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Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin
Bakunin Nadar.jpg
Date of birth: May 30, 1814(1814-05-30)
Place of birth: Pryamukhino (near Torzhok), Russian Empire
Date of death: July 1, 1876 (aged 62)
Place of death: Berne, Switzerland
Movement: Anarchist movement
Major organizations: League of Peace and Freedom, International Working Men's Association
Influences Hegel, Proudhon, Herzen, Ogarev, Marx, Tschaadaev, Akstantin
Influenced Belinsky, Nechayev, Kropotkin, Goldman, Most, Malatesta, Chomsky
.Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (30 May [O.S. 18 May] 1814 - 1 July 1876) (Russian: Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Баку́нин; IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil ˌbaˈkunʲin]) was a well-known Russian revolutionary and theorist of collectivist anarchism.^ The Book of One Syllable (English) (as Author) Bakunin, Mikhail, 1814-1876 .
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[1]
Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian nobles, Bakunin spent his youth as a junior officer in the Russian army but resigned his commission in 1835. He went to school in Moscow to study philosophy and began to frequent radical circles where he was greatly influenced by Alexander Herzen. Bakunin left Russia in 1842 for Dresden, and eventually arrived in Paris, where he met George Sand, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx.
He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russia's oppression of Poland. In 1849 he was apprehended in Dresden for his participation in the Czech rebellion of 1848. He was turned over to Russia where he was imprisoned in Peter-Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg. He remained there until 1857, when he was exiled to a work camp in Siberia.
He was able to escape via Japan and the USA, and ended up in London for a short time, where he worked with Herzen on the radical journal Kolokol ("The Bell"). In 1863, he left to join the insurrection in Poland, but he failed to reach his destination and spent some time in Switzerland and Italy. Despite his criminal status, Bakunin gained great influence with radical youth in Russia, and all of Europe. In 1870, he was involved in the insurrection in Lyon, which foreshadowed the Paris Commune.
.In 1868, Bakunin joined the International Working Men's Association, a federation of radical and trade union organizations with sections in most European countries.^ China for example joined the World Trade Organization in 2001 and fully implemented its TRIPS program which sets laws for intellectual property copyright.

^ Although the Federal Trade Commission took down this organization, the article argues that the fact that it formed demonstrates that high end designers do want greater protection.

^ The article points out that this raid was most likely because Serbia wants to join the E.U and combating piracy is one of the criteria for closer relations between the European Union and Serbia.

The 1872 Congress was dominated by a fight between a faction around Marx who argued for participation in parliamentary elections and a faction around Bakunin who opposed it. Bakunin's faction lost the vote on this issue, and at the end of the congress, Bakunin and several of his faction were expelled for supposedly maintaining a secret organisation within the international. The anarchists insisted the congress was rigged, and so held their own conference of the International at Saint-Imier in Switzerland in 1872. Bakunin remained very active in this and the European socialist movement. .From 1870 to 1876, he wrote much of his seminal work such as Statism and Anarchy and God and the State.^ The complaint also states that the MPAA is targeting the Defendant (the people) for specific film piracy actions such as distributing and offering to distribute copyright works via the internet.

Despite his declining health, he tried to take part in an insurrection in Bologna, but was forced to return to Switzerland in disguise, and settled in Lugano. He remained active in the radical movement of Europe until further health problems caused him to be moved to a hospital in Berne, where he died in 1876.
Bakunin is remembered as a major figure in the history of anarchism and an opponent of Marxism, especially of Marx's idea of dictatorship of the proletariat. He continues to be an influence on modern-day anarchists, such as Noam Chomsky.[2]

Contents

Biography

Early years

.In the spring of 1814, Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was born to an aristocratic family in the village of Pryamukhino (Прямухино) between Torzhok (Торжок) and Kuvshinovo (Кувшиново), in Tver guberniya, northwest of Moscow.^ The Book of One Syllable (English) (as Author) Bakunin, Mikhail, 1814-1876 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

At the age of 14 he left for Saint Petersburg, receiving military training at the Artillery University. He completed his studies in 1832, and in 1834 was commissioned a junior officer in the Russian Imperial Guard and sent to Minsk and Gardinas in Lithuania (now Belarus). That summer, Bakunin became embroiled in a family row, taking his sister’s side in rebellion to an unhappy marriage. Though his father wished him to continue in either the military or the civil service, Bakunin abandoned both in 1835, and made his way to Moscow, hoping to study philosophy.

Interest in philosophy

In Moscow, Bakunin soon became friends with a group of former university students, and engaged in the systematic study of Idealist philosophy, grouped around the poet Nikolay Stankevich, “the bold pioneer who opened to Russian thought the vast and fertile continent of German metaphysics” (E. H. Carr). The philosophy of Kant initially was central to their study, but then progressed to Schelling, Fichte, and Hegel. By autumn of 1835, Bakunin had conceived of forming a philosophical circle in his home town of Pryamukhino; a passionate environment for the young people involved. For example, Vissarion Belinsky fell in love with one of Bakunin’s sisters. Moreover, by early 1836, Bakunin was back in Moscow, where he published translations of Fichte’s Some Lectures Concerning the Scholar's Vocation and The Way to a Blessed Life, which became his favorite book. With Stankevich he also read Goethe, Schiller, and E.T.A. Hoffmann.
At this time he embraced a religious but extra-ecclesiastical immanentism:
.Let religion become the basis and reality of your life and your actions, but let it be the pure and single-minded religion of divine reason and divine love, and not … that religion which strove to disassociate itself from everything that makes up the substance and life of truly moral existence.^ This is real life, not an action movie.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

… Look at Christ, my dear friend; … His life was divine through and through, full of self-denial, and He did everything for mankind, finding His satisfaction and His delight in the dissolution of His material being.
… Because we have baptized in this world and are in communion with this heavenly love, we feel that we are divine creatures, that we are free, and that we have been ordained for the emancipation of humanity, which has remained a victim of the instinctive laws of unconscious existence. … Absolute freedom and absolute love—that is our aim; the freeing of humanity and the whole world–that is our purpose.
He became increasingly influenced by Hegel and provided the first Russian translation of his work. During this period he met slavophile Konstantin Aksakov, Piotr Tschaadaev and the socialists Alexander Herzen and Nikolay Ogarev. In this period he began to develop his panslavic views. After long wrangles with his father, Bakunin went to Berlin in 1840. His stated plan at the time was still to become a university professor (a “priest of truth,” as he and his friends imagined it), but he soon encountered and joined radical students of the so-called “Hegelian Left,” and joined the socialist movement in Berlin. In his 1842 essay The Reaction in Germany, he argued in favor of the revolutionary role of negation, summed up in the phrase
the passion for destruction is a creative passion.[3]
After three semesters in Berlin, Bakunin went to Dresden where he became friends with Arnold Ruge. .Here he also read Lorenz von Stein's Der Sozialismus und Kommunismus des heutigen Frankreich and developed a passion for socialism.^ Der Sozialismus einst und jetzt Streitfragen des Sozialismus in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart (German) (as Author) Bernstein, Herman, 1876-1935 .
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^ Geschichte von England seit der Thronbesteigung Jakob's des Zweiten.
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^ Geschichte der Englischen Sprache und Literatur von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Einführung der Buchdruckerkunst (German) (as Author) Behrend, Arthur C. .
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He abandoned his interest in an academic career, devoting more and more of his time to promoting revolution.The Russian government, becoming aware of his radicalism, ordered him to return to Russia. On his refusal his property was confiscated. Instead he went with Georg Herwegh to Zürich, Switzerland.

Switzerland, Brussels, Prague, Dresden and Paris

The young Mikhail Bakunin
During his six month stay in Zürich, he became closely associated with German communist Wilhelm Weitling. Until 1848 he remained on friendly terms with the German communists, occasionally calling himself a communist and writing articles on communism in the Schweitzerische Republikaner. He moved to Geneva in western Switzerland shortly before Weitling's arrest. His name had appeared frequently in Weitling's correspondence seized by the police. This led to reports being circulated to the imperial police. .The Russian ambassador in Berne ordered Bakunin to return to Russia, but instead he went to Brussels, where he met many leading Polish nationalists, such as Joachim Lelewel, co-member with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels at Brussels.^ Vasilii Vereshchagin; Nikolai II; Karl Marx; Vladimir Lenin; Iosif Stalin; Friedrich Engels.
  • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ Karl Marx; Friedrich Engels; Iosif Stalin; Vladimir Lenin; Nikolai II; Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

Lelewel greatly influenced him, however he clashed with the Polish nationalists over their demand for a historic Poland based on the borders of 1776 (before the Partitions of Poland) as he defended the right of autonomy for the non-Polish peoples in these territories. .He also did not support their clericalism and they did not support his calls for the emancipation of the peasantry.^ Notice I did not say support the government leaders, they are corrupt and need to be replaced.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

In 1844 Bakunin went to Paris, then a centre for European radicalism. He established contacts with Karl Marx and the anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who greatly impressed him and with whom he formed a personal bond. In December 1844, Emperor Nicholas issued a decree stripping Bakunin of his privileges as a noble, denying him civil rights, confiscating his land in Russia, and condemning him to life long exile in Siberia should the Russian authorities ever get their hands on him. He responded with a long letter to La Réforme, denouncing the Emperor as a despot and calling for democracy in Russia and Poland (Carr, p. 139). In March 1846 in another letter to the Constitutionel he defended Poland, following the repression of Catholics there. Some Polish refugees from Kraków, following the defeat of the uprising there, invited him to speak[4] at the meeting in November 1847 commemorating the Polish November Uprising of 1830.
In his speech, Bakunin called for an alliance between the Polish and Russian peoples against the Emperor, and looked forward to "the definitive collapse of despotism in Russia." As a result, he was expelled from France and went to Brussels. Bakunin's attempt to draw Alexander Herzen and Vissarion Belinsky into conspiratorial action for revolution in Russia fell on deaf ears. In Brussels, Bakunin renewed his contacts with revolutionary Poles and Karl Marx. He spoke at a meeting organised by Lelewel in February 1848 about a great future for the slavs, whose destiny was to rejuvenate the Western world. Around this time the Russian embassy circulated rumours that Bakunin was a Russian agent who had exceeded his orders.
As the revolutionary movement of 1848 broke out, Bakunin was ecstatic, despite disappointment that little was happening in Russia. Bakunin obtained funding from some socialists in the Provisional Government, Ferdinand Flocon, Louis Blanc, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin and Albert L'Ouvrier, for a project for a Slav federation liberating those under the rule of Prussia, Austro-Hungary and Turkey. He left for Germany travelling through Baden to Frankfurt and Köln.
Bakunin supported the German Democratic Legion led by Herwegh in an abortive attempt to join Friedrich Hecker's insurrection in Baden. He broke with Marx over the latter's criticism of Herwegh. Much later in 1871 – Bakunin was to write: “I must openly admit that in this controversy Marx and Engels were in the right. .With characteristic insolence, they attacked Herwegh personally when he was not there to defend himself.^ As soon as the pirates realize they'll be blown out of the water, they'll stop attacking ships and there will be no more violence.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

