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Mikhail Gorbachev
Михаил Горбачёв

Gorbachev in 1987

In office
15 March 1990 – 25 December 1991
Prime Minister Nikolai Ryzhkov
Valentin Pavlov
Ivan Silayev
Vice President Gennady Yanayev
Preceded by Andrei Gromyko
Succeeded by Office abolished

In office
11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Preceded by Konstantin Chernenko
Succeeded by Vladimir Ivashko (Acting)

In office
1 October 1988 – 25 May 1989
Prime Minister Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Ryzhkov

In office
25 May 1989 – 15 March 1990
Preceded by Himself as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Succeeded by Anatoly Lukyanov as Parliament Speaker himself as Head of State as President of the Soviet Union

In office
1980–1991

Born 2 March 1931 (1931-03-02) (age 79)
Privolnoye, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1950–1991)
Social Democratic Party of Russia (2001–2004)
Union of Social Democrats (2007-present)
Independent Democratic Party of Russia (2008-present)
Spouse(s) Raisa Gorbachyova (d. 1999)
Alma mater Moscow State University
Profession Lawyer
Signature
.Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: About this sound Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв , IPA [mʲɪxɐˈil sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ ɡərbɐˈtɕof]; born 2 March 1931) was the seventh and last General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until 1991, and the last head of state of the USSR, serving from 1988 until its collapse in 1991. He was the only Soviet leader to have been born after the October Revolution of 1917. In 1989, he became the first Soviet leader to visit China since the 1960s.^ Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the only Soviet leader to have been born after the October Revolution of 1917.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 10, 1985 Chernenko died, and Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms.^ Mikhail Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in the village of Privolnoye near Stavropol, the son of a Russian agricultural mechanic Sergey Gorbachyov and Maria Pantelyeva.

^ The idea was probably Kulakov's, but it was first tried in the district of Ipatovsky, in Stavropol Krai, under Gorbachev's supervision.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His mother's father, the collective farm chairman and loyal communist, was arrested in the 1937 purges (Gorbachev was six) and charged with being a member of a "rightwing Trotskyist organisation".
  • The Guardian Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev | Education | The Guardian 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law.^ He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He studied law at Moscow State University, graduating at the same time as his wife Raisa in 1955.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was an exceptional student and earned a law degree at Moscow University where he joined the Communist party and became Secretary of the law department's Young Communist League.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Biography -- Academy of Achievement 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.achievement.org [Source type: Academic]

.While at university, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and soon became very active within it.^ CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] history is an important task.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While in college, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and soon became very active within it.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was active in the Young Communist League, then in the Komsomol, and joined the Communist Party in 1952.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of the Politburo in 1979. After the deaths, within three years, of Soviet Leaders Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo in 1985. Already before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level.^ Already before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was also close to Konstantin Chernenko, Andropov's successor, serving as second secretary.

^ After the deaths, within three years, of Soviet Leaders Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by Politburo in 1985.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev's attempts at reform as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War, ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.^ Again, this is nothing like the reorientation of the Soviet Union under Gorbachev.

^ (Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan summit meeting in Reykjavik).

^ (Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev summit meeting in November, 1985) .

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.
.In September 2008 Gorbachev and billionaire Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia together,[1] and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent.^ In September 2008 Gorbachev and billionaire Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia together,[1] and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their party is known as the Independent Democratic Party of Russia.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Gorbachev launches political party with Russian billionaire".
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] This is Gorbachev's third attempt to establish a political party, after having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social-Democrats in 2007.[3]

Contents

Early life

.Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Stavropol, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms.^ Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Stavropol, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stalin's drive to force Soviet peasants into collective farms was at its height.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

.He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law.^ He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He studied law at Moscow State University, graduating at the same time as his wife Raisa in 1955.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was an exceptional student and earned a law degree at Moscow University where he joined the Communist party and became Secretary of the law department's Young Communist League.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Biography -- Academy of Achievement 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.achievement.org [Source type: Academic]

.While at university, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and soon became very active within it.^ CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] history is an important task.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While in college, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and soon became very active within it.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was active in the Young Communist League, then in the Komsomol, and joined the Communist Party in 1952.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Marriage and family

.Gorbachev met his future wife, Raisa Titarenko, at Moscow State University.^ Marriage and family Gorbachev met his future wife Raisa Titarenko at Moscow State University.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While living in Moscow, he met his future wife, Raisa Maksimovna Titarenko.

^ After graduating from Moscow State University with a law degree, Gorbachev joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1952, and acted as First Secretary for the Stavropol Komsomol City Committee from 1955 to 1958.
  • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They married in September 1953 and moved to Stavropol upon graduation.^ They married in September 1953 and moved to Stavropol upon graduation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They married on the 25th September 1953 and moved to Gorbachev's home region of Stavropol in southern Russia when he graduated in June 1955, where he immersed himself in party work.

She gave birth to their only child, daughter Irina Mihailovna Virganskaya (Ири́на Миха́йловна Вирга́нская), in 1957. Raisa Gorbachev died of leukemia in 1999.[4]

Rise in the Communist Party

Gorbachev visiting a pig farm in East Germany, 1966
.Gorbachev attended the important twenty-second Party Congress in October 1961, where Nikita Khrushchev announced a plan to surpass the U.S. in per capita production within twenty years.^ Rise in the Communist Party Gorbachev visiting a pig farm in East Germany, 1966Gorbachev attended the important twenty-second Party Congress in October 1961, where Nikita Khrushchev announced a plan to surpass the U.S. in per capita production within twenty years.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October Revolution7 will provide an occasion, akin toh Party Congress, for Gorbachev lo celebrate his pragresa and to elaborate his domestic, foreign policy, andlines.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the deaths, within three years, of Soviet Leaders Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by Politburo in 1985.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At this point in his life, Gorbachev would rise in the Communist League hierarchy and worked his way up through territorial leagues of the party.^ At this point in his life, Gorbachev would rise in the Communist League hierarchy and worked his way up through territorial leagues of the party.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet emigres and Stavropol residents provide some intriguing glimpses of Gorbachev on his way up the party apparat.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would indeed be foolish to make concessions "with the aim of propping up Gorbachev, on the theory that he is a benign influence or in the belief that pleasing communists will make them peaceful."
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He was promoted to Head of the Department of Party Organs in the Stavropol Agricultural Kraikom in 1963.[5]
.In 1970, he was appointed First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, a body of the CPSU, becoming one of the youngest provincial party chiefs in the nation.^ In 1970, he was appointed First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, a body of the CPSU, becoming one of the youngest provincial party chiefs in the nation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of Politburo in 1979.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1970 he was elected first secretary of the Stavropol Krai party and was promoted to the Central Committee.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[5] .In this position he helped reorganise the collective farms, improve workers' living conditions, expand the size of their private plots, and give them a greater voice in planning.^ In this position he helped reorganise the collective farms, improve workers' living conditions, expand the size of their private plots, and give them a greater voice in planning.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Let me give you a concrete example: we are currently planning to expand Green Cross activities beyond the 31 countries where we already have branches.
  • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since 1997, it has been the mission of the Citizen Peacebuilding Program to help citizens seek realistic ways to improve human conditions locally and globally.
  • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.He was soon made a member of the Communist Party Central Committee in 1971. Three years later, in 1974, he was made a Representative to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Chairman of the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs.^ CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] history is an important task.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three years later, in 1974, he was made a Representative to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, and Chairman of the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When I became the head of the Stavropol region I became also a member of the central committee and deputy to the Supreme Soviet, and in the Supreme Soviet I was a member of the Commission on Environment.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.He was subsequently appointed to the Central Committee's Secretariat for Agriculture in 1978, replacing Fyodor Kulakov, who had supported Gorbachev's appointment, after Kulakov died of a heart attack.^ He was subsequently appointed to the Central Committee's Secretariat for Agriculture in 1978, replacing Fyodor Kulakov, who had supported Gorbachev's appointment, after Kulakov died of a heart attack.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1964 his mentor Kulakov became head of the agriculture department on the Central Committee, and three years later Gorbachev earned his degree from the Stavropol Agricultural Institute.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Kulakov died in 1978, he left vacant the position of Communist Party Central Committee Secretary in charge of agriculture.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

[5][6] In 1979, Gorbachev was promoted to the Politburo, the highest authority in the country, and received full membership in 1980. Gorbachev owed his steady rise to power to the patronage of Mikhail Suslov, the powerful chief ideologist of the CPSU.[7]
.During Yuri Andropov's tenure as General Secretary (1982–1984), Gorbachev became one of the Politburo's most visible and active members.^ In 1982 his patron, KGB Chief Yuri Andropov, became General Secretary.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gorbachev became General Secretary of the Soviet CP in 1985.

^ He had called for Gorbachev's resignation as General Secretary.
  • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

[7] .With responsibility over personnel, working together with Andropov, 20 percent of the top echelon of government ministers and regional governors were replaced, often with younger men.^ With responsibility over personnel, working together with Andropov, 20 percent of the top echelon of government ministers and regional governors were replaced, often with younger men.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than half of all government ministers and 44% of party Central Committee members have been replaced since he took over.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

^ MSG: The Ministry of Natural Resources is the co-ordinating government ministry, but the main work is being done in the regions.
  • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

.During this time Grigory Romanov, Nikolai Ryzhkov, and Yegor Ligachev were elevated, the latter two working closely with Gorbachev, Ryzhkov on economics, Ligachev on personnel.^ During this time Grigory Romanov, Nikolai Ryzhkov and Yegor Ligachev were elevated, the latter two working closely with Gorbachev, Ryzhkov on economics, Ligachev on personnel.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But even the members of Gorbachev’s Politburo who would later represent a more conservative line on domestic reforms and ideology--Gromyko, Yegor Ligachev, Nikolai Ryzhkov, Vladimir Dolgikh, Vitaly Vorotnikov--wholeheartedly supported the steps towards nuclear disarmament.
  • Gorbachev’s Nuclear Learning 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was probably no accident that his principal rival, Yegor Ligachev, was on vacation at the time; in any event, Gorbachev's opponents were caught unaware and were badly outflanked.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.Gorbachev's positions within the CPSU created more opportunities to travel abroad, and this would profoundly affect his political and social views in the future as leader of the country.^ Gorbachev's positions within the CPSU created more opportunities to travel abroad and this would profoundly affect his political and social views in the future as leader of the country.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "We would uncork a bottle of wine [for all his antialcoholism campaigning, Gorbachev still enjoys an occasional drink] and usually talk politics.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At XXVIIIth CPSU Congress in July, Gorbachev was re-elected General Secretary but this position was now completely independent of Soviet government, and the Politburo had no say in the ruling of the country.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1972, he headed a Soviet delegation to Belgium,[5] and three years later he led a delegation to West Germany; in 1983 he headed a delegation to Canada to meet with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and members of the Commons and Senate.^ In 1972, he headed a Soviet delegation to Belgium,[5] and three years later he led a delegation to West Germany; in 1983 he headed a delegation to Canada to meet with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and members of the Commons and Senate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That was living its last years, and also I started travelling to other countries such as Canada, Italy, Britain, Belgium, France.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In October 1990 mass demonstrations in the Ukraine led to the resignation of Prime Minister Vitaly Masol.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1984, he travelled to the United Kingdom, where he met British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.^ In 1984, he travelled to the United Kingdom, where he met British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December 1984 Gorbachev went to England and met with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TX 29.3.1987 - Margaret Thatcher visit to USSR: Day Two USSR: Moscow: Bolshoi Theatre: Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister 1979-1990) standing in Tsar's box with Mikhail Gorbachev (Soviet leader ...
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Compilation 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

.Upon Andropov's death in 1984, the aged Konstantin Chernenko took power; after his death the following year, it became clear to the party hierarchy that younger leadership was needed.^ Upon Andropov's death in 1984, the aged Konstantin Chernenko took power; after his death the following year, it became clear to the party hierarchy that younger leadership was needed.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In one of the more remarkable moments in Soviet history, four men who were all to serve as General Secretary found themselves on the same narrow station platform: Brezhnev; Andropov, who had come over from the nearby spa and in 1982 would succeed Brezhnev; Konstantin Chernenko, then Brezhnev's chief aide and in 1984 Andropov's successor; and Gorbachev, who would take over from Chernenko as General Secretary the following year.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, through much of his year in power Chernenko was so ill that Gorbachev, his principal deputy, in effect ran the country.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by the Politburo on 11 March 1985, only three hours after Chernenko's death.^ Mikhail Gorbachev, March 11, 1985 .
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the deaths, within three years, of Soviet Leaders Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko, Gorbachev was elected General Secretary by Politburo in 1985.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had called for Gorbachev's resignation as General Secretary.
  • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Upon his accession at age 54, he was the youngest member of the Politburo.^ Upon his accession at age 54, he was the youngest member of Politburo.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev was eight years younger than the next youngest Politburo member and 21 years younger than the average age of his colleagues.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

[7]

General Secretary of the CPSU

.Mikhail Gorbachev was the Party's first leader to have been born after the Revolution.^ General Secretary of the CPSU Mikhail Gorbachev became the Party's first leader to have been born after the Revolution.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the weekend the first student strike committee was organized as Havel and other Civic Forum leaders directed a nonviolent revolution.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am very pleased that Mikhail Gorbachev accepted my invitation to come to UC Irvine and to be the first recipient of the UCI Citizen Peacebuilding Award.
  • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

As de facto ruler of the USSR, he tried to reform the stagnating Party and the state economy by introducing glasnost ("openness"), perestroika ("restructuring"), demokratizatsiya ("democratization"), and uskoreniye ("acceleration" of economic development), which were launched at the 27th Congress of the CPSU in February 1986.

Domestic reforms

.Gorbachev's primary goal as General Secretary was to revive the Soviet economy after the stagnant Brezhnev years.^ He had called for Gorbachev's resignation as General Secretary.
  • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Domestic reforms Gorbachev's primary goal as General Secretary was to revive the Soviet economy after the stagnant Brezhnev years.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev became General Secretary of the Soviet CP in 1985.

[7] .In 1985, he announced that the Soviet economy was stalled and that reorganization was needed.^ In 1985, he announced that the Soviet economy was stalled and that reorganization was needed.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1985, Soviet economy was already in tatters.

.Gorbachev proposed a "vague programme of reform", which was adopted at the April Plenum of the Central Committee.^ Gorbachev proposed a "vague programme of reform", which was adopted at the April Plenum of the Central Committee.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Committee Plenum in January 1987 would see the crystallisation of Gorbachev's political reforms, including proposals for multi-candidate elections and the appointment of non-Party members to government positions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of Gorbachev's promised party reorganization, a decision was reportedly taken to cut the size of the Central Committee apparatus in half.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .He called for fast-paced technological modernization and increased industrial and agricultural productivity, and he attempted to reform the Soviet bureaucracy to be more efficient and prosperous.^ He called for increased industrial and agricultural productivity, fast-paced technological modernization, and attempted to reform the Soviet bureaucracy to be more efficient and prosperous.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Volcker noted that industrial production around the world was declining even more rapidly than in the United States, which is itself under severe strain.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was nothing more than an explicit attempt to wipe out the "underground economy," which in fact was the only real market in the Soviet Union and the only source of real production.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.Gorbachev soon realised that fixing the Soviet economy would be nearly impossible without reforming the political and social structure of the Communist nation.^ Gorbachev soon realised that fixing the Soviet economy would be near-impossible without reforming the political and social structure of the Communist nation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How far will Gorbachev go in reforming the economy and the political system?
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And when this forum opened in February 1987, he appealed to "the giant social movement" against nuclear weapons for support for both Soviet reforms and disarmament.
  • Gorbachev’s Nuclear Learning 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Gorbachev also initiated the concept of gospriyomka (state acceptance of production) during his time as leader[11], which represented state approval of goods in an effort to maintain quality control and combat inferior manufacturing.^ Gorbachev also initiated the concept of gospriyomka ("approval") during his time as leader[11], which represented state approval of goods in an effort to maintain quality control and combat inferior manufacturing.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this time Grigory Romanov, Nikolai Ryzhkov and Yegor Ligachev were elevated, the latter two working closely with Gorbachev, Ryzhkov on economics, Ligachev on personnel.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document .
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
He made a speech in May 1985 in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) advocating widespread reforms. .The reforms began in personnel changes; the most notable change was the replacement of Andrei Gromyko as Minister of Foreign Affairs with Eduard Shevardnadze.^ The reforms began in personnel changes; the most notable change was the replacement of Andrei Gromyko as Minister of Foreign Affairs with Eduard Shevardnadze.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jokingly dubbed the "Sinatra Doctrine" by Gorbachev's Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov, this policy of non-intervention in the affairs of the other Warsaw Pact states proved to be the most momentous of Gorbachev's foreign policy reforms.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He moved aside the aging foreign minister Andrei Gromyko by giving him a ceremonial position as Soviet president, appointing Eduard Shevardnadze from Georgia.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gromyko, disparaged as "Mr Nyet" in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs and was considered an 'old thinker'. Robert D. English notes that, despite Shevardnadze's diplomatic inexperience, Gorbachev "shared with him an outlook" and experience in managing an agricultural region of the Soviet Union (Georgia), which meant that both had weak links to the powerful military-industrial complex.^ He's a prisoner of the military-industrial complex," which in Gorbachev's mind seems to be both all powerful and moved by an implacable hostility to the Soviets.
  • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mikhail Gorbachev served as leader of the Soviet Union from 1985-1991.
  • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Gromyko, disparaged as "Mr Nyet" in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs and was considered an 'old thinker'.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.A number of reformist ideas were discussed by Politburo members.^ A number of reformist ideas were discussed by Politburo members.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the first reforms Gorbachev introduced was the anti-alcohol campaign, begun in May 1985, which was designed to fight widespread alcoholism in the Soviet Union.^ Mikhail Gorbachev served as leader of the Soviet Union from 1985-1991.
  • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the first reforms Gorbachev introduced was the anti-alcohol campaign, begun in May 1985, which was designed to fight widespread alcoholism in the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Fundamental reform cumulatively destroyed the pillars of the Soviet regime," said Archie Brown, a British historian and Gorbachev biographer.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.Prices of vodka, wine, and beer were raised, and their sales were restricted.^ Prices of vodka, wine and beer were raised, and their sales were restricted.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because the enormous consumption of vodka had been weakening the economy and culture, Gorbachev decreed fines and punishments for being drunk in public, introduced treatment programs, and restricted the sale of alcohol, raising the drinking age from 18 to 21.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was pursued vigorously and cut both alcohol sales and government revenue.^ It was pursued vigorously and cut both alcohol sales and government revenue.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Revenues from alcohol sales (taxed up to 6,000 percent) were a major source of funding for the central government, generating enough to fund the entire medical budget.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .It was a serious blow to the state budget—a loss of approximately 100 billion rubles according to Alexander Yakovlev—after alcohol production migrated to the black market economy.^ It was a serious blow to the state budgeta loss of approximately 100 billion rubles according to Alexander Yakovlevafter alcohol production migrated to the black market economy.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compared to 1985, the state deficit grew from 0 to 109 billion rubles; gold funds decreased from 2,000 to 200 tons; and external debt grew from 0 to 120 billion dollars.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government's budget began to lose 25–30 billion rubles per year.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The program proved to be a useful symbol for change in the country, however.^ The program proved to be a useful symbol for change in the country, however.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .The reduction in sales greatly expanded the purchasing power of the Soviet citizens, as alcohol was very expensive.^ The reduction in sales greatly expanded the purchasing power of the Soviet citizens, as alcohol was very expensive.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In political terms, Gorbachev used Chernobyl to undercut the very basis of the nuclear orthodoxy: the heroic and romantic image of Soviet nuclear power.
  • Gorbachev’s Nuclear Learning 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]

Perestroika

Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East Germany
.Gorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986. The new policy of "reconstruction" was introduced in an attempt to overcome the economic stagnation by creating a dependable and effective mechanism for accelerating economic and social progress.^ Perestroika Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then he initiated the New Economic Policy, which allowed markets and private property.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new policy of "reconstruction" was introduced in an attempt to overcome the economic stagnation by creating a dependable and effective mechanism for accelerating economic and social progress.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavor, improved order and disciple, more glasnost, criticism and self-criticism in all spheres of our society.^ According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavor, improved order and disciple, more glasnost, criticism and self-criticism in all spheres of our society.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We can never liberalize this stone age society, our best hope is as Mr Gorbachev advises: bring the clans together, encourage economic development, and negotiate with the moderate Taliban, convincing them to abandon terror and offer them a place in the government.
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Gorbachev gives Obama advice on Afghanistan « - Blogs from CNN.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Gorbachev gives Obama advice on Afghanistan « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a fateful move for his political career and the future of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev decided to liberalize the Soviet political system, to open the gates for "glasnost," and, above all, to create a new base of support for his perestroika in Soviet society--an alternative to the Communist Party.
  • Gorbachev’s Nuclear Learning 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is utmost respect for the individual and consideration for personal dignity."^ It is utmost respect for the individual and consideration for personal dignity."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]
.Domestic changes continued apace.^ Domestic changes continued apace.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a bombshell speech during Armenian SSR's Central Committee Plenum of the Communist Party the young First Secretary of Armenia's Hrazdan Regional Communist Party, Hayk Kotanjian, criticised rampant corruption in the Armenian Communist Party's highest echelons, implicating Armenian SSR Communist Party First Secretary Karen Demirchyan and calling for his resignation.^ He was the first secretary of the Communist Party when I first went to Moscow in 1961.

