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Political and transportation map of the Middle East today

The Middle East (or, formerly more common, the Near East)[1] is a region that encompasses southwestern Asia and Egypt. In some contexts, the term has recently been expanded in usage to sometimes include Afghanistan and Pakistan, the Caucacus and Central Asia, and North Africa. It's often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the derived noun is Middle-Easterner.

The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, and throughout its history, the Middle East has been a major centre of world affairs. When discussing ancient history, however, the term Near East is more commonly used. The Middle East is also the historical origin of three of the world’s major religions - Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Middle East generally has an arid and hot climate, with several major rivers providing for irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas. Many countries located around the Persian Gulf have large quantities of crude oil. In modern times the Middle East remains a strategically, economically, politically, culturally and religiously sensitive region.



The term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office.[2] However, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902[3] to 'designate the area between Arabia and India'.[4][5]. During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf.[6][7] He labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, and said that after the Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.[8] Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations," published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal.

The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar; it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. Naval force has the quality of mobility which carries with it the privilege of temporary absences; but it needs to find on every scene of operation established bases of refit, of supply, and in case of disaster, of security. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, and the Persian Gulf.[9]

Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20 article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of the "Middle East" to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India."[10] After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term.[11]

Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East," while the "Far East" centered on China,[12] and the Middle East then meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.[citation needed] In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D.C. in 1946, among other usage.[13]


Criticism and usage

     Traditional definition of the Middle East      G8 definition of the Greater Middle East      Central Asia (sometimes associated with the Greater Middle East)

Many have criticized the term Middle East due to its implicit Eurocentrism.[14][15] In contemporary English-language academic & media venues, the term is used by both Europeans and non-Europeans.

The description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, Turkestan, and the Caucasus. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia (e.g. China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, etc.). Some critics usually advise using an alternative term, such as "Western Asia", which is the official designation of the UN.

With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" largely fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage of "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, which is not used by these disciplines (see Ancient Near East).

The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east, Syria and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia."[12] In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, and defined the region as including only Egypt, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar.[16]

The Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous. It instructs:

Use Middle East unless Near East is used by a source in a story. Mideast is also acceptable, but Middle East is preferred.[17]

At the United Nations, the numerous documents and resolutions about the Middle East are in fact concerned with the Arab-Israeli conflict, in particular the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and, therefore, with the four states of the Levant. The term Near East is occasionally heard at the UN when referring to this region.


There are terms similar to "Near East" and "Middle East" in other European languages, but since it is a relative description, the meanings depend on the country and are different from the English terms generally. In German the term "Naher Osten" (Near East) is still in common use (nowadays the term "Mittlerer Osten" is more and more common in press texts translated from English sources, albeit having a distinct meaning) and in Russian Ближний Восток or "Blizhniy Vostok", Bulgarian Близкия Изток, Polish Bliski Wschód or Croatian Bliski istok (meaning Near East in all the four Slavic languages) remains as the only appropriate term for the region. However, some languages do have "Middle East" equivalents, such as the French Moyen-Orient, Swedish Mellanöstern, Spanish Oriente Medio or Medio Oriente, and the Italian Medio Oriente.[18].

Perhaps due to the influence of the Western press, the Arabic equivalent of “Middle East,” “‫الشرق الأوسط‬” (“ash-sharq-l-awsat”), has become standard usage in the mainstream Arabic press, comprehending the same meaning as the term “Middle East” in North American and Western European usage. The designation, Mashriq, also from the Arabic root for "east," also denotes a variously-defined region around the Levant, the eastern part of the Arabic-speaking world (as opposed to the Maghreb, the western part).[19]The Persian equivalent for Middle East is خاورمیانه (Khāvarmiyāneh).

