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A blond-hair girl in a white dress holds on to a pink teddy bair in one hand and the leg of her father with the other. The father's face is not seen and he wears green and brown military fatigues and has a green bag over his shoulder.
A girl holds on to her father's leg while saying goodbye to him.

A "military brat" (and various brat derivatives)[1] is a term for a person whose parent or parents have served full-time in the armed forces during the person's childhood. In conventional usage, the word "brat" used alone may be pejorative; in modern, especially American, usage; however, "military brat" is often not considered to be a derogatory term (and may in fact be seen as a term of endearment).[2][3] The term is used in several English-speaking countries, especially Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom; but it is in the United States in particular that this term is ascribed to a collectively identifiable demographic (with extensive psychological research done on the group by U.S. Defense Department).[4] Accordingly, this group is shaped by frequent moves, absence of a parent, authoritarian family dynamics, strong patriarchal authority, threat of parental loss in war, and a militarized family unit.[5] While non-military families share many of these same attributes, military culture is unique due to the tightly knit communities that perceive these traits as normal. Military culture can have a long-term impact on children.[6]

As adults, military brats can share many of the same positive and negative traits developed from their mobile childhoods. Having had the opportunity to live around the world, military brats can have a breadth of experiences unmatched by most teenagers. Regardless of race, religion, nationality, or gender, brats might identify more with other highly mobile children than with non-mobile ones.[7] Some can struggle to develop and maintain deep, lasting relationships, and can feel like outsiders to U.S. civilian culture. Their transitory lifestyle can hinder potential for constructing concrete relationships with people and developing emotional attachments to specific places, which may later develop into psychologically developmental disorders (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Avoidant Personality Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder, etc.). But most assimilate quickly and well as they have to do so with each move.[8]

Contents

Research

Five-year-old Evan Moriarty Make-A-Wish Foundation.jpg

In the 1970s, sociologist Ruth Hill Useem coined the term Third Culture Kids (TCKs) for a child who follows his parents "into another culture."[9] Useem used the term "Third Culture Kids" because TCKs integrate aspects of their birth culture (the first culture) and the new culture (the second culture), creating a unique "third culture." Globally, offspring of military households comprise about 30% of all TCKs,[10] but they are almost exclusively from the U.S.[11]

Systematic research on individuals in such environments has been conducted since the 1980s. Responding to social and psychological issues recorded in military families and communities, the U.S. Armed Forces sponsored research on the long-term impact of growing up as a military dependent.[12] Outside of the U.S. there is no significant literature on the effects of growing up as a military dependent.[4] Since the Department of Defense does not track or monitor former brats, any study on adult brats is based upon self identification. Thus, even though the studies are performed using scientific sampling methods, they may contain bias because of the difficulty in conducting epidemiological studies across broad-based population samples. Some researchers used referrals, internet, and newspaper articles to identify military brats.[13]

In 1991, Mary Edwards Wertsch "launched the movement for military brat cultural identity" with her book Military Brats: Legacies of Childhood Inside the Fortress.[14] In researching her book, Wertsch identified common themes from interviews of over 80 offspring of military households. While this book does not purport to be a scientific study, subsequent research has validated many of her findings. Patrick Conroy, the author of The Prince of Tides and The Great Santini, said,

Her book speaks in a language that is clear and stinging and instantly recognizable to me [as a brat], yet it's a language I was not even aware I spoke. She isolates the military brats of America as a new indigenous subculture with our own customs, rites of passage, forms of communication, and folkways .... With this book, Mary [Wertsch] astonished me and introduced me to a secret family I did not know I had.[15]
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Linguistic reclamation

A lieutenant reunites with his family of brats after a deployment.

Linguistic reclamation is the appropriation of a pejorative epithet by its target, to turn an insult into a positive term and deny others the ability to define it;[16] non-military personnel may find the term "brat" insulting if they do not understand the context. Sociologist Karen Williams used it reluctantly in her research, with the disclaimer, "to follow the wishes of the participants. It is a term that they use and feel comfortable with."[17]

Military culture has reclaimed the term to make it their own. Admiral Dennis C. Blair, former Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command and now U.S.Director of National Intelligence said, "There’s a standard term for the military child: 'Brat.' While it sounds pejorative, it’s actually a term of great affection."[18] Senator Ben Nelson, a member of the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services, wrote "when the word 'brat' is used to describe someone it is not meant as a compliment, but when it is preceded by another word and becomes "military brat" it becomes a term of endearment."[19] Congresswoman Carol Shea-Porter said, "I married what is affectionately known as an Army brat."[20]

Senator John Cornyn identifies himself as a military brat, and also identified Judge Janice Brown as one, during her confirmation hearing before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary.[21] Military culture has created numerous positive backronyms (acronyms backed into existing words) for brat, such as "Born, Raised And Transferred" or "Brave, Resilient, Adaptable, and Trustworthy." While some may not like the origins of the term, most are comfortable with it.[3][17]

The term is now used by researchers and academians as well; it is no longer merely a slang term, but a studied segment of U.S. culture. "Most of the professional research on growing up in military families has contributed to the perpetuation of the 'brat' label," sociologist Morten Ender wrote, "It is no wonder that the label endures and is as popular as ever."[22]