^ He had called for Gorbachev's resignation as General Secretary.
  • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In a bombshell speech during Armenian SSR's Central Committee Plenum of the Communist Party the young First Secretary of Armenia's Hrazdan Regional Communist Party, Hayk Kotanjian, criticised rampant corruption in the Armenian Communist Party's highest echelons, implicating Armenian SSR Communist Party First Secretary Karen Demirchyan and calling for his resignation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Symbolically, intellectual Andrei Sakharov was invited to return to Moscow by Gorbachev in December 1986 after six years of internal exile in Gorky.^ In December 1986 Gorbachev called Andrei Sakharov to tell him he could return to Moscow.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Symbolically, intellectual Andrei Sakharov was invited to return to Moscow by Gorbachev in December 1986 after six years of internal exile in Gorky.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these six republics, all except Georgia have experienced large-scale internal turmoil associated with a resurgence of nationalism in recent years.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the same month, however, signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.^ He was the first secretary of the Communist Party when I first went to Moscow in 1961.

^ CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] history is an important task.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a Western fantasy that the man named to be general secretary of the Communist Party would not be a devoted Communist.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Central Committee Plenum in January 1987 would see the crystallisation of Gorbachev's political reforms, including proposals for multi-candidate elections and the appointment of non-Party members to government positions.^ In the elections, many Party candidates were defeated.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Committee Plenum in January 1987 would see the crystallisation of Gorbachev's political reforms, including proposals for multi-candidate elections and the appointment of non-Party members to government positions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev proposed a "vague programme of reform", which was adopted at the April Plenum of the Central Committee.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also first raised the idea of expanding co-operatives at the plenum.^ He also first raised the idea of expanding co-operatives at the plenum.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Economic reforms took up much of the rest of 1987, as a new law giving enterprises more independence was passed in June and Gorbachev released a book, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World, in November, elucidating his main ideas for reform.^ Economic reforms took up much of the rest of 1987, as a new law giving enterprises more independence was passed in June and Gorbachev released a book, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World, in November, elucidating his main ideas for reform.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't think Obama is our Gorbachev.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perestroika Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1987 he rehabilitated many opponents of Stalin, another part of the De-Stalinization, which began in 1956, when Lenin's Testament was published.^ In 1987 he rehabilitated many opponents of Stalin, another part of the De-Stalinization, which began in 1956, when Lenin's Testament was published.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Glasnost

Gorbachev with Erich Honecker, GDR.
.1988 would see Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost, which gave new freedoms to the people, including greater freedom of speech.^ Glasnost Gorbachev with Erich Honecker, GDR.1988 would see Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost, which gave new freedoms to the people, including greater freedom of speech.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schmemann, "Faith Meets State"; see also Serge Schmemann, "Gorbachev and Church," New York Times, June 16, 1988, p.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev has promised greater freedom to preach, to engage in religious education, and to perform charitable functions.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system.^ This was a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Western measures of liberty, Gorbachev's reforms still fall short; notwithstanding, the Soviet system is clearly changing.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is probably true as some analysts have argued that "the Soviet leaders do not want to change their system or their behavior toward the West; if they change, it will only be because they must."
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The press became far less controlled, and thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released.^ The press became far less controlled, and thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The clubs also demanded the release of prisoners of conscience and called for a review of political convictions "from the 1920s to the 1980s."
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would not immediately agree to free all the prisoners, but in the next three months about three hundred political prisoners were released.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Gorbachev's goal in undertaking glasnost was to pressure conservatives within the CPSU who opposed his policies of economic restructuring, and he also hoped that through different ranges of openness, debate and participation, the Soviet people would support his reform initiatives.^ That is the essence, and therein, Soviet people do not differ.
  • George Bush: News Conference of President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.presidency.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Gorbachev's goal in undertaking glasnost was to pressure conservatives within the CPSU who opposed his policies of economic restructuring, and he also hoped that through different ranges of openness, debate and participation, the Soviet people would support his reform initiatives.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perestroika Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time, he opened himself and his reforms up for more public criticism, evident in Nina Andreyeva's critical letter in a March edition of Sovetskaya Rossiya.^ At the same time, he opened himself and his reforms up for more public criticism, evident in Nina Andreyeva's critical letter in a March edition of Sovetskaya Rossiya.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At tbe same time, pcrolive hints about Soviet openness lo new forms of verification are .
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DISCLAIMER2: There's only two more episodes until the Chaser packs up for good: tomorrow (Wed) and in 8 days' time.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] Gorbachev acknowledged that his liberalising policies of glasnost and perestroika owed a great deal to Alexander Dubček's "Socialism with a human face".
.The Law on Cooperatives enacted in May 1988 was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era.^ The Law on Cooperatives enacted in May 1988 was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perestroika Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1988, at the CPSU's Party Conference, Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the service, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors.^ For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the service, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then he initiated the New Economic Policy, which allowed markets and private property.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the unlikely event that non-Communist candidates are allowed on the ballot in Estonia (or any other Soviet republic), it would be the first time since Lenin established the party's power monopoly following the October Revolution.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, although these were ignored by some SSRs.^ The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, although these were ignored by some SSRs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later the restrictions were revised to avoid discouraging private-sector activity.^ Later the restrictions were revised to avoid discouraging private-sector activity.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under the provision for private ownership, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene.^ Under the provision for private ownership, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the service, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally the Soviet economy was still in a mess although some reforms using private enterprise and cooperatives created more wealth; but these tended to be in services such as restaurants rather than in industry.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under the new law, the restructuring of large 'All-Union' industrial organisations also began.^ Under the new law, the restructuring of large 'All-Union' industrial organisations also began.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far the "new dispensation" mentioned earlier has been largely cosmetic: the kind of qlasnost skeptics have expected all along.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aeroflot, was split up eventually becoming several independent airlines.^ Aeroflot, was split up eventually becoming several independent airlines.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These newly autonomous business organisations were encouraged to seek foreign investment.^ These newly autonomous business organisations were encouraged to seek foreign investment.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In June 1988, at the CPSU's Party Conference, Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus.^ In June 1988, at the CPSU's Party Conference, Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perestroika Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schmemann, "Faith Meets State"; see also Serge Schmemann, "Gorbachev and Church," New York Times, June 16, 1988, p.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He proposed a new executive in the form of a presidential system, as well as a new legislative element, to be called the Congress of People's Deputies.^ He proposed a new executive in the form of a presidential system, as well as a new legislative element, to be called the Congress of People's Deputies.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the Party Conference in June, Gorbachev proposed increasing local power and forming a new parliament called the Congress of People's Deputies.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989. This was the first free election in the Soviet Union since 1917. Gorbachev became Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (or head of state) on 25 May 1989. On 15 March 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[6] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate.^ In October, Gorbachev was elected to replace Gromyko as president of the Supreme Soviet.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Four days later Gorbachev was re-elected president of the Soviet Union with 59% of the Deputies' votes; the next election in 1995 would be by popular vote.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 15 March 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[6] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Congress met for the first time on 25 May in order to elect representatives from Congress to sit on the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.^ The Congress met for the first time on 25 May in order to elect representatives from Congress to sit on the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He added, "It's the first time in the history of Russia, not only the Soviet Union."
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First time they would have met.

.Nonetheless, the Congress posed problems for Gorbachev; its sessions were televised, airing more criticism and encouraging people to expect ever more rapid reform.^ Nonetheless, the Congress posed problems for Gorbachev; its sessions were televised, airing more criticism and encouraging people to expect ever more rapid reform.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, he opened himself and his reforms up for more public criticism, evident in Nina Andreyeva's critical letter in a March edition of Sovetskaya Rossiya.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavor, improved order and disciple, more glasnost, criticism and self-criticism in all spheres of our society.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the elections, many Party candidates were defeated.^ In the elections, many Party candidates were defeated.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He advised the Communist Party to allow multi-party elections, and many opponents won places on local councils (soviets).
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The February Central Committee Plenum advocated multi-party elections; local elections held between February and March returned a large number of pro-independence candidates.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, Boris Yeltsin was elected in Moscow and returned to political prominence to become an increasingly vocal critic of Gorbachev.^ Boris Yeltsin was cooperating with the Balts against the "Center," his Moscow against Gorbachev's Moscow.
  • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, Boris Yeltsin was elected in Moscow and returned to political prominence to become an increasingly vocal critic of Gorbachev.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once Boris Yeltsin assumed control of the government from Gorbachev, the Soviet Union fell apart completely.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

Foreign engagements

Gorbachev meets with Romanian leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, 1985
.In contrast to his controversial domestic reforms, Gorbachev was largely hailed in the West for his 'New Thinking' in foreign affairs.^ Foreign engagements Gorbachev meets with Romanian leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, 1985In contrast to his controversial domestic reforms, Gorbachev was largely hailed in the West for his 'New Thinking' in foreign affairs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calling for "new thinking" on foreign polfcv.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jokingly dubbed the "Sinatra Doctrine" by Gorbachev's Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov, this policy of non-intervention in the affairs of the other Warsaw Pact states proved to be the most momentous of Gorbachev's foreign policy reforms.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During his tenure, he sought to improve relations and trade with the West by reducing Cold War tensions.^ During his tenure, he sought to improve relations and trade with the West by reducing Cold War tensions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stories about the Soviet leader who presided over the end of the Cold War with the West.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Compilation 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

^ Instead, our intelligence agencies, everyone else, seems to have been doing for the most part what they did all during the Cold War.

He established close relationships with several Western leaders, such as West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher - who famously remarked: "I like Mr. Gorbachev, we can do business together."[16]
.Gorbachev understood the link between achieving international détente and domestic reform and thus began extending 'New Thinking' abroad immediately.^ Gorbachev understood the link between achieving international dtente and domestic reform and thus began extending 'New Thinking' abroad immediately.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign engagements Gorbachev meets with Romanian leader Nicolae Ceauşescu, 1985In contrast to his controversial domestic reforms, Gorbachev was largely hailed in the West for his 'New Thinking' in foreign affairs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ethnic protests in Armenia in 1988, which continued to test the limits (and durability) of alasnost, illustrated the dangers and dilemmas Gorbachev faces as he presses forward with domestic reforms.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 8 April 1985, he announced the suspension of the deployment of SS-20s in Europe as a move towards resolving intermediate-range nuclear weapons (INF) issues.^ In April he announced that he was suspending the deployment of Soviet SS-20 missiles in Europe.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 8 April 1985, he announced the suspension of the deployment of SS-20s in Europe as a move towards resolving intermediate-range nuclear weapons (INF) issues.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 1986 would see Gorbachev make his boldest international move so far, when he announced his proposal for the elimination of intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe and his strategy for eliminating all nuclear weapons by the year 2000 (often referred to as the 'January Proposal').
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later that year, in September, Gorbachev proposed that the Soviets and Americans both cut their nuclear arsenals in half.^ Later that year, in September, Gorbachev proposed that the Soviets and Americans both cut their nuclear arsenals in half.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of Gorbachev's promised party reorganization, a decision was reportedly taken to cut the size of the Central Committee apparatus in half.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than half a year after the triumph of ridding himself for good of Ligachev, the old hard-liner, Gorbachev was to invite a new crew of hard-liners into his government.
  • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He went to France on his first trip abroad as Soviet leader in October.^ He went to France on his first trip abroad as Soviet leader in October.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was the only Soviet leader to have been born after the October Revolution of 1917.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev began cutting back the military by making officers retire, and he was the first Soviet leader to take personal control over the nuclear weapons.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.November saw the Geneva Summit between Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan.^ (Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan summit meeting in Reykjavik).

^ (Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev summit meeting in November, 1985) .

^ (Mikhail Gorbachev-Ronald Reagan mini-summit in Iceland) .

.Though no concrete agreement was made, Gorbachev and Reagan struck a personal relationship and decided to hold further meetings.^ (Ronald Reagan's meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev) .

^ Reagan, Gorbachev finally meet at Geneva .

^ (Ronald Reagan-Mikhail Gorbachev meeting) .

[6]
.January 1986 would see Gorbachev make his boldest international move so far, when he announced his proposal for the elimination of intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe and his strategy for eliminating all nuclear weapons by the year 2000 (often referred to as the 'January Proposal').^ In July, Gorbachev proposed the elimination of all intermediate-range nuclear missiles in the world.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gorbachev proposed eliminating all strategic nuclear weapons by 1996 and insisted that the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) be delayed for ten years.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 11 October 1986, Gorbachev and Reagan met in Reykjavk, Iceland to discuss reducing intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also began the process of withdrawing troops from Afghanistan and Mongolia on 28 July.^ He also began the process of withdrawing troops from Afghanistan and Mongolia on 28 July.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April this process began, and the USSR and the US both pledged not to interfere in the internal affairs of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba has agreed to withdraw its 50,000 troops from Angola; South Africa has reportedly proposed giving the Soviet Union a role in the verification process for troop withdrawal.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] Nonetheless, many observers, such as Jack F. Matlock Jr. (despite generally praising Gorbachev as well as Reagan), have criticised Gorbachev for taking too long to achieve withdrawal from the Afghanistan War, citing it as an example of lingering elements of 'old thinking' in Gorbachev.[17]
.On 11 October 1986, Gorbachev and Reagan met in Reykjavík, Iceland at Höfði to discuss reducing intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.^ Gorbachev and Reagan met again in October 1986 at Reykjavik, Iceland.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 11 October 1986, Gorbachev and Reagan met in Reykjavk, Iceland to discuss reducing intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the Reykjavik summit in October 1986, Reagan had agreed to eliminate all nuclear weapons (to the consternation of his advisers) until Gorbachev insisted that testing for the Star Wars missile defence shield be suspended.
  • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To the immense surprise of both men's advisers, the two agreed in principle to removing INF systems from Europe and to equal global limits of 100 INF missile warheads.^ To the immense surprise of both men's advisers, the two agreed in principle to removing INF systems from Europe and to equal global limits of 100 INF missile warheads.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev visited Washington in December 1987, and the two superpower leaders agreed on the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that would eliminate two categories of nuclear weapons.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Corbachevommitted to reviving both the domestic economic performance of the Soviet system and the international effectiveness of tbe USSRuperpower with expanding military power and global Influence.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also essentially agreed in principle to eliminate all nuclear weapons in 10 years (by 1996), instead of by the year 2000 as in Gorbachev's original outline.^ Gorbachev proposed eliminating all strategic nuclear weapons by 1996 and insisted that the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) be delayed for ten years.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1986 Gorbachev proposed the complete elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They also essentially agreed in principle to eliminate all nuclear weapons in 10 years (by 1996), instead of by the year 2000 as in Gorbachev's original outline.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Continuing trust issues, particularly over reciprocity and Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), meant that the summit is often regarded as a failure for not producing a concrete agreement immediately, or for leading to a staged elimination of nuclear weapons.^ Gorbachev proposed eliminating all strategic nuclear weapons by 1996 and insisted that the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) be delayed for ten years.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continuing trust issues, particularly over reciprocity and Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), meant that the summit is often regarded as a failure for not producing a concrete agreement immediately, or for leading to a staged elimination of nuclear weapons.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two built on their relationship in subsequent summits, nearly agreeing to eliminate their nuclear arsenals at Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1986 and signing an historic Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty to reduce nuclear weapons in Washington in 1987.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.In the long term, nevertheless, this would culminate in the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in 1987, after Gorbachev had proposed this elimination on 22 July 1987 (and it was subsequently agreed on in Geneva on 24 November).^ Gorbachev visited Washington in December 1987, and the two superpower leaders agreed on the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that would eliminate two categories of nuclear weapons.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the long term, nevertheless, this would culminate in the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in 1987, after Gorbachev had proposed this elimination on 22 July 1987 (and it was subsequently agreed on in Geneva on 24 November).
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In July, Gorbachev proposed the elimination of all intermediate-range nuclear missiles in the world.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.In February, 1988, Gorbachev announced the full withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan.^ In February, 1988, Gorbachev announced the full withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February 1988 Gorbachev announced that all Soviet troops would be withdrawn from Afghanistan, and this was completed one year later.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gorbachev excluded the use of military forces outside of the Soviet Union with the only exception being after a sudden attack from outside.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.The withdrawal was completed the following year, although the civil war continued as the Mujahedin pushed to overthrow the pro-Soviet Najibullah government.^ The withdrawal was completed the following year, although the civil war continued as the Mujahedin pushed to overthrow the pro-Soviet Najibullah regime.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reagan continued this, of course, but this was a major drag on the USSR, at least as much of a military and morale problem for the Soviets as the push for a (still non-functional, talk about Potemkin villages) "star wars" system by Reagan.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once Boris Yeltsin assumed control of the government from Gorbachev, the Soviet Union fell apart completely.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An estimated 28,000 Soviets were killed between 1979 and 1989 as a result of the Afghanistan War.^ An estimated 28,000 Soviets were killed between 1979 and 1989 as a result of the Afghanistan War.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan killed thirty people, the Soviet army occupied Baku, taking sixty lives before order was restored.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An estimated 30,000 people were killed, and approximately 200,000 fled to the west without their belongings.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

Gorbachev in one-on-one discussions with Reagan
.Also during 1988, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet Union would abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine, and allow the Eastern bloc nations to freely determine their own internal affairs.^ Gorbachev in one-on-one discussions with ReaganAlso during 1988, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet Union would abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine, and allow the Eastern bloc nations to freely determine their own internal affairs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2007, French luxury brand Louis Vuitton announced that Gorbachev would be shown in an ad campaign for their signature luggage.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He condemned the Brezhnev doctrine and called the iron curtain archaic, suggesting that his policy toward eastern Europe would be more liberal.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jokingly dubbed the "Sinatra Doctrine" by Gorbachev's Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov, this policy of non-intervention in the affairs of the other Warsaw Pact states proved to be the most momentous of Gorbachev's foreign policy reforms.^ In a sign of the times, Gennadi Gerasimov, the foreign ministry spokesman, appeared on ABC television's Good Morning America the next day and described the policy shift saying, "We now have the Frank Sinatra Doctrine."
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Gorbachev't call for "newo license mote pragmatic foreign policy tactics and restaffing of Soviet national security organizations.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ October Revolution7 will provide an occasion, akin toh Party Congress, for Gorbachev lo celebrate his pragresa and to elaborate his domestic, foreign policy, andlines.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his 6 July 1989 speech arguing for a "common European home" before the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France, Gorbachev declared: "The social and political order in some countries changed in the past, and it can change in the future too, but this is entirely a matter for each people to decide.^ It is probably true as some analysts have argued that "the Soviet leaders do not want to change their system or their behavior toward the West; if they change, it will only be because they must."
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Gorbachev and I had intensive discussions on the transforming events in Europe, events that have put before us our best chance in four decades to see Europe whole and free.
  • George Bush: News Conference of President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.presidency.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But Gorbachev does seem to understand the need to change the political culture as a prerequisite to improving the low labor productivity that has long plagued the Soviet economy.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Any interference in the internal affairs, or any attempt to limit the sovereignty of another state, friend, ally, or another, would be inadmissible."^ Any interference in the internal affairs, or any attempt to limit the sovereignty of another state, friend, ally, or another, would be inadmissible."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April this process began, and the USSR and the US both pledged not to interfere in the internal affairs of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, as for the rather bleak state of affairs described in and around the above link, I'll address that in another blog comment tomorrow.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moscow's abandonment of the Brezhnev Doctrine led to a string of counter-revolutions in Eastern Europe throughout 1989, in which Communism was overthrown.^ Moscow's abandonment of the Brezhnev Doctrine led to a string of counter-revolutions in Eastern Europe throughout 1989, in which Communism was overthrown.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Liberation of Eastern Europe 1989-91 .
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.By the end of 1989, revolts had spread from one Eastern European capital to another, ousting the regimes built on Eastern Europe after World War II.^ Liberation of Eastern Europe 1989-91 .
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of 1989, revolts had spread from one Eastern European capital to another, ousting the regimes built on Eastern Europe after World War II. With the exception of Romania, the popular upheavals against the pro-Soviet Communist regimes were all peaceful ones.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By challenging the Soviets to destroy the very symbol of communist oppression, the 76-year-old U.S. president articulated a vision of the end of the Cold War in which democracy swept triumphantly across Eastern Europe.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.With the exception of Romania, the popular upheavals against the pro-Soviet Communist regimes were all peaceful ones.^ By the end of 1989, revolts had spread from one Eastern European capital to another, ousting the regimes built on Eastern Europe after World War II. With the exception of Romania, the popular upheavals against the pro-Soviet Communist regimes were all peaceful ones.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aware that Gorbachev would not send in Soviet tanks there were demonstrations against communist governments throughout Eastern Europe.
  • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, Andropov is one of the most hardened of all Soviet leaders.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(See Revolutions of 1989) The loosening of Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe effectively ended the Cold War, and for this, Gorbachev was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold in 1989 and the Nobel Peace Prize on 15 October 1990.
.The rest of 1989 was taken up by the increasingly problematic nationalities question and the dramatic collapse of the Eastern Bloc.^ The rest of 1989 was taken up by the increasingly problematic nationalities question and the dramatic collapse of the Eastern Bloc.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite international détente reaching unprecedented levels, with the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan completed in January and U.S.-Soviet talks continuing between Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, domestic reforms were suffering from increasing divergence between reformists, who criticised the pace of change, and conservatives, who criticised the extent of change.^ Gorbachev's personal position continued changing.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite international dtente reaching unprecedented levels, with the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan completed in January and U.S.-Soviet talks continuing between Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, domestic reforms were suffering from increasing divergence between reformists, who criticised the pace of change, and conservatives, who criticised the extent of change.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LAMB: What's going to be the chemistry between George Bush and Mr. Gorbachev?

