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Migraine
Classification and external resources

The Head Ache. George Cruikshank (1819)
ICD-10 G43.
ICD-9 346
OMIM 157300
DiseasesDB 8207 (Migraine)
31876 (Basilar)
4693 (FHM)
MedlinePlus 000709
eMedicine neuro/218 neuro/517 emerg/230 neuro/529
MeSH D008881
.Migraine is a neurological syndrome characterized by altered bodily perceptions, severe headaches, and nausea.^ Migraine headaches tend to be severe and recurrent and are often accompanied by nausea.
  • Migraine Headache Symptom 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.targetwoman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine headaches can become severe and disabling.
  • migraine-remedy.com - Remedies for Migraine Headaches. Symptoms, cause and cure for Migraine Headaches. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraine-remedy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine headaches can be dull or severe.
  • Migraine - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Migraine - NY Times Health Information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Migraine Medical Information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Migraine - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Migraine - NY Times Health Information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Physiologically, the migraine headache is a neurological condition more common to women than to men.^ Migraines occur more often in women than men, and may run in families.
  • Migraine - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Migraine - NY Times Health Information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Migraine - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Migraine - NY Times Health Information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This primary headache is slightly more common in men than in women, with onset usually after age 50.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Headache Pregnancy-related conditions Head Conditions more types...» Types of Migraine .
  • Migraine Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][2] The word migraine was borrowed from Old French migraigne (originally as "megrim", but respelled in 1777 on a contemporary French model). The French term derived from a vulgar pronunciation of the Late Latin word hemicrania, itself based on Greek hemikrania, from Greek roots for "half" and "skull".[3]
.The typical migraine headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating, lasting from 4 to 72 hours;[4] symptoms include nausea, vomiting, photophobia (increased sensitivity to light), and phonophobia (increased sensitivity to sound).^ Migraines often increase sensitivity to light and sound.

^ Headache lasting 4-72 hours, characterized by at least one of the following: .

^ Sensitivity to light and/or sounds .
  • Migraine << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]
  • Migraine Headaches | Migraine Headache Relief | Migraine Treatment | Migraine Clinic | Drugs | MigraineHeadaches | 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraineheadaches.org [Source type: General]

[5][6][7] .Approximately one-third of people who suffer migraine headache perceive an aura—unusual visual, olfactory, or other sensory experiences that are a sign that the migraine will soon occur.^ I have been suffering from migraine headaches for over 20 years.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Regardless of whether one experiences migraine with aura, or common migraine (migraine without aura), the headaches are similar.

^ Many migraine sufferers have a close relative who also suffers from the headaches.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Initial treatment is with analgesics for the headache, an antiemetic for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggering conditions.^ A "stepped care" approach to management of acute migraine involves initial nonpharmacological methods followed by antiemetics and simple analgesics or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications.
  • Migraine Treatment information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. natural migraine remedy supplements 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patient should report any other conditions that might be associated with headache, including but not limited the following: Any chronic or recent illness and their treatments.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment with feverfew produced a 24% reduction in the number of migraines and a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting during the headaches.

.The cause of migraine headache is unknown; the most common theory is a disorder of the serotonergic control system.^ Symptoms, cause and cure for Migraine Headaches.
  • migraine-remedy.com - Remedies for Migraine Headaches. Symptoms, cause and cure for Migraine Headaches. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraine-remedy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine - a common and distressing disorder .

^ Hyperacusis is common in migraine, which may differentiate it from most ear disorders.
  • American Hearing Research Foundation (AHRF) Migraine Associated Vertigo 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.american-hearing.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are migraine headache variants, some originate in the brainstem (featuring intercellular transport dysfunction of calcium and potassium ions) and some are genetically disposed.^ Migraine Headache Variants - Types of Migraine There are many types of migraine.
  • Migraine Treatment information : by Ray Sahelian, M.D. natural migraine remedy supplements 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are numerous defined variants of migraine .

^ There are various triggers to migraines.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Studies of twins indicate a 60 to 65 percent genetic influence upon their propensity to develop migraine headache.^ Studies on twins show that genes have a 60 to 65% influence on the development of migraine (PMID 10496258 and PMID 10204850 ).

^ In June 2005, an NHF-sponsored study indicated that 40 percent of migraine sufferers--nearly 12 million people--could benefit from preventive therapies, yet only 1 in 5 people with migraine were using these medications.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.agingeye.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine headaches also tend to run in families, and there is a definite genetic predisposition (Kasper DL et al 2005).
  • Migraine: Online References For Health Concerns 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[10][11] .Moreover, fluctuating hormone levels indicate a migraine relation: 75 percent of adult patients are women, although migraine affects approximately equal numbers of prepubescent boys and girls; propensity to migraine headache is known to disappear during pregnancy, although in some women migraines may become more frequent during pregnancy.^ Some women have migraines just before, during, or just after menstrual periods.
  • Migraines: Headaches: Merck Manual Home Edition 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These headaches, which are called menstrual migraines , may be related to hormonal changes and often do not occur during pregnancy.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More women suffer from migraine.
  • migraine-remedy.com - Remedies for Migraine Headaches. Symptoms, cause and cure for Migraine Headaches. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraine-remedy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
Rodents can be grown that suffer from the condition.[13]

Contents

Classification

.The International Headache Society (IHS) offers guidelines for the classification and diagnosis of migraine headaches, in a document called "The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition" (ICHD-2).^ As a result, the International Headache Society completed an updated classification of headaches [5].
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Primary Headache Disorders, including Migraine .
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Headache Society classifies a headache as a migraine when: .

[14]
According to ICHD-2, there are seven subclasses of migraines (some of which include further subdivisions):
.
  • Migraine without aura, or common migraine, involves migraine headaches that are not accompanied by an aura (visual disturbance, see below).
  • Migraine with aura usually involves migraine headaches accompanied by an aura.^ Regardless of whether one experiences migraine with aura, or common migraine (migraine without aura), the headaches are similar.

    ^ Late-life migrainous accompaniments are characterized by attacks of aura without headache, beginning in late life.

    ^ Headache with the features of "migraine without aura" usually follows the aura symptoms.

    .Less commonly, an aura can occur without a headache, or with a non-migraine headache.^ Migraines without Auras (Common Migraine) .
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Migraine without aura (common migraine) .

    ^ Headache with the features of "migraine without aura" usually follows the aura symptoms.

    .Two other varieties are Familial hemiplegic migraine and Sporadic hemiplegic migraine, in which a patient has migraines with aura and with accompanying motor weakness.^ Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) .

    ^ Sporadic hemiplegic migraine .

    ^ This occurs in patients with a history of migraine with aura.
    • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    If a close relative has had the same condition, it is called "familial", otherwise it is called "sporadic". Another variety is basilar-type migraine, where a headache and aura are accompanied by difficulty speaking, vertigo, ringing in ears, or a number of other brainstem-related symptoms, but not motor weakness.
  • Childhood periodic syndromes that are commonly precursors of migraine include cyclical vomiting (occasional intense periods of vomiting), abdominal migraine (abdominal pain, usually accompanied by nausea), and benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (occasional attacks of vertigo).
  • Retinal migraine involves migraine headaches accompanied by visual disturbances or even blindness in one eye.
  • Complications of migraine describe migraine headaches and/or auras that are unusually long or unusually frequent, or associated with a seizure or brain lesion.
  • Probable migraine describes conditions that have some characteristics of migraines but where there is not enough evidence to diagnose it as a migraine with certainty.

Diagnosis

.Migraines are underdiagnosed[15] and misdiagnosed.^ Migraines are severely underdiagnosed and are often misdiagnosed as tension or sinus headaches.
  • Medifocus Guidebook on Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraine-guidebook.com [Source type: Academic]

[16] The diagnosis of migraine without aura, according to the International Headache Society, can be made according to the following criteria, the "5, 4, 3, 2, 1 criteria":
  • 5 or more attacks
  • 4 hours to 3 days in duration
  • 2 or more of - unilateral location, pulsating quality, moderate to severe pain, aggravation by or avoidance of routine physical activity
  • 1 or more accompanying symptoms - nausea and/or vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia
.For migraine with aura, only two attacks are required to justify the diagnosis.^ For migraine with aura, only two attacks are required to justify the diagnosis.

^ You may be a candidate for preventive therapy if you have two or more debilitating attacks a month, if pain-relieving medications aren't helping, or if your migraine signs and symptoms include a prolonged aura or numbness and weakness.

^ Aura accompanies migraine attacks for about 20 30% of migraineurs.

The mnemonic POUNDing (Pulsating, duration of 4–72 hOurs, Unilateral, Nausea, Disabling) can help diagnose migraine. If 4 of the 5 criteria are met, then the positive likelihood ratio for diagnosing migraine is 24.[17]
The presence of either disability, nausea or sensitivity, can diagnose migraine with:[18]
.Migraine should be differentiated from other causes of headaches such as cluster headaches.^ Symptoms, cause and cure for Migraine Headaches.
  • migraine-remedy.com - Remedies for Migraine Headaches. Symptoms, cause and cure for Migraine Headaches. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraine-remedy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A deficiency in magnesium can cause regular headaches, cluster headaches, and migraines .
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Is this a new theory for the cause of migraine headaches?
  • Migraine Elimination Centers - Chicago Holistic Migraine Relief.. Florida Holistic Migraine Relief 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.migraineeliminationcenters.com [Source type: General]

.These are extremely painful, unilateral headaches of a piercing quality.^ Carotidynia , also called lower-half headache or facial migraine, produces deep, dull, aching, and sometimes piercing pain in the jaw or neck.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pain killers kill the pain but why do I get these headaches?

^ Anticonvulsants may relieve some of the symptoms, while anesthetics and corticosteroid drugs can treat some of the severe pain felt during these headaches.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The duration of the common attack is 15 minutes to three hours.^ Aura symptoms typically start between 15 minutes and 1 hour before the headache begins.
  • Patient information leaflet - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The attack starts rapidly and builds to a peak in 10 or 15 minutes.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most individuals have attacks of increased pain three to five times per 24-hour cycle.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Onset of an attack is rapid, and most often without the preliminary signs that are characteristic of a migraine.^ The two forms seen most often are migraine with aura and migraine without aura.
  • Migraine << Frequently Asked Questions << womenshealth.gov 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]
  • Migraine Headaches | Migraine Headache Relief | Migraine Treatment | Migraine Clinic | Drugs | MigraineHeadaches | 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraineheadaches.org [Source type: General]

^ Migraine auras (or 'focal cerebral disturbances') can affect all the senses, not just the eyes, but often the visual aura is the most obvious one.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most likely, several factors are involved, and more than one stimulus can light the fuse that leads to a full-blown migraine attack.

[citation needed]

Signs and symptoms

.The signs and symptoms of migraine vary among patients.^ Signs and Symptoms The signs and symptoms of migraine vary among patients.

^ Patients have variations in the way migraine affects them.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tests are usually not needed if you have typical signs and symptoms of migraines.

.Therefore, what a patient experiences before, during and after an attack cannot be defined exactly.^ Some migraine sufferers also experience an aura, with sensations of flashing lights, numbness and tingling, or altered vision before or during onset of the severe head pain.

^ Researchers have also noted a drop in magnesium levels before or during a migraine attack.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The discoveries came because of new imaging device s that allow scientist s to actually watch patient s' brains during a migraine attack .
  • Migraine@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The four phases of a migraine attack listed below are common but not necessarily experienced by all migraine sufferers.^ Migraine is divided into four phases, all of which may be present during the attack: .
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The migraine attack can be divided into four phases: .

^ Some of the most common are listed below.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

Additionally, the phases experienced and the symptoms experienced during them can vary from one migraine attack to another in the same migraineur:
  1. The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache.
  2. The aura, which immediately precedes the headache.
  3. The pain phase, also known as headache phase.
  4. The postdrome.

Prodrome phase

.Prodromal symptoms occur in 40–60% of migraineurs (migraine sufferers).^ Prodrome phase Prodromal symptoms occur in 40% to 60% of migraineurs.

^ Most migraine sufferers, however, rely on drugs that attempt either to abort a migraine once symptoms become apparent or to reduce the pain of an existing headache.
  • Migraine: Online References For Health Concerns 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a preliminary trial, 40% of migraine sufferers were found to have H. pylori infection.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Migraine Headaches | Iceland Health 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.icelandhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]

.This phase may consist of altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, yawning, excessive sleepiness, craving for certain food (e.g.^ This phase may consist of altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, yawning, excessive sleepiness, craving for certain food (e.g., chocolate), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea, increased urination, and other vegetative symptoms.

^ The prodrome phase may take place anywhere from a few hours to days before onset of a headache, with symptoms that can include mood changes, fatigue, and craving for certain foods that may themselves be migraine triggers and unexpectedly may lead to constipation problems.

^ The most common prodromes are: changes in mood (irritability, euphoria, and a desire to withdraw), fatigue, yawning and neck stiffness.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.chocolate), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea, increased urination, and other visceral symptoms.^ Other symptoms include nausea and stiffness or pain in the neck.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This phase may consist of altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, yawning, excessive sleepiness, craving for certain food (e.g., chocolate), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea, increased urination, and other vegetative symptoms.

^ She had many symptoms -- including palpitations, severe constipation, anxiety, insomnia, muscle cramps, and menstrual cramps -- in addition to her migraines.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

[19] .These symptoms usually precede the headache phase of the migraine attack by several hours or days, and experience teaches the patient or observant family how to detect that a migraine attack is near.^ Headache with the features of "migraine without aura" usually follows the aura symptoms.

^ Independent migraine attacks occurred in 9% of the patients.

^ The headache lasts from several hours to several days (or even weeks) .

Aura phase

.For the 20–30%[20][21] of migraine sufferers who experience migraine with aura, this aura comprises focal neurological phenomena that precede or accompany the attack.^ I have been suffering from migraine headaches for over 20 years.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Aura accompanies migraine attacks for about 20 30% of migraineurs.

^ Aura phase For the 20-30% of migraineurs who suffer migraine with aura, this aura comprises focal neurological phenomena that precede or accompany the attack.

.They appear gradually over 5 to 20 minutes and generally last fewer than 60 minutes.^ Each symptom lasts from 5-60 minutes.

^ They appear gradually over 5 to 20 minutes and generally last less than 60 minutes.