Military culture

Military brats may not develop strong relations with people or places, but can form strong connections with the notion of a military base and the communities in which they find themselves.[23] This is because the knowledge, experience, values, ideas, attitudes, skills, tastes, and techniques that are associated with the military can sometimes differ from civilian culture.[24] Military bases are miniature, self-contained, government-subsidized towns that promote conformity.[25] Military families shop at some of the same stores, whose discounted merchandise is regulated to prevent unfair competition, so they can often end up with the same clothes and products.[26] Male brats were, at one time, likely to get the same "military haircut" at the base barbershop, but this has changed over time. To a child growing up on a military base, in a homogeneous culture, the individuality of civilian life was once thought to be completely foreign.[3] However, as the individual children have attended civilian schools near base and socialized with their peers, this perceived difference has waned.

Values and patriotism

The comfort that can be found on military bases is not limited to the physical trappings, but can be fortified via some of the consistent rituals common to them. When moving around the world, these rituals can help brats feel at home in their new community. Even though the faces and geography change, the "base" can remain recognizable because the rituals are often uniform. The underlying principle of these rituals is consistent: to promote patriotism.[23]

It has been claimed by Samuel Britten on the basis of anecdotal evidence that life on military bases is associated with comparatively greater patriotic sentiments.[27] For example honoring the American Flag is expected. At the end of the business day, on a military installation, the bugle call "To the Color" is played while the flag is lowered.[28] While no longer universal, formerly anybody outside, even if participating in sports or driving a car, was expected to stop their activity and stand at attention.[29] Uniformed personnel salute and non-uniformed people place their hand over their heart.

Until recently, the Pledge of Allegiance was recited every morning and patriotic and militaristic songs may have been sung at Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS) overseas and Department of Defense Domestic Dependent Elementary and Secondary Schools (DDESS) within the United States. Patriotic ideals often form the basis for church sermons. Protestant and Catholic worship services may include militaristic hymns.[30] Prior to movies at base theaters, patrons and staff stand for the National Anthem and often another patriotic song, such as "God Bless the USA."[31]

The military family knows that the service person may be killed in the line of duty, but may accept that risk because they are taught that the military mission is worth dying for. The mission is one in which the brat shares by extension through his military parent.[32]

Military law requires commanding officers and those in authority to demonstrate virtue, honor, patriotism, and subordination in all that they do.[33] In the 1990s, the army officially adopted what have come to be known as "The 7 Army Values," which are summarized with the acronym "LDRSHIP." LDRSHIP stands for Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage. While this acronym is relatively new, the ideas it represents have been at the heart of military service for generations. Similarly, the motto "Duty, honor, country" is the standard of the U.S. military.[34] Military brats are raised in a culture that stresses LDRSHIP, Duty, Honor, Country, and being a "lady" or "gentleman." Their strict (outward) adherence to military values is what separates most from their civilian peers. Children of military personnel often mirror the values, ideals, and attitudes of their parents more than children of civilians.[35] Marine General Peter Pace, the Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff said "There's no way, in my mind, that you can be successful in the military and have a family unless that family does, in fact, appreciate your service to the country.[...] [Brats are] patriots and role models for us all."[36] Third Culture Kids often participate in protest or anti-war activities; military brats, however, are generally under-represented.[37]

Discipline

The stereotypical military family might have had a "duty roster" on the refrigerator, parent-conducted room inspections, and children who say "yes sir/ma'am" to adults.[38] Eighty percent of Cold-war era brats described their father as "authoritarian" or desiring to exercise complete control over their lives.[39] They described their military parent as rigid in discipline, inflexible, intolerant of dissent, disapproving of non-conforming behavior, insensitive to their emotions, and not accepting of personal privacy.[40] A Cold War era military psychologist, publishing in the American Journal of Psychology, reviewed the parents of patients who came to his clinic, and concluded that 93% of patients came from military families that were overly authoritarian.[41]

Disciplinary expectations extend beyond the military family. Family members know that their actions and behavior can have a direct impact on the military service member's career.[42] The consequences of misbehavior for a military brat are generally greater than for civilian children. A military person’s career and social identity can be dashed in seconds by a willful or careless child.[43] For example, when a military brat gets in trouble, the authorities may call the parent's Commanding Officer or the Base Commander before, or instead of, calling the brat's parents.[44] If the Commanding Officer or Base Commander is contacted, the brat's behavior may become a part of the military member's record, and adversely affect his or her ability to be promoted or the duty assignments (particularly overseas) that lead to advancement.[45]

Research into military brats has consistently shown them to be better behaved than their civilian counterparts.[35] Sociologist Phoebe Price posed three possible hypotheses as to why brats are better behaved: firstly, military parents have a lower threshold for misbehavior in their children; secondly, the mobility of teenagers might make them less likely to attract attention to themselves, as they want to fit in and are less secure with their surroundings; and thirdly, normative constraints are greater, with brats knowing that their behavior is under scrutiny and can affect the military member’s career.[46]

