Military of Ecuador: Wikis

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Ecuadorian Armed Forces
Fuerzas Armadas del Ecuador
FFAAE.jpg
Ministry of Defence Logo
Founded 1830
Current form 2000
Service branches The Joint Armed Forces Command
Ecuadorian Army
Ecuadorian Navy
Ecuadorian Air Force
Headquarters Quito
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief Rafael Correa
Minister of Defense Javier Ponce Cevallos
Chief of staff General Fabián Varela
Manpower
Military age 20
Conscription 12 months
Available for
military service
7,095,790 (2008 est.) [1], age 16–49
Fit for
military service
6,068,556 (2008 est.) [1], age 16–49
Active personnel 59.500.
Expenditures
Budget $1,691,776,803 USD (FY08) [2] List of countries by military expenditures ranked 54th
Percent of GDP 3.41% (FY08) [3] List of countries by military expenditures ranked 37th
Industry
Foreign suppliers  United States
 France
 Germany
 United Kingdom
 Israel
 Brazil
 Russia
 India
 Chile
 China

Contents

Ecuadorian Armed Forces

The Ecuadorian Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas del Ecuador) are part of the public forces and responsible for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory. It involves participation in the social and economic development of the country and the provision of assistance in the maintenance of internal order. Some major tasks include; fighting organised crime, anti-narcotic operations, illegal immigration [1] and FARC insurgency from Colombia [4]. Social development programmes apply the provision of teachers for rural schools through an accord with the Ministry of Education. Environmental protection is also a priority, several programmes were implemented: "National Forestation and Ornamentation", "Lonely Tree", "Green Surveillance", "Fire Plan", "Ecuador Forest" and "Arenillas Military Reserve". The Armed Forces are an essential part of the countries infrastructure and regarded as one of the most respected institutions in Ecuador. Most of its equipment is of western origins, however, in recent times Ecuador shifted towards new suppliers such as; Brazil, Russia, India, China. A high military presence is maintained along its troubled border with Colombia [4] and Peru, overseas territories include the Galapagos Islands and the "Pedro Vicente Maldonado" Naval Biological Research Station in the Antarctic. Relations with its neighbour Peru have improved since the signing of a Peace Treaty in 1998, however, relations with Colombia have been strained due to a number of cross border raids by Colombian forces on FARC guerrillas [5]. The diplomatic crisis which followed in 2008 [6] continues to affect Ecuadors national defence policy. In 2009 the new administration at the Defence Ministry launched a deep restructurisation within the forces, the spending budget was risen to $920 million, an increase of 25% [7].

Military History

Ecuadors military history dates back to its first attempt to secure freedom from Spain in 1811. The rebel forces of the newly declared independent state of Quito attempted to extend their control to other parts of the territory but proved little match against the royalist army dispatched by the Viceroy of Peru. In December 1812, during the Battle of Ibarra, Spanish forces easily reasserted control over the contested areas. A new independence movement began in 1820, Ecuadorian forces assembled in Guayaquil, forming contingents with revolutionary soldiers from Colombia commanded by Antonio José de Sucre, a close collaborator of the Venezuelan liberator, Simón Bolívar Palacios . In 1822 after a successful invasion in the Andean highlands, the rebels scored a decisive victory over the royalist army at the Battle of Pichincha. In 1828, as a member of the Confederation of Gran Colombia, Ecuador fought along with Colombia and Venezuela against Peru to block the latter's attempt at annexation. Confederation forces, fewer than half of which were Ecuadorians, gloriously defeated the much larger Peruvian invasion force near Cuenca, at the Battle of Tarqui on 26 February and 27 February 1829.

At the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830, most of Ecuadors senior army officers and many of its troops were Venezuelans, as was the countries first president, Juan José Flores. The army of 2,000 men consisted of three infantry battalions and one cavalry regiment. Even as late as 1845, when Juan José Flores was forced from his second term of office, only four of fifteen general officers were Ecuadorian. Non-Ecuadorians comprised most of the officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs) in the elite cavalry units as well. Upon taking office as president in 1851, General José María Urbina freed the black slaves and recruited many of them into the military; Gen. Azarye was the first African-Ecuadorian senior General.