^ It usually develops over 5-20 minutes and lasts less than 60 minutes.
  • Migraine Headache: eMedicine Neurology 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.The headache phase of the migraine attack usually begins within 60 minutes of the end of the aura phase, but it is sometimes delayed up to several hours, and it can be missing entirely.^ Late-life migrainous accompaniments are characterized by attacks of aura without headache, beginning in late life.

^ Headache with the features of "migraine without aura" usually follows the aura symptoms.

^ Migraine auras usually last 5 to 60 min.

.Symptoms of migraine aura can be visual, sensory, or motor in nature.^ The aura can be visual, sensory, motor, or any combination of these.
  • Migraine Headache: eMedicine Neurology 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ordinary migraine (without aura) symptoms .
  • Migraine Home Remedies - Migraine Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Symptoms of migraine aura can be visual, sensory, or motor in nature.

[22]
.Visual aura is the most common of the neurological events.^ Visual aura is the most common of the neurological events.

^ The most common aura is the visual aura.

^ Migraine auras (or 'focal cerebral disturbances') can affect all the senses, not just the eyes, but often the visual aura is the most obvious one.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a disturbance of vision consisting usually of unformed flashes of white and/or black or rarely of multicolored lights (photopsia) or formations of dazzling zigzag lines (scintillating scotoma; often arranged like the battlements of a castle, hence the alternative terms "fortification spectra" or "teichopsia"[23]).^ It migrates across the visual field with a scintillating edge of zigzag or flashing lights that are often black and white.

^ The black spot may be surrounded by lights with zigzag lines.
  • Migraine Studies - Clinical Applications of Natural Medicine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.quantumhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most auras are visual and are described as bright shimmering lights around objects or at the edges of the field of vision (called scintillating scotomas) or zigzag lines, wavy images, or hallucinations.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some patients complain of blurred or shimmering or cloudy vision, as though they were looking through thick or smoked glass, or, in some cases, tunnel vision and hemianopsia.^ The patient may complain of visual blurring or vision loss.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some patients complain of blurred or shimmering or cloudy vision, as though they were look­ing through thick or smoked glass, or, in some cases, tunnel vision and hemianopsia.

^ A temporary blind spot Blurred vision Eye pain Seeing stars or zigzag lines Tunnel vision Not every person with migraines has an aura.

.The somatosensory aura of migraine consists of digitolingual or cheiro-oral paresthesias, a feeling of pins-and-needles experienced in the hand and arm as well as in the nose-mouth area on the same side.^ It can be on the same or opposite side to the aura.

^ The somatosensory aura of migraine consists of digitolingual or cheiro-oral paresthesias, a feeling of pins-and-needles experienced in the hand and arm as well as in the ipsilateral nose-mouth area.

^ There are also sensory auras -- they often move from hand to arm to face and ipsilateral tongue.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Paresthesia migrate up the arm and then extend to involve the face, lips and tongue.^ Paresthesia migrate up the arm and then extend to involve the face, lips and tongue.

^ There are also sensory auras -- they often move from hand to arm to face and ipsilateral tongue.

^ The most common form is called “cheiro-oral” which is generally defined by numbness starting in the hand which then migrates to the arm before ‘jumping’ to the face, lips, and tongue.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other symptoms of the aura phase can include auditory or olfactory hallucinations, temporary dysphasia, vertigo, tingling or numbness of the face and extremities, and hypersensitivity to touch.^ Other symptoms of the aura phase can include auditory or olfactory hallucinations, aphasia, vertigo, tingling or numbness of the face and extremities, and hypersensitivity to touch.

^ Other symptoms that may be experienced include .

^ Other auras that may occur include: loss of part of the visual field (such as not being able to see to the right), numbness or tingling over one side of the face and arm, vertigo, weakness on one side of the body, or trouble speaking if the headache is on the opposite side of the dominant hand.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pain phase

.The typical migraine headache is unilateral, throbbing, and moderate to severe and can be aggravated by physical activity.^ Pain phase The typical migraine headache is unilateral, throbbing, moderate to severe and can be aggravated by physical activity.

^ The typical headache is one sided, throbbing in nature, and of moderate to marked severity.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Headache severity ranges from moderate to marked and is aggravated by head movement or physical activity.

.Not all these features are necessary.^ Not all of these features are necessary.

.The pain may be bilateral at the onset or start on one side and become generalized, and usually it alternates sides from one attack to the next.^ The site of the pain varies and it may shift from one side to the other.
  • Migraine headaches Herbal Home Remdies,Natural Cure 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.divineremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pain is usually one sided .

^ The pain may be bilateral at the onset or start on one side and become generalized, and usually alternates sides from one attack to the next.

.The onset is usually gradual.^ The onset is usually gradual.

^ The onset is usually gradual, and the attack usually lasts 4 to 72 hours in adults and 2 to 48 hours in children.

.The pain peaks and then subsides and usually lasts 4 to 72 hours in adults and 1 to 48 hours in children.^ If untreated, attacks usually last from 4 to 72 hours.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The onset is usually gradual, and the attack usually lasts 4 to 72 hours in adults and 2 to 48 hours in children.

^ The pain peaks and then subsides, and usually lasts between 4 and 72 hours in adults and 1 and 48 hours in children.

.The frequency of attacks is extremely variable, from a few in a lifetime to several a week, and the average migraineur experiences one to three headaches a month.^ This one I have now has been three weeks.

^ I went from 3 severe migraines a week to 3 so-so ones a month!

^ The frequency of migraine attacks may vary; some may experience several in a month, while others have only a few in their lifetime.
  • Headaches Migraine Relief, Natural Migraine Treatment | Cure Migraines | Alternative, Herbal Remedies 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The head pain varies greatly in intensity.^ The head pain varies greatly in intensity.

.The pain of migraine is invariably accompanied by other features.^ To make a diagnosis of migraine, the pain must be accompanied by other features.

^ It is suggested that this reduction of blood flow results in the visual and other symptoms that accompany a migraine.
  • Migraine Studies - Clinical Applications of Natural Medicine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.quantumhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In these cases, further evaluation is usually performed to ensure no other cause since migraines usually have pain with their onset.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nausea occurs in almost 90 percent of patients, and vomiting occurs in about one third of patients.^ Nausea occurs in up to 90% of patients, and vomiting occurs in approximately one-third of migraineurs.

^ Nausea occurs in almost 90 percent of patients, while vomiting occurs in about one third of patients.

^ Headache pain usually occurs in the forehead or temples, often on one side only and typically accompanied by nausea and a preference for a darkened room.

.Many patients experience sensory hyperexcitability manifested by photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia and seek a dark and quiet room.^ Many patients experience sensory hyperexcitability, manifested by photophobia, phonophobia, and osmophobia, and seek a dark, quiet room.

^ Many patients experience sensory hyperexcitability manifested by photophobia, phonophobia, osmophobia and seek a dark and quiet room.

^ During a migraine, people often prefer to rest or sleep alone in a dark, quiet room .
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Blurred vision, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, polyuria, pallor, or sweating may be noted during the headache phase.^ Blurred vision, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, polyuria, pallor or sweating may be noted during the headache phase.

^ They started out as just an ocular disturbance (flashing lights, blurred vision) then later I started having severe throbbing headaches right after the vision problems would start.
  • The Voices of Migraine - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The headache stage is often accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, blurred vision, tenderness of the scalp or neck, lightheadedness, sweating, and pallor (Silberstein SD et al 2003; Silberstein SD 1995a).
  • Migraine: Online References For Health Concerns 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.There may be localized edema of the scalp or face, scalp tenderness, prominence of a vein or artery in the temple, or stiffness and tenderness of the neck.^ There is usually tenderness and swelling over the carotid artery in the neck.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tenderness of the muscles of the scalp and neck is common.

^ Other possible causes include glaucoma; inflammation of the eyes or mucosa of the nasal or paranasal sinuses; diseases of the scalp, teeth, extracranial arteries, or external or middle ear; and muscle spasms of the face, neck, or shoulders.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Impairment of concentration and mood are common.^ Impairment of concentration and mood are common.

.The extremities tend to feel cold and moist.^ The extremities tend to be cold and moist.

.Vertigo may be experienced; a variation of the typical migraine, called vestibular migraine, has also been described.^ These headaches, which are called menstrual migraines , may be related to hormonal changes and often do not occur during pregnancy.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers have examined whether a gene variant may affect the link between migraine and stroke or heart attacks.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine Headache The Hormonal Power of Migraine Headaches Migraine headache pain, for some sufferers, may be tied to variations in hormones, ranging from menstrual cycles to food intolerances.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.Lightheadedness, rather than true vertigo,[citation needed] and a feeling of faintness may occur.^ Lightheadedness, rather than true vertigo and a feeling of faintness may occur.

^ Migraines occur more often in women than men, and may run in families.

^ Some people with this form may experience vision problems and vertigo (a feeling that the world is spinning).
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Postdrome phase

.The patient may feel tired or "hungover" and have head pain, cognitive difficulties, gastrointestinal symptoms, mood changes, and weakness.^ Feeling pain on one area of the head .
  • Migraine Home Remedies - Migraine Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The person often feels weak and tired and may have a mild headache.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction Checklist Symptoms Treatments Dietary changes Lifestyle changes Supplements Herbs Holistic options References Migraines are very painful headaches that usually begin on only one side of the head and may become worse with exposure to light.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]

[24] .Some people feel unusually refreshed or euphoric after an attack, whereas others note depression and malaise.^ Some people feel unusually refreshed or euphoric after an attack, whereas others note depression and malaise.

^ Seems like some people are more sensitive than others to some certain items in food.
  • Migraine video compilations | migraine Videos 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migrainessymptoms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people with this form may experience vision problems and vertigo (a feeling that the world is spinning).
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often, some of the minor headache phase symptoms may continue, such as loss of appetite, photophobia, and lightheadedness.^ A common cold may have a headache as a symptom.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

^ Often, some of the minor headache phase symptoms may continue, such as loss of appetite, photophobia, and lightheadedness.

^ The headache stage is often accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, blurred vision, tenderness of the scalp or neck, lightheadedness, sweating, and pallor (Silberstein SD et al 2003; Silberstein SD 1995a).
  • Migraine: Online References For Health Concerns 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.For some patients, a 5- to 6-hour nap may reduce the pain, but slight headaches may still occur when the patient stands or sits quickly.^ The aura may occur without headache pain, which can strike at any time.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine-like headache pain may occur during or after a seizure.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pain may get worse as the headache progresses.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These symptoms may go away after a good night's rest, although there is no guarantee.^ There are no aura or prodrome symptoms.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These may include nausea, vomiting, aversion to bright lights (photophobia), aversion to loud sounds (phonophobia), aversion to strong odors (osmophobia), and any number of other symptoms.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People who suffer tension-type headaches may also feel overly sensitive to light and sound but there is no pre-headache aura as with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some people may suffer and recover differently than others.^ People respond to natural medicine in different ways, some of our satisfied customers experience immediate results while many others have reported optimal benefits taking effect within 3-6 weeks.
  • MiGone Plus. Relief from Migraine Headaches - Natural Migraine Headache Treatments 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.enaturalremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2005, research was published indicating that in some people with a patent foramen ovale (PFO), a hole between the upper chambers of the heart, suffer from migraines which may have been caused by the PFO. The migraines end instantly if the hole is patched.

^ People who suffer tension-type headaches may also feel overly sensitive to light and sound but there is no pre-headache aura as with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Triggers

.A migraine trigger is any factor that, on exposure or withdrawal, leads to the development of an acute migraine headache.^ Triggers A migraine trigger is any factor that, on exposure or withdrawal, leads to the development of an acute migraine headache.

^ Certain factors are known to trigger migraines.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ David Buchholz, a neurologist who treats headaches at Johns Hopkins Hospital, has a longer list of suspected migraine triggers.

.Triggers may be categorized as behavioral, environmental, infectious, dietary, chemical, or hormonal.^ Triggers may be categorized as behavioral, environmental, infectious, dietary, chemical, or hormonal.

^ Preventative treatment consists of: medication, dietary restrictions, identification and avoidance of triggers, and behavior modification.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preliminary studies also suggest that magnesium may be helpful for migraines triggered by hormonal changes occurring with the menstrual cycle.

In the medical literature, these factors are known as 'precipitants.'
The MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, for example, offers the following list of migraine triggers:
Migraine attacks may be triggered by:

MedlinePlus medical encyclopedia[25]

.Sometimes the migraine occurs with no apparent "cause". The trigger theory supposes that exposure to various environmental factors precipitates, or triggers, individual migraine episodes.^ Researchers have determined that there can be various causes and triggers to migraines.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trigger theory supposes that exposure to various environmental factors precipitates, or triggers, individual migraine episodes.

^ There are various triggers to migraines.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Migraine patients have long been advised to try to identify personal headache triggers by looking for associations between their headaches and various suspected trigger factors and keeping a "headache diary" recording migraine incidents and diet to look for correlations in order to avoid trigger foods.^ Correlation between essential tremor and migraine headache.
  • Migraine Comorbidity - Migraine Comorbidity - 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.headachecare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Avoid trigger factors: Reduction of stress Avoid certain foods ( see diet section ).

^ More than 100 foods have the capacity to trigger migraine headache.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.It must be mentioned, that some trigger factors are quantitative in nature, e.g., a small block of dark chocolate may not cause a migraine, but half a slab of dark chocolate almost definitely will, in a susceptible person.^ Migraine attacks may be triggered by: .

^ Oversleep may also trigger migraine.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ MSG (monosodium glutamate) may also cause migraines in some people.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, being exposed to more than one trigger factor simultaneously will more likely cause a migraine, than a single trigger factor in isolation, e.g., drinking and eating various known dietary trigger factors on a hot, humid day, when feeling stressed and having had little sleep will probably result in a migraine in a susceptible person, but consuming a single trigger factor on a cool day, after a good night's rest with minimal environmental stress may mean that the sufferer will not develop a migraine after all.^ She is one of more than an estimate 36 million Americans with Migraine .
  • Migraine Blog 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraineblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine attacks may be triggered by: .

^ Children who get migraine may suffer attacks more frequently than adults.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Migraines can be complex to avoid, but keeping an accurate migraine diary and making suitable lifestyle changes can have a very positive effect on the sufferer's quality of life.^ Maintain a diary to keep a daily record of migraine triggers and avoid them.
  • Headaches Migraine Relief, Natural Migraine Treatment | Cure Migraines | Alternative, Herbal Remedies 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact migraine sufferers increase their risks to serious side effects such as strokes, which can be life-altering - or worse, life-threatening.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The right medicines combined with self-help remedies and lifestyle changes may make a tremendous difference.

