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Cypriot National Guard
Εθνική Φρουρά
GES Greece.PNG
Founded 06.1964
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief Lieutenant General Petros Tsalikidis
Chief-of-Staff Brig. Gen. Georgios Sofianidis
Related articles
History Military history of Cyprus
Ranks Military ranks of Cyprus

The Cypriot National Guard (Greek: Εθνική Φρουρά, Ethnikí Frourá; Turkish: Kıbrıs Ulusal Muhafızları) is the combined arms military force of the Republic of Cyprus comprising land, air, and naval elements. It consists of active duty, reserve and militia personnel.

Greece maintains the Hellenic Force in Cyprus (Greek: Ελληνικές Δυνάμεις Κύπρου or ΕΛΔΥΚ), but this is not part of the Republic of Cyprus military.

Contents

History

The National Guard was established in 1964 as a force composed entirely of ethnic Greek Cypriots, following the 1963–1964 breakdown of social and political relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus.[1] Under the early Constitution of 1960–1963, Cyprus was entitled to an army of 2,000 men, to be made up of 60% Greek and 40% Turkish personnel. The first elected President of the Republic of Cyprus, Archbishop Makarios III, proposed thirteen constitutional amendments to the 1960 constitution, which would have adjusted distribution of manpower and voting power for all civil and military services. This adjustment was aimed at giving greater representation and influence to the Greek Cypriot majority, which at the time formed around 82% of the island's indigenous population.

Significant combat actions were seen between the National Guard and Turkish Cypriot combatants during this period, as the country slid into a state of civil war. Sporadic low-intensity conflict continued during parts of this period between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot armed elements across the island.

Conscription

Currently, only Greek Cypriots serve in the military. Legally, the Greek Cypriot community comprises the ethnic Greek population as well as Cypriots belonging to three Christian minorities – the Armenians, Latin Rite Catholics and Maronites. Since 2008, service is mandatory for all members of the Greek Cypriot community and not only for ethnic Greeks. The current supreme commander is a Greek military commander, as have been all of his predecessors.

Military service in the Republic of Cyprus is mandatory for males. The minimum obligatory service period is 24 months.[2] All male visitors to the island of military age (16 and over) who have a father of Cypriot extraction are required to obtain an exit visa from a Defence Ministry office.

Organization

Ground component

The main body of the Cypriot ground forces is made up by 2 infantry divisions, 1 infantry and 1 armored brigades and 2 support brigades.

  • 1st Infantry Division (Ιη Μεραρχία ΠΖ)
  • 2nd Infantry Division (ΙΙα Μεραρχία ΠΖ)
  • 4th Infantry Brigade (ΙVη Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ)
  • 20th Armored Brigade (ΧΧη ΤΘ Ταξιαρχία)
  • 3rd Support Brigade (ΙΙΙη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ)
  • 8th Infantry Brigade (VIIIη Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ)
  • Special Forces Command (Διοίκηση Kαταδρόμων)
  • Artillery Command (Διοίκηση Πυροβολικού)
  • Military Police (Στρατονομία)

Small Arms Inventory

The Cypriot National Guard operates a number of Assault Rifles such as HK G3A3 as a standard service rifle, various Kalashnikov series and variants including AK-47, AK-74M, AKMS and AK-101 and Zastava M77 for training purposes. The HK G3A4 is operated by Special Forces including its variant G3A4ZF with mounted ZF-24 scope. Support weapons include the HK11A1 Squad Automatic Weapon, the MG3 General-purpose machinegun (GPMG) and the recently purchased FN Minimi Squad Automatic Weapon for Special Forces use. Special Forces also operate the HK G3-SG1 Sniper Rifle, the Kefefs-M Greek-manufactured Sniper Rifle and FN P90[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] Personal Defense Weapon often mounted with suppressors, laser target designators and tactical flashlights. In addition, the following sidearms are also in use of the military (especially SF and Officers): Glock 17, HK USP, FN Five-seven[3][4] and Zastava M57.

Medium Arms Inventory

Man-portable anti-tank weapons include the 112 mm APILAS, 85 mm RPG-7 and the 90 mm EM-69. The Cypriot National Guard also operates a variety of mortars ranging from 60 mm - 120 mm calibre, as well as SK AGL and HK GMG 40 mm automatic grenade launchers and the M2 Browning .50cal machine gun.