In a face-to-face confrontation with them, I heatedly defended Herwegh, and our mutual dislike began then.”
[5]
Bakunin went on to Berlin, but was stopped from going to Posen by the police, which was part of Polish territories gained by Prussia in the Partitions of Poland, where a nationalist insurrection was taking place. Instead Bakunin went to Leipzig and Breslau, then to Prague where he participated in the First Pan Slav Congress. The Congress was followed by an abortive insurrection that Bakunin had sought to promote and intensify but which was violently suppressed. He returned to Breslau, where Marx republished the allegation that Bakunin was an imperial agent, claiming that George Sand had proof. Marx retracted the statement after George Sand came to Bakunin's defense.
Bakunin published his Appeal to the Slavs[6] in the fall of 1848, in which he proposed that Slav revolutionaries unite with Hungarian, Italian and German revolutionaries to overthrow the three major European autocracies, the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Kingdom of Prussia.
Bakunin played a leading role in the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849, helping to organize the defense of the barricades against Prussian troops with Richard Wagner and Wilhelm Heine. He was captured in Chemnitz and held for thirteen months before being condemned to death by the government of Saxony. As the governments of Russia and Austria were also after him, his sentence was commuted to life. In June 1850, he was handed over to the Austrian authorities. Eleven months later he received a further death sentence, but this too was commuted to life imprisonment. Finally, in May 1851, Bakunin was handed over to the Russian authorities.
Richard Wagner wrote in his diary about Bakunin's visit:[7]
First of all, however, with the view of adapting himself to the most Philistine culture, he had to submit his huge beard and bushy hair to the tender mercies of the razor and shears. As no barber was available, Rockel had to undertake the task. A small group of friends watched the operation, which had to be executed with a dull razor, causing no little pain, under which none but the victim himself remained passive. We bade farewell to Bakunin with the firm conviction that we should never see him again alive. But in a week he was back once more, as he had realised immediately what a distorted account he had received as to the state of things in Prague, where all he found ready for him was a mere handful of childish students. .These admissions made him the butt of Rockel's good-humoured chaff, and after this he won the reputation among us of being a mere revolutionary, who was content with theoretical conspiracy.^ No solution is perfect, and I won't bet the farm that my idea will work, but mass murder, even of people who have earned it, is below us.
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Very similar to his expectations from the Prague students were his presumptions with regard to the Russian people.

Imprisonment, "confession", and exile

Bakunin was taken to the notorious Peter and Paul Fortress. At the beginning of his captivity, Count Orlov, an emissary of the Emperor, visited Bakunin and told him that the Emperor requested a written confession[8] hoping that the confession would place Bakunin spiritually as well as physically in the power of the Russian state. Since all his acts were known, he had no secrets to reveal, and so he decided to write to the Emperor:
You want my confession; but you must know that a penitent sinner is not obliged to implicate or reveal the misdeeds of others. I have only the honor and the conscience that I have never betrayed anyone who has confided in me, and this is why I will not give you any names.
On reading the letter, Emperor Nicholas I, remarked, "He is a good lad, full of spirit, but he is a dangerous man and we must never cease watching him." This Confession, which was only published following its discovery in the imperial archives, has proved to be quite controversial, and is sometimes analysed within the context of a specifically Russian literary form.
After three years in the underground dungeons of the Fortress of St Peter and St Paul, he spent another four years in the castle of Shlisselburg. It was here that he suffered from scurvy and all his teeth fell out as a result of the appalling diet. He later recounted that he found some relief in mentally re-enacting the legend of Prometheus. His continuing imprisonment in these awful conditions led him to entreat his brother to supply him with poison.
Mikhail Bakunin and Antonia Kwiatkowska, circa 1861
Following the death of Nicholas I, the new Emperor Alexander II personally struck Bakunin's name off the amnesty list. However in February 1857, his mother's pleas to the Emperor were finally heeded and he was allowed to go into permanent exile in the western Siberian city of Tomsk. Within a year of arriving in Tomsk, Bakunin married Antonia Kwiatkowska, the daughter of a Polish merchant. He had been teaching her French. In August 1858 Bakunin received a visit from his second cousin, General Count Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, who had been Governor of Eastern Siberia for ten years.
Muravyov was a liberal and Bakunin, as his relative, became a particular favourite. In the spring of 1859, Muravyov helped Bakunin with a job for Amur Development Agency which enabled him to move with his wife to Irkutsk, the capital of Eastern Siberia. This enabled Bakunin to be part of the circle involved in political discussions centred on Muravyov's colonial headquarters. .Resenting the treatment of the colony by the Saint Petersburg bureaucracy, including its use as a dumping ground for malcontents, a proposal for a United States of Siberia emerged, independent of Russia and federated into a new United States of Siberia and America, following the example of the United States of America.^ If foreign nations are indeed using the coast of Somalia as a waste dumping ground, that needs to be dealt with harshly and soon.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ It has long been a head-scratcher as to how so many boats and aircraft ferry drugs into the United States each year....
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Wikipedia History of the United States (English) (as Author) History of the United States, Volume 1 (English) (as Author) History of the United States, Volume 2 Conflict & Independence (English) (as Author) Beard, Daniel Carter, 1850-1941 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

The circle included Muravyov's young Chief of Staff, Kukel—who Kropotkin related had the complete works of Alexander Herzen– the civil governor Izvolsky, who allowed Bakunin to use his address for correspondence, and Muravyov's deputy and eventual successor, General Alexander Dondukov-Korsakov.
When Herzen criticised Muravyov in The Bell, Bakunin wrote vigorously in his patron's defence.[9] Bakunin tired of his job as a commercial traveller, but thanks to Muravyov's influence, was able to keep his sinecure (worth 2,000 roubles a year) without having to perform any duties. However Muravyov was forced to retire from his post as governor general, partly because of his liberal views and partly due to fears he might take Siberia towards independence. He was replaced by Korsakov, who perhaps was even more sympathetic to the plight of the Siberian exiles. Korsakov was also related to Bakunin, Bakunin's brother Paul having married his cousin. .Taking Bakunin's word, Korsakov issued him with a letter giving him passage on all ships on the Amur River and its tributaries as long as he was back in Irkutsk when the ice came.^ Civilians ARE armed and let's face it, you'd be the first to scream bloody murder if the government came to your home and said give me all of your guns civilians shouldn't be armed.
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^ All they do is dump waste and then are pissed when Somalis want to take a ship.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ I encourage to take a deeper look at the issue and give the American people a detailed and honest portrayal of the issue.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Escape from exile and return to Europe

On June 5, 1861, Bakunin left Irkutsk under cover of company business, ostensibly employed by a Siberian merchant to make a trip to Nikolaevsk. By July 17 he was on board the Russian warship Strelok bound for Kastri. However, in the port of Olga, Bakunin managed to persuade the American captain of the SS Vickery to take him on board. Despite bumping into the Russian Consul on board, Bakunin was able to sail away under the nose of the Russian Imperial Navy. By August 6 he had reached Hakodate in the northernmost Japanese island of Hokkaidō and was soon in Yokohama. In Japan Bakunin met by chance Wilhelm Heine, one of his comrades-in arms from Dresden. He also met the German botanist Philipp Franz von Siebold who had been involved in opening up Japan to Europeans (particularly Russians and the Dutch) and was a friend of Bakunin's patron Muraviev.[10] Von Siebold's son wrote some 40 years later:
In that Yokohama boarding-house we encountered an outlaw from the Wild West Heine, presumably as well as many other interesting guests. The presence of the Russian revolutionist Michael Bakunin, in flight from Siberia, was as far as one could see being winked at by the authorities. .He was well-endowed with money, and none who came to know him could fail to pay their respects.^ Its like waving food infront of a starving person and saying "please don't take the food, if you do we will pay you more money than you could ever imagine, but please don't take it."
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He left Japan from Kanagawa on the SS Carrington, as one of nineteen passengers including Heine, Rev. P. F. Koe and Joseph Heco. Heco was a Japanese American, who eight years later played a significant role giving political advice to Kido Takayoshi and Itō Hirobumi during the revolutionary overthrow of the feudal Tokugawa shogunate.[11] They arrived in San Francisco on October 15. In the period before the trans-continental railroads had been completed, the quickest way to New York was via Panama. Bakunin boarded the Orizaba for Panama, where after waiting for two weeks he boarded the Champion for New York.
In Boston, Bakunin visited Karol Forster, a partisan of Ludwik Mieroslawski during the 1848 Revolution in Paris, and caught up with other "Forty-Eighters", veterans of the 1848 revolutions in Europe, such as Friedrich Kapp.[12] He then sailed for Liverpool arriving on December 27. Bakunin immediately went to London to see Herzen. That evening he burst into the drawing-room where the family was having supper. "What! Are you sitting down eating oysters! Well! Tell me the news. What is happening, and where?!"