.Gorbachev states that he tried to find the middle ground between both groups, but this would draw more criticism towards him.^ Gorbachev states that he tried to find the middle ground between both groups, but this would draw more criticism towards him.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He condemned the Brezhnev doctrine and called the iron curtain archaic, suggesting that his policy toward eastern Europe would be more liberal.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was more concerned at first about what would come out of a Reagan-Gorbachev Summit.

[6] .The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.^ The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six months later, the Berlin Wall crumbled under the ecstatic blows of freedom-seeking East Germans; the Cold War melted away, and East Germany, communism and ultimately the Soviet Union itself collapsed.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ LAMB: You pointed out in the book that at the time the Soviet Union had something like 5.4 million men under arms and America had 2.3 or 2.4 million in the services.

.On 9 November, people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany, GDR) broke down the Berlin Wall after a peaceful protest against the country's dictatorial administration, including a demonstration by some one million people in East Berlin on 4 November.^ On 9 November, people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany, GDR) broke down the Berlin Wall after a peaceful protest against the country's dictatorial administration, including a demonstration by some one million people in East Berlin on 4 November.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Gorbachev accompanied former Polish leader Lech Walesa and German Chancellor Angela Merkel at a celebration in Berlin on 9 November 2009.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decision not to smack down the people pulling down the Berlin Wall was in November that year, and had nothing to do with "the jig being up" with respect to technological stagnation of the Soviet military, and the riots in Lithuania and the attempted coup against Gorbachev by hardliners were all in 1991, with the USSR formally dissolving on Christmas Day, 1991, nearly three years after Reagan left office.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike earlier riots which were ended by military force with the help of USSR, Gorbachev, who came to be lovingly called "Gorby" in West Germany, now decided not to interfere with the process in Germany.^ Unlike earlier riots which were ended by military force with the help of USSR, Gorbachev, who came to be lovingly called "Gorby" in West Germany, now decided not to interfere with the process in Germany.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She is a quitter who can't take pressure and can't keep her oath to protect and defend and probably would have ended up as a deserter from the armed forces.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As methinks said in the comments, "Gorbachev was in no way the "least evil" man who got to the top of the USSR. He was just the guy with the least number of options by the time his number came up."
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

[18] He stated that German reunification was an internal German matter.
Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, 1990
Coit D. Blacker wrote in 1990 that the Soviet leadership "appeared to have believed that whatever loss of authority the Soviet Union might suffer in Eastern Europe would be more than offset by a net increase in its influence in Western Europe."[19] Nevertheless, it is unlikely that Gorbachev ever intended for the complete dismantling of Communism in the Warsaw Pact countries. .Rather, Gorbachev assumed that the Communist parties of Eastern Europe could be reformed in a similar way to the reforms he hoped to achieve in the CPSU. Just as perestroika was aimed at making the USSR more efficient economically and politically, Gorbachev believed that the Comecon and Warsaw Pact could be reformed into more effective entities.^ He condemned the Brezhnev doctrine and called the iron curtain archaic, suggesting that his policy toward eastern Europe would be more liberal.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All indications are that Gorbachev means business when he talks about economic reforms and he believes that a partial deregulation of cultural affairs will enhance his personal popularity by giving him the grassroots political support he needs to sustain the restructuring process now under way.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What does Gorbachev hope to gain by advocating measures ostensibly aimed at democratization of the political process?
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alexander Yakovlev, a close advisor to Gorbachev, would later state that it would have been "absurd to keep the system" in Eastern Europe.^ Alexander Yakovlev, a close advisor to Gorbachev, would later state that it would have been "absurd to keep the system" in Eastern Europe.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He condemned the Brezhnev doctrine and called the iron curtain archaic, suggesting that his policy toward eastern Europe would be more liberal.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His Harvard advisor, Richard Neustadt, also stated that Gore, "decided that he would have to go and that he would have to go as an enlisted man because, he said, 'In Tennessee, that's what most people have to do.'"
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast to Gorbachev, Yakovlev had come to the conclusion that the Soviet-dominated Comecon was inherently unworkable and that the Warsaw Pact had "no relevance to real life."^ In contrast to Gorbachev, Yakovlev had come to the conclusion that the Soviet-dominated Comecon was inherently unworkable and that the Warsaw Pact had "no relevance to real life."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boyd, Gerald M. President hoping to end 'suspicions' at summit parley; no major pacts expected; he wants to assure Gorbachev of U.S. intentions but also questions Soviet goals.

^ Nevertheless, it is unlikely that Gorbachev ever intended for the complete dismantling of Communism in the Warsaw Pact countries.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]

Collapse of the Soviet Union

.While Gorbachev's political initiatives were positive for freedom and democracy in the Soviet Union and its Eastern bloc allies, the economic policy of his government gradually brought the country close to disaster.^ Collapse of the Soviet Union Main article: Collapse of the Soviet Union While Gorbachev's political initiatives were positive for freedom and democracy in the Soviet Union and its Eastern bloc allies, the economic policy of his government gradually brought the country close to disaster.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Section II summarizes our assessment of current Soviet economic, military, and overall foreign policies and their prospects, Gorbachev's internal political position, and the bearing of these factors on Soviet policy toward the United States in the next two years.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Stavropol, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the 1980s, severe shortages of basic food supplies (meat, sugar) led to the reintroduction of the war-time system of distribution using food cards that limited each citizen to a certain amount of product per month.^ By the end of the 1980s, severe shortages of basic food supplies (meat, sugar) led to the reintroduction of the war-time system of distribution using food cards that limited each citizen to a certain amount of product per month.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a complex system of selling meat plus huge bones, supply and demand met and there were no meat shortages.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To accommodate the demand of its citizens for basic necessities, the government must build cities and supply jobs.
  • What Would Gorbachev Say? On The US, China, And Saudi Arabia « The Baseline Scenario 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC baselinescenario.com [Source type: Original source]

.Compared to 1985, the state deficit grew from 0 to 109 billion rubles; gold funds decreased from 2,000 to 200 tons; and external debt grew from 0 to 120 billion dollars.^ The central government did not receive any of the 48 billion rubles it expected from the republics for a fund to implement the new union treaty.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the official budget deficit showed it was already higher than the figure predicted for the entire year (31.1 billion rubles compared with 26.7 billion).
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small deficits, in the $100-200 billion range do not matter.
  • What Would Gorbachev Say? On The US, China, And Saudi Arabia « The Baseline Scenario 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC baselinescenario.com [Source type: Original source]

.Furthermore, the democratisation of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had irreparably undermined the power of the CPSU and Gorbachev himself.^ That month the Supreme Soviet gave Gorbachev special powers for the transition to a market economy.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 10, 1985 Chernenko died, and Mikhail Gorbachev became the leader of the Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He used his personality to its fullest extent and the relationship with Gorbachev was one which I watched up close and personal and [it] had a lot to do with the change of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

.The relaxation of censorship and attempts to create more political openness had the unintended effect of re-awakening long-suppressed nationalist and anti-Russian feelings in the Soviet republics.^ The relaxation of censorship and attempts to create more political openness had the unintended effect of re-awakening long-suppressed nationalist and anti-Russian feelings in the Soviet republics.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was nothing more than an explicit attempt to wipe out the "underground economy," which in fact was the only real market in the Soviet Union and the only source of real production.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply "An overactive penis doesn't take away your legitimacy as a political leader, so long as you're a good one.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder, especially in the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Stalin in 1940. Nationalist feeling also took hold in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Azerbaijan.^ Most of the major nationalities are recognized within the federal framework of the Soviet state as "union republics," including Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia in the Baltic region, and Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder, especially in the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Stalin in 1940.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In December 1986, the first signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union's existence surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Alma Ata and other areas of Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan.^ He was the first secretary of the Communist Party when I first went to Moscow in 1961.

^ CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] history is an important task.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a Western fantasy that the man named to be general secretary of the Communist Party would not be a devoted Communist.
  • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nationalism would then surface in Russia in May 1987, as 600 members of Pamyat, a nascent Russian nationalist group, demonstrated in Moscow and were becoming increasingly linked to Boris Yeltsin, who received their representatives at a meeting.^ 'Russia under the leadership of the recently departed Boris Yeltsin was a case in point.

^ He understood that putting down more and more rebellions in a country the size of Russia would become increasingly difficult and counterproductive.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1988, the Soviet Writers' Union was told that Pasternak's abandoned dacha at Peredelkino would become a memorial museum.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Glasnost hastened awareness of the national sovereignty problem.^ Glasnost hastened awareness of the national sovereignty problem.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does Gorbachev's handling of the nationalities problem pass the glasnost test?
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes the environment has it's problems and they need to be addressed but is it really necessary to relinquish our nation's sovereignty to some " Council of the Wise " which we have had no say in the formation of?
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The free flow of information had been so completely suppressed for so long in the Soviet Union that many of the ruling class had all but forgotten that the Soviet Union was an empire conquered through military force and consolidated by the persecution of millions of people, and not a union voluntarily entered into by local populations.^ And some people are raising the matter in these terms in the Soviet Union, namely: As long as there are no assurances from the Israelis that this is not going to be done by them for the -- to postpone issuing permits for exit, to put it off.
  • George Bush: News Conference of President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.presidency.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ LAMB: You pointed out in the book that at the time the Soviet Union had something like 5.4 million men under arms and America had 2.3 or 2.4 million in the services.

^ But it is a resource that millions of people, many of whom life in powerless abject poverty, are denied.
  • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, the extremity of local desire for independent control of their own affairs took these leaders by surprise, and the leaders were unprepared for the depth of the long pent-up feelings that were released.^ Thus, the extremity of local desire for independent control of their own affairs took these leaders by surprise, and the leaders were unprepared for the depth of the long pent-up feelings that were released.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply This about sums up how our legitimate and authoritative leader operates (or can't see the forrest through the trees-or can't take his own advice).
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given these challenges, it is not surprising that Gorbachev and the new generation of Soviet leaders are serious about perestroika.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Violence erupted in Nagorno-Karabakh - an Armenian-populated enclave within Azerbaijan - between February and April, when Armenians living in the area began a new wave of protests over the arbitrary transfer of the historically Armenian region from Armenia to Azerbaijan in 1920 upon Joseph Stalin's decision.^ Long-standing ethnic tensions between Armenians and Azeris (the indigenous population of Azerbaijan) were brought into focus when Armenian activists launched a campaign to bring about the transfer of the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh from predominantly Muslim Azerbaijani to Armenia.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calling qlasnost a fraud, demonstrators denounced Gorbachev while Armenian leaders (under the banner of a new Armenian National Front) redoubled their efforts to unite Nagarno-Karabakh with Armenia.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the contrary, ethnic violence--including mass demonstrations and bloody rioting--erupted again in both Armenia and Azer- baijan in late November.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] Gorbachev imposed a temporary solution, but it did not last, as fresh trouble arose in Nagorno-Karabakh between June and July. .Turmoil would once again return in late 1988, this time in Armenia itself, when the Leninakan Earthquake hit the region on 7 December.^ Turmoil would once again return in late 1988, this time in Armenia itself, when the Leninakan Earthquake hit the region on 7 December.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same year, he visited New Orleans, Louisiana, a city hard-hit by Hurricane Katrina, and promised he would return in 2011 to personally lead a local revolution if the U.S. government had not repaired the levees by that time.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ David Shipler, "Yevtushenko's Poem Praises a Stalin Victim," New York Times, December 19, 1988, p.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Poor local infrastructure magnified the hazard and some 25,000 people died.^ Poor local infrastructure magnified the hazard and some 25,000 people died.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Gorbachev was forced to break off his trip to the U.S. and cancel planned travels to Cuba and Britain.^ Gorbachev was forced to break off his trip to the U.S. and cancel planned travels to Cuba and Britain.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.In March and April 1989 elections to the Congress of People's Deputies took place throughout the Soviet Union.^ In March and April 1989 elections to the Congress of People's Deputies took place throughout the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In April the Polish government legalized the Solidarity Union and agreed to elections.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.This returned many pro-independence republicans, as many CPSU candidates were rejected.^ This returned many pro-independence republicans, as many CPSU candidates were rejected.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The February Central Committee Plenum advocated multi-party elections; local elections held between February and March returned a large number of pro-independence candidates.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The televised Congress debates allowed the dissemination of pro-independence propositions.^ The televised Congress debates allowed the dissemination of pro-independence propositions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walesa was allowed to debate the head of the official Communist trade union on Polish television.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indeed, 1989 would see numerous nationalistic expressions protests.^ Indeed, 1989 would see numerous nationalistic expressions protests.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April would see the crackdown of nationalist demonstrations by Soviet troops in Tbilisi.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initiated by the Baltic republics in January, laws were passed in most non-Russian republics giving precedence for the republican language over Russian.^ Initiated by the Baltic republics in January, laws were passed in most non-Russian republics giving precedence for the republican language over Russian.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January and February would see a new level of turmoil in the Baltic republics.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.9 April would see the crackdown of nationalist demonstrations by Soviet troops in Tbilisi.^ April would see the crackdown of nationalist demonstrations by Soviet troops in Tbilisi.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, 1989 would see numerous nationalistic expressions protests.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There would be further bloody protests in Uzbekistan in June, where Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks clashed in Fergana.^ There would be further bloody protests in Uzbekistan in June, where Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks clashed in Fergana.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apart from this violence, three major events that altered the face of the nationalities issue occurred in 1989. Estonia had declared its sovereignty in November, 1988, to be followed by Lithuania in May 1989 and by Latvia in July (the Communist Party of Lithuania would also declare its independence from the CPSU in December).^ Estonia had declared its sovereignty in November, 1988, to be followed by Lithuania in May 1989 and by Latvia in July (the Communist Party of Lithuania would also declare its independence from the CPSU in December).
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apart from this violence, three major events that altered the face of the nationalities issue occurred in 1989.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after the constitutional amendment, Lithuania declared independence and elected Vytautas Landsbergis as President.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This brought the Union and the republics into clear confrontation and would form a precedent for other republics.^ This brought the Union and the republics into clear confrontation and would form a precedent for other republics.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following this, in July, on the eve of the anniversary of the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, it was formally revealed that the treaty did indeed include a plan for the annexation of the Baltic countries into the USSR (as happened in 1940) and the division of Poland between the two countries.^ On the eve of the treaty's signing, the hardliners struck.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following this, in July, on the eve of the anniversary of the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, it was formally revealed that the treaty did indeed include a plan for the annexation of the Baltic countries into the USSR (as happened in 1940) and the division of Poland between the two countries.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the economy was declining after a final peak in 1986 before oil prices began to go down, the real collapse of the Soviet economy did not happen until the country itself came to a political end, although the satellites were in economic collapse before then.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.The unsavory past was exposed and gave impetus to the peoples of the Baltic countries who could now even more legitimately claim that they were subject to oppression.^ The unsavory past was exposed and gave impetus to the peoples of the Baltic countries who could now even more legitimately claim that they were subject to oppression.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In so doing, he could stress that the Soviet Union is now practicing what it preaches-- namely, noninterference in the internal affairs of other countries.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a united people, who knows what we could accomplish.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finally, the Eastern bloc collapsed in the autumn of 1989, raising hopes that Gorbachev would extend his non-interventionist doctrine to the internal workings of the USSR.[6]

Crisis of the Union: 1990–1991

Gorbachev in 1990
1990 began with nationalist turmoil in January. Azerbaijanis rioted and troops were sent in to restore order; many Moldavians demonstrated in favour of unification with the post-Communist Romania; and Lithuanian demonstrations continued. .The same month, in a hugely significant move, Armenia asserted its right to veto laws coming from the All-Union level, thus intensifying the 'war of laws' between republics and Moscow.^ Perhaps this particular process will develop in a way that would imply the presence of different levels of federative ties, just like various ties or links between the Republics.
  • George Bush: News Conference of President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.presidency.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.Soon after, the CPSU, which had already lost much of its control, began to lose even more power as Gorbachev deepened political reform.^ Soon after, the CPSU, which had already lost much of its control, began to lose even more power as Gorbachev deepened political reform.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end, Mr. Gorbachev lost control of his reforms, economic conditions worsened and the rigid system of state domination that had kept the Soviet Union intact for decades began to fall apart.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ But when the CPSU was proscribed after the August coup, Gorbachev was left with no effective power base beyond the armed forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The February Central Committee Plenum advocated multi-party elections; local elections held between February and March returned a large number of pro-independence candidates.^ The February Central Committee Plenum advocated multi-party elections; local elections held between February and March returned a large number of pro-independence candidates.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This returned many pro-independence republicans, as many CPSU candidates were rejected.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the elections, many Party candidates were defeated.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Congress of People's Deputies then amended the Soviet Constitution in March, removing Article 6, which guaranteed the monopoly of the CPSU. The process of political reform was therefore coming from above and below, and was gaining a momentum that would augment republican nationalism.^ The Congress of People's Deputies then amended the Soviet Constitution in March, removing Article 6, which guaranteed the monopoly of the CPSU. The process of political reform was therefore coming from above and below, and was gaining a momentum that would augment republican nationalism.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev's political reforms involve reconstituting the Supreme Soviet--the USSR's rubber-stamp legislature-- into a 2,250-member Congress of People's Deputies that will, in turn, elect a smaller, full-time parliament and a president (who would thus be indirectly elected).
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Soon after the constitutional amendment, Lithuania declared independence and elected Vytautas Landsbergis as President.^ Soon after the constitutional amendment, Lithuania declared independence and elected Vytautas Landsbergis as President.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Texas Independence Day Anniversary of the declaration of independence from Mexico in 1836; a legal holiday; the first day of Texas Week; also Sam Houston's birthday (see above) 1793 - first president of the Republic of Texas.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Estonia had declared its sovereignty in November, 1988, to be followed by Lithuania in May 1989 and by Latvia in July (the Communist Party of Lithuania would also declare its independence from the CPSU in December).
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.On 15 March, Gorbachev himself was elected as the only President of the Soviet Union by the Congress of People's Deputies and chose a Presidential Council of 15 politicians.^ On 15 March 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[6] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March and April 1989 elections to the Congress of People's Deputies took place throughout the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev was essentially creating his own political support base independent of CPSU conservatives and radical reformers.^ If the Party establishment had supported Gorbachev's economic and political adjustments, improvement would have been possible, I believe.

^ Instead Gorbachev said, you know, we have to base our foreign policy on the common interest of mankind and that nations have the right to make their own choices.

