016/32 outperformed the MC68000/10 but the NS32332 which arrived at approximately the same time the MC68020 did not have enough performance.^ In such environments, numerous operations can be performed and monitored at the same time.

The third generation chip, the NS32532 was different. .It had about double the performance of the MC68030 which was released around the same time.^ Around the same time I started looking for vintage software to run on the giant 4004 replica.
  • Intel 4004 — 35th Anniversary Project 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.4004.com [Source type: General]

^ In such environments, numerous operations can be performed and monitored at the same time.

.The appearance of RISC processors like the AM29000 and MC88000 (now both dead) influenced the architecture of the final core, the NS32764. Technically advanced, using a superscalar RISC core, internally overclocked, with a 64 bit bus, it was still capable of executing Series 32000 instructions through real time translation.^ In a pipelined architecture, instruction execution overlaps.
  • Howstuffworks "How Microprocessors Work" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internal architecture: 16 bits.
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ High-end Intel Xeon processors that are on the LGA771 socket are DP (dual processor) capable, as well as the new Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9775 also used in the Mac Pro by Apple and the Intel Skulltrail motherboard.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When National Semiconductor decided to leave the Linux market.^ National Semiconductor, for instance, marketed an expensive 16-bit chip in an 8-bit world, recalled Mazor.
  • Intel's accidental revolution - CNET News 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The chip was redesigned into the Swordfish Embedded processor with a set of on chip peripherals.^ A Pentium processor (chip) writes data by placing an address on the set of signal lines known as the address bus , and the data on the set of signal lines known as the data bus .
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Following this with the MC68030 , which added the MMU into the chip, the 68K family became the processor for everything that wasn't running DOS .
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One gold trace on the ceramic hybrid served as both the signal and power grounds because the chips themselves combined power and signal grounds into one pad set.
  • Hybrid Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hp9825.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chip turned out to be too expensive for the Laserprinter market and was killed.^ National Semiconductor, for instance, marketed an expensive 16-bit chip in an 8-bit world, recalled Mazor.
  • Intel's accidental revolution - CNET News 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The design team went to Intel and there designed the Pentium processor which is very similar to the NS32764 core internally The big success of the Series 32000 was in the laserprinter market, where the NS32CG16 with microcoded BitBlt instructions had very good price/performance and was adopted by large companies like Canon.^ Intel® Pentium® Processor Package, 1993 .
  • CONTENTdm Collection : Search Results 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC content.scu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ If there is coincidence, the serial port is designated as good; otherwise it is designated as bad.
  • Built-in apparatus and method for testing a microprocessor system - Patent 4433413 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Although instructions execute out of order, the processor still provides sequential memory consistency and precise exception handling.The R10000 is designed for high performance, even in large real-world applications which have poor memory locality.
  • The MIPS R10000 Superscalar Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

.By the mid-1980s, Sequent introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) server-class computer using the NS 32032. This was one of the design's few wins, and it disappeared in the late 1980s.^ By the mid-1980s, Sequent introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) server-class computer using the NS 32032.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was one of the design's few wins, and it disappeared in the late 1980s.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sequent also introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) server-class computer using the NS 32032.
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.While the Series 32000 was not a big commercial success in the computer market, many of the innovations like Demand Paged Virtual Memory has been copied by competitors.^ Demand page virtual memory must be active.
  • InformIT: Microprocessor Types and Specifications > P3 (386) Third-Generation Processors 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.informit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motorola's success with the 68000 led to the MC68010 , which added virtual memory support.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This bit is maintained by software, which allows us to implement "page swapping", the heart of virtual memory .
  • The Microprocessor - ASM Book 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.asmcommunity.net [Source type: Reference]