Relocation to Italy

Having re-entered Western Europe, Bakunin immediately immersed himself in the revolutionary movement. In 1860, while still in Irkutsk Bakunin and his political associates had been greatly impressed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his expedition to Sicily, during which he declared himself dictator in the name of Victor Emmanuel II. Following his return to London, he wrote to Garibaldi on 31 January 1862:
"If you could have seen as I did the passionate enthusiasm of the whole town of Irkutsk, the capital of Eastern Siberia, at the news of your triumphal march across the possession of the mad king of Naples, you would have said as I did that there is no longer space or frontiers".[13]
Bakunin asked Garibaldi to participate in a movement encompassing Italians, Hungarians and South Slavs against both Austria and Turkey. Garibaldi was then engaged in preparations for the Expedition against Rome. By May Bakunin's correspondence was focussing on Italian-slavic unity and the developments in Poland. By June, he had resolved to move to Italy, but was waiting for his wife to join him. When he left for Italy in August, Mazzini wrote to Maurizio Quadrio, one of his key supporters that Bakunin was a good and dependable person. However, with the news of the failure at Aspromonte Bakunin paused in Paris where he was briefly involved with Ludwik Mierosławski. However Bakunin rejected Mieroslawski's chauvinism and refusal to grant any concessions to the peasants. Bakunin returned to England in September and focussed on Polish affairs. When the Polish insurrection broke out in January 1863, he sailed to Copenhagen where he hoped to join the Polish Legion. They planned to sail across the Baltic in the SS Ward Jackson to join the insurrection. This attempt failed, and Bakunin met his wife in Stockholm before returning to London. Now he focussed again on going to Italy and his friend Aurelio Saffi wrote him letters of introduction for Florence, Turin and Milan. Mazzini wrote letters of commendation to Frederico Campanella in Genoa and Giuseppe Dolfi in Florence. Bakunin left London in November 1863 travelling by way of Brussels, Paris and Vevey (Switzerland) arriving in Italy on 11 January 1864. It was here that he first began to develop his anarchist ideas.
He conceived the plan of forming a secret organization of revolutionaries to carry on propaganda work and prepare for direct action. He recruited Italians, Frenchmen, Scandinavians, and Slavs into the International Brotherhood, also called the Alliance of Revolutionary Socialists.
By July 1866 Bakunin was informing Herzen and Ogarev about the fruits of his work over the previous two years. His secret society then had members in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, England, France, Spain, and Italy, as well as Polish and Russian members. In his Catechism of a Revolutionary of 1866, he opposed religion and the state, advocating the
absolute rejection of every authority including that which sacrifices freedom for the convenience of the state.[14]
Bakunin's membership card of the League of Peace and Freedom
During the 1867–1868 period, Bakunin responded to Emile Acollas's call and became involved in the League of Peace and Freedom (LPF), for which he wrote a lengthy essay Federalism, Socialism, and Anti-Theologism[15] Here he advocated a federalist socialism, drawing on the work of Proudhon. He supported freedom of association and the right of secession for each unit of the federation, but emphasized that this freedom must be joined with socialism for: "Liberty without socialism is privilege, injustice; socialism without liberty is slavery and brutality."
Bakunin played a prominent role in the Geneva Conference (September 1867), and joined the Central Committee. The founding conference was attended by 6,000 people. As Bakunin rose to speak:
the cry passed from mouth to mouth: 'Bakunin!' .Garibaldi, who was in the chair, stood up, advanced a few steps and embraced him.^ Are you honestly going to kill innocent civilians, and children just to get a few bad guys only to have more step right up and fill the void?
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This solemn meeting of two old and tried warriors of the revolution produced an astonishing impression... Everyone rose and there was a prolonged and enthusiastic clapping of hands.[16]
At the Berne Congress of the League (1868) he and other socialists (Élisée Reclus, Aristide Rey, Jaclard, Giuseppe Fanelli, N. Joukovsky, V. Mratchkovsky and others) found themselves in a minority. They seceded from the League establishing their own International Alliance of Socialist Democracy which adopted a revolutionary socialist program.

The First International and the rise of the anarchist movement

Bakunin speaking to members of the IWA at the Basel Congress in 1869
In 1868, Bakunin joined the Geneva section of the First International, in which he remained very active until he was expelled from the International by Karl Marx and his followers at the Hague Congress in 1872. Bakunin was instrumental in establishing branches of the International in Italy and Spain.
In 1869, the Social Democratic Alliance was refused entry to the First International, on the grounds that it was an international organisation in itself, and only national organisations were permitted membership in the International. The Alliance dissolved and the various groups which it comprised joined the International separately.
Between 1869 and 1870, Bakunin became involved with the Russian revolutionary Sergey Nechayev in a number of clandestine projects. However, Bakunin broke with Nechaev over what he described as the latter’s “Jesuit” methods, by which all means were justified to achieve revolutionary ends.[17]
.In 1870 Bakunin led a failed uprising in Lyon on the principles later exemplified by the Paris Commune, calling for a general uprising in response to the collapse of the French government during the Franco-Prussian War, seeking to transform an imperialist conflict into social revolution.^ Larsen: I think this is a clarion call to the international community that Somalia is and continues to be a failed state.
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In his Letters to A Frenchman on the Present Crisis, he argued for a revolutionary alliance between the working class and the peasantry and set forth his formulation of what was later to become known as propaganda of the deed:
we must spread our principles, not with words but with deeds, for this is the most popular, the most potent, and the most irresistible form of propaganda.[18]
Bakunin was a strong supporter of the Paris Commune of 1871, which was brutally suppressed by the French government. He saw the Commune as above all a “rebellion against the State,” and commended the Communards for rejecting not only the State but also revolutionary dictatorship.[19] In a series of powerful pamphlets, he defended the Commune and the First International against the Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini, thereby winning over many Italian republicans to the International and the cause of revolutionary socialism.
Bakunin’s disagreements with Marx, which led to Bakunin’s expulsion from the International in 1872 after being outvoted by the Marx party at the Hague Congress, illustrated the growing divergence between the "anti-authoritarian" sections of the International, which advocated the direct revolutionary action and organization of the workers in order to abolish the state and capitalism, and the social democratic sections allied with Marx, which advocated the conquest of political power by the working class.
The anti-authoritarian sections created their own International at the St. Imier Congress and adopted a revolutionary anarchist program.[20] Although Bakunin accepted Marx’s class analysis and economic theories regarding capitalism, acknowledging "Marx’s genius", he thought Marx was arrogant, and that his methods would compromise the social revolution. More importantly, Bakunin criticized "authoritarian socialism" (which he associated with Marxism) and the concept of dictatorship of the proletariat which he adamantly refused.
.If you took the most ardent revolutionary, vested him in absolute power, within a year he would be worse than the Tsar himself.^ If these things were to occur to americans by a foreign power, you would be up in arms (more so than now) with the same veil of ignorance over your eyes.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm betting that most of you would (and who could blame you?
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ However, look at the countries whose ships are being highjacked and ask yourselves if, within the last 50 years, any of these countries have "justifiably" entered another country and done a lot worse than hold someone for ransom.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[21]
Bakunin retired to Lugano in 1873 and died in Bern on July 1, 1876.

Political beliefs

Bakunin’s political beliefs rejected governing systems in every name and shape, from the idea of God downwards, and every form of external authority, whether emanating from the will of a sovereign or from universal suffrage. He wrote in Dieu et l’Etat (God and the State[22]), published posthumously in 1882:
The liberty of man consists solely in this, that he obeys the laws of nature because he has himself recognized them as such, and not because they have been imposed upon him externally by any foreign will whatsoever, human or divine, collective or individual.
Bakunin similarly rejected the notion of any privileged position or class, since
it is the peculiarity of privilege and of every privileged position to kill the intellect and heart of man. The privileged man, whether he be privileged politically or economically, is a man depraved in intellect and heart.
Bakunin's political beliefs were based on several interrelated concepts: (1) liberty; (2) socialism; (3) federalism; (4) anti-theism; and (5) materialism. He also developed a (resultantly prescient)[23] critique of Marxism, predicting that if the Marxists were successful in seizing power, they would create a party dictatorship "all the more dangerous because it appears as a sham expression of the people's will."[24]

Liberty

By "liberty", Bakunin did not mean an abstract ideal but a concrete reality based on the equal liberty of others. In a positive sense, liberty consists of "the fullest development of all the faculties and powers of every human being, by education, by scientific training, and by material prosperity." Such a conception of liberty is "eminently social, because it can only be realized in society," not in isolation. In a negative sense, liberty is "the revolt of the individual against all divine, collective, and individual authority."[25]

Collectivist anarchism

Bakunin's socialism was known as "collectivist anarchism," in which the workers would directly manage the means of production through their own productive associations. There would be "equal means of subsistence, support, education, and opportunity for every child, boy or girl, until maturity, and equal resources and facilities in adulthood to create his own well-being by his own labor."[26]

Federalism

By federalism Bakunin meant the organization of society "from the base to the summit—from the circumference to the center—according to the principles of free association and federation."[26] .Consequently, society would be organized "on the basis of the absolute freedom of individuals, of the productive associations, and of the communes," with "every individual, every association, every commune, every region, every nation" having "the absolute right to self-determination, to associate or not to associate, to ally themselves with whomever they wish."^ They would hurt themselves.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ They look ridiculously ugly and hungry, I mean the somailans or whatever they call themselves, Why would they hold the captain captive.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ If every nation sent a task force there would be a combined strength strong enough with sailors and marines to handle the job.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[26]

Anti-theologism

Bakunin argued that "the idea of God implies the abdication of human reason and justice; it is the most decisive negation of human liberty, and necessarily ends in the enslavement of mankind, in theory and practice." Consequently, Bakunin reversed Voltaire's famous aphorism that if God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent Him, writing instead that "if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish Him."[22]