^ That's why the Russian economy is still based on oligarchs parlaying their political connections into privatizing mineral resources for their own benefit.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

.The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February.^ Gorbachev's hopes of a new Union were further hit when the Congress of People's Deputies dissolved itself on 5 September.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Fundamental reform cumulatively destroyed the pillars of the Soviet regime," said Archie Brown, a British historian and Gorbachev biographer.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

.This would be again a source of criticism from reformers.^ This would be again a source of criticism from reformers.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite the apparent increase in Gorbachev's power, he was unable to stop the process of nationalistic assertion.^ Despite the apparent increase in Gorbachev's power, he was unable to stop the process of nationalistic assertion.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December, Gorbachev was once more granted increased executive power by the Supreme Soviet, arguing that such moves were necessary to counter "the dark forces of nationalism".
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further embarrassing facts about Soviet history were revealed in April, when the government admitted that the NKVD had carried out the infamous Katyn Massacre of Polish army officers during World War II; previously, the USSR had blamed Nazi Germany.^ Reagan continued this, of course, but this was a major drag on the USSR, at least as much of a military and morale problem for the Soviets as the push for a (still non-functional, talk about Potemkin villages) "star wars" system by Reagan.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And by the end of 1988, I think, philosophically, the Cold War was over when he -- when he actually discarded the class struggle, philosophy of Marxism, which had been the basis of Soviet foreign policy throughout its history.

^ That the rewriting of Soviet history is a serious commitment was further confirmed in May 1988 when the State Committee on Education canceled final secondary-school history examinations.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More significantly for Gorbachev's position, Boris Yeltsin was reaching a new level of prominence, as he was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR in May, effectively making him the de jure leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.^ Print Article E-mail Article 160 Comments A plea to prevent a Russian teacher from being sentenced to detention in Siberian prison camps is coming from an unlikely source: former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Gorbachev Asks Gates to Show 'Pirate' Mercy | Betanews 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.betanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite these concerns, we believe Soviet attitudes and positions on compliance will not change significantly in the future.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Afghanistan may not be the only place where Gorbachev seeks conflict resolution and is willing to make concessions to get it.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.^ Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Print Article E-mail Article 160 Comments A plea to prevent a Russian teacher from being sentenced to detention in Siberian prison camps is coming from an unlikely source: former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Gorbachev Asks Gates to Show 'Pirate' Mercy | Betanews 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.betanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was more concerned at first about what would come out of a Reagan-Gorbachev Summit.

[6]
.Gorbachev's personal position continued changing.^ Gorbachev's personal position continued changing.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gorbachev Readings include discussions of the origin and development of democratic changes in Russia, its changing position in contemporary world and the emergence of civil society.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He used his personality to its fullest extent and the relationship with Gorbachev was one which I watched up close and personal and [it] had a lot to do with the change of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

.At XXVIIIth CPSU Congress in July, Gorbachev was re-elected General Secretary but this position was now completely independent of Soviet government, and the Politburo had no say in the ruling of the country.^ In a move that surprised nearly all outside observers, Ligachev was demoted from his powerful positions as chief ideologist and "second secretary" in the Politburo; he now bears chief responsibility for agriculture--an unenviable post, given the often disappointing performance of Soviet agriculture and Gorbachev's avowed intention to re-privatize farming.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev was elected to his crucial initial position as Chairman of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union, by a one vote margin within the ruling Politburo over then Moscow Mayor Victor Grishin.
  • Was Gorbachev the Most Influential Man of the Second Half of the 20th Century?, Bryan Caplan | EconLog | Library of Economics and Liberty 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC econlog.econlib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, I can`t say that necessarily Secretary Weinberger was the source.

.Gorbachev further reduced Party power in the same month, when he issued a decree abolishing Party control of all areas of the media and broadcasting.^ Paul Quinn-Judge, "Gorbachev presses for a rollback of party's power," Christian Science Monitor, June 29, 1988, p.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALL states has control of media, and USA has one as well, as has "free" Latvia.

^ Gorbachev spoke "without notes" and "exhibited a thorough understanding of all intricacies of arm control and other issues."
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time, Gorbachev was working to consolidate his Presidential position, culminating in the Supreme Soviet granting him special powers to rule by decree in September in order to pass a much-needed plan for transition to a market economy.^ At the same time, Gorbachev was working to consolidate his Presidential position, culminating in the Supreme Soviet granting him special powers to rule by decree in September in order to pass a much-needed plan for transition to a market economy.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had the honor of working with him three times since then.

.However, the Supreme Soviet could not agree on which programme to adopt.^ Soviet Interest could rise sharply, however, if economic performance proves disappointing.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev pressed on with political reform, his proposal for setting up a new Soviet government, with a Soviet of the Federation consisting of representatives from all 15 republics, was passed through the Supreme Soviet in November.^ "Fundamental reform cumulatively destroyed the pillars of the Soviet regime," said Archie Brown, a British historian and Gorbachev biographer.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ But once Mr. Gorbachev arrived on the scene in 1985, he shifted tack, embraced détente and disarmament, and encouraged the new Soviet leadership to reform.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ But the most dramatic challenge to Soviet authority in the Baltic states came in mid-November 1988 when the Estonian Parliament unanimously rejected Gorbachev's proposed changes in the Soviet Constitution, claiming these "reforms" would further restrict the rights of individual Soviet republics.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In December, Gorbachev was once more granted increased executive power by the Supreme Soviet, arguing that such moves were necessary to counter "the dark forces of nationalism". Such moves led to Eduard Shevardnadze's resignation; Gorbachev's former ally warned of an impending dictatorship.^ But once Mr. Gorbachev arrived on the scene in 1985, he shifted tack, embraced détente and disarmament, and encouraged the new Soviet leadership to reform.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, a close ally of Gorbachev's, completes this portrait.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former president, who visited Gorbachev in 1986, came away with high admiration for the Soviet leader.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This move was a serious blow to Gorbachev personally and to his efforts for reform.^ This move was a serious blow to Gorbachev personally and to his efforts for reform.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, most observers agree that Gorbachev's primary motive--and most urgent need--is to get the stalled economic reforms moving.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the reforms falter, Gorbachev can (and will) blame Ligachev; conversely, Ligachev now has a strong personal incentive to make the new rural Perestroika work.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Meanwhile, Gorbachev was losing further ground to nationalists.^ Meanwhile, Gorbachev was losing further ground to nationalists.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.October 1990 saw the founding of DemoRossiya, the Russian nationalist party; a few days later, both Ukraine and Russia declared their laws completely sovereign over Soviet level laws.^ October 1990 saw the founding of DemoRossiya, the Russian nationalist party; a few days later, both Ukraine and Russia declared their laws completely sovereign over Soviet level laws.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that year, in September, Gorbachev proposed that the Soviets and Americans both cut their nuclear arsenals in half.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 'war of laws' had become an open battle, with the Supreme Soviet refusing to recognise the actions of the two republics.^ The 'war of laws' had become an open battle, with the Supreme Soviet refusing to recognise the actions of the two republics.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Supreme Soviet lost little time in declaring the Estonian action unconstitutional, but Gorbachev conceded that certain, unspecified changes were in order in his proposed constitutional amendments.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Print Article E-mail Article 160 Comments A plea to prevent a Russian teacher from being sentenced to detention in Siberian prison camps is coming from an unlikely source: former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Gorbachev Asks Gates to Show 'Pirate' Mercy | Betanews 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.betanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mikhail Gorbachev (Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov), former President of the Soviet Union , whose book Perestroika , though widely reported in the Western media as being a liberal document, revealed his adherence to Leninism and a new model for the dictatorship of the proletariat .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[6]
.January and February would see a new level of turmoil in the Baltic republics.^ January and February would see a new level of turmoil in the Baltic republics.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glasnost Gorbachev with Erich Honecker, GDR.1988 would see Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost, which gave new freedoms to the people, including greater freedom of speech.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See, for example, Philip Taubman, "Moscow's Baltic Thorn," New York Times, October 25, 1988, p.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 10 January 1991 Gorbachev issued an ultimatum-like request [22] addressing the Lithuanian Supreme Council demanding the restoration of the validity of the constitution of the Soviet Union in Lithuania and the revoking of all anti-constitutional laws.^ On 10 January 1991 Gorbachev issued an ultimatum-like request addressing the Lithuanian Supreme Council demanding the restoration of the validity of the constitution of the Soviet Union in Lithuania and the revoking of all anti-constitutional laws.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LAMB: You pointed out in the book that at the time the Soviet Union had something like 5.4 million men under arms and America had 2.3 or 2.4 million in the services.

.In his Memoirs, Gorbachev asserts that, on 12 January, he convened the Council of the Federation and political measures to prevent bloodshed were agreed, including sending representatives of the Council of the Federation on a "fact-finding mission" to Vilnius.^ In his Memoirs, Gorbachev asserts that, on 12 January, he convened the Council of the Federation and political measures to prevent bloodshed were agreed, including sending representatives of the Council of the Federation on a "fact-finding mission" to Vilnius.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Political measures, such as limiting the political status of top military officers, indicate Gorbachev'sto stress the party's control of the military.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Committee Plenum in January 1987 would see the crystallisation of Gorbachev's political reforms, including proposals for multi-candidate elections and the appointment of non-Party members to government positions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, before the delegation arrived, the local branches of the KGB and armed forces had worked together to seize the TV tower in Vilnius; Gorbachev asked the heads of the KGB and military if they had approved such action, and there is no evidence that they, or Gorbachev, ever approved this move.^ They had worked together for years.

^ No one needs to educate Chomsky on American imperialism, and there have been few as tireless in voicing the grievances of the oppressed to those here in the USA who explicitly and complicitly take part in and support such actions.

^ I would say that most people when they leave the government have had such fights with people that they leave on very bad terms or they don't get together or whatever.

.Gorbachev cites documents found in the RSFSR Prokuratura after the August coup, which only mentioned that "some 'authorities'" had sanctioned the actions.^ Gorbachev cites documents found in the RSFSR Prokuratura after the August coup, which only mentioned that "some 'authorities'" had sanctioned the actions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when the CPSU was proscribed after the August coup, Gorbachev was left with no effective power base beyond the armed forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.A book called Alpha – the KGB's Top Secret Unit also suggests that a "KGB operation co-ordinated with the military" was undertaken by the KGB Alpha Group.^ A book called Alpha the KGB's Top Secret Unit also suggests that a "KGB operation co-ordinated with the military" was undertaken by the KGB Alpha Group.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boltunov, M., Alfa Sverkhsekretnyi Otryad KGB [Alpha The KGB's Top-Secret Unit], 1992, (Moscow: Kedr) ^ a b c Brown, A., The Gorbachev Factor, 1996, (New York: Oxford University Press).
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Archie Brown, in The Gorbachev Factor, uses the memoirs of many people around Gorbachev and in the upper echelons of the Soviet political landscape, to implicate General Valentin Varennikov, a member of the August coup plotters, and General Viktor Achalov, another August coup conspirator.^ "Fundamental reform cumulatively destroyed the pillars of the Soviet regime," said Archie Brown, a British historian and Gorbachev biographer.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ He used his personality to its fullest extent and the relationship with Gorbachev was one which I watched up close and personal and [it] had a lot to do with the change of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

^ Mikhail Gorbachev is using Bukharin to make respectable the things Mr. Gorbachev is trying to do to the Soviet system.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These persons were characterised as individuals "who were prepared to remove Gorbachev from his presidential office unconstitutionally" and "were more than capable of using unauthorised violence against nationalist separatists some months earlier". Brown criticises Gorbachev for "a conscious tilt in the direction of the conservative forces he was trying to keep within an increasingly fragile coalition" who would later betray him; he also criticises Gorbachev "for his tougher line and heightened rhetoric against the Lithuanians in the days preceding the attack and for his slowness in condemning the killings" but notes that Gorbachev did not approve any action and was seeking political solutions.^ Brown criticises Gorbachev for "a conscious tilt in the direction of the conservative forces he was trying to keep within an increasingly fragile coalition" who would later betray him; he also criticises Gorbachev "for his tougher line and heightened rhetoric against the Lithuanians in the days preceding the attack and for his slowness in condemning the killings" but notes that Gorbachev did not approve any action and was seeking political solutions.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These persons were characterised as individuals "who were prepared to remove Gorbachev from his presidential office unconstitutionally" and "were more than capable of using unauthorised violence against nationalist separatists some months earlier".
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.As a result of continued violence, at least 14 civilians were killed and more than 600 injured from 11–13 January 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania.^ As a result of continued violence, at least 14 civilians were killed and more than 600 injured from 11-13 January 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now considering that Blacks are only 12 or 13 percent of poputlation, that means they are about fourt times more dangerous than Whites.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, no fewer than 100,000 people, roughly one-sixth of the city's population, turned out.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The strong Western reaction and the actions of Russian democratic forces put the president and government of the Soviet Union into an awkward situation, as news of support for Lithuanians from Western democracies started to appear.^ Mikhail Gorbachev (Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov), former President of the Soviet Union , whose book Perestroika , though widely reported in the Western media as being a liberal document, revealed his adherence to Leninism and a new model for the dictatorship of the proletariat .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ A wiser man than me put it bluntly and by saying that when a crisis comes around, governments are expected to do SOMETHING, even if the best course of action is to do nothing.
  • What Would Gorbachev Say? On The US, China, And Saudi Arabia « The Baseline Scenario 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC baselinescenario.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mikhail Gorbachev, former president of the Soviet Union, said Wednesday the United States was hypocritical over nuclear armaments and not prepared to disarm its own weapons.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev: News & Videos about Mikhail Gorbachev - CNN.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Further problems surfaced in Riga, Latvia, on 20 January and 21, where OMON (special Ministry of the Interior) troops killed 4 people. .Archie Brown suggests that Gorbachev's response this time was better, condemning the rogue action, sending his condolences and suggesting that secession could take place if it went through the procedures outlined in the Soviet constitution.^ Archie Brown suggests that Gorbachev's response this time was better, condemning the rogue action, sending his condolences and suggesting that secession could take place if it went through the procedures outlined in the Soviet constitution.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Fundamental reform cumulatively destroyed the pillars of the Soviet regime," said Archie Brown, a British historian and Gorbachev biographer.
  • How Reagan and Gorbachev sowed 'seeds of freedom' 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Gore responded by stating that these events would not take place because a candidate would be nominated through the primary process.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Gorbachev's aide, Shakhnazarov (quoted by Archie Brown), Gorbachev was finally beginning to accept the inevitability of "losing" the Baltic republics, although he would try all political means to preserve the Union.^ According to Gorbachev's aide, Shakhnazarov (quoted by Archie Brown), Gorbachev was finally beginning to accept the inevitability of "losing" the Baltic republics, although he would try all political means to preserve the Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May, Tatyanna Zaslavskaya, a key Gorbachev adviser, came out in favor of a "popular front" that would be a political alternative to the Communist party.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brown believes that this put him in "imminent danger" of being overthrown by hard-liners against the secession.^ Brown believes that this put him in "imminent danger" of being overthrown by hard-liners against the secession.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this should weigh very heavily against him being reelected in 2012.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (It is possible that hard-liners pressured him into making this concession to the party.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.Gorbachev thus continued to draw up a new treaty of union which would have created a truly voluntary federation in an increasingly democratised Soviet Union.^ Gorbachev thus continued to draw up a new treaty of union which would have created a truly voluntary federation in an increasingly democratised Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If Gorbachev is taken at his word, however, any plans for truly democratic elections would be premature.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new treaty was strongly supported by the Central Asian republics, who needed the economic power and markets of the Soviet Union to prosper.^ The new treaty was strongly supported by the Central Asian republics, who needed the economic power and markets of the Soviet Union to prosper.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Corbachevommitted to reviving both the domestic economic performance of the Soviet system and the international effectiveness of tbe USSRuperpower with expanding military power and global Influence.
  • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the more radical reformists, such as Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin, were increasingly convinced that a rapid transition to a market economy was required and were more than happy to contemplate the disintegration of the Soviet Union if that was required to achieve their aims.^ The Soviet Union encompasses more than a hundred ethnic groups.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the more radical reformists, such as Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin, were increasingly convinced that a rapid transition to a market economy was required and were more than happy to contemplate the disintegration of the Soviet Union if that was required to achieve their aims.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, it is the economic vitality of the United States, Canada, and Western Europe (as well as such market-oriented Asian nations as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan) rather than NATO's military might that has compelled the Soviet leadership to undertake reforms designed to improve the lumbering Soviet economy and make the Soviet Union look more like us (and therefore less menacing).
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, a referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held in March (with a referendum in Russia on the creation of a presidency), which returned an average of 76.4% in the 9 republics where it was taken, with a turn-out of 80% of the adult population.^ LAMB: You pointed out in the book that at the time the Soviet Union had something like 5.4 million men under arms and America had 2.3 or 2.4 million in the services.

^ In Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, no fewer than 100,000 people, roughly one-sixth of the city's population, turned out.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a shame that our President — who’s actually pretty bright — has turned out to be the economic equivalent of Dubya, at the time we needed economic competence the most.
  • What Would Gorbachev Say? On The US, China, And Saudi Arabia « The Baseline Scenario 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC baselinescenario.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate.^ Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse Between 21 August and 22 September, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikstan, and Turkmenistan declared their independence.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Latvia and Lithuania backed away from confrontation in November when their leaders decided not to follow Estonia's lead.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following this, an April meeting at Novo-Ogarevo between Gorbachev and the heads of the 9 republics issued a statement on speeding up the creation of a new Union treaty.^ Following this, an April meeting at Novo-Ogarevo between Gorbachev and the heads of the 9 republics issued a statement on speeding up the creation of a new Union treaty.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He used his personality to its fullest extent and the relationship with Gorbachev was one which I watched up close and personal and [it] had a lot to do with the change of the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

.Meanwhile, on 12 June 1991 Boris Yeltsin was elected President of the Russian Federation by 57.3% of the vote (with a turnout of 74%).^ Meanwhile, on 12 June 1991 Boris Yeltsin was elected President of the Russian Federation by 57.3% of the vote (with a turnout of 74%).
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 March 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[6] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the more radical reformists, such as Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin, were increasingly convinced that a rapid transition to a market economy was required and were more than happy to contemplate the disintegration of the Soviet Union if that was required to achieve their aims.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]

The August 1991 coup

.In contrast to the reformers' moderate approach to the new treaty, the hard-line apparatchiks, still strong within the CPSU and military establishment, were completely opposed to anything which might lead to the break-up of the Soviet Union.^ The August 1991 coup Main article: Soviet coup attempt of 1991 In contrast to the reformers' moderate approach to the new treaty, the hard-line apparatchiks, still strong within the CPSU and military establishment, were completely opposed to anything which might lead to the break-up of the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union still had not started really opening up in `86.

^ Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November, which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics, but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the eve of the treaty's signing, the hardliners struck.^ On the eve of the treaty's signing, the hardliners struck.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hardliners in the Soviet leadership, calling themselves the 'State Emergency Committee', launched the August coup in 1991 in an attempt to remove Gorbachev from power and prevent the signing of the new union treaty.^ On the eve of the treaty's signing, the hardliners struck.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hardliners in the Soviet leadership, calling themselves the 'State Emergency Committee', launched the August coup in 1991 in an attempt to remove Gorbachev from power and prevent the signing of the new union treaty.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Print Article E-mail Article 160 Comments A plea to prevent a Russian teacher from being sentenced to detention in Siberian prison camps is coming from an unlikely source: former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Gorbachev Asks Gates to Show 'Pirate' Mercy | Betanews 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.betanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this time, Gorbachev spent three days (19, 20 and 21 August) under house arrest at a dacha in the Crimea before being freed and restored to power.^ During this time, Gorbachev spent three days (19, 20 and 21 August) under house arrest at a dacha in the Crimea before being freed and restored to power.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have talks during my day on intermediate nuclear forces which is the treaty that Reagan and Gorbachev signed in fact the week that I quit the job, feeling that I had accomplished what I had come to do.