.Some trigger factors are virtually impossible to avoid, e.g.^ Avoid trigger factors: Reduction of stress Avoid certain foods ( see diet section ).

^ It is virtually impossible, for example, to avoid the excitement of longed-for events such as children's birthday parties, holidays or Christmas.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid trigger factors: Reduction of stress Avoid certain foods (see diet section).
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

the weather or emotions, but by limiting the avoidable trigger factors, the unavoidable ones may have less of an impact on the sufferer.

Food

.Many migraine sufferers report reduced incidence of migraines due to identifying and avoiding their individual food triggers.^ Not every migraine sufferer will have food triggers.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraines can be triggered by allergies and may be relieved by identifying and avoiding the problem foods.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For many individuals, Migraine s are triggered by certain foods.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.However, more studies are needed.^ More study is needed.

^ However, more research is needed.
  • Migraine headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Large comparative studies are still needed to determine if the newer triptans are significantly more effective than sumatriptan.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Gluten One food elimination that has proven to reduce or eliminate migraines in a percentage of patients is gluten.^ Ellen Grant, a neurologist in London, observed that when she took patients off foods that triggered migraines their blood pressure went down.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

^ Hemiplegic migraine : Patients with hemiplegic migraine have temporary paralysis on one side of the body, a condition known as hemiplegia.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a study of 60 patients, candesartan was reported to reduce days with migraine, migraine severity and disability level (Tronvik et al, 2003).
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.For those with (often undiagnosed) celiac disease or other forms of gluten sensitivity, migraines may be a symptom of gluten intolerance.^ Migraines are often symptoms of other health issues.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The posterior electrographic localization may not pertain to other forms of migraine.

^ For those who experience migraines , certain factors may bring on an attack, such as stress, lack of sleep, weather and hormones.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.One study found that migraine sufferers were ten times more likely than the general population to have celiac disease, and that a gluten-free diet eliminated or reduced migraines in these patients.^ Epidemiologic study of migraine in epileptic patients.

^ She is one of more than an estimate 36 million Americans with Migraine .
  • Migraine Blog 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraineblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The migrainous patient: A constitutional study.
  • Migraine Comorbidity - Migraine Comorbidity - 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.headachecare.net [Source type: Academic]

[26] .Another study of 10 patients with a long history of chronic headaches that had recently worsened or were resistant to treatment found that all 10 patients were sensitive to gluten.^ Classical homeopathic treatment of chronic headaches.
  • Migraine headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For patients with worsening headache.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was found that headache and migraine sufferers experienced significantly more relief from acupuncture than patients who were administered "sham" acupuncture.
  • Acupuncture Treats Headaches and Migraines 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.acufinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MRI scans determined that each had inflammation in their central nervous systems caused by gluten-sensitivity.^ Central nervous system .

^ Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system promoting wakefulness by competing for adenosine receptors.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Chronic analgesic overdose appears to deplete serotonin in the central nervous system, and there is also evidence that it results in damage to receptor sites.

.Seven out of nine of these patients that went on a gluten-free diet stopped having headaches completely.^ Rather than cutting these out of my diet, Jim's treatment allowed me to continue eating them.
  • Migraine Elimination Centers - Chicago Holistic Migraine Relief.. Florida Holistic Migraine Relief 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.migraineeliminationcenters.com [Source type: General]

^ These signs and symptoms include headache, nuchal rigidity, fever, and a change in the patient's LOC. Meningitis.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The patient usually has the option of stopping abruptly or gradually and should expect the following course: Most headache drugs can be stopped abruptly but the patient should be sure to check with the physician before withdrawal.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[27]
.Aspartame While some people believe that aspartame triggers migraines, and anecdotal evidence is present, this has not been medically proven.^ Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame,  trigger headaches in some people.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

^ People with migraines that are not triggered by light.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some people with frequent and severe migraine need preventive medications.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
MSG MSG is frequently reported as a dietary trigger (12%).[29] .In a placebo-controlled trial, monosodium glutamate (MSG) in large doses (2.5 grams) taken on an empty stomach was associated with adverse symptoms including headache more often than was placebo.^ Others include food additives such as aspartame (Nutrasweet**), monosodium glutamate (MSG), nitrates and nitrites used to preserve meats.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The causes: A processed food diet including aspartame, MSG (monosodium glutamate), nitrates (in deli meats), sulfites (found in wine, dried fruit, and food from salad bars) is to blame.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Classic migraine denotes the syndrome of headache associated with characteristic premonitory sensory, motor, or visual symptoms.
  • Migraine headaches Herbal Home Remdies,Natural Cure 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.divineremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30][31] .However another trial found no effect when 3.5g of MSG was given with food.^ Another small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found benefit with CoQ 10 (100 mg 3x daily).

^ I've tried the wheat gluten allergy elimination, probiotics, colon therapy and a another food allergy elimination diet, all with no effect on my migraines.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Published last year, that study, known as the MIST trial, found no benefit for the treatment.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.Tyramine The National Headache Foundation has a specific list of triggers based on the tyramine theory, detailing allowed, with caution and avoid triggers.^ National Headache Foundation - www.headaches.org .

^ National Headache Foundation ( www.headaches.org ) 5.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you are a very strict follower of the the low-tyramine diet from the National Headache Foundation or David Buchholz’ Heal Your Headache , then substitute poached salmon.

[33] .However, a 2003 review article concluded that there was no scientific evidence for an effect of tyramine on migraine.^ However, there is no head pain.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no side effects.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no blood tests or imaging techniques that can be used to diagnose migraine headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.Other A 2005 literature review found that the available information about dietary trigger factors relies mostly on the subjective assessments of patients.^ A Swedish study, published in the Environmental Science and Technology Review , found that chemicals from computer screens can cause allergies and other problems, including headaches.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

^ Gronseth GS, Greenberg MK. The utility of the electroencephalogram in the evaluation of patients presenting with headache: a review of the literature.

^ Further relevant information on causes of Migraine may be found in: Risk factors for Migraine Medications that may cause Migraine Genetics of Migraine Hidden causes of Migraine Causes of Migraine: Online Medical Books .
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[28] .Some suspected dietary trigger factors appear to genuinely promote or precipitate migraine episodes, but many other suspected dietary triggers have never been demonstrated to trigger migraines.^ Some migraines appear to be triggered by certain foods.

^ Studies have demonstrated some effectiveness from biofeedback for migraine headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nutritional Supplements There are many vitamins and other essential nutrients which can have an effect on the complex hormonal processes that cause migraines.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The review authors found that alcohol, caffeine withdrawal, and missing meals are the most important dietary migraine precipitants, that dehydration deserved more attention, and that some patients report sensitivity to red wine.^ Red wine is the most likely and vodka is the least likely alcoholic beverage to cause a migraine.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most likely, several factors are involved, and more than one stimulus can light the fuse that leads to a full-blown migraine attack.

^ It was found that headache and migraine sufferers experienced significantly more relief from acupuncture than patients who were administered "sham" acupuncture.
  • Acupuncture Treats Headaches and Migraines 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.acufinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Little or no evidence associated notorious suspected triggers like chocolate, cheese, histamine, tyramine, nitrates, or nitrites with migraines.^ What is likely triggering my migraines?

^ They are most likely migraine triggers.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tyramine-containing foods like chocolate and cheese are also triggers.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.However, the review authors also note that while general dietary restriction has not been demonstrated to be an effective migraine therapy, it is beneficial for the individual to avoid what has been a definite cause of the migraine.^ When people with migraine headaches first consult a physician, they are generally advised to identify such triggers, and avoid them if possible.

^ However, while they are dramatically effective for the majority of people with migraines, a substantial minority do not respond, for reasons that are unclear.

^ I generally make few restrictions on such triggers but remind patients that specific triggers like hot dogs, chocolate and cheeses can trigger migraine but often don’t do so in all patients.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Weather

.Several studies have found some migraines are triggered by changes in weather.^ Migraines can be set off by a variety of triggers, including fatigue, stress, hormonal changes, and foods such as alcoholic beverages, chocolate, peanuts, and avocados.

^ Tags: migraine triggers , migraines , Pollution and Migraines , Weather and Migraines Posted in News .
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted On May 14, 2008 07:03:26 AM ...ge and some lunch meat), certain wines, caffeine avoidance, and certain medications will trigger a migraine in me.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.One study noted 62% of the subjects thought weather was a factor but only 51% were sensitive to weather changes.^ Migraineurs appear to inherit a more “sensitive” nervous system, that is, one that is prone to react and overreact to changes in the internal or external environment.

^ Weather — especially changes in air pressure — is frequently cited as a headache trigger but it had not previously been shown in such a large, well-designed study.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a combination of weather changes and fatigue can make headaches more likely than the presence of just one of these events.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[35] .Among those whose migraines did occur during a change in weather, the subjects often picked a weather change other than the actual weather data recorded.^ For those who experience migraines , certain factors may bring on an attack, such as stress, lack of sleep, weather and hormones.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Hormonal changes in women on account of menstrual cycles, or during pregnancy Symptoms Migraines are often accompanied by symptoms like nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, depression and sensitivity to light, sound and smell.
  • Headaches Migraine Relief, Natural Migraine Treatment | Cure Migraines | Alternative, Herbal Remedies 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraines occur more often in women than men, and may run in families.

Most likely to trigger a migraine were, in order:
  1. Temperature mixed with humidity. High humidity plus high or low temperature was the biggest cause.
  2. Significant changes in weather
  3. Changes in barometric pressure
.Another study examined the effects of warm chinook winds on migraines, with many patients reporting increased incidence of migraines immediately before and/or during the chinook winds.^ Epidemiologic study of migraine in epileptic patients.

^ Many patients report scalp tenderness.

^ Studies have shown that sodium increases before and during headache periods.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

.The number of people reporting migrainous episodes during the chinook winds was higher on high-wind chinook days.^ Antidepressant Side Effects Product Review: Excedrin Migraine Many people suffer from migraine headaches every day.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ But during those thirteen days the nation braced for attack, the records noted no Migraines during that stressful period for President Kennedy.
  • Migraine Blog: Current Affairs 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.migraineblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a study of 60 patients, candesartan was reported to reduce days with migraine, migraine severity and disability level (Tronvik et al, 2003).
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

The probable cause was thought to be an increase in positive ions in the air.[36]

Other

.One study found that for some migraineurs in India, washing hair in a bath was a migraine trigger.^ Some studies estimate that between 5% and 10% of children may experience migraines but that the disorder is underdiagnosed in children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have demonstrated some effectiveness from biofeedback for migraine headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted On May 14, 2008 07:03:26 AM ...ge and some lunch meat), certain wines, caffeine avoidance, and certain medications will trigger a migraine in me.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

The triggering effect also had to do with how the hair was later dried.[37]
.Strong fragrances have also been identified as potential triggers, and some sufferers report an increased sensitivity to scent as an aura effect.^ People who suffer tension-type headaches may also feel overly sensitive to light and sound but there is no pre-headache aura as with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies report dramatic relief with the stratified approach, although side effects may be more severe.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ziegler and Hassanein11 reported that 44% of their patients who had headache with aura had aura without headache at some time.

[38]

Pathophysiology

.Migraines were once thought to be initiated exclusively by problems with blood vessels.^ When the blood vessels leak a protein fluid during an extended full blown migraine attack, a considerable amount of inflammation develops along the blood vessel.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A diet that prevents low-blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can cause dilation of the blood vessels in the head, may help some migraine sufferers.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cause of migraine headache is believed to be related to abnormal serotonin function in blood vessels, 32 and 5-hydroxytryptophan ( 5-HTP , which is converted by the body into serotonin) may affect this abnormality.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]

.The vascular theory of migraines is now considered secondary to brain dysfunction[39] and claimed to have been discredited by others.^ The diagnosis of basilar-type migraine should be considered in patients with paroxysmal brain stem disturbances.

^ They now believe migraine is caused by inherited abnormalities in certain cells in the brain.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, there is reasonable evidence in the other direction -- for example, migraine is associated with a mutation in a gene that controls a potent vasoconstrictor (Tzourio et al, 2001), and there is also evidence for vascular muscle dysfunction in migraine (Napoli et al, 2009).

[40] .Trigger points can be at least part of the cause, and perpetuate most kinds of headaches.^ However, organic causes of headache must still be excluded, at least by history and physical examination.

^ Sometimes they are part of the cause of headaches, however, when hormones are erroneously blamed for migraines, not only are the migraines not eliminated with hormone treatment, but, in addition, the hormone treatment can do long lasting harm to the body.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The requirement for at least five attacks is imposed because headaches simulating migraine may be caused by such organic diseases as brain tumors, sinusitis, or glaucoma.

[41]
.The effects of migraine may persist for some days after the main headache has ended.^ Is this some form of migraine headache?
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ptosis may persist for days or weeks.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zonegran, another anticonvulsant, may have some anti-migraine effects too.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many sufferers report a sore feeling in the area where the migraine was, and some report impaired thinking for a few days after the headache has passed.^ Many migraine sufferers have a close relative who also suffers from the headaches.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people also feel sick and some vomit with the headache.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is this some form of migraine headache?
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Migraine headaches can be a symptom of Hypothyroidism since both can be caused by anxiety disorders.^ Hypothyroidism (low thyroid) has headaches, including migraines , as one of its symptoms.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

^ Primary Headache Disorders, including Migraine .
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many conditions cause headache as a symptom.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[42][43]
.A melanopsin-based receptor has been linked to the association between light sensitivity and migraine pain.^ They are effective in relieving the pain, nausea and sensitivity to light and sound that are associated with migraines.

^ Link between migraine and heart defect?
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraines are recurrent headaches separated by symptom-free intervals and accompanied by nausea and light sensitivity.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

[44]

Depolarization theory

.A phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression can cause migraines.^ Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to underlie the migraine aura.

^ Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a process in migraine with aura in which a wave of increased brain activity, followed by decreased activity, slowly spreads along the brain's surface.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brain chemicals called neurotransmitters are involved in creating head pain, as are changes in nerve cell activity (called cortical spreading depression ).
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .In cortical spreading depression, neurological activity is depressed over an area of the cortex of the brain.^ Leão AAP (1944) Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Leao AA. Spreading depression of activity in cerebral cortex.