Materialism

.Bakunin denied religious concepts of "free will" and advocated a materialist explanation of natural phenomena: "the manifestations of organic life, chemical properties and reactions, electricity, light, warmth and the natural attraction of physical bodies, constitute in our view so many different but no less closely interdependent variants of that totality of real beings which we call matter" (Selected Writings, page 219).^ The ransom money is being used to buy property in Kenya, so much so that the Kenyans themselves cannot afford to own any real estate.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Two annotated typescripts (2 variants of the article) with handwritten additions, 71 page total, some are damaged.
  • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

^ An annotated galley copy of the poem (another variant, 55 pages, 2 pages are missing), some leaves are slightly damaged, and 2 separate leaves from the same poem (57 pages total).
  • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

The "mission of science is, by observation of the general relations of passing and real facts, to establish the general laws inherent in the development of the phenomena of the physical and social world." However, Bakunin rejected the notion of "scientific socialism," writing in God and the State that a "scientific body to which had been confided the government of society would soon end by devoting itself no longer to science at all, but to quite another affair... its own eternal perpetuation by rendering the society confided to its care ever more stupid and consequently more in need of its government and direction."[22]

Bakunin's concept of social revolution

Bakunin’s methods of realizing his revolutionary program were consistent with his principles. The workers and peasants were to organize on a federalist basis, "creating not only the ideas, but also the facts of the future itself."[27] .The worker's trade union associations would "take possession of all the tools of production as well as buildings and capital."^ This piracy must stop as the world economy is already in shambles and such interruptions to trade as well as the ransom payments will eventually affect us all!
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ This sweet trade must avast as th' world economy be already in shambles an' such interruptions t' trade as well as th' ransom payments will eventually affect us all!
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[28] The peasants were to "take the land and throw out those landlords who live by the labor of others."[18] Bakunin looked to "the rabble," the great masses of the poor and exploited, the so-called "lumpenproletariat," to "inaugurate and bring to triumph the Social Revolution," as they were "almost unpolluted by bourgeois civilization."[29]

Critique of Marxism

.The dispute between Mikhail Bakunin and Karl Marx highlighted the differences between anarchism and Marxism.^ Mikhail Bulgakov; Karl Marx.
  • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

Bakunin argued—against certain ideas of a number of Marxists–that not all revolutions need be violent. .He also strongly rejected Marx's concept of the "dictatorship of the proletariat", a concept that Marx's modern adherents use to interpret to mean what would be described as a "workers democracy", but which also maintains the state in existence during the transition to the Marxist economical system of "communism".[30] Bakunin, "who had now abandoned his ideas of revolutionary dictatorship",[30] insisted that revolutions must be led by the people directly while any "enlightened elite" must only exert influence by remaining "invisible...not imposed on anyone...[and] deprived of all official rights and significance".[31] He held that the state should be immediately abolished because all forms of government eventually lead to oppression.^ April 9th, 2009 5:39 pm ET I think we all have the right idea.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ No solution is perfect, and I won't bet the farm that my idea will work, but mass murder, even of people who have earned it, is below us.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Eventually it would be stolen and used against the crew by the pirates, or even sold to the "bad guys" by a crewman who fell into a little more debt than he can handle with his bookie.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[30]
.They [the Marxists] maintain that only a dictatorship—their dictatorship, of course—can create the will of the people, while our answer to this is: No dictatorship can have any other aim but that of self-perpetuation, and it can beget only slavery in the people tolerating it; freedom can be created only by freedom, that is, by a universal rebellion on the part of the people and free organization of the toiling masses from the bottom up.^ I agree that violence isn't the long-term answer, but why are we allowing our own people to go into danger zones with no way to defend themselves?
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ No solution is perfect, and I won't bet the farm that my idea will work, but mass murder, even of people who have earned it, is below us.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Um yeah no how about you protect OUR people first before you start just handing out free food.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

 
— Mikhail Bakunin, Statism and Anarchism[32]
.While both social anarchists and Marxists share the same final goal, the creation of a free, egalitarian society without social classes and government, they strongly disagree on how to achieve this goal.^ Then they can collect unemployment, social security, free lunch programs, and maybe even free health care.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Helping the government maintain civil peace and enforece laws and creating jobs will help piracy finally become a thing of the past.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Anarchists believe that the classless, stateless society should be established by the direct action of the masses, culminating in social revolution, and refuse any intermediate stage such as the dictatorship of the proletariat, on the basis that such a dictatorship will become a self-perpetuating fundament. For Bakunin, the fundamental contradiction is that for the Marxists,
anarchism or freedom is the aim, while the state and dictatorship is the means, and so, in order to free the masses, they have first to be enslaved.[33]
However Bakunin also wrote of meeting Marx in 1844 that
.As far as learning was concerned, Marx was, and still is, incomparably more advanced than I. I knew nothing at that time of political economy, I had not yet rid myself of my metaphysical observations...^ I'm sure piracy won't disappear, it will still be far more personally profitable over a real job.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Critics call it nothing more than a "how-to" guide for drug addicts.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

He called me a sentimental idealist and he was right; I called him a vain man, perfidious and crafty, and I also was right.[34]
Bakunin found Marx's economic analysis very useful and began the job of translating Das Kapital into Russian. In turn Marx wrote of the rebels in the Dresden insurrection of 1848 that "In the Russian refugee Michael Bakunin they found a capable and cool headed leader."[35] Marx wrote to Engels of meeting Bakunin in 1864 after his escape to Siberia saying "On the whole he is one of the few people whom I find not to have retrogressed after 16 years, but to have developed further."[36]
Bakunin was perhaps the first theorist of the "new class", the intellectuals and administrators forming the bureaucratic apparatus of the state. Bakunin argued that the "State has always been the patrimony of some privileged class: a priestly class, an aristocratic class, a bourgeois class. And finally, when all the other classes have exhausted themselves, the State then becomes the patrimony of the bureaucratic class and then falls—or, if you will, rises—to the position of a machine."[29]

Criticism

Violence, revolution and "Invisible dictatorship"

Bakunin has been accused of being a closet authoritarian. In his letter to Albert Richard, he wrote that
[t]here is only one power and one dictatorship whose organisation is salutary and feasible: it is that collective, invisible dictatorship of those who are allied in the name of our principle.
However, Bakunin's supporters argue that this "invisible dictatorship" is not a dictatorship in any conventional sense of the word, as Bakunin was careful to point out that its members would not exercise any official political power:
this dictatorship will be all the more salutary and effective for not being dressed up in any official power or extrinsic character.[31]
Charles A. Madison claimed that
He [Bakunin] rejected political action as a means of abolishing the state and developed the doctrine of revolutionary conspiracy under autocratic leadership– disregarding the conflict of this principle with his philosophy of anarchism. Madison contended that it was Bakunin's scheming for control of the First International that brought about his rivalry with Karl Marx and his expulsion from it in 1872. His approval of violence as a weapon against the agents of oppression led to nihilism in Russia and to individual acts of terrorism elsewhere– with the result that anarchism became generally synonymous with assassination and chaos.[37]
Others reject this analysis, arguing that Bakunin never sought to take personal control over the International, the secret societies he organized were not subject to his autocratic power, and that he condemned terrorism as counter-revolutionary.[38]

Nationalism

Anarchist historian Max Nettlau described Bakunin's pan-slavism as being the result of a nationalist psychosis from which few are free. The publication of his Confession of 1851, written while a prisoner of the Tsar in the Peter-Paul fortress, was used to attack Bakunin because in it he asked the Emperor for forgiveness for his sins and begged him to place himself at the head of the slavs as both redeemer and father.

Anti-semitism

Bakunin is often seen as a notable anti-semite since his death.[39] Bakunin used anti-Jewish sentiments during his argument with Karl Marx; he claimed that Marxian communism, along with international banking cartels associated with Rothschild, was part of Jewish system of global exploitation;
.This whole Jewish world, comprising a single exploiting sect, a kind of blood sucking people, a kind of organic destructive collective parasite, going beyond not only the frontiers of states, but of political opinion, this world is now, at least for the most part, at the disposal of Marx on the one hand, and of Rothschild on the other...^ I used to agree with it, but I've realized that one of the major problems with America is that we think "oh, if we only go make it all better for those poor people they'll act like they have sense".
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States cannot, should not be the only world power to bear this burden.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ I just hope ignorant people like the other ones saying kill them all will never be in power.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

This may seem strange. What can there be in common between socialism and a leading bank? The point is that authoritarian socialism, Marxist communism, demands a strong centralisation of the state. .And where there is centralisation of the state, there must necessarily be a central bank, and where such a bank exists, the parasitic Jewish nation, speculating with the Labour of the people, will be found.^ How can there be any vetting of these people when there is not a shred of a central government left in their country?
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ I am not in favor of nation building, but we do need to go in there and support the people.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

[40][41]
In regards to his perceptions of Jewry, Bakunin is not entirely isolated within early anarchism, as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon made similar remarks (though Proudhon was a mutualist, while Bakunin was a collectivist).[42] Proudhon's notebooks, for example, contain a passage in which he calls for the expulsion of the Jews from France, or their extermination.[43]

Eurocentrism

His Eurocentrism manifested itself in his call for a United States of Europe, his support for Russian Colonialism, particularly as practised by his relative and patron Count Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky and his indifference to Japan and Japanese peasants during and after his brief stay in Yokohama.[44] .(Japan was regarded as the most prominent revolutionary country in Asia following the Meiji Restoration of 1866–1869.) All these aspects of his thought however date from before he became an anarchist.^ All these 3rd world country low lifes need extermination.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Use the technology that we have, share if we have too with out countries, and blast these boats to Timbucktoo (Which in reality isn't all that far, LoL!).
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ I know most of these ships don't carry weapons, but in these times it may be necessary to equip all vessels privately owned with them.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Bakunin's conversion to anarchism was not till 1865, some years after his exile in Siberia and escape through Japan.[45]