^ Time of the Old Woman, Morocco ( Feb 25 - Mar 4 ) Feast of 'Al (Loftiness), Bah' Faith ; First day of the 19 th month of the Bah' Calendar .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.However, upon his return, Gorbachev found that neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin, whose defiance had led to the coup's collapse.^ However, upon his return, Gorbachev found that neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin, whose defiance had led to the coup's collapse.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the democratisation of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had irreparably undermined the power of the CPSU and Gorbachev himself.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Stavropol, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union into a peasant family, and in his teens operated combine harvesters on collective farms.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, Gorbachev was forced to fire large numbers of his Politburo and, in several cases, arrest them.^ Furthermore, Gorbachev was forced to fire large numbers of his Politburo and, in several cases, arrest them.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those arrested for high treason included the "Gang of Eight" that had led the coup, including Kryuchkov, Yazov, Pavlov and Yanayev.^ Those arrested for high treason included the "Gang of Eight" that had led the coup, including Kryuchkov, Yazov, Pavlov and Yanayev.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pugo was found shot; and Akhromeyev, who had offered his assistance but was never implicated, was found hanging in his Kremlin office.^ Pugo was found shot; and Akhromeyev, who had offered his assistance but was never implicated, was found hanging in his Kremlin office.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of these men had been former allies of Gorbachev's or promoted by him, which drew fresh criticism.^ Most of these men had been former allies of Gorbachev's or promoted by him, which drew fresh criticism.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev states that he tried to find the middle ground between both groups, but this would draw more criticism towards him.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such moves led to Eduard Shevardnadze's resignation; Gorbachev's former ally warned of an impending dictatorship.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse

.Between 21 August and 22 September, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan declared their intention to leave the Soviet Union.^ Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse Between 21 August and 22 September, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikstan, and Turkmenistan declared their independence.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nationalist feeling also took hold in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Simultaneously, Boris Yeltsin ordered the CPSU to suspend its activities on the territory of Russia and closed the Central Committee building at Staraya Ploschad.^ Simultaneously, Boris Yeltsin ordered the CPSU to suspend its activities on the territory of Russia and closed the Central Committee building at Staraya Ploschad.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In light of these circumstances, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the CPSU on 24 August and advised the Central Committee to dissolve.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russian flag now flew beside the Soviet flag at the Kremlin.^ The Russian flag now flew beside the Soviet flag at the Kremlin.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Russians now constitute a bare majority of the total Soviet population (52.4 percent, according to the last official census).
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In light of these circumstances, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the CPSU on 24 August and advised the Central Committee to dissolve.^ As part of Gorbachev's promised party reorganization, a decision was reportedly taken to cut the size of the Central Committee apparatus in half.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end of September 1988, Gorbachev called a sudden meeting of the Central Committee.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given these challenges, it is not surprising that Gorbachev and the new generation of Soviet leaders are serious about perestroika.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev's hopes of a new Union were further hit when the Congress of People's Deputies dissolved itself on 5 September.^ Gorbachev's hopes of a new Union were further hit when the Congress of People's Deputies dissolved itself on 5 September.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonetheless, the Congress posed problems for Gorbachev; its sessions were televised, airing more criticism and encouraging people to expect ever more rapid reform.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 15 March 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[6] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though Gorbachev and the representatives of 8 republics (excluding Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) signed an agreement on forming a new economic community on 18 October, events were overtaking Gorbachev.^ Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though Gorbachev and the representatives of 8 republics (excluding Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) signed an agreement on forming a new economic community on 18 October, events were overtaking Gorbachev.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse Between 21 August and 22 September, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikstan, and Turkmenistan declared their independence.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.With the country in a rapid state of deterioration, the final blow to Gorbachev's vision was effectively dealt by a Ukrainian referendum on 1 December, where the Ukrainian people voted for independence.^ With the country in a rapid state of deterioration, the final blow to Gorbachev's vision was effectively dealt by a Ukrainian referendum on 1 December, where the Ukrainian people voted for independence.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus met in Belovezh Forest, near Brest, Belarus, on 8 December, founding the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring the end of the Soviet Union in the Belavezha Accords.^ Finally, you had the end of the Soviet Union.

^ The presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus met in Belovezh Forest, near Brest, Belarus, on 8 December, founding the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring the end of the Soviet Union in the Belavezha Accords.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, a referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held in March (with a referendum in Russia on the creation of a presidency), which returned an average of 76.4% in the 9 republics where it was taken, with a turn-out of 80% of the adult population.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev was presented with a fait accompli and reluctantly agreed with Yeltsin, on 17 December, to dissolve the Soviet Union.^ Gorbachev was presented with a fait accompli and reluctantly agreed with Yeltsin, on 17 December, to dissolve the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev resigned on 25 December and the Soviet Union was formally dissolved the next day.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, the democratisation of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had irreparably undermined the power of the CPSU and Gorbachev himself.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev resigned on 25 December and the Soviet Union was formally dissolved the following day on December 26, 1991. Two days after Gorbachev left office, on 27 December, Yeltsin moved into Gorbachev's old office.^ Two days later, on 27 December, Yeltsin moved into Gorbachev's old office.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev was presented with a fait accompli and reluctantly agreed with Yeltsin, on 17 December, to dissolve the Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev resigned on 25 December and the Soviet Union was formally dissolved the next day.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Gorbachev had aimed to maintain the CPSU as a united party but move it in the direction of social democracy.^ Gorbachev had aimed to maintain the CPSU as a united party but move it in the direction of social democracy.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In June 1988, at the CPSU's Party Conference, Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev's positions within the CPSU created more opportunities to travel abroad and this would profoundly affect his political and social views in the future as leader of the country.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But when the CPSU was proscribed after the August coup, Gorbachev was left with no effective power base beyond the armed forces.^ But when the CPSU was proscribed after the August coup, Gorbachev was left with no effective power base beyond the armed forces.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In light of these circumstances, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the CPSU on 24 August and advised the Central Committee to dissolve.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reagan-Gorbachev talks end in stalemate as U.S. rejects demand to curb 'Star Wars'; no U.S. summit date; understanding on many arms issues are left hanging the end.

Activities after resignation

Gorbachev (left) with former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at the funeral of Ronald Reagan, 11 June 2004
.Following his resignation and the collapse of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev remained active in Russian politics.^ Mikhail Gorbachev presided over the Soviet collapse.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Print Article E-mail Article 160 Comments A plea to prevent a Russian teacher from being sentenced to detention in Siberian prison camps is coming from an unlikely source: former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev.
  • Gorbachev Asks Gates to Show 'Pirate' Mercy | Betanews 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.betanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Activities after resignation Gorbachev (left) with former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at the funeral of Ronald Reagan, 11 June 2004Following his resignation and the collapse of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev remained active in Russian politics.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Especially during the early years of the post-Soviet era, he expressed criticism at the reforms carried out by Russian president Boris Yeltsin.^ Especially during the early years of the post-Soviet era, he expressed criticism at the reforms carried out by Russian president Boris Yeltsin.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the subsequent years, with support from Canadian International Development Agency, over 40 projects were carried out in Moscow and in various regions of the Russian Federation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Domestic reforms Gorbachev's primary goal as General Secretary was to revive the Soviet economy after the stagnant Brezhnev years.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When president Yeltsin called a referendum for 25 April 1993 in an attempt to achieve even greater powers as president, Gorbachev did not vote, and instead called for new presidential elections to happen soon.^ When president Yeltsin called a referendum for 25 April 1993 in an attempt to achieve even greater powers as president, Gorbachev did not vote, and instead called for new presidential elections to happen soon.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gore was the Democratic nominee for president in the 2000 presidential election.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President will urge post-election summit; praise for Gorbachev's arms proposals.

[25]
.Following a failed run for the presidency in 1996, Gorbachev established the Social Democratic Party of Russia, a union between several Russian social democratic parties.^ Their party is known as the Independent Democratic Party of Russia.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2007, Gorbachev was elected the chairman of the Union of Social Democrats, a Russia-wide social movement.
  • Gorbachev to Form New Political Party : The Other Russia 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.theotherrussia.org [Source type: News]

^ Following a failed run for the presidency in 1996, Gorbachev established the Social Democratic Party of Russia, a union between several Russian social democratic parties.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He resigned as party leader in May 2004 over a disagreement with the party's chairman over the direction taken in the December 2003 election campaign.^ He resigned as party leader in May 2004 over a disagreement with the party's chairman over the direction taken in the December 2003 election campaign.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Involvement in presidential campaigns (2004 and 2008) Gore speaks during the final day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.After announcing he would not run in the 2004 U.S. presidential election, Gore endorsed Vermont governor Howard Dean in December, 2003 weeks before the first primary of the election cycle.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Estonia had declared its sovereignty in November, 1988, to be followed by Lithuania in May 1989 and by Latvia in July (the Communist Party of Lithuania would also declare its independence from the CPSU in December).
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The party was later banned in 2007 by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation due to its failure to establish local offices with at least 500 members in the majority of Russian regions, which is required by Russian law for a political organisation to be listed as party.^ The party was later banned in 2007 by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation due to its failure to establish local offices with at least 500 members in the majority of Russian regions, which is required by Russian law for a political organisation to be listed as party.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The party was liquidated on April 16, 2007 by Russia’s registration agency, after the party could not come up with the necessary 500 members in a majority of Russian regions.
  • Gorbachev to Form New Political Party : The Other Russia 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.theotherrussia.org [Source type: News]

^ During the subsequent years, with support from Canadian International Development Agency, over 40 projects were carried out in Moscow and in various regions of the Russian Federation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Later that year, Gorbachev founded a new political party, called the Union of Social-Democrats.^ "Mikhail Gorbachev will found new political party".
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that year, Gorbachev founded a new political party, called the Union of Social-Democrats.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new project is tentatively called the Independent Democratic Party of Russia, and plans to take part in 2011 parliamentary elections.
  • Gorbachev to Form New Political Party : The Other Russia 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.theotherrussia.org [Source type: News]

[3] .In June 2004, Gorbachev represented Russia at the funeral of Ronald Reagan.^ (Ronald Reagan-Mikhail Gorbachev meeting) .

^ (Ronald Reagan's meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev) .

^ Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev) (column) .

.Gorbachev has also appeared in numerous media events since his resignation from office.^ Gorbachev has also appeared in numerous media events since his resignation from office.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since his resignation, Gorbachev has remained involved in world affairs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1993, Gorbachev appeared as himself in the Wim Wenders film, Faraway, So Close!, the sequel to Wings of Desire. .In 1997, Gorbachev appeared with his granddaughter Anastasia in an internationally-screened television commercial for Pizza Hut.^ In 1997, Gorbachev appeared with his granddaughter Anastasia in an internationally-screened television commercial for Pizza Hut.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 1993, page 61 ^ Mosnews.com ^ Mikhail Gorbachev appears in Pizza Hut advertising campaign, PRNewswire, 23 December 1997.Retrieved on 3 August 2007.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. corporation's payment for the 60-second ad went to Gorbachev's not-for-profit Gorbachev Foundation.^ The U.S. corporation's payment for the 60-second ad went to Gorbachev's not-for-profit Gorbachev Foundation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gorbachev Foundation is an international non-governmental non-profit organization.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .In 2007, French luxury brand Louis Vuitton announced that Gorbachev would be shown in an ad campaign for their signature luggage.^ In 2007, French luxury brand Louis Vuitton announced that Gorbachev would be shown in an ad campaign for their signature luggage.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After announcing that he would run, Gore ran his campaign as "a Southern centrist, [who] opposed federal funding for abortion.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 2008 Gorbachev announced he would make a comeback to the Russian politics along with a former KGB officer, Alexander Lebedev.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On June 16, 2009, Gorbachev announced that he had recorded an album of old Russian romantic ballads entitled Songs for Raisa to raise money for a charity dedicated to his late wife.^ June 2, 2009 at 11:16 am .
  • What Would Gorbachev Say? On The US, China, And Saudi Arabia « The Baseline Scenario 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC baselinescenario.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On June 16, 2009, Gorbachev announced that he had recorded an album of old Russian romantic ballads entitled Songs for Raisa to raise money for a charity dedicated to his late wife.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Schmemann, "Faith Meets State"; see also Serge Schmemann, "Gorbachev and Church," New York Times, June 16, 1988, p.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the album, he sings the songs himself accompanied by Russian musician Andrei Makarevich.^ On the album, he sings the songs himself accompanied by Russian musician Andrei Makarevich.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
.Since his resignation, Gorbachev has remained involved in world affairs.^ Since his resignation, Gorbachev has remained involved in world affairs.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev has also appeared in numerous media events since his resignation from office.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He founded the Gorbachev Foundation in 1992, headquartered in San Francisco, California.^ He founded the Gorbachev Foundation in 1992, headquartered in San Francisco, California.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gorbachev Foundation started its work in January 1992.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I looked up Gorbachev on the internet and found the Gorbachev Foundation, so I e-mailed them and said that I was curious as to why Gorbachev was at Northeasten all the time and what did he think of the One World Government?
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He later founded Green Cross International, with which he was one of three major sponsors of the Earth Charter.^ He later founded Green Cross International, with which he was one of three major sponsors of the Earth Charter.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His two presidential advisors for Green Cross International were Robert Redford and Ted Turner.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green Cross International was given consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and cooperates with the UN on climate change political policy.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also became a member of the Club of Rome and the Club of Madrid.^ He also became a member of the Club of Rome and the Club of Madrid.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the decade that followed the Cold War, Gorbachev opposed both the U.S.-led NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the U.S.-led Iraq War in 2003. On 27 July 2007, Gorbachev criticised U.S. foreign policy: “What has followed are unilateral actions, what has followed are wars, what has followed is ignoring the U.N. Security Council, ignoring international law and ignoring the will of the people, even the American people,” he said.^ In the decade that followed the Cold War, Gorbachev opposed both the U.S.-led NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the U.S.-led Iraq War in 2003.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If so, what are the implications for American foreign policy?
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 27 July 2007, Gorbachev criticised U.S. foreign policy: What has followed are unilateral actions, what has followed are wars, what has followed is ignoring the U.N. Security Council, ignoring international law and ignoring the will of the people, even the American people, he said.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .That same year, he visited New Orleans, Louisiana, a city hard-hit by Hurricane Katrina, and promised he would return in 2011 to personally lead a local revolution if the U.S. government had not repaired the levees by that time.^ We visited this person several times during their first year there.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same year, he visited New Orleans, Louisiana, a city hard-hit by Hurricane Katrina, and promised he would return in 2011 to personally lead a local revolution if the U.S. government had not repaired the levees by that time.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Katrina in 2005, Gore chartered two planes in order to evacuate 270 people from New Orleans and criticized the Bush administration's response to the hurricane.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He said that revolutionary action should be a last resort.^ He said that revolutionary action should be a last resort.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
Concerning the 2008 South Ossetia war, in a 12 August 2008 op-ed in The Washington Post,[31] Gorbachev criticized the U.S. support for Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili and for moving to bring Caucasus into the sphere of its "national interest." He later said the following:
.
Russia did not want this crisis.^ He later said the following: Russia did not want this crisis.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russian leadership is in a strong enough position domestically; it did not need a little victorious war.^ The Russian leadership is in a strong enough position domestically; it did not need a little victorious war.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the West, the break-up of the Soviet Union was viewed as a total victory that proved that the West did not need to change.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Russia was dragged into the fray by the recklessness of the Georgian president, Mikheil Saakashvili...^ Russia was dragged into the fray by the recklessness of the Georgian president, Mikheil Saakashvili...
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concerning the 2008 South Ossetia war, in a 12 August 2008 op-ed in The Washington Post,[30] Gorbachev criticized the U.S. support for Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili and for moving to bring Caucasus into the sphere of its "national interest."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decision by the Russian president, Dmitri Medvedev, to now cease hostilities was the right move by a responsible leader.^ The decision by the Russian president, Dmitri Medvedev, to now cease hostilities was the right move by a responsible leader.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, he had been intimately involved in all the decisions and had supported them when he was vice president.

^ Under this new system, the president would assume the power now being exercised by the Communist party leader.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russian president acted calmly, confidently and firmly...^ The Russian president acted calmly, confidently and firmly...
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The planners of this campaign clearly wanted to make sure that, whatever the outcome, Russia would be blamed for worsening the situation.^ The planners of this campaign clearly wanted to make sure that, whatever the outcome, Russia would be blamed for worsening the situation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And oh true, they would make some propaganda about race relations or other situations in the United States, but they were not interested for a long time in discussing it.

^ Also according to his Senate biography, Gore's "mother said that she would support whatever he wanted to do 'including going to Canada with him.'
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The West then mounted a propaganda attack against Russia, with the American news media leading the way."[32]
.In September 2008 Gorbachev announced he would make a comeback to the Russian politics along with a former KGB officer, Alexander Lebedev.^ In September 2008 Gorbachev announced he would make a comeback to the Russian politics along with a former KGB officer, Alexander Lebedev.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2007, French luxury brand Louis Vuitton announced that Gorbachev would be shown in an ad campaign for their signature luggage.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 2008 Gorbachev and billionaire Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia together,[1] and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Their party is known as the Independent Democratic Party of Russia.^ Their party is known as the Independent Democratic Party of Russia.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 2008 Gorbachev and billionaire Alexander Lebedev announced they would form the Independent Democratic Party of Russia together,[1] and in May 2009 Gorbachev announced that the launch was imminent.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is Gorbachev's third attempt to establish a political party of significance in Russian politics after having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social-Democrats in 2007.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also is part owner of the opposition newspaper Novaya Gazeta.^ He also is part owner of the opposition newspaper Novaya Gazeta.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]
Gorbachev (right) being introduced to Barack Obama by Joe Biden, 20 March 2009
.On 20 March 2009, Gorbachev met with United States President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden in efforts to "reset" strained relations between Russia and the United States.^ Gorbachev (right) being introduced to Barack Obama by Joe Biden, 20 March 2009On 20 March 2009, Gorbachev met with United States President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden in efforts to "reset" strained relations between Russia and the United States.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of them addressed specific public policy issues in the economy, the social sphere, culture, education, relations between the state and civil society and between Russias federal and regional authorities, and gender and information problems.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You could have a Governor or a Senator or a Congressman go and tell his people that he had seven meetings with the President of the United States which is much better than six or five.

[35]
.On 27 March 2009, Gorbachev visited Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois which is the alma mater of former president Ronald Reagan.^ (Ronald Reagan's meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev) .

^ Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev) (column) .

^ Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev) (editorial) .

.He toured the campus and later traveled to Peoria, Illinois as the keynote speaker at the Reagan Day Dinner.^ He toured the campus and later traveled to Peoria, Illinois as the keynote speaker at the Reagan Day Dinner.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Gorbachev accompanied former Polish leader Lech Walesa and German Chancellor Angela Merkel at a celebration in Berlin on 9 November 2009.[37]

Call for global restructuring

.Gorbachev calls for a kind of perestroika or restructuring of societies around the world, starting in particular with that of the United States, because he is of the view that the economic crisis of 2007–present shows that the Washington consensus economic model is a failure that will sooner or later have to be replaced.^ Call for global restructuring Gorbachev calls for a kind of perestroika or restructuring of societies around the world, starting in particular with that of the United States, because he is of the view that the economic crisis of 2007-present shows that the Washington consensus economic model is a failure that will sooner or later have to be replaced.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wanted to show him the United States.

^ That model is now cracking and will, sooner or later, be replaced.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Gorbachev, countries such as Brazil, Malaysia and China which rejected the Washington consensus and the International Monetary Fund approach to economic development, have done far better economically on the whole and achieved far more fair results for the average citizen, than countries that accepted it.^ Countries such as Malaysia and Brazil have achieved impressive rates of growth.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Gorbachev, countries such as Brazil, Malaysia and China which rejected the Washington consensus and the International Monetary Fund approach to economic development, have done far better economically on the whole and achieved far more fair results for the average citizen, than countries that accepted it.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev's positions within the CPSU created more opportunities to travel abroad and this would profoundly affect his political and social views in the future as leader of the country.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]

Honours and accolades

Former President of the United States, Ronald Reagan awards Gorbachev the first ever Ronald Reagan Freedom Award at the Reagan Library, 1992
  • In 1990, Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community."[39]
  • In 1993 Gorbachev was awarded a Legum Doctor, honoris causa from Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada.^ In 1993 Gorbachev was awarded a Legum Doctor, honoris causa from Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1995, Gorbachev received an Honorary Doctorate from Durham University, County Durham, England for his contribution to "the cause of political tolerance and an end to Cold War-style confrontation".
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gorbachev was the 1994 recipient of the Grawemeyer Award for improving world order, awarded by the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He was also given an honorary degree from The University of Calgary in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
  • In 1995, Gorbachev received an Honorary Doctorate from Durham University, County Durham, England for his contribution to "the cause of political tolerance and an end to Cold War-style confrontation".[41]
  • For his historic role in the evolution of glasnost, and for his leadership in the disarmament negotiations with the United States during the Reagan administration, Gorbachev was awarded the Courage of Conscience award 20 October 1996.[42]
  • In 2002, Gorbachev received an honorary degree of a Doctor in Laws (LL.D.) "in recognition of his political service and contribution to peace" from Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.^ He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For his historic role in the evolution of glasnost, and for his leadership in the disarmament negotiations with the United States during the Reagan administration, Gorbachev was awarded the Courage of Conscience award 20 October 1996.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And -- but much of this happened after the end of the Cold War.