^ He currently is exploring how spreading depression and environmental enrichment (i.e., increased social, physical and intellectual activity), which share similar molecular and cellular bases, make brain more resilient against brain disease, an area termed “neurological preventive health.” .
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This situation results in the release of inflammatory mediators leading to irritation of cranial nerve roots, most particularly the trigeminal nerve, which conveys the sensory information for the face and much of the head.^ Nerves in the neck converge in the trigeminal nerve in the face and can generate pain signals that the brain may interpret as headache.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Glia cells are regarded as a mediator of neuroinflammation releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in the central nervous system.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The nerves that lead out from the spine can be irritated when there is a subluxation, and this can cause migraines.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This view is supported by neuroimaging techniques, which appear to show that migraine is primarily a disorder of the brain (neurological), not of the blood vessels (vascular).^ Disorders of blood vessels in the brain , including stroke.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the past few decades, however, evidence has strongly suggested that it is a much more complex brain disorder, which involves a complicated interaction of nerve cells and blood vessel dilation.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no blood tests or imaging techniques that can be used to diagnose migraine headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.A spreading depolarization (electrical change) may begin 24 hours before the attack, with onset of the headache occurring around the time when the largest area of the brain is depolarized.^ The aura may occur without headache pain, which can strike at any time.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The headache itself may begin before, at the same time, or at an interval of no more than an hour after the hour.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They may occur hours or days before an attack.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A French study in 2007, using the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technique identified the hypothalamus as being critically involved in the early stages.^ Several drug studies seek to identify new drugs to treat various headache disorders and to find safer, more effective doses for medications already being used.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]

Vascular theory

.Migraines can begin when blood vessels in the brain contract and expand inappropriately.^ When the blood vessels leak a protein fluid during an extended full blown migraine attack, a considerable amount of inflammation develops along the blood vessel.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A diet that prevents low-blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can cause dilation of the blood vessels in the head, may help some migraine sufferers.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Answer: Migraine headaches are caused by spasm or contraction of the arteries of the brain.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may start in the occipital lobe, in the back of the brain, as arteries spasm.^ Answer: Migraine headaches are caused by spasm or contraction of the arteries of the brain.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to this theory, the nervous system responds to a trigger such as stress by causing a spasm of the nerve-rich arteries at the base of the brain.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although auras are relatively specific for migraine, related phenomena may occur in cerebrovascular disease, including carotid dissection, and in epilepsy, especially of the occipital lobes.

.The reduced flow of blood from the occipital lobe triggers the aura that some individuals who have migraines experience because the visual cortex is in the occipital area.^ Certain regions of reduced blood flow are associated with auras.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This drug should not be used by patients with coronary artery disease and must be discontinued for 34 weeks after 46 months of use because it can cause retroperitoneal fibrosis, a condition in which the blood vessels in the abdomen thicken, which reduces blood flow to organs.
  • Migraines Page ~ APS Foundation of America, Inc. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.apsfa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies estimate that between 5% and 10% of children may experience migraines but that the disorder is underdiagnosed in children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[39]
.When the constriction stops and the blood vessels dilate, they become too wide.^ Triptans narrow (constrict) blood vessels.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ergotamines function by constricting blood vessels.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicotine constricts the blood vessels.
  • Headache Remedies - Health 911 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.health911.com [Source type: General]

.The once solid walls of the blood vessels become permeable and some fluid leaks out.^ When the blood vessels leak a protein fluid during an extended full blown migraine attack, a considerable amount of inflammation develops along the blood vessel.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A diet that prevents low-blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can cause dilation of the blood vessels in the head, may help some migraine sufferers.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, the blood vessel begins to leak a protein fluid into the surrounding tissues.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This leakage is recognized by pain receptors in the blood vessels of surrounding tissue.^ As a result, the blood vessel begins to leak a protein fluid into the surrounding tissues.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A subarachnoid hemorrhage is the rupture of a blood vessel located within the subarachnoid space-a fluid-filled space between layers of connective tissue (meninges) that surround the brain.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pain occurs in phase II, when the blood vessels of the head and neck over-react and re-expand to larger than the normal size.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response, the body supplies the area with chemicals which cause inflammation.^ Chemicals which cause inflammation and swelling, and substances which increase sensitivity to pain, are also released.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation in arteries that carry blood to the head, neck, and sometimes the upper part of the body can cause very severe headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.With each heart beat, blood passes through this sensitive area causing a throb of pain.^ With each heart beat, the blood pushes through these vessels and expands them further, causing intense pain.
  • Migraine headaches Herbal Home Remdies,Natural Cure 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.divineremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An exception is malignant hypertension, an uncommon medical emergency, in which the blood pressure abruptly rises to extreme levels, causing damage to blood vessels in the brain, heart, and kidneys.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of this effect, very rarely spasms in the blood vessels may occur and cause serious side effects, including stroke and heart attack.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[39]
.The vascular theory of migraines is now seen as secondary to brain dysfunction.^ Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction in migraine .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They now believe migraine is caused by inherited abnormalities in certain cells in the brain.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until recently, the general theory on the migraine process rested solely on the idea that abnormalities of blood vessel (vascular) systems in the head were responsible for migraines.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[39][47]

Serotonin theory

.Serotonin is a type of neurotransmitter, or "communication chemical" which passes messages between nerve cells.^ (A neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger that allows communication between nerves in the brain.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs act at the peripheral cholinergic and adrenergic synapses by inhibiting breakdown of neurotransmitters, thus elevating these chemicals in the critical interface between neurons.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brain chemicals called neurotransmitters are involved in creating head pain, as are changes in nerve cell activity (called cortical spreading depression ).
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It helps to control mood, pain sensation, sexual behaviour, sleep, as well as dilation and constriction of the blood vessels among other things.^ Remember that the pain begins when the blood vessels dilate.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the blood vessels dilate, the headache pain starts.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serotonin causes blood vessels to constrict and lowers the pain threshold.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Low serotonin levels in the brain may lead to a process of constriction and dilation of the blood vessels which trigger a migraine.^ Migraine attacks may be triggered by: .

^ Oversleep may also trigger migraine.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Levels of serotonin in the blood drop.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[39] .Triptans activate serotonin receptors to stop a migraine attack.^ Triptans are very effective in stopping acute migraine attacks.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A wide variety of medications are used to stop migraine attacks.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other research is aimed at identifying receptors or drug targets to stop the process of migraine aura in the brain.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39]

Neural theory

.When certain nerves or an area in the brain stem become irritated, a migraine begins.^ Today, most medical experts believe the attack actually begins in the brain itself, where it involves various nerve pathways and chemicals.

^ Migraines are very painful headaches that usually begin on only one side of the head and may become worse with exposure to light.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study component is investigating what happens at the beginning of a headache and how changes in the brain's meninges may lead to vascular and trigeminal nerve stimulation associated with the painful part of a migraine headache.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response to the irritation, the body releases chemicals which cause inflammation of the blood vessels.^ At the same time, blood-clotting particles called platelets clump together-a process which is believed to release a chemical called serotonin.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the blood vessels leak a protein fluid during an extended full blown migraine attack, a considerable amount of inflammation develops along the blood vessel.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the cause is ruptured blood vessels, which result in an accumulation of blood called a hematoma.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These chemicals cause further irritation of the nerves and blood vessels and results in pain.^ Serotonin causes blood vessels to constrict and lowers the pain threshold.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the cause is ruptured blood vessels, which result in an accumulation of blood called a hematoma.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these cases, further evaluation is usually performed to ensure no other cause since migraines usually have pain with their onset.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Substance P is one of the substances released with first irritation. .Pain then increases because substance P aids in sending pain signals to the brain.^ The thalamus controls the body's sensitivity to light and noise and sends messages to parts of the brain that manage awareness of pain and emotional response to it.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nerves in the neck converge in the trigeminal nerve in the face and can generate pain signals that the brain may interpret as headache.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemicals which cause inflammation and swelling, and substances which increase sensitivity to pain, are also released.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[39]

Unifying theory

.Both vascular and neural influences cause migraines.^ Causes Although much about the cause of migraines isn't understood, genetics and environmental factors seem to both play a role.
  • Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

  1. stress triggers changes in the brain
  2. these changes cause serotonin to be released
  3. blood vessels constrict and dilate
  4. chemicals including substance P irritate nerves and blood vessels causing neurogenic inflammation and pain[39]

Prevention

.Preventive (also called prophylactic) treatment of migraines can be an important component of migraine management.^ First, and most important, is preventative treatment.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An effective stress management system can help a migraine sufferer prevent or minimize headaches triggered by these factors and can contribute to a sense of overall good health.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The standard for treatment of frequent migraines is preventative medicine and abortive medicine when needed.

.Such treatments can take many forms, including everything from taking certain drugs or nutritional supplements, to lifestyle alterations such as increased exercise and avoidance of migraine triggers.^ There are so many possible triggers for migraines.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For many individuals, Migraine s are triggered by certain foods.
  • Caffeine And Migraines | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Certain factors are known to trigger migraines.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The goals of preventive therapy are to reduce the frequency, painfulness, and/or duration of migraines, and to increase the effectiveness of abortive therapy.^ The standard for treatment of frequent migraines is preventative medicine and abortive medicine when needed.

^ Drugs to treat/prevent frequent migraines .
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preventive medications can reduce the frequency, severity and length of migraines and may increase the effectiveness of symptom-relieving medicines used during migraine attacks.
  • Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[48] .Another reason to pursue these goals is to avoid medication overuse headache (MOH), otherwise known as rebound headache, which is a common problem among migraneurs.^ The main problem here is "rebound" headaches.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Weve been very quietly going about the business of investigating gynecologic and female medical problems - and in the process discovered how to eliminate migraine headaches .

^ If the child or adult gets a warning (aura), the headache may be avoided or much reduced by taking medication immediately, before the pain starts .
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is believed to occur in part due to overuse of pain medications, and can result in chronic daily headache.^ The result is headache pain.

^ Chronic attacks occur on a daily or near-daily basis for a year or more with only brief remissions.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the child or adult gets a warning (aura), the headache may be avoided or much reduced by taking medication immediately, before the pain starts .
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49][50]
.Many of the preventive treatments are quite effective: Even with a placebo, one-quarter of patients find that their migraine frequency is reduced by half or more, and actual treatments often far exceed this figure.^ The standard for treatment of frequent migraines is preventative medicine and abortive medicine when needed.

^ The management of a migraine patient is often challenging.

^ In one study that investigated their use for migraine prevention, more than half of patients experienced a reduction in frequency of severe attacks.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[51] .There are many medicines available to prevent or reduce frequency, duration and severity of migraine attacks.^ The standard for treatment of frequent migraines is preventative medicine and abortive medicine when needed.

^ Reduce frequency of attacks and severity when they occur.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although there's no cure, medications can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines.
  • Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.They may also prevent complications of migraine.^ Antiepileptic agents, such as divalproex sodium, gabapentin, and topiramate, may prevent attacks of both migraine and epilepsy.
  • Migraine Comorbidity - Migraine Comorbidity - 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.headachecare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Prophylactic medications : For those who have more than 2 severe headaches/month and in patients with complicated migraine (migraine with stroke-like features), a daily medication may be worth while.

^ They may be used for prevention of migraine under the following circumstances: Nonprescription NSAIDs.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, flunarizine, sodium valproate, topiramate are some of the commonly used drugs.^ Examples of drugs that are used include dihydroergotamine (with or without metoclopramide), NSAIDs (in mild cases), corticosteroids, or valproate.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs containing ergotamine (commonly called ergots) constrict smooth muscles, including those in blood vessels, and are useful for migraine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Like any drug with analgesic properties, it can be used to relieve some of the pain of a migraine.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But they need to be taken for about 3 months or more.^ They must be taken for weeks to months before any benefit is noticed.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 35% of those with migraine have 3 or more migraines per month.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It's normal during breast-feeding for a woman to have no menstrual periods for a time which can be 3 months, 2 years or more, averaging about 14 months.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Management

.Conventional treatment focuses on three areas: trigger avoidance, symptomatic control, and prophylactic pharmacological drugs.^ The key to the control of migraine is preventative treatment rather than symptomatic treatment.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Palevitch D, Earon G, Carasso R. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) as a prophylactic treatment for migraine: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Preventative treatment consists of: medication, dietary restrictions, identification and avoidance of triggers, and behavior modification.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Patients who experience migraines often find that the recommended migraine treatments are not 100% effective at preventing migraines, and sometimes may not be effective at all.^ Petasites hybridus root (butterbur) is an effective preventive treatment for migraine.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Menstrual migraine is sometimes difficult to prevent.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I generally make few restrictions on such triggers but remind patients that specific triggers like hot dogs, chocolate and cheeses can trigger migraine but often don’t do so in all patients.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pharmacological treatments are considered effective if they reduce the frequency or severity of migraine attacks by 50%.^ Reduce frequency of attacks and severity when they occur.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both compounds reduced the frequency of migraines by about 50%.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduce frequency of attacks and severity of migraines without auras.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[52]
.Children and adolescents are often first given drug treatment, but the value of diet modification should not be overlooked.^ Simple non-drug treatment that should be tried first Ice or heat to head (try both at different times to find out if they work for you) Massage See " alternative methods " for more options 3.

^ Such patients have usually received an inadequate treatment and have often become neurotic and drug-dependent."
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Egger J, Carter CM, Soothill JF, Wilson J. Oligoantigenic diet treatment of children with epilepsy and migraine.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

.The simple task of starting a diet journal to help modify the intake of trigger foods like hot dogs, chocolate, cheese and ice cream could help alleviate symptoms.^ Tyramine-containing foods like chocolate and cheese are also triggers.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Keeping a diet journal will help identify food triggers.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Red wine, aged cheeses and processed meats (like hot dogs and bologna) are good examples.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.For patients who have been diagnosed with recurring migraines, migraine abortive medications can be used to treat the attack, and may be more effective if taken early, losing effectiveness once the attack has begun.^ Independent migraine attacks occurred in 9% of the patients.

^ A wide variety of medications are used to stop migraine attacks.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Confusional migraine may be difficult to diagnose.