Teenage years are typically a period when people establish independence by taking some risks away from their parents. When the teenager lives in a "fish-bowl community," a small self-contained community such as a base, challenging boundaries may be more difficult (and, due to such strictness, much easier). Brats know that misbehavior or rebellious activity will be reported to their parents.[47] Brats are sometimes under constant pressure to conform to what military culture expects; this means they are sometimes seen as being more mature in their youth than their peers. If they grow up overseas or on military bases, they might have limited opportunities to see a wide range of role models in different professions.[48]

Strict discipline can have the opposite effect: brats may rebel or behave in adolescent manners well beyond what is normally considered acceptable.[49] Others develop psychological problems due to the intense stress of always being on their best behavior.[43]

Military classism

Military life is strictly segregated by rank;[50] the facilities provided for officers and enlisted personnel differ dramatically. The officers' housing will generally be more accessible to base activities, larger in size, and better landscaped. On larger bases, the officers' housing may be broken down into different categories, with senior officers receiving larger and more opulent housing; sometimes, the highest-ranking officers live in a row of large houses often referred to as "Colonels'/Captains' Row" or "Generals'/Admirals' Row," as the case may be.

Seoul American High School's Army JROTC Honor Guard presents the U.S. and Republic of Korea colors at the 2006 Asian region JROTC Drill Team competition.

The Officer Clubs are more elegant than the Enlisted Clubs. Officers have cleaner, more elaborate recreational facilities than their enlisted counterparts. Historically, base chapels and movie theaters would have designated seating for officers and their families. For a part of the twentieth century, some bases had two Boy Scout and two Girl Scout troops—one for officer children and one for enlisted children.[51]

These differences are not merely external, but a core aspect of military life.[51] Children of enlisted personnel often believe that children of officers receive specialized treatment because non-officers are afraid to upset the officers.[52] The physical separation and differences between available activities make it very difficult.[53]

The separation by rank has the intended purpose of maintaining military discipline among service members. According to the U.S. Uniform Code of Military Justice, it can be illegal for an officer to fraternize with an enlisted person because it would corrode the military hierarchy. This is often conveyed to the children of military personnel. Two brats whose parents have a subordinate-supervisory relationship can cause problems for both their parents.[54]

To a lesser degree, military classism also includes the branch of service to which the military parent belongs. If asked to name "the best branch of service," military brats will almost invariably name the one to which their parent belonged. They will be able to articulate many reasons why "their" branch of the service is the best. These biases are maintained well past the time they cease to be military dependents. When brats grow up, these boundaries are replaced by a shared identity based upon that of being a military brat.[55]

Anti-racism

In 1948, President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 integrating the military and mandating equality of treatment and opportunity. It made it illegal, per military law, to make a racist remark.[56] Fifteen years later, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara issued Department of Defense Directive 5120.36. "Every military commander," the Directive mandates, "has the responsibility to oppose discriminatory practices affecting his men and their dependents and to foster equal opportunity for them, not only in areas under his immediate control, but also in nearby communities where they may gather in off-duty hours."[57] The directive was issued in 1963, but it was not until 1967 that the first non-military installation was declared off-limits to military personnel due to its discriminatory practices.[58] While these directives did not eliminate racism in the military, they do impact the culture in which children of military personnel grow up.

When families go overseas, minority students rarely experience overt racism from their expatriate neighbors.[59] This is also true on military bases within the U.S.; as the community is isolated and smaller than the off-base community, military dependents are less likely to resort to racist notions. The military community is normally a stronger bond than the differences of race. Military brats grow up in communities that actively condemn racist comments. This results in, according to Wertsch, brats who "aren't just non-racist, but anti-racist."[3]

Growing up military

Sociologist Morten Ender conducted the largest scientific study to date exclusively on career military brats (those who had at least one parent in the military from birth through high school). He interviewed and sent questionnaires to over 600 brats who belonged to various brat organizations and responded to his newspaper and internet ads. His study revealed that 97% lived in at least one foreign country, 63% in two, 31% in 3. They averaged 8 moves before graduating from high school and spent an average of 7 years in foreign countries. Over 80% now speak at least one language other than English and 14% speak three or more.[60] Ann Cottrell's work with Third Culture Kids, however, shows slightly lower results, but her results did not specify career brats.[61] Sociologist Henry Watanabe showed that military and civilian teenagers share the same concerns and desires, but that growing up in a mobile community offers opportunities and experiences generally unavailable to geographically stable families.[35]

Friendships

Because military brats are constantly making new friends to replace the ones that they have lost,[62] they are often more outgoing and independent.[63] According to the largest study conducted on nearly 700 TCKs, eighty percent claim that they can relate to anyone, regardless of differences such as race, ethnicity, religion, or nationality.[37]

A typical military school can experience up to 50% turnover every year (25% graduate while a third of the remaining 75% of students move); social groups that existed one year cease to exist as new groups emerge. The brat learns to adapt quickly to fit into this ever changing environment. Highly mobile children are more likely to reach out to a new student because they know what it is like to be the new student.[64]