.The MIPS R2000 (1984) and R3000 (1989) were highly successful 32-bit RISC microprocessors.^ The MIPS R2000 (1984) and R3000 (1989) were highly successful 32-bit RISC microprocessors.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continues the study of microprocessors through the introduction of 16/32 bit microprocessor(s), advanced microprocessor control, memory control systems, coprocessor and other processor support circuits, and advanced I/O circuits.
  • ELC 254 � Advanced Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432 , which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They were used in high-end workstations and servers by SGI, among others.^ They were used in high-end workstations and servers by SGI , among others.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, the first mass-market dual-core processors were announced and as of 2007 dual-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while quad-core processors are now available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 8088 and 8086 are software-compatible-they can run exactly the same programs (assuming the PCs that use them don't have other complicating factors).
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other designs included the interesting Zilog Z8000, which arrived too late to market to stand a chance and disappeared quickly.^ Other designs included the interesting Zilog Z8000 , which arrived too late to market to stand a chance and disappeared quickly.
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Apple Lisa and Macintosh designs made use of the 68000, as did a host of other designs in the mid-1980s, including the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga .
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, even if it was the first, it has remained under most people's radar even today, and did not have a chance to influence other early microprocessor design.
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.In the late 1980s, "microprocessor wars" started killing off some of the microprocessors.^ In the late 1980s, "microprocessor wars" started killing off some of the microprocessors.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apparently, with only one major design win, Sequent, the NS 32032 just faded out of existence, and Sequent switched to Intel microprocessors.^ Sequent's SMP machine faded away, and that company also switched to Intel microprocessors.
  • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Apparently, with only one major design win, Sequent, the NS 32032 just faded out of existence, and Sequent switched to Intel microprocessors.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Major microprocessor designers .
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1985 to 2003, the 32-bit x86 architectures became increasingly dominant in desktop, laptop, and server markets, and these microprocessors became faster and more capable.^ From 1985 to 2003, the 32-bit x86 architectures became increasingly dominant in desktop, laptop, and server markets, and these microprocessors became faster and more capable.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Embedded 32-bit microprocessor.
  • CPU-World: Microprocessors/CPUs - information and pictures 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: Reference]

^ B5 and 3B15 minicomputers the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer All ran the original Bell Labs UNIX. .
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.Intel had licensed early versions of the architecture to other companies, but declined to license the Pentium, so AMD and Cyrix built later versions of the architecture based on their own designs.^ Intel had licensed early versions of the architecture to other companies, but declined to license the Pentium, so AMD and Cyrix built later versions of the architecture based on their own designs.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Download a IBM PowerPC 405 Evaluation Kit to demo a SoC in a simulated environment, or just to explore the fully licensed version of Power Architecture technology.
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^ It had an advanced capability-based object-oriented architecture, but poor performance compared to other competing architectures such as the Motorola 68000.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this span, these processors increased in complexity (transistor count) and capability (instructions/second) by at least three orders of magnitude.^ During this span, these processors increased in complexity (transistor count) and capability (instructions/second) by at least a factor of 1000.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only did the chip feature a more complex instruction set, it came in a package with 40 pins, two innovations that greatly expanded its capabilities.
  • Intel's accidental revolution - CNET News 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ These processors can execute about one billion instructions per second!
  • Howstuffworks "How Microprocessors Work" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intel's Pentium line is probably the most famous and recognizable 32-bit processor model, at least with the public at large.^ Intel 80486 DX, 32 bit processor with 1.2 million transistors.
  • 25th anniversary of microprocessor - Fast Forward Section Front 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.computerwriter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intel's Pentium line is probably the most famous and recognizable 32-bit processor model, at least with the public at large.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continues the study of microprocessors through the introduction of 16/32 bit microprocessor(s), advanced microprocessor control, memory control systems, coprocessor and other processor support circuits, and advanced I/O circuits.
  • ELC 254 � Advanced Microprocessor Systems and Interfacing 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.dtae.org [Source type: Reference]

64-bit designs in personal computers

.While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s, the early 2000s saw the introduction of 64-bit microprocessors targeted at the PC market.^ While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s, the early 2000s saw the introduction of 64-bit microchips targeted at the PC market.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Course: microprocessor PC Processors used in the PC .
  • Operating of microprocessor system 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ybet.be [Source type: Reference]