Territories and regions

Traditional definition of the Middle East

Country, with flag Area
Population Density
(per km²)
Capital GDP (Total) Per capita Currency Government Official languages
 Turkey1 783,562 73,914,000 91 Ankara $1.028 trillion[20] (2008) $13,920[20][21] (2008) Turkish lira Parliamentary democracy Turkish
Arabian Peninsula:
 Bahrain 665 656,397 987 Manama $26.970 billion (2008) $34,605 (2008) Bahraini Dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Kuwait 17,820 3,100,000 119 Kuwait City $137.190 billion (2008) $39,849 (2008) Kuwaiti dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Oman 212,460 3,200,000 13 Muscat $66.889 billion (2008) $24,153 (2008) Omani Rial Absolute monarchy Arabic
 Qatar 11,437 793,341 69 Doha $94.249 billion (2008) $85,867 (2008) Qatari Riyal Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Saudi Arabia 1,960,582 23,513,330 12 Riyadh $593.385 billion (2008) $23,834 (2008) Riyal Absolute monarchy Arabic
 United Arab Emirates 82,880 5,432,746 30 Abu Dhabi $184.984 billion (2008) $38,830 (2008) UAE dirham Federal Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Yemen 527,970 18,701,257 35 Sanaá $55.433 billion (2008) $2,412 (2008) Yemeni rial Semi-presidential republic Arabic
Fertile Crescent:
Gaza Strip 360 1,376,289 3,823 Gaza $770 million (2008) $2,900 (2008) Israeli new sheqel Autonomous republic Palestinian National Authority Hamas Arabic
 Iraq 437,072 31,001,816 70.93 Baghdad $202.3 billion (2008) $6,500 (2008) Iraqi dinar Parliamentary republic Arabic, Kurdish
 Israel 20,770 7,465,000 290 Jerusalem2 $200.630 billion (2008) $28,206 (2008) Israeli new sheqel Parliamentary democracy Hebrew, Arabic
 Jordan 92,300 5,307,470 58 Amman $32.112 billion (2008) $5,314 (2008) Jordanian dinar Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Lebanon 10,452 3,677,780 354 Beirut $49.514 billion (2008) $13,031 (2008) Lebanese pound Republic Arabic
 Syria 185,180 17,155,814 93 Damascus $94.408 billion (2008) $4,748 (2009) Syrian pound Presidential republic Arabic
West Bank 5,8603 2,500,0005 4323,4 Ramallah Israeli new sheqel Autonomous republic Palestinian National Authority Fatah Arabic
Iranian Plateau:
 Iran 1,648,195 71,208,000 42 Tehran $819.799 billion (2008) $11,250 (2008) Iranian rial Islamic republic Persian
Mediterranean Sea:
 Cyprus 9,250 792,604 90 Nicosia $22.703 billion (2008) $29,830 (2008) Euro Presidential republic Greek, Turkish
North Africa:
 Egypt 1,001,449 77,498,000 74 Cairo $442.640 billion (2008) $5,898 (2008) Egyptian pound Semi-presidential republic Arabic



1 The figures for Turkey includes Eastern Thrace, which is not a part of Anatolia.

2 Under Israeli law. The UN doesn't recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.

3 Includes the whole of the West Bank, according to the pre-1967 boundaries.

4 In addition, there are around 400,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, of which half are in East-Jerusalem.

Greater Middle East

Country, with flag Area
Population Density
(per km²)
Capital GDP (Total) Per capita Currency Government Official languages
 Armenia 29,800 2,968,586 111.7 Yerevan $18.715 billion (2008) $5,272 (2008) Armenian dram Semi-presidential republic Armenian
 Azerbaijan 86,600 8,621,000 97 Baku $74.734 billion (2008) $8,620 (2008) Azerbaijani manat Semi-presidential republic Azerbaijani
 Georgia 20,460 4,630,841 99.3 Tbilisi $21.812 billion (2008) $4,957 (2008) Georgian lari Semi-presidential republic Georgian
South Asia:
 Afghanistan1 647,500 31,889,923 46 Kabul $21.340 billion (2008) $758 (2008) Afghani Islamic republic Persian, Pashto
 Pakistan 880,940 169,300,000 206 Islamabad $439.558 billion (2008) $2,738 (2008) Pakistani Rupee Islamic republic Urdu, English, Punjabi Pashto
Central Asia:
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900 15,217,711 5.4 Astana $177.545 billion (2008) $11,416 (2008) Kazakhstani tenge Semi-presidential republic Kazakh, Russian
 Uzbekistan 447,400 27,372,000 59 Tashkent $71.501 billion (2008) $2,629 (2008) Uzbekistani som Semi-presidential republic Uzbek
 Turkmenistan 488,100 5,110,023 9.9 Ashgabat $30.091 billion (2008) $5,710 (2008) Turkmenistani manat Presidential republic Turkmen
 Tajikistan 143,100 7,215,700 45 Dushanbe $13.041 billion (2008) $2,019 (2008) Somoni Semi-presidential republic Tajik
 Kyrgyzstan 199,900 5,356,869 26 Bishkek $11.580 billion (2008) $2,180 (2008) Kyrgyzstani som Semi-presidential republic Kyrgyz, Russian
North Africa:
 Algeria 2,381,740 33,333,216 14 Algiers $233.098 billion (2008) $6,698 (2008) Algerian dinar Semi-presidential republic Arabic
 Mauritania 446,550 33,757,175 70 Nouakchott $6.221 billion (2008) $2,052 (2008) Ouguiya Military junta Arabic
 Western Sahara 163,610 10,102,000 62 El Aaiun Moroccan dirham Arabic
 Libya 1,759,540 6,036,914 3 Tripoli $90.251 billion (2008) $14,533 (2008) Libyan dinar Jamahiriya Arabic
 Morocco 446,550 33,757,175 70 Rabat $136.728 billion (2008) $4,349 (2008) Moroccan dirham Constitutional monarchy Arabic
 Tunisia 163,610 10,102,000 62 Tunis $82.226 billion (2008) $7,962 (2008) Tunisian dinar Semi-presidential republic Arabic
Northeast Africa:
 Djibouti 23,200 496,374 34 Djibouti $1.877 billion (2008) $2,392 (2008) Djiboutian franc Parliamentary republic Arabic, French, Somali, Afar
 Eritrea 117,600 4,401,009 37 Asmara $3.739 billion (2008) $747 (2008) Nakfa Provisional government Tigrinya, Arabic
 Somalia 637,661 9,588,666 13 Mogadishu $5.524 billion (2008) $600 (2008) Somali shilling Semi-presidential republic Somali, Arabic
 Sudan 2,505,813 39,379,358 14 Khartoum $87.885 billion (2008) $2,305 (2008) Sudanese pound Presidential republic Arabic