    [43]
  • .
  • In 2005, Gorbachev was awarded the Point Alpha Prize for his role in supporting German reunification.^ In 2005, Gorbachev was awarded the Point Alpha Prize for his role in supporting German reunification.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gorbachev, together with Bill Clinton and Sophia Loren, were awarded the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for their recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The book won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in February, 2009.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Münster.^ He also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Mnster.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1995, Gorbachev received an Honorary Doctorate from Durham University, County Durham, England for his contribution to "the cause of political tolerance and an end to Cold War-style confrontation".
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 2002, Gorbachev received an honorary degree of a Doctor in Laws (LL.D.) "in recognition of his political service and contribution to peace" from Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [44]
  • In 2010, Gorbachev received the first ever Dresden award for nuclear disarmament.

Religious affiliation

.Gorbachev was baptised in the Russian Orthodox Church as a child.^ Religious affiliation Gorbachev was baptised in the Russian Orthodox Church as a child.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In response, a spokesman for the Russian Orthodox patriarch Alexei II told the Russian media: "In Italy, he (Gorbachev) spoke in emotional terms, rather than in terms of faith.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He campaigned for establishment of freedom of religion laws in the former Soviet Union.^ He campaigned for establishment of freedom of religion laws in the former Soviet Union.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beginning in 1990, the Bank led the charge for the former Soviet Union to impose immediately what it called "radical reform."

^ In the Soviet Union the question of religion has always been emotionally and politically charged for at least two reasons.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Remarks by Gorbachev to Ronald Reagan in discussions during their summits, made the U.S. President deeply intrigued by the possibility that the leader of the Evil Empire might be a "closet Christian." Reagan seems to have seen this as the most interesting aspect of his meeting with the Soviet leader in Geneva.[45]
.At the end of a November 1996 interview on CSPAN's Booknotes, Gorbachev described his plans for future books.^ At the end of a November 1996 interview on CSPAN's Booknotes, Gorbachev described his plans for future books.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He made the following reference to God: "I don't know how many years God will be giving me, [or] what His plans are."^ He made the following reference to God: "I don't know how many years God will be giving me, [or] what His plans are."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an interview on NBC's Today the following year, Gore stated that, "I did not know that it was a fund-raiser.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it's like so many things in life -- till you do it you don't really understand how to do it.

.In 2005, he said that Pope John Paul II's "devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us" following the pontiff's death.^ In 2005, he said that Pope John Paul II's "devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us" following the pontiff's death.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply JHK said: "The US economy is now dying a slow and painful death because it had become based on activities that had nothing to do with producing real wealth.
  • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II has been particularly outspoken in his defense of Ukrainian Catholics--no doubt a major reason why he has not been allowed to visit the Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."What can I say -- it must have been the will of God.^ "What can I say -- it must have been the will of God.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He acted really courageously."^ He acted really courageously."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .In a 1989 meeting, he had told him "We appreciate your mission on this high pulpit, we are convinced that it will leave a great mark on history."^ In a 1989 meeting, he had told him "We appreciate your mission on this high pulpit, we are convinced that it will leave a great mark on history."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ November marked the anniversary of major events in 1989: "the biggest year in world history since 1945," as British historian Timothy Garton Ash describes it.

[47] .On the other hand, some have alleged that Gorbachev signed a murder contract against Pope John Paul II back in 1979, which resulted in a failed assassination attempt.^ On the other hand, some have alleged that Gorbachev signed a contract killing against Pope John Paul II back in 1979, which resulted in a failed assassination attempt.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope John Paul II has been particularly outspoken in his defense of Ukrainian Catholics--no doubt a major reason why he has not been allowed to visit the Soviet Union.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev and Reagan sitting for signing of the INF Agreement; US Senators in audience; Nancy Reagan and Raisa Gorbachev in audience; audience applauding as Reagan and Gorbachev shake hands and ...
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Compilation 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.itnsource.com [Source type: General]

[48] .However, he has categorically denied this accusation.^ However, he has categorically denied this accusation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
Gorbachev was the recipient of the Athenagoras Humanitarian Award of the Order of St. Andrew Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on 20 November 2005.[50]
.On 19 March 2008, during a surprise visit to pray at the tomb of Saint Francis in Assisi, Italy, Gorbachev made an announcement which has been interpreted to the effect that he was a Christian.^ On 19 March 2008, during a surprise visit to pray at the tomb of Saint Francis in Assisi, Italy, Gorbachev made an announcement which has been interpreted to the effect that he was a Christian.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perestroika Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate in 1986 during a visit to East GermanyGorbachev initiated his new policy of perestroika and its attendant radical reforms in 1986; they were sketched, but not fully spelled out, at the XXVIIth Party Congress in February-March 1986.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remarks by Gorbachev to Ronald Reagan in discussions during their summits, made the U.S. President deeply intrigued by the possibility that the leader of the Evil Empire might be a "closet Christian."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gorbachev stated that "St Francis is, for me, the alter Christus, another Christ.^ Gorbachev stated that "St Francis is, for me, the alter Christus, another Christ.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His story fascinates me and has played a fundamental role in my life."^ His story fascinates me and has played a fundamental role in my life."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He added, "It was through St Francis that I arrived at the Church, so it was important that I came to visit his tomb."^ He added, "It was through St Francis that I arrived at the Church, so it was important that I came to visit his tomb."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 19 March 2008, during a surprise visit to pray at the tomb of Saint Francis in Assisi, Italy, Gorbachev made an announcement which has been interpreted to the effect that he was a Christian.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
However, a few days later, he reportedly told the Russian news agency Interfax, "Over the last few days some media have been disseminating fantasies—I can't use any other word—about my secret Catholicism, [...] To sum up and avoid any misunderstandings, let me say that I have been and remain an atheist."[52] In response, a spokesman for the Russian Orthodox patriarch Alexei II told the Russian media: "In Italy, he (Gorbachev) spoke in emotional terms, rather than in terms of faith. .He is still on his way to Christianity.^ He is still on his way to Christianity.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If he arrives, we will welcome him."^ If he arrives, we will welcome him."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

Naevus flammeus

Mikhail Gorbachev in 2007
.Gorbachev is one of the most famous people in modern times with visible naevus flammeus.^ Naevus flammeus Mikhail GorbachevGorbachev is one of the most famous people in modern times with visible naevus flammeus.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gorbachev owed his steady rise to power to the patronage of Mikhail Suslov, the powerful chief ideologist of the CPSU.[7] During Yuri Andropov's tenure as General Secretary (19821984), Gorbachev became one of the Politburo's most visible and active members.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Gorbachev Foundation is one of the first independent think tanks in modern Russia.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The crimson birthmark on the top of his bald head was the source of much satire among critics and cartoonists.^ The crimson birthmark on the top of his bald head was the source of much satire among critics and cartoonists.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contrary to some accounts, it is not rosacea.^ Contrary to some accounts, it is not rosacea.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his official photos as a Politburo member this birthmark was removed.^ In his official photos as a Politburo member this birthmark was removed.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though some suggested that it be surgically removed, Gorbachev opted not to, as once he was publicly known to have the mark, he believed it would be perceived as his being more concerned with his appearance than other more important issues.^ Though some suggested that it be surgically removed, Gorbachev opted not to, as once he was publicly known to have the mark, he believed it would be perceived as his being more concerned with his appearance than other more important issues.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was more concerned at first about what would come out of a Reagan-Gorbachev Summit.

^ Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]

See also

References

  1. ^ Gray, Sadie (2008-09-30). "Gorbachev launches political party with Russian billionaire". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/sep/30/russia. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  2. ^ "Mikhail Gorbachev will found new political party". mosnews.com. 2009-05-13. http://mosnews.com/politics/2009/05/13/gorbiedem/. Retrieved 2009-06-13. 
  3. ^ a b "Gorbachev sets up Russia movement". BBC News. 20 October 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7054274.stm. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  4. ^ Raisa Gorbachyova's Biography on the Gorbachyov Foundation website
  5. ^ a b c d e Current Biography, 1985. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co.. 1985. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Gorbachev, M. S., Memoirs, 1996 (London: Bantam Books)
  7. ^ a b c d e "Mikhail Gorbachev". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/nobelprize/article-9037405. Retrieved 2 April 2009. 
  8. ^ Roxburgh, Angus (1991). The Second Russian Revolution: The Struggle for Power in the Kremlin. London: BBC Books. 
  9. ^ "Mikhail Gorbachev Biography: Glasnost, Perestroika, and Leadership". American Academy of Achievement. 1 February 2005. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/gor0bio-1. Retrieved 2 April 2009. 
  10. ^ "Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв (Mikhail Sergeyevičh Gorbačhëv)". Archontology.org. 27 March 2009. http://www.archontology.org/nations/ussr/ussr_state/gorbachev.php. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  11. ^ Chiesa, Giulietto, 1991, Time of change: an insider's view of Russia's transformation, I.B.Tauris, pp.30.
  12. ^ Hosking, By Geoffrey A., 1991, The awakening of the Soviet Union, Harvard University Press, pp.139.
  13. ^ English, R., D, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals and the End of the Cold War, 2000 (Columbia University Press)
  14. ^ a b c Hough, Jerry F. (1997), pp. 124-125
  15. ^ a b Kishlansky, Mark (2001), p. 322
  16. ^ "Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader". BBC News. March 1985. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/11/newsid_2538000/2538327.stm. Retrieved 22 May 2006. 
  17. ^ a b Matlock, J. F. Jr., Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended, 2004
  18. ^ "Reuters, Moscow could have started WW3 over Berlin Wall: Gorbachev by Guy Faulconbridge". www.reuters.com. 3 November 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE5A23TB20091103. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 
  19. ^ Coit D. Blacker. "The Collapse of Soviet Power in Europe." Foreign Affairs. 1990.
  20. ^ Steele, Jonathan. Eternal Russia: Yeltsin, Gorbachev and the Mirage of Democracy. Boston: Faber, 1994.
  21. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook -- Armenia". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/am.html. Retrieved 27 January 2007. 
  22. ^ DR Radio reported 12/01 in its news broadcast on P3 at 13:00 hrs that the Ultimatum required a reply within 3 days
  23. ^ Boltunov, M., Alfa – Sverkhsekretnyi Otryad KGB [Alpha – The KGB's Top-Secret Unit], 1992, (Moscow: Kedr)
  24. ^ a b c Brown, A., The Gorbachev Factor, 1996, (New York: Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-19-288052-7
  25. ^ Maurizio Giuliano, Müssen schnell wählen (interview), Profil, nr. 19, 10 May 1993, page 61
  26. ^ Mosnews.com
  27. ^ Mikhail Gorbachev appears in Pizza Hut advertising campaign, PRNewswire, 23 December 1997.Retrieved on 3 August 2007.
  28. ^ Odynova, Alexandra (2009-06-19). "Former Soviet Leader Gorbachev Records Album". The Saint Petersburg Times. http://www.sptimesrussia.com/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=29283. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  29. ^ "Gorbachev says U.S. is sowing world ‘disorder’". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/19994563/. Retrieved 4 August 2007. 
  30. ^ "Gorbachev Vows Revolution If New Orleans Levees Don't Improve". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2007/10/09/gorbachev-vows-revolution_n_67679.html. Retrieved 14 September 2007. 
  31. ^ "A Path to Peace in the Caucasus". Washington Post. 12 August 2008. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/11/AR2008081101372.html. Retrieved 12 August 2008. 
  32. ^ Russia Never Wanted a War
  33. ^ Mikhail Gorbachev returns to Russian politics
  34. ^ Лебедев и Горбачев стали совладельцами "Новой газеты" Grani.ru 7 June 2006
  35. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20090323/pl_afp/usrussiadiplomacyobamagorbachev_20090323215234 Retrieved on 24 March 2009.
  36. ^ Morss, Gina, "Gorbachev Visits Eureka College", WEEK News 25, http://www.centralillinoisnewscenter.com/news/local/42019457.html, retrieved 24 March 2009 .
  37. ^ Kulish, Nicholas & Dempsey, Judy (November 9, 2009), "Leaders in Berlin Retrace the Walk West", New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/10/world/europe/10germany.html 
  38. ^ Washington Post, June 7, 2009, "We Had Our Perestroika. It's High Time for Yours" Op-ed piece by Mikhail Gorbachev
  39. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 1990
  40. ^ Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library
  41. ^ Honorary Doctorate from Durham
  42. ^ The Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Recipients List
  43. ^ Trinity College Honours Mikhail Gorbachev
  44. ^ "Reunification Politicians Accept Prize". Deutsche Welle. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1619484,00.html. Retrieved 22 May 2006. 
  45. ^ Red Herring: Mikhail Gorbachev's Not-Quite Conversion Christianity Today (Web-only) 4 April 2008, Vol. 52.
  46. ^ Gorbachev: Pope was 'example to all of us'
  47. ^ Record of Conversation between M.S. Gorbachev and John Paul II
  48. ^ Gorbachev signed JP II KGB death warrant
  49. ^ Gorbachev denies ordering Pope's assassination
  50. ^ Athenagoras humanitarian award to Nobel peace prize laureate Mikhail Gorbachev Website of Gorbachev Foundation
  51. ^ "Mikhail Gorbachev admits he is a Christian". The Daily Telegraph. 19 March 2008. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/19/wgorbachev119.xml. Retrieved 24 March 2008. 
  52. ^ a b "Gorbachev a closet Christian?". Chicago Tribune. 23 March 2008. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-out_there_gorbachev_rodriguez_23mar24,1,4698255.story. Retrieved 24 March 2008. 
  53. ^ den 11. time. Danmarks Radio. DR 2. 24 October 2007.

Further reading

  • Åslund, Anders (1991). .Gorbachev's Struggle for Economic Reform.^ Gorbachev's Struggle for Economic Reform.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Law on Cooperatives enacted in May 1988 was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Cornell University Press. 
  • Farnham, Barbara (2001).^ Farnham, Barbara (2001).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cornell University Press.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Reagan and the Gorbachev Revolution: Perceiving the End of Threat.^ Reagan and the Gorbachev Revolution: Perceiving the End of Threat.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Matlock, J. F. Jr., Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended, 2004 ^ "Reuters, Moscow could have started WW3 over Berlin Wall: Gorbachev by Guy Faulconbridge".
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2. .Political Science Quarterly. 
  • Goldman, Marshall (1992).^ Political Science Quarterly.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Goldman, Marshall (1992).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .What Went Wrong with Perestroika?.^ What Went Wrong with Perestroika?.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .W.W. Norton. 
  • Gorbachev, Mikhail (1988).^ Gorbachev, Mikhail (1988).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World.^ Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World (New York: Harper and Row, 1987), p.
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In reporting on the same exchange, The New York Times quoted Gore as stating: "Do you think there is something wrong with being active in business in this country [...
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harper & Row. .ISBN 0-06-091528-5. 
  • Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996).^ Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin « on: November 22, 2009, 07:06:11 PM » .
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-06-091528-5.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Memoirs. Doubleday. .ISBN 0-385-48019-9. 
  • Gorbachev, Mikhail; Daisaku Ikeda (2005).^ Gorbachev, Mikhail; Daisaku Ikeda (2005).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-385-48019-9.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Moral Lesson of the Twentieth Century. 
  • Hough, Jerry F (1997).^ Hough, Jerry F (1997).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ English, R., D, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals and the End of the Cold War, 2000 (Columbia University Press) ^ a b c Hough, Jerry F. (1997), pp.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Moral Lesson of the Twentieth Century.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991.^ Democratization and Revolution in the USSR, 1985-1991.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Brookings Institution Press.^ Brookings Institution Press.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0815737483. 
  • Jackson, William D. (1998-1999).^ Jackson, William D. (1998-1999).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Soviet Reassassment of Ronald Reagan, 1985-1988.^ Soviet Reassassment of Ronald Reagan, 1985-1988.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev summit meeting in November, 1985) .

    ^ It's all about summitry and there were five summits with the Soviets during Ronald Reagan's Presidency and you were present at three of them?

    4. .Political Science Quarterly. 
  • Kishlansky, Mark (2001).^ Kishlansky, Mark (2001).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Political Science Quarterly.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kishlansky, Mark (2001), p.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    4. ed. .Sources of the West: Readings in Western Civilization.^ Sources of the West: Readings in Western Civilization.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    2. .New York: Longman. 
  • Matlock, Jack (1995).^ Matlock, Jack (1995).
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Longman.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. 
  • Remnick, David (1993).^ Gorbachev resigned, Yeltsin took over and the Soviet Union basically collapsed within a couple of weeks.
    • George Jonas: Gorbachev didn't tear down that wall - Full Comment 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They pillaged any wealth the Soviet Union had left - foreign reserves, corporate bank accounts, everything.
    • George Jonas: Gorbachev didn't tear down that wall - Full Comment 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC network.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

    .Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire.^ Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Random House. 
  • Strayer, Robert (1998).^ Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Random House.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ROBERTS, STEVEN V. WASHINGTON TALK: THE PRESIDENCY; Waning Days Cast New Glow Over White House .

    .Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?^ The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since regaining its independence as the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, the tiny Baltic nation has had tense relations with Moscow.

    ^ Gorbachev, being gutsy and capable, says "We'll go first" and he engineers the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Understanding Historical Change
    .^ Understanding Historical Change.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    M.E. Sharpe. 

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Konstantin Chernenko
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
1985–1991
Succeeded by
Vladimir Ivashko (Acting)
Political offices
Preceded by
Andrei Gromyko
as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1988–1989)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1989–1990)
President of the Soviet Union (1990–1991)

1988–1991
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
New creation
Recipient of The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
1992
Succeeded by
Colin Powell

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
I don't think that we need any new values.
^ Jump to: navigation , search I don't think that we need any new values.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't think that we need any new values.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.dismantle.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev quote-We have retreated from the perennial values. I don't think that we need... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev quote-I believe in the cosmos. All of us are linked to the cosmos.... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We think that we’ll have enough resources, enough forests, enough of everything and that we don’t need to worry about it or spend any money on dealing with these issues.
  • IRU - Opening ceremony - Mikhail S. GORBACHEV 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.iru.org [Source type: Original source]

The most important thing is to try to revive the universally known values from which we have retreated.
.
If the Russian word "perestroika" has easily entered the international lexicon, this is due to more than just interest in what is going on in the Soviet Union.
^ The Soviet Union encompasses more than a hundred ethnic groups.
  • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speech to the 27th Party Congress, Moscow (25 February 1986) If the Russian word " perestroika " has easily entered the international lexicon, this is due to more than just interest in what is going on in the Soviet Union.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet Union is no more.
  • gorbachev « Acton Institute PowerBlog 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC blog.acton.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Now the whole world needs restructuring, i.e. progressive development, a fundamental change.
We are witnessing most profound social change.
.
In the name of Communism we abandoned basic human values.
^ In the name of Communism we abandoned basic human values.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.dismantle.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev quote-We have retreated from the perennial values. I don't think that we need... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev quote-I believe in the cosmos. All of us are linked to the cosmos.... 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

So when I came to power in Russia I started to restore those values; values of "openness" and freedom.
.Mikhail Gorbachev (Russian: Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв, IPA: [gərbəˈtɕof], commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born 2 March 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. His attempts at reform helped to end the Cold War, but also ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and dissolved the Soviet Union.^ Gorbachev was the first Soviet leader to be born after the Bolshevik revolution.
  • The accidental hero of 1989 « Prospect Magazine 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.prospectmagazine.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Mikhail Gorbachev was born in 1931, the worst year of Joseph Stalin’s terror and collectivization of the Soviet Union.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - From the Presidium to the Presidio 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.kenraggio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was the end, in Kaiser's eyes, of Gorbachev's hopes for reform within the Party.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev@Everything2.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.

Contents

Sourced

.
  • Stalin - was a man covered in blood.^ Stalin - was a man covered in blood.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I saw his resolution, which he signed in batches along with Molotov, Voroshilov, Kaganovich and Zhdanov.^ I saw his resolution, which he signed in batches along with Molotov, Voroshilov, Kaganovich and Zhdanov.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This is the group of five was proactive.^ This is the group of five was proactive.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The market is not an invention of capitalism.^ The market is not an invention of capitalism.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Variant: The market came with the dawn of civilization and it is not an invention of capitalism.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Program "Vremena" by Vladimir Pozner .
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    It has existed for centuries. .It is an invention of civilization.
    • Statement (8 June 1990), as quoted in The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources (2004) by R. Quentin Grafton, p.^ Overall, we can say that the current crisis of the natural environment and of the entire human civilization is taking place against the background of the crisis of traditional methods of resolving social tensions.
      • The Philosophy of Survival by Mikhail Gorbachev | Lapis Magazine 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.lapismagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ They wanted to reduce the bureaucratic organizations, and one mistake they made was incorporating the committee on the environment into the Ministry of Natural Resources.