^ The first microprocessor to make a real splash in the market was the Intel 8088, introduced in 1979 and incorporated into the IBM PC (which first appeared around 1982).
  • Howstuffworks "How Microprocessors Work" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With AMD's introduction of a 64-bit architecture backwards-compatible with x86, x86-64 (also called AMD64), in September 2003, followed by Intel's near fully compatible 64-bit extensions (first called IA-32e or EM64T, later renamed Intel 64), the 64-bit desktop era began.^ With AMD's introduction of the first 64-bit IA-32 backwards-compatible architecture, AMD64 , in September 2003, followed by Intel's own x86-64 chips, the 64-bit desktop era began.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With AMD's introduction of a 64-bit architecture backwards-compatible with x86, x86-64 (now called AMD64 ), in September 2003, followed by Intel's fully compatible 64-bit extensions (first called IA-32e or EM64T, later renamed Intel 64 ), the 64-bit desktop era began.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intel followed a different path, having no minicomputers to emulate, and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086 , the first member of the x86 family which powers most modern PC type computers.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both versions can run 32-bit legacy applications without any performance penalty as well as new 64-bit software.^ Both processors can run 32-bit legacy apps as well as the new 64-bit software.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both versions can run 32-bit legacy applications without any speed penalty as well as new 64-bit software.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike what happened with IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With operating systems Windows XP x64, Windows Vista x64, Windows 7 x64, Linux, BSD and Mac OS X that run 64-bit native, the software is also geared to fully utilize the capabilities of such processors.^ With operating systems Windows XP x64 , Windows Vista x64, Linux , BSD and Mac OS X that run 64-bit native, the software too is geared to utilize the full power of such processors.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With 64-bit Windows XP and Linux that run 64-bit native, the software too is geared to utilise the full power of such processors.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A multi-core processor is simply a single chip containing more than one microprocessor core, effectively multiplying the potential performance with the number of cores (as long as the operating system and software is designed to take advantage of more than one processor).
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The move to 64 bits is more than just an increase in register size from the IA-32 as it also doubles the number of general-purpose registers.^ In reality the move to 64-bits is more than just an increase in register size from the ia32 as it also includes a small increase in register quantity for the aging CISC designs.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Registers: The size (in bits) of the internal registers.
  • A+ - Hardware - PC Microprocessor Developments And Features Tutorials 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.brainbell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is more than one bit length.
  • Microprocessor Circuits - Microcontroller - Electronic Projects 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hobbyprojects.com [Source type: Reference]

.The move to 64 bits by PowerPC processors had been intended since the processors' design in the early 90s and was not a major cause of incompatibility.^ The move to 64 bits by PowerPC processors had been intended since the processors' design in the early 90s and was not a major cause of incompatibility.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of 64-bit microprocessors are now x86-64 CISC designs from AMD and Intel.
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^ The AMD 64 (and its clones) and the IBM PowerPC are the major players, while in the desktop arena as a whole, Intel, AMD, and VIA make x86-compatible processors along RISC lines.
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.Existing integer registers are extended as are all related data pathways, but, as was the case with IA-32, both floating point and vector units had been operating at or above 64 bits for several years.^ Existing integer registers are extended as are all related data pathways but in common with the IA32 designs both floating point and vector units had been operating at or above 64 bits for several years.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Existing integer registers are extended as are all related data pathways, but, as was the case with IA-32, both floating point and vector units had been operating at or above 64 bits for several years.
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^ Unlike what happened with IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal.
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.Unlike what happened when IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal.^ Unlike the IA32 no new general purpose registers are added so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode is minimal.
  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The move to 64 bits is more than just an increase in register size from the IA-32 as it also doubles the number of general-purpose registers.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike what happened with IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multicore designs

Pentium D dual core processors
.A different approach to improving a computer's performance is to add extra processors, as in symmetric multiprocessing designs, which have been popular in servers and workstations since the early 1990s.^ A different approach to improving a computer's performance is to add extra processors, as in symmetric multiprocessing designs which have been popular in servers and workstations since the early 1990s.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessors appeared, which were initially used in special purpose machines and Unix workstations , but then gained wide acceptance in other roles.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike a home computer, which is designed to do a wide variety of functions, a microprocessor is a single-chip processor designed to perform specific tasks for the product in which it is installed.
  • Business People-Vermont: Microprocessor Designs 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.vermontguides.com [Source type: News]

.Keeping up with Moore's Law is becoming increasingly challenging as chip-making technologies approach the physical limits of the technology.^ Keeping up with Moore's Law is becoming increasingly challenging as chip-making technologies approach the physical limits of the technology.
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^ SANTA CLARA, CA, September 19, 2006 (PodTech News) — Intel says its new experimental semiconductors could be the breakthrough the chip industry has been looking for — the one that will allow chips to keep pace with Moore’s Law.
  • Microprocessor | PodTech.net 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.podtech.net [Source type: General]