Notes: 1 Afghanistan is often considered Central Asian[22][23]


The Temple Mount in Jerusalem
The Imam Ali Mosque, an important shrine in Najaf

The Middle East lies at the juncture of Eurasia and Africa and of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. It is the birthplace and spiritual center of the Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Yezidi, and in Iran, Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and the Bahá'í Faith. Throughout its history the Middle East has been a major center of world affairs; a strategically, economically, politically, culturally, and religiously sensitive area.

The earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, originated in the Fertile Crescent and Nile Valley regions of the ancient Near East, as well as the civilizations of the Levant, Persia, and Arabian Peninsula. The Near East was first unified under the Achaemenid Empire followed later by the Macedonian Empire and later Iranian empires, namely the Parthian and Sassanid Empires. However, it would be the Arab Caliphates of the Middle Ages, or Islamic Golden Age, that would first unify the entire Middle East as a distinct region and create the dominant ethnic identity that persists today. The Turkic Seljuk, Ottoman and Safavid empires would also later dominate the region.

The modern Middle East began after World War I, when the Ottoman Empire, which was allied with the defeated Central Powers, was partitioned into a number of separate nations. Other defining events in this transformation included the establishment of Israel in 1948 and the departure of European powers, notably Britain and France. They were supplanted in some part by the rising influence of the United States.

In the 20th century, the region's significant stocks of crude oil gave it new strategic and economic importance. Mass production of oil began around 1945, with Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates having large quantities of oil.[24] Estimated oil reserves, especially in Saudi Arabia and Iran, are some of the highest in the world, and the international oil cartel OPEC is dominated by Middle Eastern countries.

During the Cold War, the Middle East was a theater of ideological struggle between the two superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union, as they competed to influence regional allies. Of course, besides the political reasons there was also the "ideological conflict" between the two systems. Moreover, as Louise Fawcett argues, among many important areas of contention, or perhaps more accurately of anxiety, were, first, the desires of the superpowers to gain strategic advantage in the region, second, the fact that the region contained some two thirds of the world's oil reserves in a context where oil was becoming increasingly vital to the economy of the Western world [...][25] Within this contextual framework, the United States sought to divert the Arab world from Soviet influence. Throughout the 20th and into the 21st century, the region has experienced both periods of relative peace and tolerance and periods of conflict and war. Current issues include the US Occupation of Iraq and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.


Ethnic groups

Various ethnic and religious types in the Middle East, 19th century

The Middle East is home to numerous ethnic groups, including Arabs, Turks, Persians, Jews, Kurds, Aramean Syriacs, Armenians, Azeris, Circassians, Greeks and Georgians.


The Middle East is very diverse when it comes to religions, most of which originated there. Islam in its many forms is by far the largest religion in the Middle East, but other faiths, such as Judaism and Christianity, are also important. There are also important minority religions like Bahá'í, Yazdânism, Zoroastrianism.