Recent studies show that, although brats move on average every 3 years, they do not grow accustomed to moving.[65] The constantly changing environment and openness to others has a price. Rather than develop problem-solving skills, there is a temptation to simply leave a problem without resolving it.[48] If a person does not like somebody or gets into a fight, they know that in a few years somebody will move and the problem will disappear. On the other hand, when brats marry it is generally for life; over two thirds of brats over 40 are married to their first spouse.[60]

School life

Moving during the summer months can be challenging.[66] Courses students have taken at their old schools may not fulfill the graduation requirements at their new school.[67] Moving during the winter holidays or mid-year, however, has traditionally been viewed as the worst time to move.[68] The student is forced to join classes that have already begun. Social groups become even more difficult to break into and activities that the student enjoyed may be barred to him or her. For example, an athlete may not be able to join his or her sport because they missed tryouts and the season had already begun. A student who excelled at their old DoDDS or DDESS school suddenly feels inadequate at the larger school.[69] Recent studies, however, show that mobility during the school year may be less traumatic than summer time moves.[70]

DoDDS schools overseas and DDESS schools in the United States tend to be smaller than many public schools. Students and teachers often interact in a more social manner with one another. When returning to civilian schools, the lack of camaraderie with the faculty can be an unexpected obstacle for many highly mobile families.[69]

Military brats have lower delinquency rates, higher achievement scores on standardized tests, and higher median IQ than their civilian counterparts.[71] They are more likely to have a college degree (60% v 24%) and possess an advanced degree (29.1% v 5%).[71] While these rates are higher than the general U.S. population, they are lower than those of other non-brat Third Culture Kids (84–90% college degree and 40% graduate degree).[60] United States Military brats are the most mobile of the Third Culture Kids, moving on average every three years. Brats move frequently between bases in the United States and typically spend only a few years abroad, and sometimes none at all.

Abuse and alcoholism

Two of the common themes in Wertsch's book are abuse and alcoholism. These are echoed in other literature of the Cold War, such as Pat Conroy's The Great Santini. In the 1980s and 1990s the U.S. military focused on the issues of abuse and alcoholism. The impact on the military's efforts remains inconclusive. Some studies report higher rates of abuse in military families, while others report lower rates.[72]

The studies that conclude abuse is a bigger problem in military families than civilian families attribute this to the long hours, frequent disruptions in lifestyles, and high degree of stress. They point out that military families may be more reluctant to report issues of abuse because of the potential impact on the service member's career. Other studies, however, argue that military families have a smaller problem than civilian families because military culture offers more accessible help for victims of abuse. Military families have health care, housing, and family support programs often unavailable to lower income civilian families. Abusive family members are more likely to be ordered (by their Commanding Officer or Base Commander) to obtain treatment, thus reducing reoccurrences of abuse.[72]

Current brats

Most of the research into military brats has been conducted on the long term effects on adults who grew up during the Cold War. As the Cold War came to an end, the role of the United States Armed Forces changed. The U.S. military realized that there was distinct correlation between the quality of life and retention and operational effectiveness. To this end, the military started to change the living standards that most Cold War brats grew up with. The demographics of the military changed. The modern military has a larger proportion of married military members. Since base housing is designed for fewer families, more families are forced to live off-base. Military personnel are being supplemented by more civilians filling essential roles. And the introduction of the large megabases that intermesh different service branches and their individual cultures has also affected the demographics.[73] Finally, during the Post Cold War period, the United States has been involved in three extended military engagements (two in Iraq and one in Afghanistan). The long term effects of these changes are unknown, but research has been conducted on short term effects on Post-Cold War Era brats.

War in the 21st century

Winning drawing entitled, "Why I'm proud to be a part of the military family" during "Operation Enduring Families."

Today's military brat faces challenges that Vietnam War Era brats did not have to face. For example, it is estimated that approximately 50,000 military families have both parents serving in the armed forces; this creates the possibility that both parents may be deployed at the same time.[74] Another significant difference is the speed of communication. With the advent of the Internet it is possible for family members to communicate with servicemen in combat zones. This allows brats to remain in closer contact with their military parent(s), but it also increases tension as more details reach the military families. Round-the-clock news agencies, such as CNN and Fox News, spread news faster than the military bureaucracy can process the details. This means that military families know that servicemen have died before official word reaches the family. Military Psychiatrist Colonel Stephen Cozza says that a "sense of fear" accompanies news of the death of a service member until confirmation that the service member was not a loved one.[75]

Despite these facts, studies show only a slight increase in stressors among military brats whose parents serve in a combat zone. Boys and younger children do show the most risk when a parent is deployed, but rarely does this require clinical intervention. However, studies show that when a military member is deployed to a combat zone, the family cohesion is more disrupted than when service members are deployed to non-combat zones.[76]

Military members can be deployed for days, months, or even years without their family. When a parent is stationed without his family, the children experience the same emotions as children of divorced parents.[77] In addition to the effects of the divorce, military brats have additional concerns. When a military member is sent away, the family does not always know where they are going or when (or if) the service member will return.[78] Studies show that there are three phases to deployment and each phase has different impacts on the family. Military spouses reported the following when their spouse was deployed:

  • Predeployment — Marital stress/conflict, distancing from spouse, anger, resentment, sadness/depression, negative child behavior.
  • Deployment — Marital problems, isolation, loneliness, anger, resentment, sadness/depression, reduced communications, stress, less social support, assuming the role of single parent, child care difficulties, sleep disturbances, physical symptoms, home and car repairs, difficulty accessing military services, negative child behavior.
  • Postdeployment/Reunion — Redefining responsibilities, marital stress, communication problems, anxiety, anger, resentment, parent-child attachment issues[79]

While separation produces stress, according to the US military it strengthens the children by forcing them to take on additional responsibilities when a parent is absent, encouraging independence.[80]

A Pentagon study released in June 2009, show that children of combat troops show more fear, anxiety and behavioral problems.[81] According to the study, spouses report that when the service member is sent to a combat zone, that their children start to experienced increased anxiety. One in four parents say their children respond poor or very poorly and a third experienced academic problems.[81] Another study done by the University of California - Los Angeles indicated that a year after the parent returns, the 30% of children "exhibited clinical levels of anxiety."[81] The Pentagon Study found the effects most pronounced in children between the ages of 5-13, while the University of California study found the issues were the strongest in children under the age of 8.[81]

"Suddenly military" brats

Family members of a deceased soldier walk to a grave site

With the increased demands on the U.S. military, reservists have been called to active duty. The children of these reservists, who are suddenly called to extended active duty, are technically military brats, but they may not identify with or share the characteristics of typical brats. In an effort to help integrate "suddenly military" brats, groups like Operation: Military Kids and "Our Military Kids, Inc." came into existence. Operation: Military Kids is a program designed to help "suddenly military" children understand the military culture to which they now belong, and "Our Military Kids" provides monetary grants that support tutoring, sports and other extracurricular activities of National Guard and Reserve children, whose parents sometimes incur a lapse in income upon being called to active duty. "Suddenly military" families face challenges not faced by traditional military families. National Guard families are not as familiar with military culture. They are physically separated from other military families, and are rarely as emotionally prepared for active duty deployment.[82] Both the formal and informal support structures available for the regular military families are not as readily available to reservist families.[74] Operation: Military Kids teaches "suddenly military" brats about military culture and expectations.[24]

Death in combat

The effect of having a parent killed during military operations has not been specifically studied.[75] Studies on children who have lost a parent show that 10–15% experience depression and a few develop childhood traumatic grief (the inability to recall any positive memories of the deceased parent).[83] Military psychiatrist Stephen Cozza speculates, based upon his experience, that the long-term effects of having a parent killed during war would be more traumatic and difficult to deal with than typical causes of parental death.[75]

Reunited and reaching out

As adults, brats sometimes try to reunite with their brat heritage.[84]