.Treating the attack at the onset can often abort it before it becomes serious, and can reduce the near-term frequency of subsequent attacks.^ Intensity, duration, and frequency of attacks of migraine were significantly reduced in all participants in whom the H. pylori was eradicated.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduce frequency of attacks and severity when they occur.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Double-blind trials have demonstrated that butterbur extract can reduce the frequency of migraine attacks significantly better than placebo.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Paracetamol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs)

.The first line of treatment is over-the-counter abortive medication.^ In order to effectively stop an attack, the abortive medication must be taken within ten to fifteen minutes after the first symptom.
  • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Triptans should not, in any case, be the first-line treatment for children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Always advise your doctor of any medications or treatments you are using, including prescription, over-the-counter, supplements, herbal or alternative treatments.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Regarding non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a randomized controlled trial found that naproxen can abort about one third of migraine attacks, which was 5% less than the benefit of sumatriptan.^ If drugs used for migraine attack are ineffective.
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The attacks are usually less frequent and shorter than migraines.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is a very effective drug to abort a migraine attack.
    • Migraines, Cluster Headaches, Chronic Headaches: migraine treatment, symptoms, medications, and information 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.kirchnerheadacheclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [54]
  • .
  • Paracetamol (known as acetaminophen in North America) benefited over half of patients with mild or moderate migraines in a randomized controlled trial.^ A randomized controlled trial.
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ PFO researcher Peter Wilmshurst, MB, of the UK’s Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, tells WebMD that about half of patients with a specific type of migraine known as migraine with aura have large PFOs or similar openings in their hearts compared to about 5% of the population at large.
    • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hemiplegic migraine : Patients with hemiplegic migraine have temporary paralysis on one side of the body, a condition known as hemiplegia.
    • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [55]
  • .
  • Simple analgesics combined with caffeine may help.^ Small amounts of caffeine may help relieve symptoms during a migraine's early stages.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Combination analgesics involve a mix of drugs such as acetaminophen plus caffeine and/or a narcotic for migraine that may be resistant to simple analgesics.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [56] .During a migraine attack, emptying of the stomach is slowed, resulting in nausea and a delay in absorbing medication.^ Patients commonly deal with a migraine by taking some kind of pain relief medication, lying in bed, struggling with nausea and vomiting and trying to minimize lights, noises and smells that can either trigger a migraine attack or make it worse.
    • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These may result, at least in part, from the perceived (and actual) loss of control that comes with recurring migraine attacks.
    • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Migraine is divided into four phases, all of which may be present during the attack: .
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Caffeine has been shown to partially reverse this effect. .Excedrin is an example of an aspirin with caffeine product.^ Daily caffeine also helps most migraine sufferers, sometimes even taken as pill(excedrin for example).
    • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Caffeine is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an Over The Counter Drug (OTC) treatment for migraine when compounded with aspirin and paracetamol.^ Exedrin Migraine Acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine .
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Secondly, are the treatment drugs like Zomig and Imitrex- I assume you are using these with the onset of the migraines?
    • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [57] .Even by itself, caffeine can be helpful during an attack,[58][59] despite the fact that in general migraine-sufferers are advised to limit their caffeine intake.^ Dec 09, 09:58:59 I have read that some people have been to see an Ophthalmologist (eye doctor) and have been diagnosed with having high blood pressure behind the eyes leading to daily migraines.Its a long shot but it may help.
    • Migraine video compilations | migraine Videos 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migrainessymptoms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In fact migraine sufferers increase their risks to serious side effects such as strokes, which can be life-altering - or worse, life-threatening.
    • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ An effective stress management system can help a migraine sufferer prevent or minimize headaches triggered by these factors and can contribute to a sense of overall good health.
    • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [59]
.Patients themselves often start off with paracetamol, aspirin, ibuprofen, or other simple analgesics that are useful for tension headaches.^ Especially useful for tension headache.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Migraine headaches are often misdiagnosed by patients themselves as sinus headaches.

^ Biofeedback : Used for headaches with a tension component.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.OTC drugs may provide some relief, although they are typically not effective for most sufferers.^ Muscle relaxants, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants may provide some relief.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corticosteroids may also provide temporary relief from some symptoms.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a group of researchers from the Ohio State University Medical Center a new magnetic device may provide them with non-pharmacological relief.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

.In all, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved three OTC products specifically for migraine: Excedrin Migraine, Advil Migraine, and Motrin Migraine Pain.^ I take this drug occasionally to help relieve the pain associated with migraine.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 1/3 of all migraine sufferers are helped by avoiding certain foods or drugs.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug companies are also part of the problem, spending billions of dollars touting their products – prescription drugs all.

.Excedrin Migraine, as mentioned above, is a combination of aspirin, acetaminophen, and caffeine.^ Answer: Exedrin is a combination of aspirin/acetaminophen/caffeine.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exedrin Migraine Acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine .
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetaminophen plus aspirin plus caffeine.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Both Advil Migraine and Motrin Migraine Pain are straight NSAIDs, with ibuprofen as the only active ingredient.^ However, one important mechanism may be that non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS, which include ibuprofen and naproxen), which are very effective against migraine, can reduce inflammation; this in turn, can lessen pain at the meninges.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraines are very painful headaches that usually begin on only one side of the head and may become worse with exposure to light.
  • Migraine Headache 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I have 5 sisters only two of us get migraine,we both took the pill for a short time the other sisters did not!

[60]

Analgesics combined with antiemetics

.Antiemetics by mouth may help relieve symtoms of nausea and help prevent vomiting, which can diminish the effectiveness of orally taken analgesia.^ Symptoms may include nausea and vomiting.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An effective stress management system can help a migraine sufferer prevent or minimize headaches triggered by these factors and can contribute to a sense of overall good health.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calcium channel blockers may help prevent migraine in people who are prone.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition some antiemetics such as metoclopramide are prokinetics and help gastric emptying which is often impaired during episodes of migraine.^ In addition, researchers have found ways to help many migraine sufferers ease the pain of migraines, often without medication.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Impaired functioning during this phase adds substantially to the burden of migraine.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the migraines are happening most of the time at the same stage of a menstrual cycle, use of hormones such as the ones in some types of the Pill may help avoid a headache.
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK there are three combination antiemetic and analgesic preparations available: MigraMax (aspirin with metoclopramide), Migraleve (paracetamol/codeine for analgesia, with buclizine as the antiemetic) and paracetamol/metoclopramide (Paramax in UK).^ Researchers have combined a high-dose NSAID (equivalent to 900 mg of aspirin) with metoclopramide (Reglan), a drug that prevents nausea and vomiting.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[61] .The earlier these drugs are taken in the attack, the better their effect.^ Of course even the intended effects of these drugs are, for most migraine patients, just more side effects.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs also have some utility as abortive agents, presumably because of their effects on the dopamine pathways.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are also older drugs, called ergots, that have similar effects but have more side effects -- examples of these types of drugs are: Cafergot, DHE, and Ergotamine.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some patients find relief from taking other sedative antihistamines which have anti-nausea properties, such as Benadryl which in the US contains diphenhydramine (but a different non-sedative product in the UK).^ Patients commonly deal with a migraine by taking some kind of pain relief medication, lying in bed, struggling with nausea and vomiting and trying to minimize lights, noises and smells that can either trigger a migraine attack or make it worse.
  • Migraine | HealthyWomen 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These drugs can be effective in migraine prevention in some patients and are usually used if other medications fail in prevention.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you find yourself in this situation, trying to lose some weight might be your greatest source of relief.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Serotonin agonists

.Sumatriptan and related selective serotonin receptor agonists are excellent for severe migraines or those that do not respond to NSAIDs[54] or other over-the-counter drugs.^ Epileptic migraine responds to sumatriptan.

^ The headache and associated symptoms of migraine with aura are similar to those of migraine without aura but may be less severe, of shorter duration, or both.

^ Disadvantage: Most NSAIDs are not effective alone for severe migraines.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[55] .Triptans are a mid-line treatment suitable for many migraineurs with typical migraines.^ (Triptans should not, in any case, be the first-line treatment for children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (7) Nutritional Treatments (7.1) Food Sensitivity Many books agree that chocolate is the most likely food to cause migraines.
  • Natural Migraine Treatment FAQ 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many individuals suffering with migraines prefer natural treatment but aren’t always able to find them, so they resort to prescription medication when there is no other alternative.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They may not work for atypical or unusually severe migraines, transformed migraines, or status (continuous) migraines.^ The headache and associated symptoms of migraine with aura are similar to those of migraine without aura but may be less severe, of shorter duration, or both.

^ Status migrainosus is a rare and severe type of acute migraine in which disabling pain and nausea can last 72 hours or longer.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women with migraine who take oral contraceptives may experience changes in the frequency and severity of attacks, while women who do not suffer from headaches may develop migraines as a side effect of oral contraceptives.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of migraines, but have been found to be effective by clinical consensus.^ The selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and similar agents.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Feverfew + ginger found effective in acute treatment of migraine .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a variety of drugs for these treatment methods.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

Antidepressants

.Tricyclic antidepressants have been long established as highly efficacious prophylactic treatments.^ The types of antidepressants used for migraine treatment include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (which are also used to treat tension-type headaches).
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .These drugs, however, may give rise to undesirable side effects, such as insomnia, sedation or sexual dysfunction.^ If side effects occur, the patient should call a physician, but it is extremely important not to stop the drug abruptly.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Coronary side-effect potential of current and prospective antimigraine drugs .
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies report dramatic relief with the stratified approach, although side effects may be more severe.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.SSRIs antidepressants are less established than tricyclics for migraines prophylaxis.^ After being diagnosed by a wonderful psychologist and and prescribed an appropriate antidepressant, my migraines have become less frequent.

^ The pain centers around one eye and is usually less intense than in a standard migraine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of retinal migraine are short-term blind spots or total blindness in one eye that lasts less than an hour.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Despite the absence of FDA approval for migraine treatment, antidepressants are widely prescribed.^ After being diagnosed by a wonderful psychologist and and prescribed an appropriate antidepressant, my migraines have become less frequent.

^ Zoloft for Migraine Prevention [posted 7/23/98] Question: I have been prescribed Zoloft in combination with Toprol for the treatment of chronic headaches (most likely migraines).
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I would love to give you the results of the treatment you have prescribed to be free of the migraine headaches I had.

[52] .In addition to tricyclics and SSRIs, the anti-depressant nefazodone may also be beneficial in the prophylaxis of migraines due to its antagonistic effects on the 5-HT2A[62] and 5-HT2C receptors[63][64] It has a more favorable side effect profile than amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant commonly used for migraine prophylaxis.^ Has more severe side effects than triptans.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Epilepsy may be viewed as a more serious disorder than migraine.

^ [For more extensive information on antidepressants, including side effects, see Report #8, Depression.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Anti-depressants offer advantages for treating migraine patients with comorbid depression.^ She takes Elavil, an anti-depressant, for migraine prevention.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although tricyclic antidepressants and neuroleptic drugs are often used to treat migraine in patients with comorbid epilepsy, caution is advisable, as these medications may lower seizure thresholds.

^ I remember very well working in the emergency room, treating all the chronic migraine patients with intravenous narcotics and nausea medication.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

[52]

Ergot alkaloids

.Until the introduction of sumatriptan in 1991, ergot derivatives (see ergoline) were the primary oral drugs available to abort a migraine once it is established.^ Drugs containing ergotamine (commonly called ergots) constrict smooth muscles, including those in blood vessels, and are useful for migraine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Eliminate your migraines without seeing a doctor Tells you why you won’t need to buy expensive prescription drugs.

^ There are two basic types of medications used to treat migraines: drugs to prevent migraines from occurring and drugs to treat the headache once it...
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ergot drugs can be used either as a preventive or abortive therapy, though their relative expense and cumulative side effects suggest reserving them as an abortive rescue medicine.^ Second are drugs used to prevent migraines.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If side effects occur, the patient should call a physician, but it is extremely important not to stop the drug abruptly.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, ergotamine tartrate tablets (usually with caffeine), though highly effective, and long lasting (unlike triptans), have fallen out of favour due to the problem of ergotism.^ Sometimes they are part of the cause of headaches, however, when hormones are erroneously blamed for migraines, not only are the migraines not eliminated with hormone treatment, but, in addition, the hormone treatment can do long lasting harm to the body.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pain and other effects (including feeling sick, vomiting) are the same as a common migraine, but may not last as long (usually less than 24 hours).
  • Parenting and Child Health - Health Topics - Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be difficult to identify the type of headache because children often have problems describing where it hurts, how often the headaches occur, and how long they last.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oral ergotamine tablet absorption is reliable unless the patient is nauseated.^ Ergotamine itself is available in oral tablets (Ergomar, Wigraine, Ercaf) and in rectal suppositories (Cafergot).
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Anti-nausea administration is available by ergotamine suppository (or Ergostat sublingual tablets made until circa 1992).^ Ergotamine itself is available in oral tablets (Ergomar, Wigraine, Ercaf) and in rectal suppositories (Cafergot).
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ergot drugs themselves can be so nauseating it is advisable for the sufferer to have something at hand to counteract this effect when first using this drug.^ Drugs containing ergotamine (commonly called ergots) constrict smooth muscles, including those in blood vessels, and are useful for migraine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First, if headaches occur infrequently (e.g., less tha n four times a month) an abortive agent – something that stops the progression of symptoms once started – can be used.
  • Migraine: Mechanisms and Management - a knol by Richard P. Kraig, Ph.D., M.D. 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And normal women who do not suffer from headaches may develop migraines as a side effect when they use oral contraceptives.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ergotamine-caffeine 1/100 mg fixed ratio tablets (like Cafergot, Ercaf, etc.^ Cafergot, Wigraine, and Ercaf contain caffeine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ergotamine itself is available in oral tablets (Ergomar, Wigraine, Ercaf) and in rectal suppositories (Cafergot).
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was less than $3.00 for 100 250 mg tablets, so the price seemed pretty fair.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

) are much less expensive per headache than triptans, and are commonly available in Asia and Romania (Cofedol). .They are difficult to obtain in the USA. Ergotamine-caffeine can't be regularly used to abort evening or night onset migraines due to debilitating caffeine interference with sleep.^ If you have onset of a migraine and vertigo, relief of the migraine with Imitrex should relieve the vertigo if they are related.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secondly, are the treatment drugs like Zomig and Imitrex- I assume you are using these with the onset of the migraines?
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drugs containing ergotamine (commonly called ergots) constrict smooth muscles, including those in blood vessels, and are useful for migraine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Pure ergotamine tartrate is highly effective for evening-night migraines, but is rarely or never available in the USA. Dihydroergotamine (DHE), which must be injected or inhaled, can be as effective as ergotamine tartrate, but is much more expensive than $2 USD Cafergot tablets.^ I rarely get migraines any more.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, sumatriptan relieves migraines more quickly than ergotamine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In general, attacks of migraine are of more gradual onset and longer duration than epileptic seizures.