The three top languages, in terms of numbers of speakers, are Arabic, Persian and Turkish, representing Afro-Asiatic, Indo-European, and Turkic language families respectively. Various other languages are also spoken in the Middle East, and they too span many different language families.

Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the Middle East, being official in all the Arab countries. It is also spoken in some adjacent areas in neighbouring Middle Eastern non-Arab countries. It is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

The second-most widely spoken language is Persian. While it is confined to Iran and some border areas in neghbouring countries, the country is one of the region's largest and most populous. It is an Aryan language of the Indo-Aryan branch of the family of Indo-European languages. It is much influenced by Arabic (through Islam) and Aramaic (the pre-Arabic lingua franca of the Middle East).

The third-most widely spoken language, Turkish, is confined to Turkey, which is also one of the region's largest and most populous countries. It is present in areas in neighboring countries. It is a member or the Turkic languages, which have their origins in Central Asia.

Other languages spoken in the region include Syriac (a form of Aramaic), Armenian, Azerbaijani, Berber, Circassian, smaller Iranian languages, Hebrew, Kurdish, smaller Turkic languages, Greek, and several Modern South Arabian languages.

English is commonly spoken as a second language, especially among the middle and upper classes, in countries such as Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.[26][27]. It is also a main language in some of the Emirates of the United Arab Emirates. French is spoken in Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, and Tunisia. Urdu is spoken in many Middle Eastern countries, such as Arab states the United Arab Emirates, Israel, and Qatar, which have large numbers of Pakistani and some Indian. immigrants. The largest Romanian-speaking community in the Middle East is found in Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.[28][29] Romanian is spoken mostly as a secondary language by people from Arab-speaking countries that made their studies in Romania. It is estimated that almost half a million Middle Eastern Arabs studied in Romania during the 1980s.[30] Russian is also spoken by a large portion of the Israeli population, due to emigration in the late 1990s.


Burj Al Arab, the world's tallest hotel located in Dubai.

Middle Eastern economies range from being very poor (such as Gaza and Yemen) to extremely wealthy nations (such as Qatar, UAE and Saudi Arabia). Overall, as of 2007, according to the CIA World Factbook, all nations in the Middle East are maintaining a positive rate of growth.

According to the World Bank's World Development Indicators database published on July 1, 2009, the three largest Middle Eastern economies in 2008 were Turkey ($ 794,228,000,000), Saudi Arabia ($ 467,601,000,000) and Iran ($ 385,143,000,000) in terms of Nominal GDP.[31] In regards to nominal GDP per capita, the highest ranking countries are Qatar ($93,204), the UAE ($55,028), Kuwait ($45,920) and Cyprus ($32,745).[32] Turkey ($ 1,028,897,000,000), Iran ($ 839,438,000,000) and Saudi Arabia ($ 589,531,000,000) had the largest economies in terms of GDP-PPP.[20] When it comes to per capita (PPP)-based income, the highest-ranking countries are Qatar ($86,008), Kuwait ($39,915), the UAE ($38,894), Bahrain ($34,662) and Cyprus ($29,853). The lowest-ranking country in the Middle East, in terms of per capita income (PPP), is the autonomous Palestinian Authority of Gaza and the West Bank ($1,100).

The economic structure of Middle Eastern nations are different in the sense that while some nations are heavily dependent on export of only oil and oil-related products (such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Kuwait), others have a highly diverse economic base (such as Cyprus, Israel, Turkey and Egypt). Industries of the Middle Eastern region include oil and oil-related products, agriculture, cotton, cattle, dairy, textiles, leather products, surgical instruments, defence equipment (guns, ammunition, tanks, submarines, fighter jets, UAVs, and missiles). Banking is also an important sector of the economies, especially in the case of UAE and Bahrain.

With the exception of Cyprus, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon and Israel, tourism has been a relatively undeveloped area of the economy, due in part to the socially conservative nature of the region as well as political turmoil in certain regions of the Middle East. In recent years, however, countries such as the UAE, Bahrain, and Jordan have begun attracting greater number of tourists due to improving tourist facilities and the relaxing of tourism-related restrictive policies.