Heavy Arms Inventory

The Cypriot National Guard currently operates a force of 154 main battle tanks, made up of French AMX-30 and Russian T-80 types, with a further 41 T-90 [10] main battle tanks from Russia on order plus a pre-agreement for a future 41 more T-80s. This force is augmented in the frontline role by 124 EE-9 Cascavel and 43 BMP-3 armoured fighting vehicles. A sizeable force of Leonidas and VAB-VTT APCs, as well as VAB-VCI armoured fighting vehicles are also in service. The anti-tank role is augmented by 18 VAB-VCAC guided-missile tank-destroyers and 15 EE-3 Jararaca armoured fighting vehicles.

Weapon type Class In service
main battle tanks
AMX-30
T-90
T-80U
113
41 + 41 on order and 41 on future order
armoured fighting vehicles
BMP-3

EE-9 Cascavel


EE-3 Jararaca


GIAT VAB-VCI

43
124
15
18
armoured personnel carriers
Leonidas-I

Leonidas-II


GIAT VAB-VTT
?
self-propelled artillery
ZUZANA
MK F3
12
12
artillery
TRF1

M56 Pack


M101 Pack


M1944

12
72
18
12
multiple rocket launchers
BM-21

M-63 Plamen

18
24
anti-tank missiles
MILAN

9M117


9M133

45
?
26

Air component

Mil Mi-35 attack helicopter.
Aérospatiale Gazelle armed with HOT missiles.

Hellenic Air Force Roundel.svg The air component of the military of Cyprus is the Air Command which currently consists of 2 helicopter squadrons equipped with 11 Mil Mi-35P attack helicopters, 4 SA-342L Gazelle scout anti-tank helicopters, 2 Bell-206 Long Ranger utility helicopters, 1 Britten Norman BN.2B-21 Maritime Defender and 1 PC-9 patrol airplanes, along with UAV squadron equipped with Elbit Hermes 450 Unmanned aerial vehicles. The Cyprus Air Force is also due to receive three Agusta-Westland AW-139 CSAR helicopters.

  • 449th Antitank Helicopter Squadron (Μοίρα Αντιαρματικών Ελικοπτέρων)
  • 450th Helicopter Squadron (Μοίρα Ελικοπτέρων)
Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service
Maritime Defender
United Kingdom
Patrol/Transport Britten Norman BN.2B-21 Maritime Defender 1
PC-9
Switzerland
Patrol/Training PC-9 1
Mil Mi-35
Russia
Attack Helicopter Mil Mi-35P 11
Gazelle
France
Anti-tank Helicopter Gazelle 4
Bell-206 Long Ranger
United States
Utility Helicopter Bell-206 Long Ranger 2
Elbit Hermes 450
Israel
Unmanned aerial vehicle ? ?
SAM System Origin Type Versions In service
Tor M1
Russia
surface-to-air missile TOR M-1 6+6 on order
Buk M1
Russia
surface-to-air missile Buk-M1-2 21
Mistral
France
surface-to-air missile MANPAD 30

Naval component

300px-Naval Jack of Cyprus.png The naval component of the military of Cyprus is the Naval Command. This force does not possess any capital ships, but is equipped with patrol boats[11], surface-surface missile systems and integrated radar systems, as well as SEALs-type naval underwater demolitions units. The Cyprus Navy has the primary mission of defending the sea borders of the Republic of Cyprus, but is currently only able to access waters around the island which are controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.

Cyprus Marine Police patrol craft at Paphos harbour.
Vessel type Origin Class Name Pennant Home port
patrol boat
France
Type 32L Esterel "Salamis"
P01
Mari
patrol boat
Greece
Dilos "Kyrenia"
P02
Mari
patrol boat
Italy
Corrubia "Elefteriou Tsomaki"
P03
Mari
patrol boat
Italy
Corrubia "Nicola Georgiou"
P04
Mari
motor launch
Spain
Rodman 55 "Agathos"
N/A
Mari
motor launch
Spain
Rodman 55 "Panagos"
N/A
Mari
Missile type Origin Name Launchers Missiles
anti-ship missile
France
Exocet MM40
3
24

Sources

Creation of National Guard

Order of Battle

  • "Cyprus, 1974", by T. Cooper and N. Tselepidis, published October 28 2003 for ACIG.org.