Steroids

.Based on a recent meta analysis a single dose of IV dexamethasone, when added to standard treatment, is associated with a 26% decrease in headache recurrence.^ The patient should report any other conditions that might be associated with headache, including but not limited the following: Any chronic or recent illness and their treatments.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies by other investigators are adding insight to headache etiology and treatment.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obstet Gynecol 2000:96:237-242 Solbach MP, Waymer RS. treatment of mensturation-associated migraine headache with subcutaneous sumatriptan.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

[65]

Other agents

.If over-the-counter medications do not work, or if triptans are unaffordable, the next step for many doctors is to prescribe Fioricet or Fiorinal, which is a combination of butalbital (a barbiturate), paracetamol (in Fioricet) or acetylsalicylic acid (more commonly known as aspirin and present in Fiorinal), and caffeine.^ Butalbital (a barbiturate) plus other compounds including aspirin and caffeine (Fiorinal, Issocet, Endolor, Femcet) or acetaminophen (Phenilin, Axocet, Bucet, Fioricet) .
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If you tried going to your own insurance plan doctor, the co-pay, deductible and costs for prescription medications (that don’t even work) would be many times higher than our publication.

^ More recently the triptans have been deemed to work by inhibiting the release of CGRP, and a new generation of CGRP inhibitors have been under development for some time.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

.While the risk of addiction is low, butalbital can be habit-forming if used daily, and it can also lead to rebound headaches.^ It should not be used for any other form of headache.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A doubling of risk sounds scary, but in absolute terms, it’s still low,” says Dr. Stephen Silberstein, a migraine specialist at the Jefferson Headache Center in Philadelphia.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-steroidals or "NSAID" medications are both useful for pain at the time of headache, and may also help on a daily basis.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Barbiturate-containing medications are not available in many European countries.^ Find the right medicine – there are many more medications available for migraines than there used to be.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications implicated in rebound migraines include simple painkillers (eg, acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen), barbiturates, sedatives, narcotics, and migraine medications, particularly those that also contain caffeine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The good news is that now in the 21st century numerous medications specifically for migraines have been developed and are available to migraine sufferers in many places throughout the U.S. and beyond.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amidrine, Duradrin, and Midrin is a combination of acetaminophen, dichloralphenazone, and isometheptene often prescribed for migraine headaches.^ Primary stabbing headache occurs most often in people who have migraine, hemicrania continua, tension-type, or cluster headaches.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are beneficial for patients with combination tension and migraine headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Children may often have a form of migraine known as a migraine equivalent or abdominal migraine, which does not cause a headache at all.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some studies have recently shown that these drugs may work better than sumatriptan for treating migraines.^ The results of a recent study may have some migraine sufferers hopeful that relief may be at hand.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ For actual migraine, sumatriptan may help.
  • Migraine video compilations | migraine Videos 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migrainesymptons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies estimate that between 5% and 10% of children may experience migraines but that the disorder is underdiagnosed in children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[66]
.Antiemetics may need to be given by suppository or injection where vomiting dominates the symptoms.^ Symptoms may include nausea and vomiting.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other parts of the brain may also be part of the process, causing nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, trouble concentrating, and other neurological symptoms.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, increased sensitivity to light or sound, and vision problems.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently it has been found that calcitonin gene related peptides (CGRPs) play a role in the pathogenesis of the pain associated with migraine as triptans also decrease its release and action.^ Nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have been implicated in craniofacial pain including migraine headache.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hormones: What special role do they play in migraine pain?

^ Nitroglycerin facilitates calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced behavior.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

.CGRP receptor antagonists such as olcegepant and telcagepant are being investigated both in vitro and in clinical studies for the treatment of migraine.^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSD inhibiting drugs such as tonabersat are being tested in clinical trials for their usefulness in treating migraine and other neurological diseases.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the study briefly summarized below a traditional Japanese migraine medication is investigated.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

[67]
Status migrainosus
.Status migrainosus is characterized by migraine lasting more than 72 hours, with not more than four hours of relief during that period.^ No single aura symptom lasts more than an hour.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Attacks that persist for more than 3 days are known as status migrainosus.

^ Untreated attacks last from 4 to 72 hours.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is generally understood that status migrainosus has been refractory to usual outpatient management upon presentation.
Treatment of status migrainosus consists of managing comorbidities (i. e. correcting fluid and electrolyte abnormalities resulting from anorexia and nausea/vomiting often accompanying status migr.), and usually administering parenteral medication to "break" (abort) the headache.
.Although the literature is full of many case reports concerning treatment of status migrainosus, first line therapy consists of intravenous fluids, metoclopramide, and triptans or DHE.^ (Triptans should not, in any case, be the first-line treatment for children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patient satisfaction is high with these agents, and triptans are now recommended as first-line agents for many adult patients with moderate to severe migraines when NSAIDs, Exedrin Migraine, or other less powerful agents have not been effective.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although most cases have been reported in Asia (China, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand), cases have cropped up in Europe and North America.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

[68]
Herbal treatment
.The herbal supplement feverfew (more commonly used for migraine prevention, see below) is marketed by the GelStat Corporation as an OTC migraine abortive, administered sublingually (under the tongue) in a mixture with ginger.^ Review: Feverfew in migraine prevention .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Second are drugs used to prevent migraines.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Verapamil (Calan) is most commonly used for prevention of migraines.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[69] .An open-label study (funded by GelStat) found some tentative evidence of the treatment's effectiveness,[70] but no scientifically sound study has been done.^ Published last year, that study, known as the MIST trial, found no benefit for the treatment.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, a 2000 survey of European migraineurs found that half seek no treatment from a doctor, perhaps because of the stigma of migraine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most studies to date are "open label" design, meaning that a placebo could easily be present.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabis, in addition to prevention, is also known to relieve pain during the onset of a migraine.^ Migraine treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I take this drug occasionally to help relieve the pain associated with migraine.
  • Drug InfoNet - Migraine Headache - [alzheimers] 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.druginfonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many elderly people with late-onset migraine have auras but no pain.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[71]

Comparative studies

.Regarding comparative effectiveness of these drugs used to abort migraine attacks, a 2004 placebo-controlled trial[72] reveals that high dose acetylsalicylic acid (1000 mg), sumatriptan 50 mg and ibuprofen 400 mg are equally effective at providing relief from pain, although sumatriptan was superior in terms of the more demanding outcome of rendering patients entirely free of pain and all other migraine-related symptoms.^ Independent migraine attacks occurred in 9% of the patients.

^ These drugs aim to reduce the pain.
  • Headaches Migraine Relief, Natural Migraine Treatment | Cure Migraines | Alternative, Herbal Remedies 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.biogetica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These drugs are all group-1 agents.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

[Note that 50mg of sumatriptan is not a commonly prescribed full dose (100mg), so would be expected to not be fully comparable.]
.Another randomized controlled trial, funded by the manufacturer of the study drug, found that a combination of sumatriptan 85 mg and naproxen sodium 200 mg was better than either drug alone.^ A randomized controlled trial.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it seems unlikely that it is much better than drugs available in the US (Verapamil instead of Flunarizine).
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Published last year, that study, known as the MIST trial, found no benefit for the treatment.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54]
.Recently the combination of sumatriptan 85 mg and naproxen sodium 500 mg was demonstrated to be effective and well tolerated in an early intervention paradigm for the acute treatment of migraine.^ Feverfew + ginger found effective in acute treatment of migraine .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are effective in the treatment of acute migraine.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Droperidol has been reported as an effective acute treatment for migraine (Silberstein et al, 2003).
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

.Significant pain-free responses in favor of sumatriptan/naproxen were demonstrated as early as 30 minutes, maintained at 1 hour, and sustained from 2 to 24 hours.^ Olfactory hallucinations are rare, unpleasant, and short lived (5 minutes to 24 hours).

^ Most individuals have attacks of increased pain three to five times per 24-hour cycle.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals generally have five to six attacks per hour and are pain-free between attacks.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 2 and 4 hours, sumatriptan/naproxen provided significantly lower rates of traditional migraine-associated symptoms (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) and nontraditional migraine-associated symptoms (neck pain/discomfort and sinus pain/pressure).^ Other symptoms include nausea and stiffness or pain in the neck.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any associated symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Migraines are recurrent headaches separated by symptom-free intervals and accompanied by nausea and light sensitivity.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

[73]

Prognosis

Cardiovascular risks

.The risk of stroke may be increased two- to threefold in migraine sufferers.^ May be particularly useful in migraine patients at risk for stroke.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ So-called true menstrual migraines tend not to have auras and to increase in prevalence between two days before and five days after the onset of period.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People who suffer tension-type headaches may also feel overly sensitive to light and sound but there is no pre-headache aura as with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Young adult sufferers and women using hormonal contraception appear to be at particular risk.^ Women with migraine who take oral contraceptives may experience changes in the frequency and severity of attacks, while women who do not suffer from headaches may develop migraines as a side effect of oral contraceptives.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the practices WHI encourages is the use of bio-identical hormone therapy for effectively treating the root causes of many womens chronic complaints.

^ Studies suggest specific risk factors for younger women with migraines, particularly those with auras: Taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives (OCs).
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[74] .The mechanism of any association is unclear, but chronic abnormalities of cerebral blood vessel tone may be involved.^ Chronic hypertension can weaken the blood vessel wall.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May be useful for patients who cannot take medications that constrict blood vessels.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of this effect, very rarely spasms in the blood vessels may occur and cause serious side effects, including stroke and heart attack.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Women who experience auras have been found to have twice the risk of strokes and heart attacks over non-aura migraine sufferers and women who do not have migraines.^ Researchers disagree on whether people who get migraines without aura are at higher risk for strokes and heart attacks.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who suffer from what’s called “migraine with aura” have double the risk of stroke or heart attacks.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am a migraine sufferer who is also a chocoholic.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74][75] .Migraine sufferers seem to be at risk for both thrombotic and hemorrhagic stroke as well as transient ischemic attacks.^ In fact migraine sufferers increase their risks to serious side effects such as strokes, which can be life-altering - or worse, life-threatening.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Causes Although much about the cause of migraines isn't understood, genetics and environmental factors seem to both play a role.
  • Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ My name is Olga Nicholas and I suffered from excruciating migraine headaches for well over a decade.

[76] .Death from cardiovascular causes was higher in people with migraine with aura in a Women's Health Initiative study, but more research is needed to confirm this.^ There have been studies of every type trying to find the causes of migraine headaches.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a shocking report from the Women's Health Initiative now turns the scientific community on its ear.

^ Research in conjunction with Migraine Action, the national migraine awareness organization in the UK has revealed the results of studying thousands of migraine sufferers and found that ginger has helped relieve symptoms in 63% of the people studied.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75][77]

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for migraines per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.
     no data      less than 45      45-65      65-85      85-105      105-125      125-145      145-165      165-185      185-205      205-225      225-245      more than 245
Age-Gender Incidence
.Migraine is an extremely common condition which will affect 12–28% of people at some point in their lives.^ Migraines affect many millions of people.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Half the people who suffer from migraines started getting them before they were 20 and migraines are most common in people who are between 30 and 39 years old.
  • Migraine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Migraine is a common and often debilitating neurovascular disease affecting up to 35 million people in the US. Despite its relative frequency and oft times severity, migraine remains under-diagnosed, under-treated and poorly understood.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .However this figure — the lifetime prevalence — does not provide a very clear picture of how many patients there are with active migraine at any one time.^ Even a single migraine is one too many.

^ Weve been very quietly going about the business of investigating gynecologic and female medical problems - and in the process discovered how to eliminate migraine headaches .

^ (There may be successive aura symptoms, however, that extend that time, but each one should not last more than 60 minutes.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Typically, therefore, the burden of migraine in a population is assessed by looking at the one-year prevalence — a figure that defines the number of patients who have had one or more attacks in the previous year.^ About 5% of the US population has 18 or more days/year of migraine .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic attacks occur on a daily or near-daily basis for a year or more with only brief remissions.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In migraineurs who take OCs, the risk increases with one or more of the following: High blood pressure.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.The third figure, which helps to clarify the picture, is the incidence — this relates to the number of first attacks occurring at any given age and helps understanding of how the disease grows and shrinks over time.^ Some also affect 5HT-1F. Immitrex was first released as an injection given under the skin (subcutaneously) at time of headache.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Attacks typically occur 5 to 40 times per day, with each attack lasting 2 to 45 minutes.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medications like Imitrex, Zomig and Maxalt are helpful after a migraine headache begins … but we figured out how to eliminate migraines altogether.” .

.Based on the results of a number of studies, one year prevalence of migraine ranges from 6–15% in adult men and from 14–35% in adult women.^ Sumatriptan for the range of headaches in migraine sufferers: results of the spectrum study.
  • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Roughly 6% of men and about 15% of women have migraine disease.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Migraine prevalence in patients with epilepsy ranged from 8% to 15%.

[1] .These figures vary substantially with age: approximately 4–5% of children aged under 12 suffer from migraine, with little apparent difference between boys and girls.^ Migraines in children are equally prevalent in boys and girls.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I had been suffering with these migraines for over 7 years!!!

^ Migraine is also most prevalent between ages 20 and 40.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

[78] .There is then a rapid growth in incidence amongst girls occurring after puberty,[79][80][81] which continues throughout early adult life.^ Because there is research continuing throughout the country at major universities, medical centers and other heath care institutions, there is hope for migraine sufferers.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the incidence of migraine is similar for boys and girls during childhood, it increases in girls after puberty.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[82] .By early middle age, around 25% of women experience a migraine at least once a year, compared with fewer than 10% of men.^ The prevalence of migraine declines in both men and women after age forty.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies estimate that between 5% and 10% of children may experience migraines but that the disorder is underdiagnosed in children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This primary headache is slightly more common in men than in women, with onset usually after age 50.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][83] .After menopause, attacks in women tend to decline dramatically, so that in the over 70s there are approximately equal numbers of male and female sufferers, with prevalence returning to around 5%.^ FACT #1: Approximately 60-80% of menstruating women suffer from migraine headaches around the same time of their monthly cycle FACT #2: Migraine headaches tend to get less severe after menopause FACT #3: Migraine headaches usually disappear during pregnancy - only to re-appear immediately after birth This last fact is the first clue towards the cure.