A recent study, "Military Brats: Issues and Associations in Adulthood," identified several reasons why some military brats, as adults, seek out brat organizations. Brats can feel a "sense of euphoria" when they discover that other brats share the same feelings and emotions. According to the study, brats share a bond with one another through common experiences that transcends race, religion, and nationality. Another common theme behind their joining brat organizations is to stay connected or reconnect with their old friends.[85]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ These are generally derived by including the parent's branch of service along with the word "brat", "army brat", "navy brat/junior", "marine brat/junior", "coast guard brat", or "air force brat"
  2. ^ Every Brat Has a Story Podcast#3 Interview with Brat expert Mary Edwards Wertsch
  3. ^ a b c dWilliams, Rudi, (August 20, 2001) "Military Brats are a Special Breed". American Forces Press Services. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  4. ^ a b Clifton, Grace (2004) "Making the case for the BRAT (British Regiment Attached Traveller)" in British Education Research Journal, Vol 1 No 3 June 2004. p 458. Similarly reported in Ender (2002) p xxv.
  5. ^ Britten, Samuel L. (June 17, 1999)
  6. ^ Wertsch, Mary Edwards (April 23, 1991). Military Brats: Legacies of Childhood Inside the Fortress (1st hardcover edition ed.). Harmony. p. 350. ISBN 051758400X.  
  7. ^ Williams, Rudi (2001) and also Williams (2002) p 79.
  8. ^ Jordan as (2002) p 222. 32% feel as if they are only spectators on U.S. life and another 48% do not feel as if they are central to any group.
  9. ^ Reken, Ruth and Paulette Bethel, Third Culture Kids: Prototypes for Understanding Other Cross-Cultural Kids Retrieved December 3, 2006. Sociologist David Pollock describes a TCK as "a person who has spent a significant part of his or her developmental years outside the parents' culture. The TCK builds relationships to all of the cultures, while not having full ownership of any. Although elements from each culture are assimilated into the TCK's life experience, the sense of belonging is in relationship to others of a similar background." Also in Reken.
  10. ^ Cottrell (2002), p. 230. Prior to the end of WWII and the rise of two global superpowers, missionaries were the largest group of TCKs. After WWII, and the rise of two global super powers, the children of military and government personnel became the largest components of TCKs: Military (30%), Government (23%), Missionary (17%), Business (16%), and "Other" (14%).
  11. ^ Cottrell (2002) p 230–231.
  12. ^ Ender (2002) p xxv
  13. ^ Ender (2002) p XXIII-XXV and 87–89.
  14. ^ Amazon.com Product Description. Retrieved on December 14, 2006. See also [http://www.militarybrat.com/Podcasts/EBHAS2.mp3 Podcast interview with Rudy Maxa Retrieved on January 28, 2007.
  15. ^ From the introduction to the book, but quoted from TCK World's Suggested Reading.
  16. ^ Godrej, Farah. "Spaces for Counter-Narratives: The Phenomenology of Reclamation (PDF)." GeorgeTown University, Department of Government. Retrieved on December 8, 2006.
  17. ^ a b Williams (2002) p 67.
  18. ^ Blair, Admiral Dennis, Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command. "The Military Culture as an Exemplar of American Qualities" Prepared for Supporting the Military Child Annual Conference, Westin Horton Plaza Hotel, San Diego, California, (July 19, 2000). Retrieved December 3, 2006. Admiral Dennis C. Blair, Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Pacific Command defined brat as: "The B stands for Brave, Bold, and Broadminded. Brats deal with new and exciting situations all the time, and learn quickly to accept people, regardless of race, color, creed, country of origin, or religion. The R stands for Resilient, Reliable, and Responsible. Brats bounce back from the turmoil inflicted upon them by their parents’ profession. The A stands for Amiable, Adaptable, and Audacious. Brats learn to make friends quickly in new moves, and to be daring when they have to be....The T stands for Tenacious, Tough, and Tolerant. Brats hang in there when the going gets tough, and they also stand up for the beliefs of others. They have the opportunity to be minorities themselves, sometimes by their race, but almost always as the new kids."
  19. ^ Nelson, Ben (2005) "APRIL IS A VERY SPECIAL MONTH FOR CHILDREN IN MILITARY FAMILIES" (Title is all caps) Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  20. ^ "Carol Shea-Porter "Why I'm Running for Congress"". Archived from the original on 2006-12-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20061213200640/http://www.carolforcongress.com/index.php?blog=6&title=why_i_m_running_for_congress&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1. Retrieved January 7 2007.  
  21. ^ "John Cornyn's statement before the Judiciary Committee.". Archived from the original on 2006-12-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20061227210044/http://judiciary.senate.gov/member_statement.cfm?id=966&wit_id=2047. Retrieved January 7 2007.  
  22. ^ Ender (1996) p 128
  23. ^ a b Benson, John PhD (2004). "Emplacing Our Lives: Executive Study" Presentation at the FIGT 2004 Conference. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  24. ^ a b Operation Military Kids: Chapter Four Exploring our Military Culture p 3–4. Retrieved on January 9, 2007
  25. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 34. "A 'good' military family is one that demonstrates in all things its submission to the ways of the Fortress. It is conventional. It is predictable. It conforms in appearance and behavior to what the Fortress expects. It obeys authority. It displays to the world what ought to be displayed. And it conceals the rest."
  26. ^ Cline, Lydia Sloan, (1995) Today's Military Wife: Meeting the Challenges of Service Life, Mechanicburg, PA:Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-2580-4 p 26–30
  27. ^ Britten, Samuel (November 30, 1998) "TCK World: A Comparison of Different "Versions" Of TCKs" Third Culture Kid World. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  28. ^ Truscott (1989) p 12. "We all stopped, no matter what we were doing. And no matter where we were, no matter what foxhole we were hiding in, ... we stopped. "Retreat" would blare out from the loudspeakers all over the base. We could never see the flag; it was miles away. But we knew where it was, and like facing Mecca, everyone turned around and puts their hand over their heart, and stood there until the music stopped.... There was never even a comment about it, no matter what was going on. It just happened everyday."
  29. ^ Bonn (2005) p 31. "Whenever and wherever the 'National Anthem', 'To the Color,' or 'Hail to the Chief' is played outdoors, at the first note, all dismounted personnel in uniform and not in formation, within saluting distance of the flag, face the flag, or the music if the flag is not in view, salute, and maintain the salute until the last note of the music is sounded... Vehicles in motion are brought to a halt. Persons riding in a passenger car or on a motorcycle dismount and salute."
  30. ^ Wertsch (1991)p 2–4. Such as "The Son of God Goes Forth to War," "Fight the Good Fight with All Thy Might," "Marching with Heroes," "Jesus, Savior, Pilot Me," "The Battle Hymn of the Republic," and "Onward, Christian Soldiers."
  31. ^ Wertsch p 2–4.
  32. ^ Williams (2002) p 69. "Military culture is organized according to rank, military specialty, unit membership, branch of service, and residence… all of which affects the identity formation of a child growing up in a military family."
  33. ^ Title 10 of the US Code Section 3583 "Requirement for Exemplary Conduct" in Bonn (2005) p 72.
  34. ^ Speech by Douglas MacArthur. Wikisource, Retrieved December 3, 2006 and Bonn (2005) p 66–67.
  35. ^ a b c Watanabe (1985) p 106