^ At any given level of process development, IC-fabrication technology can economically make chips only so big.
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.In response, the microprocessor manufacturers look for other ways to improve performance, in order to hold on to the momentum of constant upgrades in the market.^ In response, the microprocessor manufacturers look for other ways to improve performance, in order to hold on to the momentum of constant upgrades in the market.
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^ Manufacturers were busy building microprocessors to compete with standard logic modules for embedded-control applications, since to a first approximation, embedded-control applications represented 100 percent of the market for microprocessors.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zero volume is the market segment for applications with (essentially) zero volume, but which have some attraction for the manufacturer other than sales volume and profit.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A multi-core processor is simply a single chip containing more than one microprocessor core, effectively multiplying the potential performance with the number of cores (as long as the operating system and software is designed to take advantage of more than one processor).^ Newer single chip EEROM microprocessors, e.g.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If more than one chip is utilized, then it is preferable if the chips are mounted in a single package or housing.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Moreover, this design takes only one pin from the microcontroller to operate.
  • Microprocessor Circuits - Microcontroller - Electronic Projects 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hobbyprojects.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some components, such as bus interface and second level cache, may be shared between cores.^ Some components, such as bus interface and second level cache, may be shared between cores.
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^ Trace-driven simulation is a widely-accepted technique for studying the components of computer memory systems such as caches and translation look-aside buffers (TLBs).

^ The storage required to implement such a device is quite large, but as the latency required to read from the first level cache grows, a moderate performance improvement is seen.

.Because the cores are physically very close they interface at much faster clock rates compared to discrete multiprocessor systems, improving overall system performance.^ Because the cores are physically very close they interface at much faster clock speeds compared to discrete multiprocessor systems, improving overall system performance.
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^ A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs.
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  • Microprocessor at AllExperts 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the near future, microprocessor systems with very high clock rates will use multichip module (MCM) packaging technology to reduce chip-crossing delays.

.In 2005, the first personal computer dual-core processors were announced and as of 2009 dual-core and quad-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while six and eight-core processors will be available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.^ RAID drives are typically used on servers and high-end PCs .
  • Documentation 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC support.dell.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 2005, the first mass-market dual-core processors were announced and as of 2007 dual-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while quad-core processors are now available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were used in high-end workstations and servers by SGI , among others.
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.Sun Microsystems has released the Niagara and Niagara 2 chips, both of which feature an eight-core design.^ Sun Microsystems has released the Niagara and Niagara 2 chips, both of which feature an eight-core design.
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^ The Intel chip was the 4-bit 4004 , released on November 15 , 1971 , developed by Federico Faggin and Marcian Hoff , the manager of the designing team was Leslie L. Vadász .
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^ Microprocessor design diversified into microprocessors, which contain just the CPU, and microcontrollers, which include memory or I/O logic (or both) on the same chip with the microprocessor.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Niagara 2 supports more threads and operates at 1.6 GHz.
.High-end Intel Xeon processors that are on the LGA771 socket are DP (dual processor) capable, as well as the Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9775 also used in the Mac Pro by Apple and the Intel Skulltrail motherboard.^ High-end Intel Xeon processors that are on the LGA771 socket are DP (dual processor) capable, as well as the new Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9775 also used in the Mac Pro by Apple and the Intel Skulltrail motherboard.
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^ Shortly after Intel invented the first commercial processor in 1971 called the 4004, engineers at Goodyear tire were using them to understand the dynamics of the car on … .
  • PodTech.net 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.podtech.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, the first mass-market dual-core processors were announced and as of 2007 dual-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while quad-core processors are now available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the transition to the LGA1366 socket and the Intel i7 chip quad core is now considered mainstream and the upcoming i9 chip will introduce six and possibly dual-die hex-core (12-cores), processors.^ No Comments Intel's Core i7 .
  • PodTech.net 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.podtech.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, the first mass-market dual-core processors were announced and as of 2007 dual-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while quad-core processors are now available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-end Intel Xeon processors that are on the LGA771 socket are DP (dual processor) capable, as well as the new Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9775 also used in the Mac Pro by Apple and the Intel Skulltrail motherboard.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