^ Estrogen decline after menopause may be responsible for remission in some older women.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women with migraine who take oral contraceptives may experience changes in the frequency and severity of attacks, while women who do not suffer from headaches may develop migraines as a side effect of oral contraceptives.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][83]
.At all ages, migraine without aura is more common than migraine with aura, with a ratio of between 1.5:1 and 2:1.[84][85] Incidence figures show that the excess of migraine seen in women of reproductive age is mainly due to migraine without aura.^ Migraines without Auras (Common Migraine) .
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Migraine without aura (common migraine) .

^ Common migraine s are without auras.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[84] .Thus in pre-pubertal and post-menopausal populations, migraine with aura is somewhat more common than amongst 15–50 year olds.^ Migraines without Auras (Common Migraine) .
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About 5% of the US population has 18 or more days/year of migraine .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Common migraine s are without auras.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[82][86]
.There is a strong relationship between age, gender and type of migraine.^ There have been studies of every type trying to find the causes of migraine headaches.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine is also most prevalent between ages 20 and 40.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People who suffer tension-type headaches may also feel overly sensitive to light and sound but there is no pre-headache aura as with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87]
Geographical differences in migraine prevalence are not marked. .Studies in Asia and South America suggest that the rates there are relatively low,[88][89] but they do not fall outside the range of values seen in European and North American studies.^ This brain infection is caused by West Nile virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus commonly found in Africa, West Asia, the Middle East and, rarely, in North America.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although most cases have been reported in Asia (China, Vietnam, Singapore, Thailand), cases have cropped up in Europe and North America.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They are slightly less prevalent in South America and Europe and far less common in Asia and Africa.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][83]
.The incidence of migraine is related to the incidence of epilepsy in families, with migraine twice as prevalent in family members of epilepsy sufferers, and more common in epilepsy sufferers themselves.^ Among the probands with epilepsy, migraine prevalence was 24%.

^ Most migraine sufferers have a family member with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine prevalence was 26% in the relatives with epilepsy.

[90]

History

.Trepanation, the delibrate and (usually) non-fatal drilling of holes into a skull, was practiced 9,000 years ago and earlier.^ Less than 10 years ago, neutropenia, an almost always fatal condition affecting immune response, was tantamount to receiving a death sentence.

^ Just 15 years ago, Chronic Anemia was considered to be a non-curable disease.

[91] .Some scholars have (controversially) speculated that this drastic procedure might have been a migraine treatment, based on cave paintings[92] and on the fact that trepanation was a historical migraine treatment in 17th-century Europe.^ However, the drug does not cause drowsiness or heart rhythm disturbances as some other migraine treatments do.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One source of misunderstanding might be that “migraine” is so often equated with “headache.” In fact there are many who continue to believe that migraine is “just a bad headache.” .
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Migraine Headaches * Please note that most treatment modalities listed below are based on conventional medicine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

[91][93] An early written description consistent with migraines is contained in the Ebers papyrus, written around 1200 BC in ancient Egypt.[91]
.In 400 BC Hippocrates described the visual aura that can precede the migraine headache and the relief which can occur through vomiting.^ Typical aura with non-migraine headache .

^ Typical aura with migraine headache .

^ Aura is usually described as visual disturbances, such as flashing lights or geometric patterns.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aretaeus of Cappadocia is credited as the "discoverer" of migraines because of his second century description of the symptoms of a unilateral headache associated with vomiting, with headache-free intervals in between attacks.^ I am finally free of migraine headaches .

^ The first symptoms of migraine may not even be associated with headaches.

^ Any associated symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Galenus of Pergamon used the term "hemicrania" (half-head), from which the word "migraine" was derived.^ According to another study a history of head trauma or oral contraceptive use predicted a poorer long-term outlook.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study that investigated their use for migraine prevention, more than half of patients experienced a reduction in frequency of severe attacks.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word migraine, in fact, is derived from the Greek word hemikrania , meaning "half of the head"; because the pain of migraine often occurs on one side.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.He thought there was a connection between the stomach and the brain because of the nausea and vomiting that often accompany an attack.^ There are claims and even some clinical evidence that the herbal medicine feverfew helps control the severity and number of migraines and reduces accompanying nausea and vomiting.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Accompanying the headache may be nausea, vomiting, and focal or generalized seizures.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The requirement for at least five attacks is imposed because headaches simulating migraine may be caused by such organic diseases as brain tumors, sinusitis, or glaucoma.

.For relief of migraine, Andalusian-born physician Abulcasis, also known as Abu El Qasim, suggested application of a hot iron to the head or insertion of garlic into an incision made in the temple.^ Headache Relief Migraine Prevention: Three Medications to Consider Offering suggestions for reducing the frequency of migraine headache pain by as much as 50 percent using preventative prescription medications.
  • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ I am aware of the tension in my neck and shoulders now and I head it off before it developes into a migraine.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ Migraines are often accompanied by throbbing and/or pulsating pain, and have been described as feeling like a hot knife inside the head.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Middle Ages migraine was recognized as a discrete medical disorder with treatment ranging from hot irons to bloodletting and even witchcraft[citation needed].^ Valpoic acid is used in the treatment of seizure disorders and bipolar disorders, as well as in the prevention of migraine.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tags: migraine headaches , migraine medication , Migraine Relief , migraine treatment , migraines , Migraines and Women Posted in News .
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: migraine , migraine headaches , migraine medication , migraine treatment , migraines , strokes Posted in News .
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Followers of Galenus explained migraine as caused by aggressive yellow bile.^ The following drugs, medications, substances or toxins are some of the possible causes of Migraine as a symptom.
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ebn Sina (Avicenna) described migraine in his textbook "El Qanoon fel teb" as "... small movements, drinking and eating, and sounds provoke the pain...^ The pain also may occur when eating, drinking, talking, smoking, or brushing teeth, or when the face is exposed to wind.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While generally brief, and not specifically painful, migraine patients who experience aura often describe it as extremely unpleasant.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Another patient had low blood sugar episodes that triggered migraines, so eating small, frequent meals of whole foods stopped the headaches.
  • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

the patient cannot tolerate the sound of speaking and light. He would like to rest in darkness alone." Abu Bakr Mohamed Ibn Zakariya Râzi noted the association of headache with different events in the lives of women, "...And such a headache may be observed after delivery and abortion or during menopause and dysmenorrhea."
.In Bibliotheca Anatomica, Medic, Chirurgica, published in London in 1712, five major types of headaches are described, including the "Megrim", recognizable as classic migraine.^ Classic migraine headache .
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary Headache Disorders, including Migraine .
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Migraine headache, classic .
  • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Graham and Wolff (1938) published their paper advocating ergotamine tart for relieving migraine.^ For example, sumatriptan relieves migraines more quickly than ergotamine.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Later in the 20th century, Harold Wolff (1950) developed the experimental approach to the study of headache and elaborated the vascular theory of migraine, which has come under attack as the pendulum again swings to the neurogenic theory.^ There have been studies of every type trying to find the causes of migraine headaches.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These may result, at least in part, from the perceived (and actual) loss of control that comes with recurring migraine attacks.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have demonstrated some effectiveness from biofeedback for migraine headaches.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

Society and culture

Economic impact

.In addition to being a major cause of pain and suffering, chronic migraine attacks are a significant source of both medical costs and lost productivity.^ Migraines have ong been a trouling source of pain.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be caused by clotting in the major cerebral veins or from certain medications (including some antibiotics, human growth hormone replacement, and vitamin A and related compounds).
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, researchers have found ways to help many migraine sufferers ease the pain of migraines, often without medication.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been estimated to be the most costly neurological disorder in the European Community, costing more than €27 billion per year[94].^ Depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and epilepsy are more common in individuals with migraine than in the general population.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one study children with migraine lost more school years than other children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Epilepsy may be viewed as a more serious disorder than migraine.

.Medical costs per migraine sufferer (mostly physician and emergency room visits) averaged $107 USD over six months in one 1988 study,[citation needed] with total costs including lost productivity averaging $313. Annual employer cost of lost productivity due to migraines was estimated at $3,309 per sufferer.^ From eight migraines a month down to one .

^ The National Headache Foundation (NHF) has come up with some figures estimating that U.S. industry loses $50 billion per year due to absenteeism, lost productivity and medical expenses caused by migraine headaches, especially chronic ones.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies estimate that between 5% and 10% of children may experience migraines but that the disorder is underdiagnosed in children.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

.Total medical costs associated with migraines in the United States amounted to one billion dollars in 1994, in addition to lost productivity estimated at thirteen to seventeen billion dollars per year.^ The National Headache Foundation (NHF) has come up with some figures estimating that U.S. industry loses $50 billion per year due to absenteeism, lost productivity and medical expenses caused by migraine headaches, especially chronic ones.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, researchers have found ways to help many migraine sufferers ease the pain of migraines, often without medication.
  • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to chronic tension-type headache, chronic migraine, and medication overuse headache (discussed above), these headaches include hemicrania continua and new daily persistent headache.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Employers may benefit from educating themselves on the effects of migraines in order to facilitate a better understanding in the workplace.^ Women with migraine who take oral contraceptives may experience changes in the frequency and severity of attacks, while women who do not suffer from headaches may develop migraines as a side effect of oral contraceptives.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: Banjo , Migraine Feverfew may be no better than placebo in the treatment of migraine, but it’s safe.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A better understanding of migraine would allow for a more rational approach to the discovery and development of medications to prevent migraine attacks.
  • Episodic Migraine | Let's get better 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC doctorstevesbanjo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The workplace model of 9–5, 5 days a week may not be viable for a migraine sufferer.^ People who suffer tension-type headaches may also feel overly sensitive to light and sound but there is no pre-headache aura as with migraine.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These headaches can last minutes to days and may occur daily in some sufferers.
  • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Women with migraine who take oral contraceptives may experience changes in the frequency and severity of attacks, while women who do not suffer from headaches may develop migraines as a side effect of oral contraceptives.
  • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With education and understanding an employer could compromise with an employee to create a workable solution for both.

See also

Organizations

Other

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Stovner LJ, Zwart JA, Hagen K, Terwindt GM, Pascual J (April 2006). "Epidemiology of headache in Europe". European Journal of Neurology 13 (4): 333–45. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01184.x. PMID 16643310. 
  2. ^ The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition
  3. ^ "Etymology of migraine". Online Etymological Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=migraine. Retrieved 27 May 2009. 
  4. ^ The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition
  5. ^ "NINDS Migraine Information Page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/migraine/migraine.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  6. ^ "Advances in Migraine Prophylaxis: Current State of the Art and Future Prospects" (PDF). National Headache Foundation (CME monograph). http://www.headaches.org/pdf/botoxcme.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  7. ^ Gallagher RM, Cutrer FM (February 2002). "Migraine: diagnosis, management, and new treatment options". The American Journal of Managed Care 8 (3 Suppl): S58–73. PMID 11859906. http://www.ajmc.com/pubMed.php?pii=363. 
  8. ^ "Guidelines for all healthcare professionals in the diagnosis and management of migraine, tension-type, cluster and medication-overuse headache, January 2007, British Association for the Study of Headache" (PDF). http://216.25.100.131/upload/NS_BASH/BASH_guidelines_2007.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  9. ^ Ogilvie AD, Russell MB, Dhall P, et al. (January 1998). "Altered allelic distributions of the serotonin transporter gene in migraine without aura and migraine with aura". Cephalalgia 18 (1): 23–6. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.1998.1801023.x. PMID 9601620. 
  10. ^ Gervil M, Ulrich V, Kaprio J, Olesen J, Russell MB (September 1999). "The relative role of genetic and environmental factors in migraine without aura". Neurology 53 (5): 995–9. PMID 10496258. http://www.neurology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10496258. 
  11. ^ Ulrich V, Gervil M, Kyvik KO, Olesen J, Russell MB (March 1999). "The inheritance of migraine with aura estimated by means of structural equation modelling". Journal of Medical Genetics 36 (3): 225–7. PMID 10204850. PMC 1734315. http://jmg.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10204850. 
  12. ^ Lay CL, Broner SW (May 2009). "Migraine in women". Neurologic Clinics 27 (2): 503–11. doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2009.01.002. PMID 19289228. 
  13. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience/20100110/sc_livescience/whybrightlightworsensmigraineheadachepain
  14. ^ "The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition". Cephalalgia 24 Suppl 1: 9–160. 2004. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00653.x. PMID 14979299. 
  15. ^ Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Celentano DD, Reed ML (June 1992). "Undiagnosed migraine headaches. A comparison of symptom-based and reported physician diagnosis". Archives of Internal Medicine 152 (6): 1273–8. doi:10.1001/archinte.152.6.1273. PMID 1599358. 
  16. ^ Schreiber CP, Hutchinson S, Webster CJ, Ames M, Richardson MS, Powers C (September 2004). "Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self-reported or physician-diagnosed 'sinus' headache". Archives of Internal Medicine 164 (16): 1769–72. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.16.1769. PMID 15364670. 
  17. ^ Detsky ME, McDonald DR, Baerlocher MO, Tomlinson GA, McCrory DC, Booth CM (September 2006). "Does this patient with headache have a migraine or need neuroimaging?". JAMA 296 (10): 1274–83. doi:10.1001/jama.296.10.1274. PMID 16968852. 
  18. ^ Lipton RB, Dodick D, Sadovsky R, et al. (August 2003). "A self-administered screener for migraine in primary care: The ID Migraine validation study". Neurology 61 (3): 375–82. PMID 12913201. http://www.neurology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12913201. 
  19. ^ Kelman L (October 2004). "The premonitory symptoms (prodrome): a tertiary care study of 893 migraineurs". Headache 44 (9): 865–72. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2004.04168.x. PMID 15447695. 
  20. ^ Silberstein, Stephen D. (2005). Atlas Of Migraine And Other Headaches. London: Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 1-84214-273-9. 
  21. ^ Mathew, Ninan T.; Evans, Randolph W. (2005). Handbook of headache. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-5223-X. 
  22. ^ Silberstein, Stephen D. (2002). Headache in Clinical Practice (2nd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 1-901865-88-6. 
  23. ^ "Teichopsia - Medical Dictionary Definition", Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Retrieved on 2010-03-15.
  24. ^ Kelman L (February 2006). "The postdrome of the acute migraine attack". Cephalalgia 26 (2): 214–20. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2005.01026.x. PMID 16426278. 
  25. ^ Kantor, D (2006-11-21). "MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Migraine". http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000709.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  26. ^ link title Migraine Linked to Celiac Disease
  27. ^ Migraine Headaches: Gluten Triggers Severe Headaches in Sensitive Individuals
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References

Migraine triggers

  • Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology [FASEB] [1995]. Analysis of adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate (MSG). .Bethesda, MD: Life Sciences Research Office, FASEB.
  • Pashley, H. (2009).^ Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD 20892 .
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    About Migraine Triggers. [2]
  • Radnitz, C. L. (1990). .Food-triggered migraine: a critical review.^ More than 100 foods have the capacity to trigger migraine headache.
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Migraine Headache Avoiding Known Migraine Triggers Find out about migrain- triggering foods might be eating everyday, MSG and other migraine headache triggers.
    • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They have linked many things from stress to food triggers to certain hormones and brain activity to migraine headaches.
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    Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 51–65.
  • Ravishankar, K (2006). 'Hair wash' or 'Head bath' triggering migraine - observations in 94 Indian patients". Cephalagia 26 (11): 1330–1334. ISSN 0333-1024.