      ^ During a tour of the United States, as quoted in The New York Times (5 June 1990) My life’s work has been accomplished.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .277
    • Variant: The market came with the dawn of civilization and it is not an invention of capitalism.^ Variant: The market came with the dawn of civilization and it is not an invention of capitalism.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The market is not an invention of capitalism.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ... .If it leads to improving the well-being of the people there is no contradiction with socialism.
      • As quoted in The Guardian [London] (21 June 1990)
  • Certain people in the United States are driving nails into this structure of our relationship, then cutting off the heads.^ As quoted in The Guardian [London] (21 June 1990) Certain people in the United States are driving nails into this structure of our relationship, then cutting off the heads.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Certain people in the United States are driving nails into this structure of our relationship, then cutting off the heads.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I wonder if that inclues cutting off heads.
    • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .So the Soviets must use their teeth to pull them out.^ So the Soviets must use their teeth to pull them out.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And the answer was, All right, we must ask the Soviets either to remove these missiles or deploy American missiles in Europe that could be used to retaliate if these are used.

    ^ (Newser) - Mikhail Gorbachev—the man who pulled the Soviet Union's troops out of Afghanistan after a decade of stalemate—says the US should do the same.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev – News Stories About Mikhail Gorbachev - Page 1 | Newser 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: News]

    .
    • As quoted in TIME magazine (9 September 1985)
  • Democracy is the wholesome and pure air without which a socialist public organization cannot live a full-blooded life.^ As quoted in TIME magazine (9 September 1985) Democracy is the wholesome and pure air without which a socialist public organization cannot live a full-blooded life.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As quoted in TIME magazine (4 January 1988) The Soviet people want full-blooded and unconditional democracy.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the beginning we imprudently generated great expectations, without taking into account the fact that it takes time for people to realize that all have to live and work differently, to stop expecting that new life would be given from above.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Speech to the 27th Party Congress, Moscow (25 February 1986)
  • If the Russian word "perestroika" has easily entered the international lexicon, this is due to more than just interest in what is going on in the Soviet Union.^ Reply interesting comparison to the soviet union.
    • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Soviet Union encompasses more than a hundred ethnic groups.
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Speech to the 27th Party Congress, Moscow (25 February 1986) If the Russian word " perestroika " has easily entered the international lexicon, this is due to more than just interest in what is going on in the Soviet Union.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Now the whole world needs restructuring, i.e. progressive development, a fundamental change.
    • Perestroika: New Thinking For Our Country and the World (1987)
  • Our rockets can find Halley's comet, and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but side by side with these scientific and technical triumphs is an obvious lack of efficiency in using scientific achievements for economic needs, and many Soviet household appliances are of poor quality.^ Perestroika: New Thinking For Our Country and the World (1987) Our rockets can find Halley's comet, and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but side by side with these scientific and technical triumphs is an obvious lack of efficiency in using scientific achievements for economic needs, and many Soviet household appliances are of poor quality.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perestroika: New Thinking For Our Country and the World (1987) Variant: Soviet rockets can find Halley's comet and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but .
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "America needs perestroika right now.

    .
    • Perestroika: New Thinking For Our Country and the World (1987)
    • Variant: Soviet rockets can find Halley's comet and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but .^ Perestroika: New Thinking For Our Country and the World (1987) Our rockets can find Halley's comet, and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but side by side with these scientific and technical triumphs is an obvious lack of efficiency in using scientific achievements for economic needs, and many Soviet household appliances are of poor quality.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Perestroika: New Thinking For Our Country and the World (1987) Variant: Soviet rockets can find Halley's comet and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but .
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Gorbachev complains that "Soviet rockets can find Halley's comet and fly to Venus with amazing accuracy, but...many household appliances are of poor quality."
      • TIME Person of the Year: Story Archive Since 1927, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.time.com [Source type: Original source]

      . . many household appliances are of poor quality. .
      • As quoted in TIME magazine (4 January 1988)
  • The Soviet people want full-blooded and unconditional democracy.^ As quoted in TIME magazine (4 January 1988) The Soviet people want full-blooded and unconditional democracy.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As quoted in TIME magazine (9 September 1985) Democracy is the wholesome and pure air without which a socialist public organization cannot live a full-blooded life.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The last leader of the Soviet Union called for a grassroots campaign to restore democracy, saying that people had lost faith in elections.
    • Kremlin rigged Russia’s regional elections, says Mikhail Gorbachev - Times Online 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .
    • Speech (July 1988)
  • We are witnessing most profound social change. Whether in the East or the South, the West or the North, hundreds of millions of people, new nations and states, new public movements and ideologies have moved to the forefront of history.^ Whether in the East or the South, the West or the North, hundreds of millions of people, new nations and states, new public movements and ideologies have moved to the forefront of history.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Speech (July 1988 ) We are witnessing most profound social change.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are witnessing most profound social change.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Broad-based and frequently turbulent popular movements have given expression, in a multidimensional and contradictory way, to a longing for independence, democracy and social justice.^ Broad-based and frequently turbulent popular movements have given expression, in a multidimensional and contradictory way, to a longing for independence, democracy and social justice.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the world war broke out, Herman Gorter opposed the way in which the leaders of Social Democracy placed itself at the disposal of “their own” bourgeoisie.
    • Glossary of People: Go 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In August 1988, Solidarity resurfaced as a broad-based popular movement demanding satisfaction on bread-and-butter issues and wrapping these demands in a call for "talks" with the government.
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The idea of democratizing the entire world order has become a powerful socio-political force.^ The idea of democratizing the entire world order has become a powerful socio-political force.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A secure, just, democratic world order.
    • Lunch with Mikhail Gorbachev at the Mass Software Council 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC danbricklin.com [Source type: News]

    ^ But Mikhail Gorbachev, a leader with an unusual mentality and gifts, came to power, seized on her ideas and seriously took her advice in order to pursue perestroika , the reconstruction of the Soviet political system.
    • Tatyana Zaslavskaya’s moment | openDemocracy 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .At the same time, the scientific and technological revolution has turned many economic, food, energy, environmental, information and population problems, which only recently we treated as national or regional ones, into global problems.
    Thanks to the advances in mass media and means of transportation, the world seems to have become more visible and tangible.^ At the same time Gorbachev also launched a revolution.

    ^ At the same time, the scientific and technological revolution has turned many economic, food, energy, environmental, information and population problems, which only recently we treated as national or regional ones, into global problems.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thanks to the advances in mass media and means of transportation, the world seems to have become more visible and tangible.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .International communication has become easier than ever before.^ International communication has become easier than ever before.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am not surprised that the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently said that the world is more dangerous, that the world is closer to the possibility of a nuclear conflict than before.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a human race we have become to fixated on monetary value for items, rather than their worth to community and society through knowledge and sharing.
    • Microsoft Watch - Corporate - From Russia with Love Piracy 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Speech to the UN General Assembly (7 December 1988)
  • Dangers await only those who do not react to life.
    • Speech in East Berlin (7 October 1989), in German: Wer zu spaet kommt, den bestraft das Leben. This is often misquoted as "He who comes too late is punished by life."
  • I believe, as Lenin said, that this revolutionary chaos may yet crystallize into new forms of life.
    • As quoted in The Times [London] (18 May 1990)
  • For a new type of progress throughout the world to become a reality, everyone must change.^ As quoted in The Times [London] (18 May 1990) For a new type of progress throughout the world to become a reality, everyone must change.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And this mostly from those who were children at the time.
    • Hot Air » Blog Archive » “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” Update: Liveblogging from the ranch 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I believe, as Lenin said, that this revolutionary chaos may yet crystallize into new forms of life.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Tolerance is the alpha and omega of a new world order.
  • My life’s work has been accomplished.^ The new world order is here .
    • Charlie Rose - An hour with Mikhail Gorbachev and George Shultz 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.charlierose.com [Source type: General]

    ^ During a tour of the United States, as quoted in The New York Times (5 June 1990) My life’s work has been accomplished.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Tolerance is the alpha and omega of a new world order .
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I did all that I could.^ I did all that I could.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • The Observer [London] (15 December 1991)
  • Jesus was the first socialist, the first to seek a better life for mankind.
    • As quoted in The London Daily Telegraph (16 June 1992)
  • We have retreated from the perennial values.^ As quoted in The London Daily Telegraph (16 June 1992) We have retreated from the perennial values.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Observer [London] (15 December 1991) Jesus was the first socialist, the first to seek a better life for mankind.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As quoted in TIME magazine (9 September 1985) Democracy is the wholesome and pure air without which a socialist public organization cannot live a full-blooded life.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I don't think that we need any new values.^ Jump to: navigation , search I don't think that we need any new values.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I don't think that we need any new values.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We think that we’ll have enough resources, enough forests, enough of everything and that we don’t need to worry about it or spend any money on dealing with these issues.
    • IRU - Opening ceremony - Mikhail S. GORBACHEV 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.iru.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The most important thing is to try to revive the universally known values from which we have retreated.

    As a young man, I really took to heart the Communist ideals.^ That’s the most important thing.
    • Gorbachev’s “Revolution”: Can Russia Be Reformed? 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.lrp-cofi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As a young man, I really took to heart the Communist ideals.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The most important thing is to try to revive the universally known values from which we have retreated.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .A young soul certainly cannot reject things like justice and equality.^ A young soul certainly cannot reject things like justice and equality.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Churchill apparently said something like Americans can generally be counted on to do the right thing, but only after every other alternative has been rejected.
    • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These were the goals proclaimed by the Communists.^ These were the goals proclaimed by the Communists.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .But in reality that terrible Communist experiment brought about repression of human dignity.^ But in reality that terrible Communist experiment brought about repression of human dignity.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ By 1989 he had brought about the end of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (see Afghanistan War ) and had sanctioned the end of the Communist monopoly on political power in Eastern Europe.
    • Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Interesting facts on Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.chanceforlove.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I mean I really do feel bad about human tragedy, I swear!
    • GORBACHOV: THE MUSIC VIDEO - BIGGER AND RUSSIANER on Vimeo 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC vimeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Violence was used in order to impose that model on society.^ Violence was used in order to impose that model on society.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And we must not allow those who are using the difficulties we have met to impose on society doubts about the correctness of the path we have chosen.
    • Discursos de Mikhail Gorbachev: Perestroika - Casa Rusia - Historia y Presente de Rusia 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.casarusia.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In the name of Communism we abandoned basic human values.^ In the name of Communism we abandoned basic human values.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .So when I came to power in Russia I started to restore those values; values of "openness" and freedom.
    • "Nature Is My God" - interview with Fred Matser in Resurgence No.^ So nature is my god.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ So when I came to power in Russia I started to restore those values; values of "openness" and freedom.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Gorbachev has also expressed pantheistic views, saying, in an interview with the magazine Resurgence , "Nature is my god."

      .184 (September-October 1997)
  • I believe in the cosmos.^ (September-October 1997) I believe in the cosmos.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (September-October 1997) I began to feel the desire for something more; I wanted to do something to make things better.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .All of us are linked to the cosmos.
    Look at the sun.^ All of us are linked to the cosmos.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now Yeltsin strode directly by us, keeping his head up and looking neither right nor left, shunning all questions.
    • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If there is no sun, then we cannot exist.^ If there is no sun, then we cannot exist.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It exists and enables different views to be expressed, where there are no structures to facilitate this.
    • CPGB: Will Gorbachev Shake the World?: A roundtable discussion 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Both at home and abroad, therefore, Gorbachev's policies bore historic fruit while the Soviet Union still existed, so there was no reason for them to end with that state.
    • Gorbachev's Lost Legacy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: News]

    .So nature is my god.^ So nature is my god.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Nature Is My God" - interview with Fred Matser in Resurgence No.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    To me, nature is sacred. .Trees are my temples and forests are my cathedrals.^ Trees are my temples and forests are my cathedrals.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • "Nature Is My God" - interview with Fred Matser in Resurgence No.^ Gorbachev has also expressed pantheistic views, saying, in an interview with the magazine Resurgence , "Nature is my god."

      ^ So nature is my god.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ "Nature Is My God" - interview with Fred Matser in Resurgence No.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .184 (September-October 1997)
  • I began to feel the desire for something more; I wanted to do something to make things better.^ (September-October 1997) I believe in the cosmos.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (September-October 1997) I began to feel the desire for something more; I wanted to do something to make things better.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Life is much richer and more complex than even the most perfect plans to make it better.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • If what you have done yesterday still looks big to you, you haven't done much today.
    • 101 Best Ways to Get Ahead: Solid Gold Advice from 101 of the World's Most Successful People (2004) by Michael E. Angier and Sarah Pond, p.^ But most people feel that the world will be multipolar.

      ^ On his ambitions as a youth, in an Academy of Acheivement interview (28 October 2000) If what you have done yesterday still looks big to you, you haven't done much today.
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ You do not find poverty anywhere else in the first world quite like you can find in America in the big city slums or the black districts of mid-size towns.
      • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .30
  • With Yeltsin, the Soviet Union broke apart, the country was totally mismanaged, the constitution was not respected by the regions of Russia.^ The Soviet Union was over-centralized as a country and a state.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With Yeltsin , the Soviet Union broke apart, the country was totally mismanaged, the constitution was not respected by the regions of Russia.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yeltsin broke up the country, using Russia to break up the country.
    • Commanding Heights : Mikhail Gorbachev | on PBS 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The army, education and health systems collapsed.^ The army, education and health systems collapsed.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .People in the West quietly applauded, dancing with and around Yeltsin.^ People in the West quietly applauded, dancing with and around Yeltsin.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And paradoxically at that time when the country under Yeltsin was declining, what was the West doing – including the Financial Times – they were applauding Yeltsin.
    • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the country was lying in ruins, the West was applauding Yeltsin.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

    .I conclude therefore that we should not pay too much attention to what the West is saying.^ I conclude therefore that we should not pay too much attention to what the West is saying.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think it is good that the media has been writing more about the environment because until recently the media was not paying much attention to these problems.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many critics say he should have traded the Soviet withdrawal for concessions from the west, particularly the phasing out of Nato in line with the end of the Warsaw Pact.
    • The Guardian Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev | Education | The Guardian 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    .
    • As quoted in USA Today (5 April 2006)
  • Americans have a severe disease — worse than AIDS. It's called the winner's complex.^ As quoted in USA Today (5 April 2006) Americans have a severe disease — worse than AIDS. It's called the winner's complex.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And others who knew about her called her USA lackey, or worse.

    ^ He supports USA-made "colour revolutions", he demonised Saddam (as if Saddam was worse than ANY USA prez) and Ahmadinejad and so on.

    .
    • ABC News (12 July 2006)
  • I express the very deepest condolences to the family of the deceased on whose shoulders rest major events for the good of the country and serious mistakes.^ The new thinking in world politics proclaimed by the Soviet leadership in the very beginning of Perestroika expressed this imperative need.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Very few of these will be producing wares ready for use; in the majority of cases what will be manufactured will be unfinished goods and production goods… Every good will go through a whole series of stages before it is ready for use.
    • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 Search the ABC ABC Home .
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • We had 10 years after the Cold War to build a new world order and yet we squandered them.^ On the death of Boris Yeltsin , in "Russia's former president Yeltsin dies: Kremlin" in Reuters (23 April 2007) We had 10 years after the Cold War to build a new world order and yet we squandered them.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He said that Russia and the former Soviet Union had already made the biggest contribution towards building a new Europe.
    • Gorbachev endorses Putin in election and says Russia is serious partner of West - Times Online 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ In 2000, Russia, once the center of the Soviet empire, elected as president (now prime minister) former KGB operative Vladimir Putin.
    • The Memory Trap | Foreign Policy 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The United States cannot tolerate anyone acting independently.^ The United States Congress passed an act to "prohibit the importation of slaves into any port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States ...
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | March 2 |St Chad holy wells sacred sites Mikhail Gorbachev peace activism naked for peaceEnglish folklore England 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ One cannot fail to notice the growing process of militarization in the United States.
    • The Carnegie Moscow Center - Remarks by Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.carnegie.ru [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The United States granted Romania most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment in 1975, largely to reward Bucharest for pursuing a foreign policy independent of Moscow.
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Every US president has to have a war.

Nobel Address (1991)

Nobel lecture (5 June 1991)
.
Never before has the idea that peace is indivisible been so true as it is now.
^ Never before has the idea that peace is indivisible been so true as it is now.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nobel lecture (5 June 1991) Never before has the idea that peace is indivisible been so true as it is now.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Never before has so terrible a threat hung over mankind as now.
  • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]


Peace is not unity in similarity but unity in diversity, in the comparison and conciliation of differences.
.
In our times, good relations benefit all.
^ In our times, good relations benefit all.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gore responded by stating: "I believe that the transition to a green economy is good for our economy and good for all of us, and I have invested in it."
  • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I found with George Schultz that even though at times he was very good, especially dealing with Russians -- I found him very good -- his knowledge of the subject was not all that it should have been.

Any worsening of relations anywhere is a common loss.
All members of the world community should resolutely discard old stereotypes and motivations nurtured by the Cold War, and give up the habit of seeking each other's weak spots and exploiting them in their own interests.
I am an optimist and I believe that together we shall be able now to make the right historical choice so as not to miss the great chance at the turn of centuries and millenia and make the current extremely difficult transition to a peaceful world order.
.
Has not the political thinking in the world changed substantially?
^ Has not the political thinking in the world changed substantially?
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An appreciation of this, and a willingness to give Gorbachev a substantial share of the credit for the dramatic political changes, cut across party boundaries in the West.
  • WashingtonPost.com: The Gorbachev Factor 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new thinking in world politics proclaimed by the Soviet leadership in the very beginning of Perestroika expressed this imperative need.
  • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Does not most of the world community already regard weapons of mass destruction as unacceptable for achieving political objectives?
  • Preparing for my address I found in an old Russian encyclopedia a definition of "peace" as a "commune" — the traditional cell of Russian peasant life. I saw in that definition the people's profound understanding of peace as harmony, concord, mutual help, and cooperation.^ But most people feel that the world will be multipolar.

    ^ I spent most of my life in politics.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But it looks like Al is too dull and the people (at least the Democratic variety) have (in their infinite wisdom) decided to confide America's destiny to a community organizer, from one of America's most corrupt political machines.


    .This understanding is embodied in the canons of world religions and in the works of philosophers from antiquity to our time.
  • Today, peace means the ascent from simple coexistence to cooperation and common creativity among countries and nations.
    Peace is movement towards globality and universality of civilization.^ Peace is movement towards globality and universality of civilization.

    ^ Today, peace means the ascent from simple coexistence to cooperation and common creativity among countries and nations.

    ^ If their sole interest in coming to America is to supplement our workforce, but they wish to return home to their native lands, we will create a simple means of applying for permission to do so.
    • Hot Air » Blog Archive » “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” Update: Liveblogging from the ranch 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

    .Never before has the idea that peace is indivisible been so true as it is now.^ Never before has the idea that peace is indivisible been so true as it is now.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nobel lecture (5 June 1991) Never before has the idea that peace is indivisible been so true as it is now.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Never before has so terrible a threat hung over mankind as now.
    • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]


    .Peace is not unity in similarity but unity in diversity, in the comparison and conciliation of differences.

    And, ideally, peace means the absence of violence.^ Peace is not unity in similarity but unity in diversity, in the comparison and conciliation of differences.

    .It is an ethical value.
  • I see the decision to award me the Nobel Peace Prize also as an act of solidarity with the monumental undertaking which has already placed enormous demands on the Soviet people in terms of efforts, costs, hardships, willpower, and character.^ He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Biography 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
    • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And solidarity is a universal value which is becoming indispensable for progress and for the survival of humankind.^ And solidarity is a universal value which is becoming indispensable for progress and for the survival of humankind.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]


    .But a modern state has to be worthy of solidarity, in other words, it should pursue, in both domestic and international affairs, policies that bring together the interests of its people and those of the world community.^ But a modern state has to be worthy of solidarity, in other words, it should pursue, in both domestic and international affairs, policies that bring together the interests of its people and those of the world community.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jokingly dubbed the "Sinatra Doctrine" by Gorbachev's Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov, this policy of non-intervention in the affairs of the other Warsaw Pact states proved to be the most momentous of Gorbachev's foreign policy reforms.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I think a policy that is aware of all this, a policy that expresses the interests of the West, I think it will be understood and adopted, if those Western interests also take account of the interests of Russia and other countries, smaller and mid-sized countries.
    • The Carnegie Moscow Center - Remarks by Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.carnegie.ru [Source type: Original source]

    .This task, however obvious, is not a simple one.^ This task, however obvious, is not a simple one.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Wikiquote 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Life is much richer and more complex than even the most perfect plans to make it better.^ Life is much richer and more complex than even the most perfect plans to make it better.