RISC

.In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) microprocessors appeared, influenced by discrete RISC-like CPU designs such as the IBM 801 and others.^ CPU to perform a complete instruction, such as adding two numbers.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many embedded and high-performance computer designs have also carried Motorola CPUs.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although instructions execute out of order, the processor still provides sequential memory consistency and precise exception handling.The R10000 is designed for high performance, even in large real-world applications which have poor memory locality.
  • The MIPS R10000 Superscalar Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

.RISC microprocessors were initially used in special-purpose machines and Unix workstations, but then gained wide acceptance in other roles.^ In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessors appeared, which were initially used in special purpose machines and Unix workstations , but then gained wide acceptance in other roles.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neither your address nor the recipients's address will be used for any other purpose.
  • Intel's accidental revolution - CNET News 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The invention of RISC merely split the CPU market segment into PCs and workstations, in the same way the invention of the PC had split the microprocessor market into CPUs and embedded controllers.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1986, HP released its first system with a PA-RISC CPU. The first commercial microprocessor design was released either by MIPS Computer Systems, the 32-bit R2000 (the R1000 was not released) or by Acorn computers, the 32-bit ARM2 in 1987.[citation needed] The R3000 made the design truly practical, and the R4000 introduced the world's first commercially available 64-bit RISC microprocessor.^ Who had the first 32-bit single-chip design?
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^ In 1978 Motorola introduced its first 16-bit CPU: the 68000.
  • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first commercial RISC microprocessors introduced an extended pipeline.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Competing projects would result in the IBM POWER and Sun SPARC architectures.^ Download a IBM PowerPC 405 Evaluation Kit to demo a SoC in a simulated environment, or just to explore the fully licensed version of Power Architecture technology.
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^ IBM introduced the POWER architecture -- a multichip RISC design -- in early 1990.
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^ Article submissions on all aspects of Power Architecture technology from authors inside and outside IBM are welcomed.
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.Soon every major vendor was releasing a RISC design, including the AT&T CRISP, AMD 29000, Intel i860 and Intel i960, Motorola 88000, DEC Alpha.^ Soon every major vendor was releasing a RISC design, including the AT&T CRISP , AMD 29000 , Intel i860 and Intel i960 , Motorola 88000 , DEC Alpha and the HP-PA .
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^ A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Intel chip was the 4-bit 4004 , released on November 15 , 1971 , developed by Federico Faggin and Marcian Hoff , the manager of the designing team was Leslie L. Vadász .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2007, two 64-bit RISC architectures are still produced in volume for non-embedded applications: SPARC and Power ISA.^ As of 2007, two 64-bit RISC architectures are still produced in volume for non-embedded applications: SPARC and Power Architecture .
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^ The embedded-control market grew from essentially zero in 1971 to an expected volume of almost two billion units (worldwide) in 1993.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two AND gates then combine the 1 MHZ signal from the first divider stage and the outputs from the final divider stage to produce a two phase non-overlapping clock.
  • Building an Intel 8008 Computer "Clock" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.8008chron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Special-purpose designs

.Though the term "microprocessor" has traditionally referred to a single- or multi-chip CPU or system-on-a-chip (SoC), several types of specialized processing devices have followed from the technology.^ Newer single chip EEROM microprocessors, e.g.
  • Security arrangement for and method of rendering microprocessor-controlled electronic equipment inoperative after occurrence of disabling event - Patent 4494114 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Though the term "microprocessor" has traditionally referred to a single- or multi-chip CPU or system-on-a-chip (SoC), several types of specialized processing devices have followed from the technology.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no universal consensus on what defines a "microprocessor", but it is usually safe to assume that the term refers to a general-purpose CPU of some sort and not a special-purpose processor unless specifically noted.
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.The most common examples are microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU).^ The most common examples are microcontrollers , digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU).
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^ This is a self-study workbook designed to introduce Digital Signal Processing design and its applications in a real-time environment.

