Military education and training: Wikis


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Military history
People's Liberation Army recruits training.
Filipino soldier during a training excersise.

Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles.

Military education can be voluntary or compulsory duty. Before any person gets authorization to operate technical equipment or be on the battle field, they must take a medical and often a physical test. If passed, they may begin primary training.

The primary training is recruit training. Recruit training attempts to teach the basic information and training in techniques necessary to be an effective service member.

To achieve this, service members are drilled physically, technically and psychologically. The drill instructor has the task of making the service members fit for military use.

After finishing basic training, many service members undergo advanced training more in line with their chosen or assigned specialties. This range from navy training to studies of explosives. In advanced training, military technology and equipment is often taught.

Many large countries have several military academies, one for each branch of the service, that offer college degrees in a variety of subjects, similar to other colleges. However, academy graduates usually rank as officers, and as such have many options besides civilian work in their major subject. Higher ranking officers also have further educational opportunities.



Resocialization is an important aspect of inducting a civilian into a military. Resocialization is a sociological concept dealing with the process of mentally and emotionally "re-training" a person so they can operate in an environment other than what they are accustomed to. Successful resocialization into a total institution involves changes to an individual's personality.

Key examples include the process of resocializing new recruits into the military so that they can operate as soldiers – or, in other words, as members of a cohesive unit. Another example is the reverse process, in which those who have become accustomed to such roles return to society after military discharge.

Resocialization from the life of a combat soldier to a civilian member of society is often difficult because of what that soldier saw and did in his military experience. In the transition from civilian to soldier, the individual is trained to solely follow the command of his superiors. In some cases commands would go against certain natural aversions (such as killing) of the individual based on one's moral and ethical principles.

A leading expert in military training methods, Grossman(2001) gives four types of training techniques used; brutalization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning and role modeling.[1] According to Grossman (2001), these techniques were meant to break down barriers to embrace a new set of norms and way of life (brutalization), condition them to pair killing with something more enjoyable and pleasurable (Classical Conditioning), repeat the stimulus-response reaction to develop a reflex (Operant Conditioning), and finally the use of a role model of a superior to provide action by example.

While leaders effectively train their soldiers to accomplish the goal of battle preparedness, these techniques increase psychological trauma experienced in veterans post-combat.[2] It is because of the evident psychological problems in post-combat situations (i.e. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) that pose a threat to public safety because of the conditioning of the individual who might be made unstable because of his actions. Resocialization following such intense training and conditioning should be further researched and developed to better aide those discharged from the military service.

Hand-to-hand combat training

The most detailed description of wrestling used in actual warfare comes from the historian Procopius, writing of the Roman (Eastern Roman, or Byzantine)-Persian war in the 6th Century A.D. The following is his remarkable account of two duels between a Roman wrestling teacher and two Persian professional soldiers (Procopius, History of the Wars I.XIII.29):

"But one Persian, a young man, riding up very close to the Roman army, began to challenge all of them, calling for whoever wished to do battle with him. And no one of the whole army dared face the danger, except a certain Andreas, one of the personal attendants of Bouzes, not a soldier nor one who had ever practised at all the business of war, but a trainer of youths in charge of a certain wrestling school in Byzantium. Through this it came about that he was following the army, for he cared for the person of Bouzes in the bath; his birthplace was Byzantium. This man alone had the courage, without being ordered by Bouzes or anyone else, to go out of his own accord to meet the man in single combat. And he caught the barbarian while still considering how he should deliver his attack, and hit him with his spear on the right breast. And the Persian did not bear the blow delivered by a man of such exceptional strength, and fell from his horse to the earth. Then Andreas with a small knife slew him like a sacrificial animal as he lay on his back, and a mighty shout was raised both from the city wall and from the Roman army. But the Persians were deeply vexed at the outcome and sent forth another horseman for the same purpose, a manly fellow and well favoured as to bodily size, but not a youth, for some of the hair on his head already shewed grey. This horseman came up along the hostile army, and, brandishing vehemently the whip with which he was accustomed to strike his horse, he summoned to battle whoever among the Romans was willing. And when no one went out against him, Andreas, without attracting the notice of anyone, once more came forth, although he had been forbidden to do so by Hermogenes. So both rushed madly upon each other with their spears, and the weapons, driven against their corselets, were turned aside with mighty force, and the horses, striking together their heads, fell themselves and threw off their riders. And both the two men, falling very close to each other, made great haste to rise to their feet, but the Persian was not able to do this easily because his size was against him, while Andreas, anticipating him (for his practice in the wrestling school gave him this advantage), smote him as he was rising on his knee, and as he fell again to the ground dispatched him. Then a roar went up from the wall and from the Roman army as great, if not greater, than before; and the Persians broke their phalanx and withdrew to Ammodios, while the Romans, raising the pæan, went inside the fortifications; for already it was growing dark. Thus both armies passed that night."

The main objectives of wrestling in military training are:

  • Superior balance developed from trying to keep one's balance while at the same time trying to upset the opponent's. In war, falling to the ground can quickly make one vulnerable to weapon thrusts, so good balance is a must for warriors.
  • Grip strength and manual dexterity, for the use of weapons and combat gear
  • Focused and powerful pushing-power. In combat one must smash or thrust weapons forward at one's adversary.
  • The ability to get up quickly if fallen down, a very important survival skill on the battlefield (see above).
  • Improved stamina, endurance and strength.
  • Physical skills to control prisoners, or to carry wounded comrades.
  • Cultivation of aggressiveness and improved reaction time.
  • Camaraderie, diversion and entertainment.

The United States Military also supports soldier/athletes who compete both on a national and international level. The Navy, Air Force, Army, and Marines all field teams. Military personnel have won numerous U.S. National Wrestling Championships, and Army Staff Sgt. Dremiel Byers won the 2002 Greco-Roman World Championship as a Heavyweight. The wrestling is so competitive that the winners in each weight-class of both disciplines automatically qualify for the U.S. Olympic Wrestling Trials.

MCMAP is a system of hand to hand combat developed by the U.S. Marine Corps which incorporates fighting techniques from various systems of combat from all over the world.

See also


  1. ^ Grossman, D. (2001) Trained to Kill. Professorenforum-Journal,2(2). Retrieved May 27, 2009 from Proquest Database
  2. ^ Kilner, P. (2002, March). Military Leaders' Obligation to Justify Killing in War. Military Review, 32(2). Retrieved may 28, 2009, from Government Collection Database.
  • [1] French Foreign Legion

External links

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