Armaments

  • Cyprus National Guard Official Site
  • Table 23, Republic of Cyprus: Major National Guard Equipment, 1990, Library of Congress (Additional sourcing: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1989- 1990, London, 1989, 85; and Christopher F. Foss, "Cypriot Rearmament Completed," Jane's Defence Weekly [London], March 12, 1988, 445.)
  • APORRITOS ATILLAS, Savvas Vlassis
  • "1974: The Unknown Backstage of the Turkish Invasion", Makarios Drousiotis, Nicosia 2002, ISBN 9963-631-02-9
  • Cyprus 1974 - The Greek coup and the Turkish invasion, Makarios Drousiotis, Hellenic Distribution Agency
  • Conway's: All The World's Fighting Ships 1947-1995
  • Erich Gröner "Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945", Band 2, Munchen 1983, ISBN 3-7637-4801-6
  • Cyprus, 1955-1973 By Tom Cooper, www.acig.org
  • Cyprus 100 Years Alex Efthyvoulou, Laiki Cultural Bank Archive
  • British Pathe Archive

Combat Actions

  • The Cyprus Conflict
  • "1974: The Unknown Backstage of the Turkish Invasion", Makarios Drousiotis, Nicosia 2002, ISBN 9963-631-02-9
  • Cyprus 1974 - The Greek coup and the Turkish invasion, Makarios Drousiotis, Hellenic Distribution Agency
  • Cyprus, 1955-1973 By Tom Cooper, www.acig.org

See also

References

  1. ^ "Σύντομο Ιστορικό της Εθνικής Φρουράς" (in Greek). Nicosia: Γενικό Επιτελείο Εθνικής Φρουράς. http://www.army.gov.cy/?page_id=67. Retrieved 9 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Barry Turner, ed (2006). "Cyprus". The Statesman's Yearbook 2007 (143rd ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillian. pp. 378–379. ISBN 1-4039-9276-2. 
  3. ^ a b Gourley, S.; Kemp, I (November 2003). "The Duellists". Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN: 02653818), Volume 40 Issue 21, pp 26-28.
  4. ^ a b Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0710628695.
  5. ^ "Μεγαλειώδης στρατιωτική παρέλαση (Grand Military Parade)" (in Greek). Sigma Live. January 10, 2008. http://www.sigmalive.com/news/local/65839. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  6. ^ "Επέτειος Ανεξαρτησίας - Στρατιωτική παρέλαση (Independence Day - Military Parade)" (in Greek). Sigma Live. October 2, 2006. http://www.sigmalive.com/files/filefield/0/7/4/simerini02102006.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  7. ^ "Επέτειος Ανεξαρτησίας - Στρατιωτική παρέλαση (Independence Day - Military Parade)" (in Greek). Sigma Live. October 2, 2007. http://www.sigmalive.com/files/filefield/9/4/6/simerini02102007.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  8. ^ "Επέτειος Ανεξαρτησίας - Στρατιωτική παρέλαση (Independence Day - Military Parade)" (in Greek). http://cyprus.gov.gy - Cyprus Press and Information Office. October 2, 2006. http://www.cyprus.gov.cy/moi/pio/pio.nsf/All/781F3AF4E70B2950C22571FB00360474?OpenDocument&print. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  9. ^ "Η Κύπρος τίμησε την 42η επέτειο της ανεξαρτησίας της με μεγάλη στρατιωτική παρέλαση στη (Cyprus has honored the 42nd anniversary of independence by a large military parade in Nicosia)" (in Greek). http://typos.com.cy - The online newspaper of Cyprus. October 2, 2006. http://www.typos.com.cy/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=24140. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  10. ^ Кипр собирается приобрести российские танки T-90 (Cyprus planning to purchase Russian T-90 tanks) - Russian Weapon website (in russian)
  11. ^ • Table 23, Republic of Cyprus: Major National Guard Equipment, 1990, Library of Congress (Additional sourcing: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1989- 1990, London, 1989, 85; and Christopher F. Foss, "Cypriot Rearmament Completed," Jane's Defence Weekly [London], March 12, 1988, 445.)

External links

 
Military of Cyprus
Flag of Cyprus
Cypriot National Guard • Naval Command • Air Command • ELDYK • Equipment • Conscription







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