Cultural references

.
Poster advertising a discussion of Bakunin's anarchism in 1975.
  • Bakunin is a character in Tom Stoppard's 2002 trilogy of plays The Coast of Utopia.
  • A character in the TV show Lost was named after him (joining the list of several LOST characters named after philosophers and/or scientists, including John Locke, Danielle Rousseau, Desmond David Hume, Jeremy Bentham and Daniel Faraday).
  • After the first ever TV appearance of the Sex Pistols, on the Granada Television show So It Goes in August 1976, presenter Tony Wilson's immediate reaction to their performance of 'Anarchy in the UK' was: "Bakunin would have loved it."
  • Quoted in KMFDM's song "Stray Bullet" from their album Symbols, specifically the quote "even if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him."
  • Bakunin is named among a list of other historical political figures in a line of the nihilistic song, Nothing by The Fugs: "Karlos Marx nothing, Engels nothing, Bakunin Kropotkin– nyuthing!^ I would like to point out, like others have already, that the conditions Somalians face are nothing like we, Americans, have ever seen.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    Leon Trotsky, lots of nothing; Stalin less than nothing!"
  • Bakunin's The Patriotism is the book Mallory (James Coburn) throws into the mud as a result of a discussion with Juan Miranda (Rod Steiger) in Sergio Leone's 1972 film Duck You Sucker.
  • The song "Bakunin", by the punk/ska band Against All Authority, is about the biography of Bakunin.
  • Canadian post-rock band Bakunin's Bum.
  • Bakunin, along with Lenin, Marx, and Trotsky is one of the existing last names in the novel Brave New World.
  • Revolutionary Chinese writer Ba Jin took his nom de plume from the first syllable of Bakunin, and the last syllable of Kropotkin.
  • Boris Akunin chose his pen-name as a reference to Bakunin.
  • Punk band Rancid's socially critical album Life Won't Wait features several spoken word quotes from "Bakunin on Anarchism" used throughout the album to demonstrate their anarchist ideals.

Works about Bakunin

  • God and the State, ISBN 048622483X
  • Bakunin on anarchism / edited, translated and with an introduction by Sam Dolgoff;[46] preface by Paul Avrich.—New York : Knopf, originally published in 1971 as Bakunin on anarchy. Includes James Guillaume’s Bakunin—A Biographical Sketch.[47]
  • Michael Bakunin: Selected Writings, ed. A. Lehning. New York: Grove Press, 1974
  • Statism and Anarchy, Cambridge University Press 1991
  • No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism by Daniel Guérin
  • Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume 1: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE-1939), ed. Robert Graham
  • The Political Philosophy of Bakunin edited by G. P. Maximoff, including "Mikhail Bakunin—a Biographical Sketch" by Max Nettlau
  • The Basic Bakunin: Writings 1869-1871, ed. Robert M. Cutler (New York: Prometheus Books, 1992)
  • Mikhail Bakunin: The Philosophical Basis of his Anarchism, by Paul McLaughlin (New York: Algora Publishing, 2002, Paperback Edition ISBN 1892941848
  • Michała Bakunina filozofia negacji, by Jacek Uglik (Warsaw: Aletheia, 2007)
English translations of Bakunin are generally rare when compared to the comprehensive editions in French (by Arthur Lehning), Spanish and German. Madelaine Grawitz’s biography (Paris: Calmann Lévy 2000) remains to be translated.
The standard English-language biography is by E. H. Carr. A new biography, Bakunin: The Creative Passion, by Mark Leier, was published by St. Martin’s Press August 22, 2006, hardcover, 320 pages, ISBN 0-312-30538-9
An eight-volume complete works of Bakunin is to be published at some point in the future by AK Press; according to Ramsey Kanaan these will likely be published yearly for eight years in hardcover format.

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Masters, Anthony (1974). Bakunin, the Father of Anarchism. Saturday Review Press. ISBN 0-8415-0295-1. 
  2. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1970). For Reasons of State. New York: Pantheon Books. (See especially title page and "Notes on Anarchism".)
  3. ^ Bakunin, Mikhail (1842). "The Reaction in Germany". In: Sam Dolgoff (1971, 1980), Bakunin on Anarchy.
  4. ^ On the 17th Anniversary of the Polish Insurrection of 1830, Mikhail Bakunin, La Réforme, December 14, 1847
  5. ^ Michael Bakunin A Biographical Sketch by James Guillaume
  6. ^ Appeal to the Slavs, Mikhail Bakunin, 1848, Bakunin on Anarchy, translated and edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971.
  7. ^ Richard Wagner. "My Life — Volume 1". http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/wglf110.txt. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  8. ^ Confession to Tsar Nicholas I, Mikhail Bakunin, 1851
  9. ^ Bakunin, Yokohama and the Dawning of the Pacific by Peter Billingsley
  10. ^ Edgar Franz, Philipp Franz von Siebold and Russian Policy and Action on Opening Japan to the West in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century, Munich: Iudicum 2005
  11. ^ Joseph Heco (Narrative Writer) James Murdoch (Editor), The Narrative of a Japanese: What He Has Seen and the People He Has Met in the Course of the Last 40 Years, Yokohama, Yokohama Publishing Company (Tokyo, Maruzen), 1895, Vol II, pp 90–98
  12. ^ An Unpublished Letter of M.A. Bakunin to R. Solger, Robert M. Cutler, International Review of Social History 33, no. 2 (1988): 212–217
  13. ^ "Bakunin, Garibaldi e gli affari slavi 1862 - 1863" by Pier Carlo Massini and Gianni Bosio, Movimento Operaio year 4, No. 1 (Jan - Feb, 1952), p81
  14. ^ Revolutionary Catechism, Mikhail Bakunin, 1866, Bakunin on Anarchy, translated and edited by Sam Dolgoff, 1971.
  15. ^ Federalism, Socialism, Anti-Theologism, Mikhail Bakunin, September 1867.
  16. ^ Bakunin's idea of revolution & revolutionary organisation published by Workers Solidarity Movement in Red and Black Revolution No.6, Winter 2002
  17. ^ Bakunin to Nechayev on the role of secret revolutionary societies, Mikhail Bakunin, June 2, 1870 letter to Sergey Nechayev
  18. ^ a b Letters to a Frenchman on the Present Crisis, Mikhail Bakunin, 1870
  19. ^ The Paris Commune and the Idea of the State, Mikhail Bakunin, 1871
  20. ^ Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939), Robert Graham, Black Rose Books, March 2005
  21. ^ Quoted in Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970), pp.25-26.
  22. ^ a b c God and the State, Michael Bakunin, 1882
  23. ^ Noam Chomsky. "The Soviet Union Versus Socialism". Our Generation. http://www.chomsky.info/articles/1986----.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  24. ^ Michael Bakunin: Selected Writings, ed. A. Lehning (New York: Grove Press, 1974), page 268
  25. ^ Man, Society, and Freedom, Mikhail Bakunin, 1871
  26. ^ a b c Revolutionary Catechism, Mikhail Bakunin, 1866
  27. ^ Mikhail Bakunin. "Works of Mikhail Bakunin 1871". Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/works/1871/program.htm#s2. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  28. ^ Mikhail Bakunin. "Works of Mikhail Bakunin 1870". Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/works/1870/albert-richard.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  29. ^ a b On the International Workingmen's Association and Karl Marx, Mikhail Bakunin, 1872
  30. ^ a b c Woodcock, George (1962, 1975). Anarchism, 158. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. ISBN 0140206221.
  31. ^ a b "Was Bakunin a secret authoritarian?". Struggle.ws. http://struggle.ws/anarchism/writers/anarcho/anarchism/bakunindictator.html. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  32. ^ "Anarchist Theory FAQ Version 5.2". Gmu.edu. http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/anarfaq.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  33. ^ Mikhail Bakunin. "Works of Mikhail Bakunin 1873". Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/works/1873/statism-anarchy.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  34. ^ Quoted in Brian Morris, Bakunin: The Philosophy of Freedom, 1993, p14
  35. ^ New York Daily Tribune (October 2, 1852) on 'Revolution and Counter Revolution in Germany'
  36. ^ Quoted in Brian Morris, Bakunin: The Philosophy of Freedom, 1993, p29
  37. ^ Madison, Charles A. (1945). "Anarchism in the United States". Journal of the History of Ideas 6 (1): 46–66. doi:10.2307/2707055. 
  38. ^ Bakunin, "Program of the International Brotherhood"(1868), reprinted in Bakunin on Anarchism, ed. S. Dolgoff
  39. ^ Paul McLaughlin. Mikhail Bakunin: The Philosophical Basis of His Theory of Anarchism. 2002. ISBN 1892941414 p. 4
  40. ^ Judaica 1950, p. 101
  41. ^ Wheen 1999, p. 340
  42. ^ Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin. Marshall Shatz. Statism and Anarchy. 1990. ISBN 0521369738 p.xxx
  43. ^ "Robert Graham, 'The General Idea of Proudhon's Revolution'". Dwardmac.pitzer.edu. 2006-01-25. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/ANARCHIST_ARCHIVES/proudhon/grahamproudhon.html. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  44. ^ "Library". libcom.org. http://libcom.org/library/osugi-sakae. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  45. ^ "Bakunin's idea of revolution and anarchist revolutionary organisation". Struggle.ws. http://struggle.ws/rbr/rbr6/bakunin.html. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  46. ^ "Mikhail Bakunin Reference Archive". Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/bakunin/bakunin-on-anarchism.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  47. ^ Karl Marx. "Michael Bakunin by James Guillaume". Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/guillaume/works/bakunin.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 

Bibliography

  • Judaica (1950). Historia judaica, Volumes 12-14. Verlag von Julius Kittls Nachfolger. 
  • Wheen, Francis (1999). Karl Marx. Fourth Estate. ISBN 1857026373. 

Further reading

  • Leier, Mark. Bakunin: The Creative Passion: A Biography. New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-312-30538-9).
  • Tom Stoppard. The Coast of Utopia. New York: Grove Press, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-8021-4005-X).
  • Daniel Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1970).