^ MAX708 ,µP Supervisory Circuits The MAX707,MAX708 are cost-effective system supervisor circuits designed to monitor Vcc in digital systems and provide a reset signal to the host processor when necessary.
  • Microprocessor Supervisors datasheet,Microprocessor Supervisors Pinout,Microprocessor Supervisors application circuits 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.datasheetdir.com [Source type: Reference]

.Many examples of these are either not programmable, or have limited programming facilities.^ Many examples of these are either not programmable, or have limited programming facilities.
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^ For example, in general GPUs through the 1990s were mostly non-programmable and have only recently gained limited facilities like programmable vertex shaders .
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^ Because of the high programming voltage of the 2716 compared to later chips, many inexpensive programmers do not support it.
  • Microprocessor Experiments 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For example, in general GPUs through the 1990s were mostly non-programmable and have only recently gained limited facilities like programmable vertex shaders.^ For example, in general GPUs through the 1990s were mostly non-programmable and have only recently gained limited facilities like programmable vertex shaders .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many examples of these are either not programmable, or have limited programming facilities.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is no universal consensus on what defines a "microprocessor", but it is usually safe to assume that the term refers to a general-purpose CPU of some sort and not a special-purpose processor unless specifically noted.^ There is no universal consensus on what defines a "microprocessor", but it is usually safe to assume that the term refers to a general-purpose CPU of some sort and not a special-purpose processor unless specifically noted.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 6502 and 8088 are two general-purpose processors that are easy to experiment with and make excellent microcontrollers.
  • Microprocessor Experiments 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.du.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The purpose of a interface temperature selection device is to generate a reference voltage which represents a desired temperature selected by a user.
  • Microprocessor controlled tankless water heater system - Patent 5504306 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Market statistics

.In 2003, about $44 billion (USD) worth of microprocessors were manufactured and sold.^ In 2003, about $44 billion (USD) worth of microprocessors were manufactured and sold.
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^ There are about 20 manufacturers making high-end RISC microprocessors for workstations.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computers, those count for only about 0.2% of all CPUs sold.^ Of all the 32-bit CPUs sold, about 2% are used in desktop or laptop personal computers .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computers , those count for only about 0.2% of all CPUs sold.
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^ About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers, over two billion of which were sold in 1997.[27]
.As of 2002, less than 10% of all the CPUs sold in the world are 32-bit or more.^ This is more than one bit length.
  • Microprocessor Circuits - Microcontroller - Electronic Projects 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hobbyprojects.com [Source type: Reference]

^ B5 and 3B15 minicomputers the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer All ran the original Bell Labs UNIX. .
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^ In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32-bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor that runs at 25MHz.