Treatment

  • Pearce, J.M.S. (1994). Headache. Neurological Management series. .Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 57, 134–144.
  • Mayo Clinic Staff.^ She had seen every specialist at the Mayo Clinic and had traveled far and wide to other top neurology headache centers but never found relief.
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    (2005). Migraine Headache. Retrieved August 14, 2005
  • Cathy Wong, ND. (2005). .Migraine Elimination Diet Retrieved August 14, 2005
  • Treatment Articles (2005).^ Sometimes they are part of the cause of headaches, however, when hormones are erroneously blamed for migraines, not only are the migraines not eliminated with hormone treatment, but, in addition, the hormone treatment can do long lasting harm to the body.
    • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I've tried the wheat gluten allergy elimination, probiotics, colon therapy and a another food allergy elimination diet, all with no effect on my migraines.
    • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The treatment: An elimination diet -- getting rid of gluten, dairy, eggs, and yeast -- is a good way to start.
    • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    .Butterbur, Co-enzyme Q-10, Melatonin, Folic Acid
  • Buchholz, D. (2002) Heal your headache: The 1-2-3 Program, New York: Workman Publishing, ISBN 0-7611-2566-3
  • Livingstone, I. and Novak, D. (2003) Breaking the Headache Cycle, New York: Henry Holt and Co.^ "I started your program as soon as I got ebook and I have to tell you I AM ELATED with results....my headaches are fewer and fewer.

    ^ New headaches in someone with a history of cancer or HIV/AIDS. top Diagnosing Your Headache .
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Now, I just [follow your program] and the headaches don't come any longer.

    ISBN 0-8050-7221-7
  • Izecksohn L, and Izecksohn C. . Fluids' Hypertension Syndromes, ISBN 978-85-906664-0-0.

Triptans

.
  • Cohen JA, Beall D, Beck A, et al. Sumatriptan treatment for migraine in a health maintenenace organization: economic, humanistic, and clinical outcomes.^ Droperidol has been reported as an effective acute treatment for migraine (Silberstein et al, 2003).
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nevertheless, a recent report suggested that there is no difference in pregnancy outcome when sumatriptan is used in the first trimester (Shuhaiber et al, 1998).
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Clin Ther
    1999;21:190–205.
  • Adelman JU, Sharfman M, Johnson R, et al. Impact of oral sumatriptan on workplace productivity, health-related quality of life, healthcare use, and patient satisfaction with medication in nurses with migraine.^ As a lay person , medical double speak,used by physicians, isolates, insults, and separates communication to patients.
    • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Droperidol has been reported as an effective acute treatment for migraine (Silberstein et al, 2003).
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Am J Manag Care
    1996;2:1407–1416.
  • Cohen JA, Beall DG, Miller DW, Beck A, Pait G, Clements BD. Subcutaneous sumatriptan for the treatment of migraine: humanistic, economic, and clinical consequences.^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The best strategy seems to be adjust the intensity of treatment to the severity of ones migraine condition (stratified care).
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With the help of a health care provider, migraine headaches can be effectively managed and patients can identify and alleviate their symptoms with an appropriate treatment regimen.
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    .Fam Med
    1996;28:171–177.
  • Jhingran P, Cady RK, Rubino J, Miller D, Grice RB, Gutterman DL. Improvements in health-related quality of life with sumatriptan treatment for migraine.^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Overview of diagnosis and treatment of migraine.

    ^ But here’s the good news: The Women's Health Institute has put this successful migraine treatment program down on paper.

    .J Med Econ
    1996;42:36–42.
  • Solomon GD, Nielsen K, Miller D. The effects of sumatriptan on migraine: health-related quality of life.^ In fact migraine sufferers increase their risks to serious side effects such as strokes, which can be life-altering - or worse, life-threatening.
    • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Antidepressants are drugs that work on different chemicals in the brain; their effectiveness in treating migraine is not directly related to their effect on mood.
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    .Med Interface
    1995;June:134–141.
  • Solomon GD, Skobieranda FG, Genzen JR. Quality of life assessment among migraine patients treated with sumatriptan.^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These medications are not designed like the prescription medications for migraines, so they do not treat migraines – and stop them – the way that prescription meds do.
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    ^ I remember very well working in the emergency room, treating all the chronic migraine patients with intravenous narcotics and nausea medication.
    • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    .Headache
    1995;35:449–454.
  • Santanello NC, Polis AB, Hartmaier SL, Kramer MS, Block GA, Silberstein SD. Improvement in migrainespecific quality of life in a clinical trial of rizatriptan.^ The use of this non-drug treatment in reducing migraine frequency, intensity, and effect on quality of life is being tested in larger clinical trials.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Text adapted from: Silberstein, SD, and Lipton RB. Headache and epilepsy.

    ^ In DJ Dalessio, SD Silberstein (eds), Wolffs Headache and Other Head Pain (6th ed).

    .Cephalalgia
    1997;17:867–872.
  • Caro JJ, Getsios D. Pharmacoeconomic evidence and considerations for triptan treatment of migraine.^ Neurology 1997:49:650-656 Rothrock JF. Successful treatment of persistent migraine aura with divalproex sodium.
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Triptans-the preferred treatment for migraine-ease moderate to severe migraine pain and are available as tablets, nasal sprays, and injections.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cephalgia 1997:17:93-100 Yu W, ZHorowitz S. Treatment of sporadic hemiplegic migraine with calcium-channel blocker verapamil.
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Expert Opin Pharmacother
    2002;3:237–248.
  • Lofland JH, Johnson NE, Batenhorst AS, Nash DB. Changes in resource use and outcomes for patients with migraine treated with sumatriptan: a managed care perspective.^ Nevertheless, a recent report suggested that there is no difference in pregnancy outcome when sumatriptan is used in the first trimester (Shuhaiber et al, 1998).
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In one study that investigated their use for migraine prevention, more than half of patients experienced a reduction in frequency of severe attacks.
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Although tricyclic antidepressants and neuroleptic drugs are often used to treat migraine in patients with comorbid epilepsy, caution is advisable, as these medications may lower seizure thresholds.

    .Arch Intern Med
    1999;159: 857–863.
  • Cady RC, Ryan R, Jhingran P, O’Quinn S, Pait DG. Sumatriptan injection reduces productivity loss during a migraine attack.^ "Migraine attacks have been significantly reduced.

    ^ Arch Intern Med 1992;156:16.

    ^ Enhanced neuronal hyperexcitability and a reduced threshold to attacks figure prominently in the pathophysiologic models of migraine and epilepsy.

    .Arch Intern Med
    1998;158: 1013–1018.
  • Litaker DG, Solomon GD, Genzen JR. Impact of sumatriptan on clinic utilization and costs of care in migraineurs.^ Arch Intern Med 1992;156:16.

    .Headache
    1996;36:538–541.
  • Greiner DL, Addy SN. Sumatriptan use in a large group-model health maintenance organization.^ In a survey of large employers released by the non-profit Midwest Business Group on Health, 91 percent of respondents recognize that migraine headaches impact productivity.
    • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jacob J, Goadsby PJ, Duncan JS. Use of sumatriptan in postictal migraine headache.

    .Am J Health Syst Pharm
    1996;53:633–638.
  • Lofland JH, Kim SS, Batenhorst AS, et al. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of sumatriptan in patients with migraine.^ They have the following benefits: They appear to be effective for most migraine patients.
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Studies indicate that people with migraines have poorer social interactions and emotional health than patients with chronic medical illnesses, including asthma, diabetes, and arthritis.
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With the help of a health care provider, migraine headaches can be effectively managed and patients can identify and alleviate their symptoms with an appropriate treatment regimen.
    • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Mayo Clin Proc
    2001;76:1093–1101.
  • Biddle AK, Shih YC, Kwong WJ. Cost-benefit analysis of sumatriptan tablets versus usual therapy for treatment of migraine.^ I have suffered from migraines for 10 years or more and it is nice to finally come across a doctor who is interested in prevention versus treatment.

    ^ Drug therapy for migraine is divided into acute and preventive treatment.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Triptans-the preferred treatment for migraine-ease moderate to severe migraine pain and are available as tablets, nasal sprays, and injections.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Pharmacotherapy
    2000;20: 1356–1364.
  • Caro JJ, Getsios D, Raggio G, Caro G, Black L. Treatment of migraine in Canada with naratriptan: a costeffectiveness analysis.^ Still, a 2000 survey of European migraineurs found that half seek no treatment from a doctor, perhaps because of the stigma of migraine.
    • PreventDisease.com - Migraine Headaches 15 September 2009 23:11 UTC preventdisease.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This anticonvulsant is a prophylactic drug for treatment of Migraine (Silberstein, 2000).
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Neurology 2000:55:754-763 Silberstein et al, Acute migraine treatment with droperidol: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
    • Migraine Headache 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.tchain.com [Source type: Academic]

    Headache
    2001;41:456–464.

General

  • Sacks, Oliver (1999) Migraine, Vintage ISBN 0-520-08223-0
  • Relouzat, Raoul & Thiollet, Jean-Pierre, Vaincre la migraine, Anagramme, 2006 ISBN 2-35035046
  • Blondin, Betsy, (2008) "Migraine Expressions: A Creative Journey through Life with Migraine, WordMetro Press ISBN 0615201970

Economic impact

.
  • Edmeads J, Mackell JA. The economic impact of migraine: an analysis of direct and indirect costs.^ But migraines have indirect costs too.
    • How to eliminate migraines and headaches in less than a week... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

    .Headache
    2002;42:501–509.
  • Gerth WC, Carides GW, Dasbach EJ, Visser WH, Santanello NC. The multinational impact of migraine symptoms on healthcare utilisation and work loss.^ The headache and associated symptoms of migraine with aura are similar to those of migraine without aura but may be less severe, of shorter duration, or both.

    ^ Sinus Surgery What Are the Symptoms of Migraine Headaches Migraine headaches are something that millions of people worldwide have to deal with on a regular basis.
    • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Auras Ways to Relieve Migraine Headaches Naturally Migraine headache symptoms vary for each individual sufferer making diagnosis difficult.
    • Migraine Headache - Associated Content - Topic - associatedcontent.com 11 September 2009 8:30 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    .Pharmacoeconomics
    2001;19:197–206.
  • Hu XH, Markson LE, Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Berger ML. Burden of migraine in the United States: disability and economic costs.^ Lipton RB, Silberstein SD, Stewart WF. An update on the epidemiology of migraine.

    ^ Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Overview of diagnosis and treatment of migraine.

    ^ Lipton RB, Silberstein SD. Why study the comorbidity of migraine?

    Arch Intern Med
    1999;159:813–818.
  • Osterhaus JT, Gutterman DL, Plachetka JR. Healthcare resource and low labour costs of migraine headaches in the US. Pharmacoeconomics 1992;2:2–11.

Clinical picture

.
  • Blau JN. Classical migraine: symptoms between visual aura and headache onset.^ Classic migraine headache .
    • Causes of Migraine - WrongDiagnosis.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Blau JN. Migraine prodromes separated from the aura: complete migraine.

    ^ Schon F, Blau JN. Postepileptic headache and migraine.

    .Lancet 1992;340:355-6.
  • Silberstein SD: Migraine symptoms: Results of a survey of self-reported migraineurs.^ Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Overview of diagnosis and treatment of migraine.

    ^ Lipton RB, Silberstein SD. Why study the comorbidity of migraine?

    ^ Many people do not discuss their symptoms with their doctor because they are on medication for the other health issues and, as a result, they simply take over the counter medicines for their migraines.
    • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Headache 1995;35:387-96.
  • Silberstein SD, Saper JR, Freitag F. Migraine: Diagnosis and treatment.^ Silberstein SD, Lipton RB. Overview of diagnosis and treatment of migraine.

    ^ Tags: migraine headaches , migraine medication , Migraine Relief , migraine treatment , migraines , Migraines and Women Posted in News .
    • Migraine Headache Symptoms, Pain Relief and Treatment Information Center 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC migraines-headaches.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Text adapted from: Silberstein, SD, and Lipton RB. Headache and epilepsy.

    .In: Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dalessio DJ, eds.^ In SD Silberstein, RB Lipton, DJ Dalessio (eds), Wolffs Headache and Other Head Pain (7th ed).

    ^ Treatment considerations Author: SD Silberstein and RB Lipton When planning treatment strategies for epilepsy and migraine, the possibility of comorbid disease should be considered.

    ^ The EEG Author: SD Silberstein and RB Lipton .

    .Wolff's headache and other head pain.^ Moderate to severe headache pain may last for several hours and worsen with sudden movements of the head or when sneezing, coughing, or bending.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In DJ Dalessio, SD Silberstein (eds), Wolffs Headache and Other Head Pain (6th ed).

    ^ Indomethacin and other headache preventive medications can relieve pain in people who have multiple episodes of primary stabbing headache.
    • Headache: Hope Through Research: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ninds.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    7th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001:121–237.

External links

General information

Organizations


Simple English

A migraine is a neurological syndrome (a series of symptoms or signs) which often presents itself as a severe headache. There are different types of migraines, but most give the sufferer (sick person) a headache and might make them dizzy or want to stay away from bright lights (photophobia) or loud noises (hyperacusis). They can also include visual disturbances (such as seeing funny patterns or lights/colours) and other disturbances of senses (funny smells or tastes can sometimes occur during a migraine). While most people who have migraines get a headache, not all migraine sufferers experience a headache.

Migraines can last a long time, from 4 to 72 hours, but in most cases only last about 4 hours. The cause of migraines is unknown, but it is often believed to be linked to family medical history, and many migraine sufferers have family who suffer from them too.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Migraine, which are similar to those in the above article.








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