  36. ^Wood, Sgt. Sara (April 18, 2006) "Sacrifices of Military Children Aren’t Forgotten, Pace Says." American Forces Press. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  37. ^ a b Useem, Ruth et al. (undated) "Third Culture Kids: Focus of Major Study". International Schools Services. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  38. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 8.
  39. ^ Truscott (1989) p 106–107. "Disciplinary tactics that are now considered abusive were a matter of parental prerogative for many years in both military and civilian families. Family discipline was a personal matter, to be handled behind the closed doors of the neat rows of houses on military posts, but the implication that fathers who fit into the orderly world of the military should be able to control small children was clear."
  40. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 10–23
  41. ^ Wertsch (1991) p.24.
  42. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 30. Truscott (1989) p 107. "Military brats were aware that their behavior or misbehavior was a direct reflection on their parents, and specifically on their fathers."
  43. ^ a b Wertsch (1991) pp. 31–32
  44. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 31. Wertsch records numerous examples of this occurring in her book. Two of the more egregious examples: A "teenage boy committed the unpardonable sin of teeing off on the golf course at 5:00 p.m., while Retreat was being blown, instead of standing respectfully at attention as the base's flag was lowered for the day. An officer reported him, and his father got a call from high up in the base hierarchy. The incident went down on the father's permanent record. The same thing happens to another father whose twelve-year-old son knocked over a trash can in front of the base teen club. The son was picked up by the military police, who called not the father, but the father's commanding officer." Wertsch also describes a child who was misbehaving at the Base Exchange, an adult the child did not know, recognized him and contacted the childs parents.
  45. ^ Wertsch (1991) p.28. Prior to 1987, Commanding Officers were required to comment on an army officer's spouse on the officer's annual evaluation. Even though the spaces for spousal review were removed in 1987, "there is widespread feeling that a spouse's conduct is still taken into consideration and may influence a service member's career." Spouses were evaluated on how well behaved their children were and how clean they maintained their houses.
  46. ^ Price (2002) p 44–45. Price also noted previous studies that showed that military brats had "a lower level of some childhood disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.)"
  47. ^ Eakin (1998) p 25
  48. ^ a b Eakin (1998) p 20
  49. ^ *Cottrell, Ann and Ruth Hill Useem (1993). TCKs Experience Prolonged Adolescence. International Schools Services, 8(1)'.' Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  50. ^ Cline (1995) p 82. "Protocol is not intended to promote snobbery; it is a courtesy designed to recognize official status and give respect to those who, by their achievements, time in service, and experience, deserve it. And the exercise of that most certainly extends to spouses."
  51. ^ a b Wertsch (1991) 290.
  52. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 297. One interviewee said "You could always tell the son of the [Commanding Officer]. He was the football star, he had good grades."
  53. ^ Truscott (1989) p 168. "Privileges accorded by rank were highly visible... And all military brats, no matter where their father had fit in the hierarchy of rank, emphasized, over and over, that rank was pervasive and clearly defined."
  54. ^ Wertsch (1991) p 285–288.
  55. ^ Wertsch (1991) p314–315.
  56. ^ Musil, Donna, "BRATS: Our Journey Home"
  57. ^ Department of Defense Directive 5120.36
  58. ^ Antecol, Heather and Deborah Cobb-Clark, Racial and Ethnic Harassment in Local Communities. Oct 4, 2005. p 8. Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  59. ^ Eakin (1998) p 56
  60. ^ a b c Ender (2002) p 88–90
  61. ^ Cottrell (2002) p 231. Likewise, an online survey at Militarybrat.com shows slightly lower results than Ender's study, but again Ender's analysis is of brats who spent their entire childhood in the military environment.
  62. ^ Quigley, Samantha (25 April 2006). "Author Explains Culture for Fellow Military Brats." American Forces Press Service. and Pinzur, Matthew (Feb 19, 2000) "Adult ‘Brats’ Wander: Military Lifestyle Becomes Ingrained." The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved on December 3, 2006 and Kidd, Julie and Linda Lankenau (Undated) "Third Culture Kids: Returning to their Passport Country." US Department of State. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  63. ^ Dr. Frederic Medway, psychology professor at the University of South Carolina, in Rutz, Paul (28 April 2006) "Kids of Deployed Military Parents Need Consistency." American Forces Press Service. Retrieved on January 27, 2007.
  64. ^ Eakin (U.S. Dept of State)
  65. ^ Ender (1996) p 131. "Towards the end of the Cold War, approximately 9% of enlisted soldiers and 31% of officers with more than fourteen years of service reported having moved with their spouse and/or children more than nine times."
  66. ^ O’Beirne, Kathleen, (January 2002). "All I want for the New Year is ……" Military Child Education Coalition. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  67. ^ Eakin (1996) p 66–67
  68. ^ Ender (1996) P 145.
  69. ^ a b Eakin (1998) p 15
  70. ^ Tyler (2002) p 27. "Despite the commonly held belief that summer moves are best for children, teens who moved during summer vacation seemed to experience particular difficulties… Their problem was that, with school out of session, it was very difficult to identify potential friends and begin to form relationships."
  71. ^ a b Williams (2002) p 68
  72. ^ a b Rentz ED, Martin SL, Gibbs DA, et al. "Family Violence in the Military: A review of the Literature." Trauma Violence, and Abuse. 2006 Apr;7(2):93–108. PMID 16534146 p 94–95
  73. ^ McClure, Peggy and Walter Broughton (2000) "Measuring the Cohesion of Military Communities." Armed Forces & Society, Vol 26 No 3, Spring 2000. p. 473
  74. ^ a b Lamberg, Lynne (2004) "When Military Parents are sent to War, Children Left Behind Need Ample Support". JAMA, 2004 Oct 6;292(13):1541–2 PMID 15467043 p 1541
  75. ^ a b c Cozza SJ, Chun RS, Polo JA. (2005) "Military Families and Children During Operation Iraqi Freedom." Psychiatric Quarterly, ol 76. No 4. Winter 2005. p 371–378. PMID 16217632 p 377
  76. ^ Cozza SJ, Chun RS, Polo JA. (2005) "Military Families and Children During Operation Iraqi Freedom." Psychiatric Quarterly, ol 76. No 4. Winter 2005. p 371–378. PMID 16217632 p 373. Cline (1995) p 223 "Generally, people in the Air Force have the least time away; those in the Navy the most. Navy personnel who go to sea have longer separations, but Army and Marine Corps have the most one-year unaccompanied tours. Air Force TDY's are short, but they are irregular, repeated, and frequently unscheduled."
  77. ^ Deployment Center (Undated). "Your Children and Separation." Military. Com. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  78. ^ Walls, Judith (Sept 2003) "When War is News". in Terrorism and Children Purdue Extension. Retrieved on December 3, 2006.
  79. ^ Kelley (2002) p 5
  80. ^ Your Child and Separation on Military. COM. Retrieved on December 12, 2006
  81. ^ a b c d Zoroya, Gregg (2009-06-24). "Troops' kids feel war toll". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/military/2009-06-24-military-kids_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-26.  
  82. ^ Operation Military Kids: Chapter Two Impact of the Global War on Terrorism.p 5–9 Retrieved on January 1, 2007.
  83. ^ Lamberg, Lynne (2004) "When Military Parents are sent to War, Children Left Behind Need Ample Support". JAMA, 2004 Oct 6;292(13):1541–2 PMID 15467043 p 1541. See also The National Childhood Traumatic Stress Network Retrieved on January 9, 2007.
  84. ^ Ender (2002) p xxvi.
  85. ^ Williams (2002) p 73–77