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

No theory, no ready-made system, no book that has ever been written will save the world. I cleave to no system. I am a true seeker.
.Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Cyrilllic: Михаил Александрович Бакунин) (May 30, 1814July 1, 1876) was a Russian political philosopher, anarchist, and noted atheist.^ The Book of One Syllable (English) (as Author) Bakunin, Mikhail, 1814-1876 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

What all other men are is of the greatest importance to me. However independent I may imagine myself to be, however far removed I may appear from mundane considerations by my social status, I am enslaved to the misery of the meanest member of society.
I am a fanatic lover of liberty, considering it as the unique condition under which intelligence, dignity and human happiness can develop and grow...
By striving to do the impossible, man has always achieved what is possible.
  • I am equally passionate about the struggle between the North and the Southern American states. Of course, my heart goes out to the North. But alas! .It is the South who acted with the most force, wisdom, and solidarity, which makes them worthy of the triumph they have received in every encounter so far.^ They are the ones who are most affected- they can’t even establish themselves properly as they fall prey to piracy which weakens their original sales.

    ^ The UN should make a ruling that any mercenary who catches them in the act or afterwards can harvest their organs for sale as transplants.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But by far the most interesting claim that they make is their classification of themselves as an archive (under 17 U.S.C. § 108).

    It is true that the South has been preparing for war for three years now, while the North has been forced to improvise. .The surprising success of the ventures of the American people, for the most part happy; the banality of the material well being, where the heart is absent; and the national vanity, altogether infantile and sustained with very little cost; all seem to have helped deprave these people, and perhaps this stubborn struggle will be beneficial to them in so much as it helps the nation regain its lost soul.^ The people's souls are lost.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We know Al-Qaeda has roots in that region, how much is the guess this money is filtering into efforts to kill people abroad though these groups?
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To believe anything less would be to deny that these people are human, so it is for that very reason there should be consequences as well as compassion...
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    .This is my first impression; but it could very well be that I will change my mind upon seeing things up close.^ The article articulates my very thesis and attempts to provide an answer as to how the movie industry can change to this digitally advancing world.

    ^ The R4 apparently sold very well in Japan, and with the lawsuit the price of the device skyrocketed (see another article linked from this one).

    The only thing is, I will not have enough time to examine really closely.
    • Letter to Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen and Ogareff (1861-10-03)
  • What all other men are is of the greatest importance to me. However independent I may imagine myself to be, however far removed I may appear from mundane considerations by my social status, I am enslaved to the misery of the meanest member of society. The outcast is my daily menace. Whether I am Pope, Czar, Emperor, or even Prime Minister, I am always the creature of their circumstance, the conscious product of their ignorance, want and clamoring. They are in slavery, and I, the superior one, am enslaved in consequence.
    • Solidarity in Liberty: The Workers' Path to Freedom (1867)
  • Political Freedom without economic equality is a pretense, a fraud, a lie; and the workers want no lying.
    • The Red Association (1870)
.
When the people are being beaten with a stick, they are not much happier if it is called "the People's Stick."
  • I am a fanatic lover of liberty, considering it as the unique condition under which intelligence, dignity and human happiness can develop and grow; not the purely formal liberty conceded, measured out and regulated by the State, an eternal lie which in reality represents nothing more than the privilege of some founded on the slavery of the rest; not the individualistic, egoistic, shabby, and fictitious liberty extolled by the School of J.-J. Rousseau and other schools of bourgeois liberalism, which considers the would-be rights of all men, represented by the State which limits the rights of each — an idea that leads inevitably to the reduction of the rights of each to zero.^ If all the sailors had guns, the pirates would stop hijacking them because they would die.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But I've got to give the pirates credit – what they're doing has proven to be much more profitable than the white collar execs who are sitting around in plush AIG, BOA, and CitiBank offices waiting for their bonuses and bail outs to be passed out.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They're all busy working for TSA, being worthless.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    .No, I mean the only kind of liberty that is worthy of the name, liberty that consists in the full development of all the material, intellectual and moral powers that are latent in each person; liberty that recognizes no restrictions other than those determined by the laws of our own individual nature, which cannot properly be regarded as restrictions since these laws are not imposed by any outside legislator beside or above us, but are immanent and inherent, forming the very basis of our material, intellectual and moral being — they do not limit us but are the real and immediate conditions of our freedom.
  • When the people are being beaten with a stick, they are not much happier if it is called "the People's Stick."
    • Statism and Anarchy (1873)
  • Even the most wretched individual of our present society could not exist and develop without the cumulative social efforts of countless generations. Thus the individual, his freedom and reason, are the products of society, and not vice versa: society is not the product of individuals comprising it; and the higher, the more fully the individual is developed, the greater his freedom — and the more he is the product of society, the more does he receive from society and the greater his debt to it.^ After recognizing these nuances between fansubbers and pirates, Hatcher asks, “Do our laws stifle creativity and sharing to the point where it harms society?” While there are certainly cultural benefits created by the fansubbing community, there also exists the potential to replace market need for official licensed translations, thus causing an economic harm to the artists and creators of these works.

    ^ The ability to trace and measure peer-to-peer traffic within the more basic protocols, such as those used in Napster, is much simpler than with BitTorrent.

    ^ It relies on the games only being playable online though (no downloading (other than normal, incidental downloading) is involved).

    • The Philosophy of Bakunin (1953) edited by G. P. Maximoff (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press), p. .158.
  • By striving to do the impossible, man has always achieved what is possible. Those who have cautiously done no more than they believed possible have never taken a single step forward.^ The ability to trace and measure peer-to-peer traffic within the more basic protocols, such as those used in Napster, is much simpler than with BitTorrent.

    ^ Just because we are blessed to live in a society that wastes more than they will ever see.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The ROMs that the emulators run are ripped from games that are likely older than a great portion of those who download them.

    • Attributed to Bakunin in The Explorers (1996) by Paolo Novaresio ISBN 1-55670-495-X
  • We wish, in a word, equality - equality in fact as a corollary, or rather, as primordial condition of liberty. From each according to his faculties, to each according to his needs; that is what we wish sincerely and energetically.
    • Attr. in J. Morris Davidson, The Old Order and the New, 1890.
  • The passion for destruction is also a creative passion.

Program and Object of the Secret Revolutionary Organisation of the International Brotherhood (1868)

.
  • In order to touch the heart and gain the confidence, the assent, the adhesion, and the co-operation of the illiterate legions of the proletariat — and the vast majority of proletarians unfortunately still belong in this category — it is necessary to begin to speak to those workers not of the general sufferings of the international proletariat as a whole but of their particular, daily, altogether private misfortunes.^ Categories: Audio Book, computer-generated Audio Book, human-read Compilations Data Music, recorded Music, Sheet Other recordings Pictures, moving Pictures, still .
    • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is necessary to speak to them of their own trade and the conditions of their work in the specific locality where they live; of the harsh conditions and long hours of their daily work, of the small pay, the meanness of their employer, the high cost of living, and how impossible it is for them properly to support and bring up a family.
  • Not official revolutionary commissars in any sort of sashes, but rather revolutionary propagandists are to be dispatched into all the provinces and communes and particularly among the peasants who cannot be revolutionised by principles, nor by the decrees of any dictatorship, but only by the act of revolution itself, that is to say, by the consequences that will inevitably ensure in every commune from complete cessation of the legal and official existence of the state.
  • The peoples' revolution ....^ They also said that the pirates were only trying to make easy money by taking works that others had payed full price for.

    ^ They understand that the number of pirates skyrockets when they are paid by the people who they stole from and live like kings.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They be local, they be cheap, pay them by th' hade o' each dead sea dog that they brin' t' ye.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    will arrange its revolutionary organisation from the bottom up and from the periphery to the centre, in keeping with the principle of liberty.

Man, Society, and Freedom (1871)

As translated by Sam Dolgoff in Bakunin on Anarchy (1971)
  • The materialistic. realistic, and collectivist conception of freedom, as opposed to the idealistic, is this: .Man becomes conscious of himself and his humanity only in society and only by the collective action of the whole society. He frees himself from the yoke of external nature only by collective and social labor, which alone can transform the earth into an abode favorable to the development of humanity.^ Then they can collect unemployment, social security, free lunch programs, and maybe even free health care.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The data collected by the OECD provides significant insight into the nature of the groups disseminating pirated goods.

    Without such material emancipation the intellectual and moral emancipation of the individual is impossible. He can emancipate himself from the yoke of his own nature, i.e. subordinate his instincts and the movements of his body to the conscious direction of his mind, the development of which is fostered only by education and training. But education and training are preeminently and exclusively social ... hence the isolated individual cannot possibly become conscious of his freedom.
    To be free ... means to be acknowledged and treated as such by all his fellowmen. The liberty of every individual is only the reflection of his own humanity, or his human right through the conscience of all free men, his brothers and his equals.
    .I can feel free only in the presence of and in relationship with other men.
    In the presence of an inferior species of animal I am neither free nor a man, because this animal is incapable of conceiving and consequently recognizing my humanity.^ The information this article provides helps to prove that universities’ involvement should be minimal, if only because the other options are ridiculous.

    I am not myself free or human until or unless I recognize the freedom and humanity of all my fellowmen.
    Only in respecting their human character do I respect my own. ...
    .I am truly free only when all human beings, men and women, are equally free.^ April 9th, 2009 1:40 pm ET The ransoms being paid only attracts more young men to take up pirating.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He then addresses the other side's concerns by claiming that only truly unique designs will be copyrighted, not all designs.

    .The freedom of other men, far from negating or limiting my freedom, is, on the contrary, its necessary premise and confirmation.
    • Variant translations: Man does not become man, nor does he achieve awareness or realization of his humanity, other than in society and in the collective movement of the whole society; he only shakes off the yoke of internal nature through collective or social labor...^ It relies on the games only being playable online though (no downloading (other than normal, incidental downloading) is involved).

      ^ In reality, the industry could profit by increasing the amount of titles available through an infinite online database rather than through limited shelf space in DVD rental stores.