.Of all the 32-bit CPUs sold, about 2% are used in desktop or laptop personal computers.^ Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computers , those count for only about 0.2% of all CPUs sold.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than 10% of all the CPUs sold in the world are 32-bit or more.
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers .
  • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most microprocessors are used in embedded control applications such as household appliances, automobiles, and computer peripherals.^ Most microprocessors are used in embedded control applications such as household appliances, automobiles, and computer peripherals.
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^ Most of the market volume for embedded control belongs to the 4- and 8-bit microprocessors.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most microprocessors go into embedded-control applications, but CPU applications have grown from essentially 0 percent of unit volumes in 1974 to an expected value of almost 2 percent in 1993.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Taken as a whole, the average price for a microprocessor, microcontroller, or DSP is just over $6.[28]
.About ten billion CPUs were manufactured in 2008. About 98% of new CPUs produced each year are embedded.^ Intel's choices about the size of transistors and how many to put on a microprocessor are governed by the timing of the adoption of new manufacturing processes that reduce the size of the smallest feature that can...
  • microprocessor Resources | BNET 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About every year I design and build a new clock.
  • Building an Intel 8008 Computer "Clock" 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.8008chron.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ RISC CPU manufacturers have begun a major marketing campaign to capture embedded-control applications.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Osborne, Adam (1980). An Introduction to Microcomputers. Volume 1: Basic Concepts (2nd ed.). Berkely, California: Osborne-McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-931988-34-9. 
  2. ^ Moore, Gordon (19 April 1965). "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits" (PDF). Electronics 38 (8). ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Articles-Press_Releases/Gordon_Moore_1965_Article.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  3. ^ (PDF) Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore’s Law. Intel. 2005. ftp://download.intel.com/museum/Moores_Law/Video-Transcripts/Excepts_A_Conversation_with_Gordon_Moore.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  4. ^ Although originally calculated as a doubling every year[2], Moore later refined the period to two years[3]. It is often incorrectly quoted as a doubling of transistors every 18 months.
  5. ^ Hodgin, Rick (2007-12-03). "Six fold reduction in semiconductor power loss, a faster, lower heat process technology". TG Daily (DD&M). http://www.tgdaily.com/content/view/35094/113/. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  6. ^ Mack, Pamela E. (2005-11-30). "The Microcomputer Revolution". http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/micro.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  7. ^ (PDF) History in the Computing Curriculum. http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/CompHist_9812tla6.PDF. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  8. ^ Karam, Andrew P. (2000). "Advances in Microprocessor Technology". in Schlager, Neil; Lauer, Josh. Science and Its Times. Farmington Hills, MI: The Gail Group. pp. 525–528. 
  9. ^ Faggin, Federico; Hoff, Marcian E., Jr.; Mazor, Stanley; Shima, Masatoshi (1996). "The History of the 4004". IEEE Micro. http://www.cse.nd.edu/courses/cse30322/www/hw/history_of_4004.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  10. ^ Faggin, F.; Klein, T.; L. (October 1968). "Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor Integrated Circuits with Silicon Gates" (JPEG image). International Electronic Devices Meeting. IEEE Electron Devices Group. http://www.intel4004.com/images/iedm_covart.jpg. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  11. ^ McGonigal, Jim (20 September 2006). "Microprocessor History: Foundations in Glenrothes, Scotland". http://www.spingal.plus.com/micro. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  12. ^ Tout, Nigel. "ANITA at its Zenith". Bell Punch Company and the ANITA calculators. http://anita-calculators.info/html/anita_at_its_zenith.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  13. ^ Holt, Ray. "World’s First Microprocessor". http://www.microcomputerhistory.com. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  14. ^ Augarten, Stan (1983). "The Most Widely Used Computer on a Chip: The TMS 1000". State of the Art: A Photographic History of the Integrated Circuit. New Haven and New York: Ticknor & Fields. http://smithsonianchips.si.edu/augarten/p38.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  15. ^ Holt, Ray. "Microprocessor Design and Development for the US Navy F14 FighterJet" Room 8220, Wean Hall, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, US (27 September 2001). Retrieved on 2009-12-23.
  16. ^ Parab, Jivan S.; Shelake, Vinod G.; Kamat, Rajanish K.; Naik, Gourish M. (2007). Exploring C for Microcontrollers: A Hands on Approach. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-6067-0. http://ee.sharif.edu/~sakhtar3/books/Exploring%20C%20for%20Microcontrollers.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  17. ^ Hyatt, Gilbert P., "Single chip integrated circuit computer architecture", 4942516, issued July 17, 1990
  18. ^ "The Gilbert Hyatt Patent". http://www.intel4004.com/hyatt.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  19. ^ Crouch, Dennis (1 July 2007). "Written Description: CAFC Finds Prima Facie Rejection". Patently-O. http://www.patentlyo.com/patent/2007/07/hyatt-v-dudas-f.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  20. ^ http://www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/timeline/1971-MPU.html
  21. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20061219012629/http://home.comcast.net/~gordonepeterson2/schaller_dissertation_2004.pdf
  22. ^ http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/hasrg/histsci/silicongenesis/moore-ntb.html
  23. ^ ."Shoji, M.". http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/bib/shoji.bib. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  24. ^ "Timeline: 1982–1984". Physical Sciences & Communications at Bell Labs. Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent. http://www.bell-labs.com/org/physicalsciences/timeline/span23.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  25. ^ Turley, Jim. "MCore: Does Motorola Need Another Processor Family?". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). http://www.embedded.com/98/9807sr.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  26. ^ "www.wsts.org/press.html". http://www.wsts.org/press.html. 
  27. ^ "www.circuitcellar.com/library/designforum/silicon_update/3/". http://www.circuitcellar.com/library/designforum/silicon_update/3/index.asp. 
  28. ^ Turley, Jim (18 December 2002). "The Two Percent Solution". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). http://www.embedded.com/shared/printableArticle.jhtml?articleID=9900861. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  29. ^ Barr, Michael (1 August 2009). "Real men program in C". Embedded Systems Design. TechInsights (United Business Media). p. 2. http://www.embedded.com/columns/barrcode/218600142?pgno=2. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • Ray, A. K.; Bhurchand, K.M.. .Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals.^ Ak Ray & KM Bhurchandi , "Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals on Architecture Programming and Interfacing" published in India by Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.
    • Microprocessor encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    India: Tata McGraw-Hill.
     