    ^ We are even more talented than you Americans, but not as much as you think.
    • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At best he might have provided some moral support to people who opposed the communist regimes, but I don't think he really did much more than that.
    • Lunch with Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.kurzweilai.net [Source type: General]

    .It ultimately takes vengeance for attempts to impose abstract schemes, even with the best of intentions.
    Perestroika has made us understand this about our past, and the actual experience of recent years has taught us to reckon with the most general laws of civilization.
  • I began my book about perestroika and the new thinking with the following words: "We want to be understood". After a while I felt that it was already happening.^ Perestroika has made us understand this about our past, and the actual experience of recent years has taught us to reckon with the most general laws of civilization.

    ^ And I think our experience deserves attention.” .
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Gorbachev gives Obama advice on Afghanistan « - Blogs from CNN.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Gorbachev gives Obama advice on Afghanistan « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Specifically laws that have eroded or made moot our US Constitution?
    • Raw Story » Mikhail Gorbachev calls for new American revolution 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC rawstory.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But now I would like once again to repeat those words here, from this world rostrum.^ I would recommend that references to this so-called once great accomplishment be thrown in the trash bin with the great financial system accomplishments we’re living through right now.
    • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also, given that we had all those weapons including weapons of mass destruction it would have been extremely dangerous to the world and might have resulted in a world disaster.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would like to recall those words because what he said, as you will see, with perhaps some surprise because some of you perhaps have not read that speech, but definitely the statements made by John Kennedy are relevant today.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Because to understand us really — to understand so as to believe us — proved to be not at all easy, owing to the immensity of the changes under way in our country.^ Our way of life had changed completely.

    ^ The more active we were in our search for ways to set society in action, the more the apparatchiks were stalling us because they were used to hold all the strings in their hands so that everybody would depend on it and they were just governing everything.
    • JRL 3-20-02 - Russia, Gorbachev Interview 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Unless Mr. Obama is planning to turn our country into a communist dictatorship, which I honestly believe that he is not, then we’ve nothing to worry about.
    • Obama’s Gorbachev Moment - Economix Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC economix.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]
    • Obama’s Gorbachev Moment - Economix Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC economix.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

    Their magnitude and character are such as to require in-depth analysis. Applying conventional wisdom to perestroika is unproductive. .It is also futile and dangerous to set conditions, to say: We'll understand and believe you, as soon as you, the Soviet Union, come completely to resemble "us", the West.^ Finally, you had the end of the Soviet Union.

    ^ Sir, do you believe I am justified in saying that?
    • JRL 3-20-02 - Russia, Gorbachev Interview 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization, come here to this gate.
    • Tear Down This Wall 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Original source]


    .No one is in a position to describe in detail what perestroika will finally produce.^ What that world order is going to be, no one can describe in detail, but the outlines of that world order are already here.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .But it would certainly be a self-delusion to expect that perestroika will produce "a copy" of anything.
  • A period of transition to a new quality in all spheres of society's life is accompanied by painful phenomena. When we were initiating perestroika we failed to properly assess and foresee everything.^ When we were initiating perestroika we failed to properly assess and foresee everything.

    ^ A period of transition to a new quality in all spheres of society's life is accompanied by painful phenomena.

    ^ The more active we were in our search for ways to set society in action, the more the apparatchiks were stalling us because they were used to hold all the strings in their hands so that everybody would depend on it and they were just governing everything.
    • JRL 3-20-02 - Russia, Gorbachev Interview 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Our society turned out to be hard to move off the ground, not ready for major changes which affect people's vital interests and make them leave behind everything to which they had become accustomed over many years.^ Our society turned out to be hard to move off the ground, not ready for major changes which affect people's vital interests and make them leave behind everything to which they bad become accustomed over many years.

    ^ They wanted everything quickly, and now they have turned out to be the losers.
    • The Guardian Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev | Education | The Guardian 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ Each time on the program, I have appearances at American universities, both myself and Raisa, we are closely related not just to Moscow University from which we graduated, but because Raisa taught philosophy at various colleges for many years, our connection with young people is a tradition.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .In the beginning we imprudently generated great expectations, without taking into account the fact that it takes time for people to realize that all have to live and work differently, to stop expecting that new life would be given from above.
  • During the last six years we have discarded and destroyed much that stood in the way of a renewal and transformation of our society. But when society was given freedom it could not recognize itself, for it had lived too long, as it were, "beyond the looking glass". Contradictions and vices rose to the surface, and even blood has been shed, although we have been able to avoid a bloodbath.^ It all takes time to play out.
    • What Would Gorbachev Say? On The US, China, And Saudi Arabia « The Baseline Scenario 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC baselinescenario.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But all this takes a lot of hard work.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • End of the Cold War: Gorbachev or Reagan? - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Our way of life had changed completely.

    .The logic of reform has clashed with the logic of rejection, and with the logic of impatience which breeds intolerance.
  • I have long ago made a final and irrevocable decision.^ But he had long ago made the decision that he would not use force to maintain an empire.
    • The accidental hero of 1989 « Prospect Magazine 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.prospectmagazine.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .Nothing and no one, no pressure, cither from the right or from the left, will make me abandon the positions of perestroika and new thinking.^ The new thinking postulated [that] we are one planet regardless of confrontations, ideological and physiological struggles; we are one planet, one human civilization.
    • Commanding Heights : Mikhail Gorbachev | on PBS 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As an individual I often think of the power of one "Rosa Parks" and no I am not black but of white anglo saxon origin.
    • Is Obama Gorbachev? - Clusterfuck Nation 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC kunstler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I believe that any person who is clear-headed thinks that no one wants this situation to become even more severe or for the situation to become even more dangerous.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    I do not intend to change my views or convictions. .My choice is a final one.

    It is my profound conviction that the problems arising in the course of our transformations can be solved solely by constitutional means.^ Of course wind energy, solar energy, bio-fuel, all of them are usable, but they don’t solve the problem by supplying sufficient energy.
    • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "First it was used to suppress the opponents of the Revolution, then shifted to potential opponents, and finally it became a means of solving purely economic tasks."
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Perestroika is an urgent necessity arising from the profound processes of development in our socialist society.” p.17 .
    • Mikhail Gorbachev: Can Perestroika Produce Democratic Freedom? — The Forerunner 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

    That is why I make every effort to keep this process within the confines of democracy and reforms.
  • Our democracy is being born in pain. .A political culture is emerging — one that presupposes debate and pluralism, but also legal order and, if democracy is to work, strong government authority based on one law for all.^ According to Gorbachev, perestroika was the "conference of development of democracy, socialist self-government, encouragement of initiative and creative endeavor, improved order and disciple, more glasnost, criticism and self-criticism in all spheres of our society.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sort of, what I'm saying is that my opinion doesn't matter one whit when it comes to Russian law, and it's not my place to try and influence Russian internal workings.
    • Gorbachev Asks Gates to Show 'Pirate' Mercy | Betanews 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.betanews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both permitted a ten-for-one exchange of old notes for new, and the result was an explosion of political oppression of the government's enemies.
    • The Decline and Fall of Gorbachev and the Soviet State - Yuri N. Maltsev - Mises Institute 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC mises.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This process is gaining strength.
  • Being resolute today means to act within the framework of political and social pluralism and the rule of law to provide conditions for continued reform and prevent a breakdown of the state and economic collapse, prevent the elements of chaos from becoming catastrophic.^ It also means that we as reformers sometimes acted too late.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These negotiations had been dragging on for many years and Gorbachev was becoming impatient: according to his close associates, he regarded progress in nuclear disarmament as a key factor in creating favorable external conditions for economic and political reform in the Soviet Union.
    • NTI: Issue Brief: Reykjavik Summit: The Legacy and a Lesson for the Future 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.nti.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In terms of economic might, political influences and military potential, the United States is a world leader capable of having a tremendous impact on the course of world events.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]


    .All this requires taking certain tactical steps, to search for various ways of addressing both short- and long-term tasks.^ However, I strongly take issue with your characterization of the Fed’s have kept short-term rates low long after the trough in November 2001.
    • Obama’s Gorbachev Moment - Economix Blog - NYTimes.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC economix.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]
    • Obama’s Gorbachev Moment - Economix Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC economix.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Both men agreed that they and their countries had come a long way since their first summit in Geneva three years earlier.
    • Did Reagan Try to Convert Gorbachev? - WSJ.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ All that we can say for certain is that the making of a capitalist class is a tougher task than Western preachers and Eastern practitioners may have imagined.
    • Gorbachev--Two Steps Backward? 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Such efforts and political and economic steps, agreements based on reasonable compromise, are there for everyone to see.
  • After a time of rampant separatism and euphoria, when almost every village proclaimed sovereignty, a centripetal force is beginning to gather momentum, based on a more sensible view of existing realities and the risks involved.^ He also spoke about the need for Perestroika (Restructuring) and this heralded a series of liberalizing economic, political and cultural reforms which had the aim of making the Soviet economy more efficient.

    ^ War sucks, but it's a necessary evil, especially during a time of such rampant international terrorism.
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Gorbachev gives Obama advice on Afghanistan « - Blogs from CNN.com 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • CNN Political Ticker: All politics, all the time Blog Archive - Gorbachev gives Obama advice on Afghanistan « - Blogs from CNN.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We believe there is a need for a convention that would be based on the rights approach; that is to say, every person has a human right of access to water.
    • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

    And this is what counts most now. .There is a growing will to achieve consensus, and a growing understanding that we have a State, a country, a common life.^ In reporting on the same exchange, The New York Times quoted Gore as stating: "Do you think there is something wrong with being active in business in this country [...
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Because there is one fact you cannot get away from; the homes, countries, borders, and lives that were lead were the only life most had ever known.
    • Amazon.com: Gorbachev (9780231115155): Mikhail Gorbachev, George Shriver: Books 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
    • Amazon.com: Gorbachev (9780231115148): Mikhail Gorbachev, George Shriver: Books 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We saw that states were not able to effectively counter the dangers of the non-state entities that threatened the life of our countries.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .This is what must be preserved first of all.
  • The more I reflect on the current world developments, the more I become convinced that the world needs perestroika no less than the Soviet Union needs it.
  • To me, it is self-evident that if Soviet perestroika succeeds, there will be a real chance of building a new world order.^ It does not reflect the new realities in the world.
    • The Carnegie Moscow Center - Remarks by Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.carnegie.ru [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Meanwhile, he had a state to run, more or less, a fragment of the Soviet Union.
    • PIVOT: Chapter One of RUSSIA REDUX by Gwendolyn Stewart 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.people.fas.harvard.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So, today the pivotal point of world politics is perestroika in the Soviet Union, not because we are there but because this is an objective reality.
    • George Bush: News Conference of President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.presidency.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .And if perestroika fails, the prospect of entering a new peaceful period in history will vanish, at least for the foreseeable future.^ When we were initiating perestroika we failed to properly assess and foresee everything.

    ^ In conflicts like this one, I believe that peace can only be achieved and the prospects for the future can be open, only if both sides win.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]


    I believe that the movement that we have launched towards that goal has fairly good prospects of success. .After all, mankind has already benefited greatly in recent years, and this has created a certain positive momentum.
  • The new integrity of the world, in our view, can be built only on the principles of the freedom of choice and balance of interests. Every State, and now also a number of existing or emerging regional interstate groups, have their own interests.^ An attempt to create a new empire, maybe even conceived as a good empire, is similar to the claim of communists to the pretension of communists making the world happy through a communist revolution.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In a revealing comment on the logic of the new diplomacy, Radomir Bagdanov of the Soviet Committee for the Defense of Peace observed, we have supported only one side while our foreign policy rival, the United States, has managed to maintain relations with almost all parties to the conflict, which incidentally, has been of inestimable benefit to the United States' ally in the Near East--Israel.
    • Palestinian Diplomacy - Gorbachev's Legacy :: Middle East Quarterly 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Concurrently, major positive changes were occurring in world affairs: A number of international conflicts were defused and democratic processes in many parts of the world gained momentum, leading to the end of the Cold War.
    • The Nuclear Threat - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    They are all equal and deserve respect.
    .We consider it dangerously outdated when suspicions are aroused by, for instance, improved Soviet-Chinese or Soviet-German, German-French, Soviet- US or US-Indian relations, etc.^ Relations with Israel also improved, as the Soviets relaxed restrictions on Jewish emigration.

    ^ The Soviets do not appreciate the nature and depth of US compll-anoe Concerns and continue to view compliancearginal issue in relations with the United Slates.
    • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There has been criticism of privilege in the press and Gorbachev himself has pointed to contradictions in Soviet society, between for instance the forces and relations of production.
    • CPGB: Will Gorbachev Shake the World?: A roundtable discussion 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .In our times, good relations benefit all.^ Gore responded by stating: "I believe that the transition to a green economy is good for our economy and good for all of us, and I have invested in it."
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the time, the International Atomic Energy Agency considered our report and recognised that we had taken all the necessary measures for safety.
    • FT.com / UK - Full transcript: FT interview with Mikhail Gorbachev 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.ft.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I found with George Schultz that even though at times he was very good, especially dealing with Russians -- I found him very good -- his knowledge of the subject was not all that it should have been.

    .Any worsening of relations anywhere is a common loss.
  • Progress towards the civilization of the 21st century will certainly not be simple or easy. One cannot get rid overnight of the heavy legacy of the past or the dangers created in the post-war years.^ The domestic reasons were undoubtedly the main ones, but the danger of nuclear war was so serious that it was a no less significant factor.
    • Gorbachev on 1989 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Summarizing those problems one can say that the world of the 21st Century is facing three main challenges.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I like the pragmatic attitude now which means accepting that there are different attitudes to solutions to different programmes but to meet halfway - to build new relations fit for the 21st century.
    • JRL 3-20-02 - Russia, Gorbachev Interview 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: Original source]

    .We are experiencing a turning point in international affairs and are only at the beginning of a new, and I hope mostly peaceful, lengthy period in the history of civilization.^ This gesture would not only appear magnanimous but would also greatly enhance Gorbachev's international image as a new kind of Soviet leader.
    • Gorbachev and Glasnost--A New Soviet Order? Implications For U.S. Foreign Policy 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.cato.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Only after Geneva did the General Secretary feel free to begin formulating a new vision of security that corresponded with his reformist preferences.
    • Gorbachev’s Nuclear Learning 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Privately, Gorbachev touted the merits of romanticism and idealism as the only way to break with the past and turn a new page in history.
    • Gorbachev’s Nuclear Learning 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .With less East-West confrontation, or even none at all, old contradictions resurface, which seemed of secondary importance compared to the threat of nuclear war.^ As the letters show, Reagan and Gorbachev were instead discussing how to minimize the threat of nuclear war by first reducing and then eliminating all nuclear weapons.

    ^ Phillip Adams: I grew up, like all of my generation, under the nuclear mushroom cloud, and I thought with the end of the Cold War...
    • Mikhail Gorbachev - Late Night Live - 25 July 2006 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The world was divided between Communist East and Capitalist West, each bristling with nuclear weapons.
    • JRL 3-20-02 - Russia, Gorbachev Interview 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.cdi.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The melting ice of the Cold War reveals old conflicts and claims, and entirely new problems accumulate rapidly.
  • All members of the world community should resolutely discard old stereotypes and motivations nurtured by the Cold War, and give up the habit of seeking each other's weak spots and exploiting them in their own interests. We have to respect the peculiarities and differences which will always exist, even when human rights and freedoms are observed throughout the world.^ We are moving toward a new world, the world of communism.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That's right, you can't even give it away.
    • Microsoft Watch - Corporate - From Russia with Love Piracy 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.microsoft-watch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We really discussed all world problems.
    • George Bush: News Conference of President Bush and President Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.presidency.ucsb.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .I keep repeating that with the end of confrontation differences can be made a source of healthy competition, an important factor for progress.^ Notwithstanding important differences among the republics, one may hazard some generalizations about the nationality problem that now confronts Moscow.
    • GORBACHEV'S "CONSOLIDATION" (U) - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We want peaceful competition between different social systems to develop unimpeded, to encourage mutually advantageous cooperation rather than confrontation and an arms race.
    • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    This is an incentive to study each other, to engage in exchanges, a prerequisite for the growth of mutual trust.
    .For knowledge and trust are the foundations of a new world order.
  • I am an optimist and I believe that together we shall be able now to make the right historical choice so as not to miss the great chance at the turn of centuries and millenia and make the current extremely difficult transition to a peaceful world order. A balance of interests rather than a balance of power, a search for compromise and concord rather than a search for advantages at other people's expense, and respect for equality rather than claims to leadership — such are the elements which can provide the groundwork for world progress and which should be readily acceptable for reasonable people informed by the experience of the twentieth century.^ And this could be a bad disservice for us, in a search for a new world order.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ People began to make choices, which was their natural right.
    • Gorbachev on 1989 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www.thenation.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An attempt to create a new empire, maybe even conceived as a good empire, is similar to the claim of communists to the pretension of communists making the world happy through a communist revolution.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]


    .The future prospect of truly peaceful global politics lies in the creation through joint efforts of a single international democratic space in which States shall be guided by the priority of human rights and welfare for their own citizens and the promotion of the same rights and similar welfare elsewhere.^ So this was done through joint efforts, and it was a big change.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An attempt to create a new empire, maybe even conceived as a good empire, is similar to the claim of communists to the pretension of communists making the world happy through a communist revolution.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So far it has concentrated on research, running conferences and round-tables on Russian politics and economics, international relations, the future of Europe, globalisation and the environment, as well as preparing the speeches Gorbachev makes on his frequent foreign trips.
    • The Guardian Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev | Education | The Guardian 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    This is an imperative of the growing integrity of the modern world and of the interdependence of its components.
  • Have we not been able to cross the threshold of mistrust, though mistrust has not completely disappeared? .Has not the political thinking in the world changed substantially?^ The new thinking in world politics proclaimed by the Soviet leadership in the very beginning of Perestroika expressed this imperative need.
    • AU Media_Mikhail Gorbachev Speech: Sept. 30, 2003 28 January 2010 0:29 UTC www1.media.american.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Your courage changed the world as a political leader, so thank you.
    • UCI Center for Citizen Peacebuilding 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.socsci.uci.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Does not most of the world community already regard weapons of mass destruction as unacceptable for achieving political objectives?
  • I view the award of the Nobel Prize to me as an expression of understanding of my intentions, my aspirations, the objectives of the profound transformation we have begun in our country, and the ideas of new thinking.^ Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
    • Gorbachev and Ending the Cold War by Sanderson Beck 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are moving toward a new world, the world of communism.
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.
    • Mikhail Gorbachev 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Al Gorbachev "Gore" & Mikhail Gorbachev = 2 Sides Of The Same Green Coin 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC forum.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I see it as your acknowledgment of my commitment to peaceful means of implementing the objectives of perestroika.

Unsourced

.
  • We desperately need to recognise that we are the guests, not the masters, of nature and adopt a new paradigm for development, based on the costs and benefits to all people, and bound by the limits of nature herself rather than the limits of technology and consumerism...
  • Why not?^ The price that people paid for Yeltsin's reckless adventures was that 12 percent of the people benefited while all the others are now poor.
    • Commanding Heights : Mikhail Gorbachev | on PBS 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Autocracies survive due to repressing their people to the extent that they are not given the freedoms required to change their government, rather than because the people want them to stay in power.
    • GORBACHEV WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC revisewise.debatewise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whatever the direction and outcome of thb evolution, future military requirements will place heavy new demands on the Soviet technology base that are not certain of being met.
    • GORBACHEV'S POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, 1986-88 (SNIE 11-9- - CIA document 1 February 2010 2:10 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • When asked if he thought the Berlin Wall should be dismantled.

External links

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Simple English

File:Reagan and Gorbachev
Here is a picture of Mikhail Gorbachev (on the left) with Ronald Reagan.

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachov (Gorbachev)  listen (info • help) (Russian: Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was the leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. His attempts at reform led to the end of the Cold War, but although he was not trying to, this helped cause the end of the political power of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the break-up of the Soviet Union into smaller countries. He was good friends with Ronald Reagan.

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.

Preceded by
Konstantin Chernenko
General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party
1985–1991
Succeeded by
Vladimir Ivashko
mrj:Горбачёв, Михаил Сергеевич


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mikhail Gorbachev, which are similar to those in the above article.








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