      ^ This article supports my thesis and confirms the idea that the RIAA is taking their fight too far.

      and without his material emancipation there can be no intellectual or moral emancipation for anyone... man in isolation can have no awareness of his liberty. Being free for man means being acknowledged, considered and treated as such by another man, and by all the men around him. Liberty is therefore a feature not of isolation but of interaction, not of exclusion but rather of connection... I myself am human and free only to the extent that I acknowledge the humanity and liberty of all my fellows... I am properly free when all the men and women about me are equally free. .Far from being a limitation or a denial of my liberty, the liberty of another is its necessary condition and confirmation.
    • The freedom of all is essential to my freedom.
  • My dignity as a man, my human right which consists of refusing to obey any other man, and to determine my own acts in conformity with my convictions is reflected by the equally free conscience of all and confirmed by the consent of all humanity.^ A couple of other gentlemen (posted below) have it exactly right – my version of a detterent, goes like this however: .
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Yes if there were no other way, yes I might sign up and hope for the best, but in doing so, I would also be aknowledging that it is at my own risk.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This article supports my thesis and confirms the idea that the RIAA is taking their fight too far.

    My personal freedom, confirmed by the liberty of all, extends to infinity.
    .The materialistic conception of freedom is therefore a very positive, very complex thing, and above all, eminently social, because it can be realized only in society and by the strictest equality and solidarity among all men.
  • The first revolt is against the supreme tyranny of theology, of the phantom of God.^ Therefore, only the very few elite firms can afford the complete copyright protection suggested by bills such as the Design Piracy Prohibition Act.

    ^ Also, because of the fashion industry's quick design cycle, a firm's position as either copier or originator is constantly and very swiftly changing.

    As long as we have a master in heaven, we will be slaves on earth.
  • We must make a very precise distinction between the official and consequently dictatorial prerogatives of society organized as a state, and of the natural influence and action of the members of a non-official, non-artificial society.

God and the State (1876)

Online text
The liberty of man consists solely in this: that he obeys natural laws because he has himself recognized them as such, and not because they have been externally imposed upon him by any extrinsic will whatever, divine or human, collective or individual.
.
I receive and I give — such is human life.
^ The EFF has been a proponent of the idea since 2004 and put its seal of approval on current attempts to give life to the idea such as Choruss.

Each directs and is directed in his turn. .Therefore there is no fixed and constant authority, but a continual exchange of mutual, temporary, and, above all, voluntary authority and subordination.
  • The liberty of man consists solely in this: that he obeys natural laws because he has himself recognized them as such, and not because they have been externally imposed upon him by any extrinsic will whatever, divine or human, collective or individual.
  • Does it follow that I reject all authority?^ However this law does not stop each vessel to do all it can do to "protect" herself and her crew.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Put about five old salts on these ships and there would be no such thing as ships being hijacked, provided they have the weapons they need.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As soon as the pirates realize they'll be blown out of the water, they'll stop attacking ships and there will be no more violence.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    Far from me such a thought. In the matter of boots, I refer to the authority of the bootmaker; concerning houses, canals, or railroads, I consult that of the architect or engineer.
    For such or such special knowledge I apply to such or such a savant. But I allow neither the bootmaker nor the architect nor the savant to impose his authority upon me. I listen to them freely and with all the respect merited by their intelligence, their character, their knowledge, reserving always my incontestable right of criticism and censure. I do not content myself with consulting authority in any special branch; I consult several; I compare their opinions, and choose that which seems to me the soundest. But I recognize no infallible authority, even in special questions; consequently, whatever respect I may have for the honesty and the sincerity of such or such an individual, I have no absolute faith in any person. .Such a faith would be fatal to my reason, to my liberty, and even to the success of my undertakings; it would immediately transform me into a stupid slave, an instrument of the will and interests of others.
  • I bow before the authority of special men because it is imposed upon me by my own reason.^ My solution would be to put heavily armed boats that can be quickly deployed into the water, full of former soldiers and Marines.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Yes if there were no other way, yes I might sign up and hope for the best, but in doing so, I would also be aknowledging that it is at my own risk.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In doing so, it will make my argument against copyright even stronger because I will then state reasons why approving such a bill will still be unfavorable in the end.

    .I am conscious of my inability to grasp, in all its details and positive developments, any very large portion of human knowledge.
    The greatest intelligence would not be equal to a comprehension of the whole.^ You must be thirsty for human lives, but to say kill them all is very horrible comment.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To believe anything less would be to deny that these people are human, so it is for that very reason there should be consequences as well as compassion...
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    Thence results, for science as well as for industry, the necessity of the division and association of labor. .I receive and I give — such is human life.^ The EFF has been a proponent of the idea since 2004 and put its seal of approval on current attempts to give life to the idea such as Choruss.

    Each directs and is directed in his turn. .Therefore there is no fixed and constant authority, but a continual exchange of mutual, temporary, and, above all, voluntary authority and subordination.
  • This contradiction lies here: they wish God, and they wish humanity.^ Put about five old salts on these ships and there would be no such thing as ships being hijacked, provided they have the weapons they need.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As soon as the pirates realize they'll be blown out of the water, they'll stop attacking ships and there will be no more violence.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ok lets fix the economy in Somalia, then mexico, then the USA. Then there will be no more pirates and no more crime.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    .They persist in connecting two terms which, once separated, can come together again only to destroy each other.^ They also said that the pirates were only trying to make easy money by taking works that others had payed full price for.

    ^ In a polarized two-party system, they have disproportionate influence and too often define the terms of debate.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Two typescripts, one of them annotated, 6 pages total, and a handwritten title of the essay on a separate page, with several handwritten notes on the other side.
    • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]
    • Guide to the Andrei Voznesenskii Papers 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC content.cdlib.org [Source type: General]

    They say in a single breath: "God and the liberty of man," "God and the dignity, justice, equality, fraternity, prosperity of men" — regardless of the fatal logic by virtue of which, if God exists, all these things are condemned to non-existence. For, if God is, he is necessarily the eternal, supreme, absolute master, and, if such a master exists, man is a slave; now, if he is a slave, neither justice, nor equality, nor fraternity, nor prosperity are possible for him. .In vain, flying in the face of good sense and all the teachings of history, do they represent their God as animated by the tenderest love of human liberty: a master, whoever he may be and however liberal he may desire to show himself, remains none the less always a master.^ Show some grit and they may back down.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ After all, once they're retired as pirates, there's no need for show anymore, is there?
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Take a small point of land and warehouse all the boats on land on in marinas until they have a good government.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    His existence necessarily implies the slavery of all that is beneath him. .Therefore, if God existed, only in one way could he serve human liberty — by ceasing to exist.
  • A jealous lover of human liberty, deeming it the absolute condition of all that we admire and respect in humanity, I reverse the phrase of Voltaire, and say that, if God really existed, it would be necessary to abolish him.^ You must be thirsty for human lives, but to say kill them all is very horrible comment.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The locals have responded by taxing all those nations involved in the only way they could.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ However, no other use could be justified seeing as Bnetd existed only for the single purpose of infringing on the Blizzard licensing agreements.

    • Ch. II; Variants or variant translations of this statement have also been attributed to Bakunin:
      The first revolt is against the supreme tyranny of theology, of the phantom of God. As long as we have a master in heaven, we will be slaves on earth.
      .A boss in Heaven is the best excuse for a boss on earth, therefore If God did exist, he would have to be abolished.
  • Of escape there are but three methods — two chimerical and a third real.^ Yes if there were no other way, yes I might sign up and hope for the best, but in doing so, I would also be aknowledging that it is at my own risk.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This article will help illustrate some of the causes of the rampant Chinese piracy of U.S. IPR. There exists both a punitive and a cultural defecit between the two countries.

    ^ It would not exist if there were not a desire by some to incorporate it.

    .The first two are the dram-shop and the church, debauchery of the body or debauchery of the mind; the third is social revolution.
  • Nothing, in fact, is as universal or as ancient as the iniquitous and absurd; truth and justice, on the contrary, are the least universal, the youngest features in the development of human society.
  • All religions, with their gods, their demigods, and their prophets, their messiahs and their saints, were created by the credulous fancy of men who had not attained the full development and full possession of their faculties.^ All you girly-men and Brits who are feeling nauseous over my suggestion go join Brad and Stanley's slumber party.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ First of all, he notes the errors in the official Nintendo press release (which can be found via link from this article), including the fact that he had filed an appeal to the case, and that it was a summary judgment, not a full trial.

    Consequently, the religious heaven is nothing but a mirage in which man, exalted by ignorance and faith, discovers his own image, but enlarged and reversed — that is, divinized. .The history of religion, of the birth, grandeur, and decline of the gods who have succeeded one another in human belief, is nothing, therefore, but the development of the collective intelligence and conscience of mankind.
  • All religions are cruel, all founded on blood; for all rest principally on the idea of sacrifice-that is, on the perpetual immolation of humanity to the insatiable vengeance of divinity.
  • A person is strong only when he stands upon his own truth, when he speaks and acts from his deepest convictions.^ I personally value human life, only if it has value!
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Practical Taxidermy A manual of instruction to the amateur in collecting, preserving, and setting up natural history specimens of all kinds.
    • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I used to agree with it, but I've realized that one of the major problems with America is that we think "oh, if we only go make it all better for those poor people they'll act like they have sense".
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    Then, whatever the situation he may be in, he always knows what he must say and do. .He may fall, but he cannot bring shame upon himself or his causes.
  • In a word, we reject all legislation, all authority, and all privileged, licensed, official, and legal influence, even though arising from universal suffrage, convinced that it can turn only to the advantage of a dominant minority of exploiters against the interest of the immense majority in subjection to them.^ Though succinct, this article emphasizes the importance of ACTA’s cause and provides another example of the other industries being influenced by piracy.

    ^ OUR problem is their turning to piracy against our shipping and, unfortunately, the only solution to that will be long, slow, and bloody.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The idea that forcing networks to build inefficiency into the networks goes against the design of the internet as a whole is interesting, although perhaps not entirely convincing.

    This is the sense in which we are really Anarchists.

Rousseau's Theory of the State

Online Text
.
  • The State is the organized authority, domination, and power of the possessing classes over the masses the most flagrant, the most cynical, and the most complete negation of humanity.^ Shaw further states that the USTR is just one of many organizations that is taking part in the formation of this agreement, a fact unknown to most file sharing users.