External links

  • Dirk Oppelt. "The CPU Collection". http://www.cpu-collection.de/. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • Gennadiy Shvets. "CPU-World". http://www.cpu-world.com/. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • Jérôme Cremet. "The Cecko's CPU Library". http://gecko54000.free.fr/. .Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • "How Microprocessors Work".^ How does and will microprocessor technology affect our work ethic?
    • The Impact of the Microprocessor (Dennis Bathory-Kitsz) 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC maltedmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It costs about $600.00 to process a six-inch wafer which will yield 12 to 14 good chips; that's about $45.00 per working microprocessor.
    • Dr. Dobb's | Computer Science and the Microprocessor | June 1, 1993 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Whether you are a computer user, hobbyist, technician, or designer, this article will help you understand what microprocessors are, how they work, and how they developed.
    • TOPCC - History of the Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC topcc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    http://computer.howstuffworks.com/microprocessor.htm
    . Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • William Blair. "IC Die Photography". http://diephotos.blogspot.com/. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • John Bayko (December 2003). ."Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present".^ As well, micro history sites you will enjoy include John Bayko's Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present (V 13.4.0) , Mark Smotherman's Who are the computer architects?
    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www-128.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    http://jbayko.sasktelwebsite.net/cpu.html
    . .Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  • Wade Warner (22 Dec 2004).^ Date: 22 Dec 2004 Level: Introductory Activity: 26955 views Comments: .
    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ."Great moments in microprocessor history".^ SITE_ID=1 Zone=Multicore acceleration ArticleID=86592 ArticleTitle=Great moments in microprocessor history publish-date=12222004 author1-email=wade1warner@yahoo.com author1-email-cc= Table of contents .
    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Home Solutions Services Products Support & downloads My IBM developerWorks Multicore acceleration Technical library Great moments in microprocessor history .
    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ Great moments in microprocessor history Skip to main content Country/region [ select ] All of dW .
    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    IBM. .http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/pa-microhist.html?ca=dgr-mw08MicroHistory.^ Home Solutions Services Products Support & downloads My IBM developerWorks Multicore acceleration Technical library Great moments in microprocessor history .
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    Retrieved 2009-12-23
    . 
  • Ray M. Holt. "theDocuments". .World’s First Microprocessor.^ Quite a track record for the worlds first 16-bit microprocessor, which very few people had ever heard of, until now.
    • Hybrid Microprocessor 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.hp9825.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha's (the world's first single-chip 64-bit microprocessor).
    • Great moments in microprocessor history 12 January 2010 4:53 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    http://firstmicroprocessor.com/?page_id=17
    . Retrieved 2009-12-23.
     

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|The 80486 microprocessor, a kind of CPU.]]

A microprocessor is an electronic component that is used by a computer to do its work. Microprocessors are a small silicon chips that contains millions of very small components including transistors, resistors, and diodes that work together. Microprocessors help to do everything from writing to searching the Web. Everything a computer does is described by lots of precise instructions, and microprocessors carry out these instructions at incredible speed—millions or even billions of times a second.

Microprocessors are used in personal computers, cars, military weapons, and home appliances. Some microprocessors are so small and inexpensive that they are used to control very simple products like flashlights and greeting cards that play music when you open them.

Microprocessor operation

Microprocessors use three steps commonly called Fetch, Decode, and Execute. In the Fetch step, an instruction is copied from the memory of the computer into the microprocessor. In the Decode step, the microprocessor figures out what operation the instruction is meant to do. In the Execute step, this operation is performed.

Operations can be very simple, like adding two numbers, or complicated, like copying a series of letters and numbers (called a string) from one place in the computer's memory to a different place.

Facts and figures

  • Transistors in a microprocessor can be less than one micrometer wide—one millionth of a meter. By comparison, a single hair can be over 100 microns wide.
  • Microprocessors are made from silicon, quartz, metals, and other chemicals.
  • From start to finish, it takes about 2 months to make a microprocessor.
  • Microprocessors are grouped together by the size of their data bus or address bus. They are also grouped into CISC and RISC types.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Microprocessor, which are similar to those in the above article.








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