References

  • Bonn, Keith. (2005) Army Officer's Guide: 75th Edition, Mechanicburg, PA:Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-3224-X
  • Cottrell, Ann (2002) "Educational and Occupational Choices of American Adult Third Culture Kids" In Morten Ender, "Military Brats and Other Global Nomads."
  • Eakin, Kay Brennan (1996). "You can't go 'Home' Again" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. Edited Carolyn Smith, Aletheia Publications: New York. 1996
  • Eakin, Kay Brennan (undated). ACCORDING TO MY PASSPORT, I’M COMING HOMEPDF (666 KiB), U.S. Department of State. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
  • Ender, Morten, "Growing up in the Military" in Strangers at Home: Essays on the effects of living overseas and Coming 'home' to a strange land. Edited Carolyn Smith, Aletheia Publications: New York. 1996
  • Ender, Morten (2002) "Beyond Adolescence: The Experiences of Adult Children of Military Parents" In Morten Ender, "Military Brats and Other Global Nomads," Portland:Greenwood Publishing Group 2002
  • Ferguson-Cohen, Michelle Michelle Ferguson-Cohen (2001), "Daddy, You're My Hero!" and "Mommy, You're My Hero!" Little Redhaired Girl Publishing, Brooklyn, NY. ISBN 978-0972926447 and ISBN 978-0972926430
  • Jordan, Kathleen Finn (2002). "Identity Formation and the Adult Third Culture Kid " In Morten Ender, "Military Brats and Other Global Nomads."
  • Morten G. Ender, ed. (2002). Military Brats and Other Global Nomads: Growing Up in Organization Families, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97266-6
  • Price, Phoebe. (2002). "Behavior of Civilian and Military High School Students in Movie Theaters." In Morten Ender, "Military Brats and Other Global Nomads."
  • Smith, Carolyn (ed) (1996). Strangers at Home: Essays on the Effects of Living Overseas and Coming 'Home' to a Strange Land, New York: Aletheia Publications. ISBN 0-9639260-4-7
  • Truscott, Mary R (1989). BRATS: Children of the American Military Speak Out," New York, New York: E. P. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-24815-3
  • Tyler, Mary (2002). "The Military Teenager in Europe: Perspectives for Health care Providers." In Morten Ender, Military Brats and Other Global Nomads
  • Watanabe, Henry (1985) "A Survey of Adolescent Military Family Members' Self-Image" Journal of Youth and Adolescence Vol 14 No 2 April 1985
  • Wertsch, Mary Edwards (1991). Military Brats: Legacies of Childhood Inside the Fortress, New York, New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-58400-X. Also, Saint Louis, MO: Brightwell Publishing, 2006, ISBN 0-9776033-0-X.
  • Williams, Karen and LisaMarie Mariglia, (2002) "Military Brats: Issues and Associations in Adulthood" in Morten Ender Military Brats and Other Global Nomads

External links


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