    .It shatters the universal solidarity of all men on the earth, and brings some of them into association only for the purpose of destroying, conquering, and enslaving all the rest.^ Like BlackWater to set up some decoy vessels wait for the pirates...Kill them all and turn their boats into drift wood.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The ONLY option at this point is scorched earth in all of Somalia.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    This flagrant negation of humanity which constitutes the very essence of the State is, from the standpoint of the State, its supreme duty and its greatest virtue Thus, to offend, to oppress, to despoil, to plunder, to assassinate or enslave one's fellowman is ordinarily regarded as a crime. .In public life, on the other hand, from the standpoint of patriotism, when these things are done for the greater glory of the State, for the preservation or the extension of its power, it is all transformed into duty and virtue This explains why the entire history of ancient and modern states is merely a series of revolting crimes; why kings and ministers, past and present, of all times and all countries — statesmen, diplomats, bureaucrats, and warriors — if judged from the standpoint of simply morality and human justice, have a hundred, a thousand times over earned their sentence to hard labor or to the gallows.^ If these things were to occur to americans by a foreign power, you would be up in arms (more so than now) with the same veil of ignorance over your eyes.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ All these 3rd world country low lifes need extermination.
    • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It begins by explaining exactly why there is a need in the first place for the emulators and how the emergence of these have only been magnified by the rise of the Internet and peer-to-peer networking.

    There is no horror, no cruelty, sacrilege, or perjury, no imposture, no infamous transaction, no cynical robbery, no bold plunder or shabby betrayal that has not been or is not daily being perpetrated by the representatives of the states, under no other pretext than those elastic words, so convenient and yet so terrible: "for reasons of state."

Quotes about Bakunin

  • On the first day of a revolution, he is a perfect treasure; on the second, he ought to be shot.
    • Marc Caussidière, Préfecture de Police, in early 1848, as quoted in Michael Bakunin (1975) by H. H. Carr, p. 150.
  • Bakunin's social theory began, and almost ended, with liberty. Against the claims of liberty nothing else in his view was worth consideration at all. He attacked, remorselessly and without qualification, every institution that seemed to him to be inconsistent with liberty.
    • G. D. H. Cole, as quoted in Bakunin : The Philosophy of Freedom (1993) by Brian Morris, p. 92

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.MIKHAIL BAKUNIN (1814-1876), Russian anarchist, was born of an aristocratic family at Torjok, in the government of Tver, in 1814. As an officer of the Imperial Guard, he saw service in Poland, but resigned his commission from a disgust of despotism aroused by witnessing the repressive methods employed against the Poles.^ The Book of One Syllable (English) (as Author) Bakunin, Mikhail, 1814-1876 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

He proceeded to Germany, studied Hegel, and soon got into touch with the leaders of the young German movement in Berlin. Thence he went to Paris, where he met Proudhon and George Sand, and also made the acquaintance of the chief Polish exiles. .From Paris he journeyed to Switzerland, where he resided for some time, taking an active share in all socialistic movements.^ Different designers at different times set the trends for a season, and all engage in copying at some point.

^ Me mates and I have been terrorizing the high seas here for quite some time, and while the money is easy, all those lonely nights at sea is tough.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ By taking this movement global, the ACTA will be able to infiltrate all forms of control and severely handicap the transfer of information.

While in Switzerland he was ordered by the Russian government to return to Russia, and on his refusal his property was confiscated. In 1848, on his return to Paris, he published a violent tirade against Russia, which caused his expulsion from France. The revolutionary movement of 1848 gave him the opportunity of entering upon a violent campaign of democratic agitation, and for his participation in the Dresden insurrection of 1849 he was arrested and condemned to death. .The death sentence, however, was commuted to imprisonment for life, and he was eventually handed over to the Russian authorities, by whom he was imprisoned and finally sent to eastern Siberia in 1855. He received permission to remove to the Amur region, whence he succeeded in escaping, making his way through Japan and the United States to England in 1861. He spent the rest of his life in exile in western Europe, principally in Switzerland.^ United States President (1857-1861) Wikipedia State of the Union Address (English) (as Author) Buchanan, James, 1804-1870 .
  • Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg 3 February 2010 17:26 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Examples of countries that have enacted stronger IPR regimes as their economies developed are East Asian counties including Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, and notably the United States.

^ However, once practices change, both China and the United State can greatly benefit from better product production, distribution, and authorized adaptation.

In 1869 he founded the Social Democratic Alliance, which, however, dissolved in the same year, and joined the International (q.v.). In 1870 he attempted a rising at Lyons on the principles afterwards exemplified by the Paris Commune. At the Hague congress of the International in 1872 he was outvoted and expelled by the Marx party. He retired to Lugano in 1873 and died at Bern on the 13th of June 1876.
.Nothing can be clearer or more frank and comprehensive in its destructiveness than the revolutionary anarchism of Bakunin.^ Critics call it nothing more than a "how-to" guide for drug addicts.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

He rejects all the ideal systems in every name and shape, from the idea of God downwards; and every form of external authority, whether emanating from the will of a sovereign or from universal suffrage. ."The liberty of man," he says in his Dieu et l'Etat (published posthumously in 1882) "consists solely in this, that he obeys the laws of nature, because he has himself recognized them as such, and not because they have been imposed upon him externally by any foreign will whatsoever, human or divine, collective or individual."^ Rather than going after the makers of individual programs such as in Grokster and Napster, they went after those providing access to the infringing content.

^ April 9th, 2009 2:42 pm ET It must be that cowboy in me that says we need to rope and ride 'em 'till they break.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ April 9th, 2009 2:08 pm ET Lets say everytime a pirate went out they came back floating face down.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.In this way will the whole problem of freedom be solved: that natural laws be ascertained by scientific discovery, and the knowledge of them be universally diffused among the masses.^ April 9th, 2009 2:09 pm ET This whole problem can be solved in two words: INVADE SOMALIA!!!!
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ The argument of the article is about the counterintuitive and counterproductive nature of copyright law, and how the copyright holders go to great lengths to ensure that it remains this way.

^ April 9th, 2009 12:57 pm ET There are too manky ways to solve this> the problem is we have a stupid government in place now.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

.Natural laws being thus recognized by every man for himself, he cannot but obey them, for they are the laws also of his own nature; and the need for political organization,administration and legislation will at once disappear.^ Despite the important educational nature of the film, copyright law was preventing it from being seen, and thus a group decided to digitize and distribute the film via BitTorrent.

^ In essence, once one has created his or her own game, it is unplayable on the system that they designed it for.

Nor will he admit of any privileged position or class, for "it is the peculiarity of privilege and of every privileged position to kill the intellect and heart of man. The privileged man, whether he be privileged politically or economically, is a man depraved in intellect and heart." ."In a word, we object to all legislation, all authority, and all influence, privileged, patented, official and legal, even when it has proceeded from universal suffrage, convinced that it must always turn to the profit of a dominating and exploiting minority, against the interests of the immense majority enslaved."^ The idea that forcing networks to build inefficiency into the networks goes against the design of the internet as a whole is interesting, although perhaps not entirely convincing.

Bakunin's methods of realizing his revolutionary programme are not less frank and destructive than his principles. .The revolutionist, as he would recommend him to be, is a consecrated man, who will allow no private interests or feelings, and no scruples of religion, patriotism or morality, to turn him aside from his mission, the aim of which is by all available means to overturn the existing society.^ A one-time fee on an Ipod purchase would give purchasers access to all music available on the iTunes website.

^ Addressing poverty/opportunity issues will help deter those who would rather be doing something else but see no opportunity to do so.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Because if someone kill my dad who was just trying to feed us in a country with no type of laws, you would be my next victom.
  • Somali women flocking to port in hope of marrying pirates – amFIX - CNN.com Blogs 10 January 2010 20:11 UTC amfix.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: General]

(See ANARCHISM.)


Simple English

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin
[[File:|200.px|alt=]]
Mikhail Bakunin
Born May 30, 1814(1814-05-30)
Pryamukhino, Russian Empire
Died July 01, 1876 (aged 62)
Berne, Switzerland
Known for Anarchist Movement

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (18141876) was a famous Russian anarchist. He is known as one of the early fathers of anarchism.

History

Mikhail was born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian nobles, He spent his youth as a junior officer in the Russian army but resigned his commission in 1835. He went to school in Moscow to study philosophy and began to attend radical groups where he was greatly influenced by Alexander Herzen. Bakunin left Russia in 1842 for Dresden, and eventually Paris where he met George Sand, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx

He was eventually deported from France for speaking against Russia's oppression of Poland. In 1849 he was apprehended in Dresden for his participation in the Czech rebellion of 1848. He was turned over to Russia where he was imprisoned in Peter-Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg. He remained there until 1857, when he was exiled to a work camp in Siberia

Bibliography

  • God and the State, ISBN 0-486-22483-X
  • Bakunin on anarchism / edited, translated and with an introduction by Sam Dolgoff [1]; preface by Paul Avrich.—New York : Knopf, originally published in 1971 as Bakunin on anarchy. Includes James Guillaume’s Bakunin—A Biographical Sketch.[2]
  • Michael Bakunin: Selected Writings, ed. A. Lehning. New York: Grove Press, 1974
  • Statism and Anarchy, Cambridge University Press 1991
  • No Gods No Masters: An Anthology of Anarchism by Daniel Guérin
  • Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume 1: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE-1939),[3] ed. Robert Graham
  • The Political Philosophy of Bakunin edited by G. P. Maximoff, including "Mikhail Bakunin—a Biographical Sketch" by Max Nettlau
  • The Basic Bakunin: Writings 1869-1871, ed. Robert M. Cutler (New York: Prometheus Books, 1992)
  • Mikhail Bakunin: The Philosophical Basis of his Anarchism, by Paul McLaughlin (New York: Algora Publishing, 2002, Paperback Edition ISBN 1-892941-84-8

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