Unemployment is notably high in the Middle East and North Africa region, particularly among young people aged 15–29, a demographic representing 30% of the region’s total population. The total regional unemployment rate in 2005, according to the International Labor Organization, was 13.2%,[33] and among youth is as high as 25%,[34] up to 37% in Morocco and 73% in Syria.[35]

See also


  1. ^ "8 : Names and Terms: Chapter Contents»Names of Places»Parts of the World". The Chicago Manual of Style. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-20. 
  2. ^ Beaumont (1988), p. 16
  3. ^ Koppes, C.R. (1976). "Captain Mahan, General Gordon and the origin of the term "Middle East"". Middle East Studies 12: 95–98. doi:10.1080/00263207608700307. 
  4. ^ Lewis, Bernard (1965). "The Middle East and the West". p. 9. 
  5. ^ Fromkin, David (1989). "A Peace to end all Peace". p. 224. 
  6. ^ Melman, Billie. The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing: 6 The Middle East / Arabia, Cambridge Collections Online. Retrieved January 8, 2006.
  7. ^ Palmer, Michael A. Guardians of the Persian Gulf: A History of America's Expanding Role in the Persian Gulf, 1833-1992. New York: The Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-923843-9 p. 12-13.
  8. ^ Laciner, Dr. Sedat. "Is There a Place Called ‘the Middle East’?", The Journal of Turkish Weekly]", June 2, 2006. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  9. ^ Adelson (1995), p. 22-23
  10. ^ Adelson (1995), p. 24
  11. ^ Adelson (1995), p. 26
  12. ^ a b Davison, Roderic H. (1960). "Where is the Middle East?". Foreign Affairs 38: 665–675. 
  13. ^ Held, Colbert C. (2000). Middle East Patterns: Places, Peoples, and Politics. Westview Press. pp. 7. 
  14. ^ Shohat, Ella. "Redrawing American Cartographies of Asia". City University of New York. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  15. ^ Hanafi, Hassan. "The Middle East, in whose world?". Nordic Society for Middle Eastern Studies. Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  16. ^ "'Near East' is Mideast, Washington Explains". The New York Times. 1958-08-14.'Near%20East'%20is%20Mideast,%20Washington%20Explains&st=cse. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  17. ^ Goldstein, Norm. The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York: Basic Books, 2004. ISBN 0465004881 p. 156
  18. ^ In Italian, the expression "Vicino Oriente" (Near East) was also widely used to refer to Turkey, and "Estremo Oriente" (Far East or Extreme East) to refer to all of Asia east of Middle East
  19. ^ Anderson, Ewan W., William Bayne Fisher (2000). The Middle East: Geography and Geopolitics. Routledge. pp. 12–13. 
  20. ^ a b c The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. GDP (PPP) 2008. Data for the year 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
  21. ^ The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. Population 2008. Data for the year 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
  22. ^ The 2007 Middle East & Central Asia Politics, Economics, and Society Conference University of Utah.
  23. ^ "Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East & Central Asia" May 2006, International Monetary Fund.
  24. ^ Goldschmidt (1999), p. 8
  25. ^ Louise, Fawcett. International Relations of the Middle East. (Oxford University Press, New York, 2005)
  26. ^ "World Factbook - Jordan". 
  27. ^ "World Factbook - Kuwait". 
  28. ^ According to the 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, at a population of 5,548,523 (census 1995).
  29. ^ Reports of about 300,000 Jews that left the country after WW2
  30. ^ Evenimentul Zilei
  31. ^ The World Bank: World Economic Indicators Database. GDP (Nominal) 2008. Data for the year 2008. Last revised on July 1, 2009.
  32. ^ Data refer to the year 2008. World Economic Outlook Database-October 2009, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on October 1, 2009.
  33. ^ "Unemployment Rates Are Highest in the Middle East". Progressive Policy Institute. August 30, 2006. 
  34. ^ Navtej Dhillon, Tarek Yousef (2007). "Inclusion: Meeting the 100 Million Youth Challenge". Shabab Inclusion. 
  35. ^ Hilary Silver (September 200). "Social Exclusion: Comparative Analysis of Europe and Middle East Youth". Middle East Youth Initiative Working Paper. Shabab Inclusion. 


  • Adelson, Roger (1995). London and the Invention of the Middle East: Money, Power, and War, 1902-1922.. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300060947. 
  • Anderson, R., Seibert, R., & Wagner, J. (2006). Politics and Change in the Middle East (8th Ed. ed.). Prentice-Hall. 
  • Barzilai, Gad.,Klieman Aharon.,Shidlo Gil (1993). The Gulf Crisis and its Global Aftermath. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08002. 
  • Barzilai, Gad. (1996). Wars, Internal Conflicts and Political Order. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2943-1. 
  • Beaumont, Peter, Gerald H. Blake, J. Malcolm Wagstaff (1988). The Middle East: A Geographical Study. David Fulton. 
  • Goldschmidt Jr., Arthur (1999). A Concise History of the Middle East. Westview Press. 

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