In the 1860s, successive governments attempted to professionalize the Ecuadorian Armed Forces. Gabriel García Moreno, who dominated the political scene from 1860 until 1875, reduced the army in size and depoliticized it. Further improvements occurred during the relatively prosperous period of the 1880s and 1890s under the military dictator Gen. Ignacio de Veintemilla, and successor civilian governments. French officers arrived to provide training on a newly acquired arsenal of weapons. By 1900 the army was able to repel an attack from Colombia which was organised by Ecuadorian political opponents of the government in power.

Map of the long lasting territorial dispute between Ecuador and Peru, settled only in 1998. (in Spanish)
Photo taken during the Cenepa War in 1995, Ecuadorian Special Forces during a troop relief by helicopter, near the Tiwintza area where fighting was particullary intense.

In 1905 the government established military education and training institutions and divided the country into four defense zones. Immediately preceding World War I, the army had nine Infantry battalions, three Cavalry regiments, three Artillery regiments, and three Engineering battalions. It was in the years of 1913 to 1916 that all the work done since the beginning of the century was tested. Following the assassination of Gen. Eloy Alfaro, Crnl. Carlos Concha, a famed and revered field commander started a revolution in the northern province of Esmeraldas. The Civil War had started and the army was slowly destroyed by the insurgency forces. By the year of 1914 Gen. Leonidas Plaza who was the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and acting President had to take personal control of operations and it would take another two years to end the conflict. In these times both, the army and Navy started the development of joined tasks such as amphibious landing operations, earning lots of experience in this field. By the mid-1920s, it had expanded to fifteen Infantry battalions. Later, under the influence of an Italian military mission, the Infantry was reduced to ten battalions, although each battalion now consisted of four rather than the previous two or three rifle companies. In 1930 the army had a total strength of about 5,500 men of all ranks.

Continual political unrest made the forces become more deliberant regarding constitutional issues. Rebellions, uprisings and lack of loyalty of both senior Generals and medium ranking officers made the Ecuadorian forces weak and disorganized. A major conflict, called Ecuadorian–Peruvian War of 1941 started on 11 January 1941 after the Ecuadorian army tried implementing military control on disputed territory, which were seen as incursions by the Peruvians, therefore; the Peruvian Army started a counterattack to gain the disputed territory and occupied the western Ecuadorian province of El Oro and parts of the Andean province of Loja and advanced into the Amazonian area occupied by Ecuador according to a status quo agreement signed in 1936. Finally, the government of Ecuador signed the Rio Protocol on 29 January 1942, and Peruvians subsequently withdrew.

Ecuador declared war on Japan late during World War II and began to receive military aid from the United States in 1942. This aid consisted at first of light weapons, mortars, light tanks, and armored scout cars. Under a military assistance agreement with the United States in 1952, the Ecuadorian Armed Forces, which now totaled approximately 15,000 troops, received additional equipment, including howitzers, tanks, and armoured personnel carriers. Revenue coming from the oil discovered in the late 1960s financed the purchase of considerable additional ground forces weaponry as well as fighters for the small Air Force.

Occasional clashes with Peru occurred in the border area established in the 1942 settlement of the Rio Protocol. These clashes flared into an outbreak of serious fighting in January 1981 called the Paquisha War, for the control of three watchposts that the Ecuadorian Army was setting up in the Comaina valley, to the east of the Condor mountain range, inside a disputed border area. The clash ended with a ceasefire, with the three bases destroyed and the Peruvian Army in control of most of the area. The Peruvians made effective use of helicopters, air strikes against the Ecuadorian positions, and commando teams specially trained for jungle operations. The Ecuadorian army were driven back to the summit of the Cordillera del Cóndor. In 1983 and again in 1984, shooting incidents occurred when patrols of both countries met yet again on disputed land.

The final major military operation was the Cenepa War in which Ecuadorian troops attempted to impose military presence in disputed territory. The army were unable to keep an outposts in disputed territory and the Ecuadorian Air Force efforts to stop the air raids of the Peruvian Air Force were ineffective during the entire conflict, but the Peruvians suffered heavy aircraft losses. Finally, the Ecuadorian government had to abort its intentions and sign a Peace Treaty which was based upon the previous Rio Protocol on the 26 October 1998. As a result Ecuador had to renounce the territories of Peru's known Tumbes, Jaen and Maynas.

Today the Ecuadorian army, maintains military renovations of its arsenal, to control its borders with its conflicted neighbors guerillas, and illegal migrations from Peru. The Military also engages in anti-narcotics from Peru and Colombia.

Military Command Structure

  • The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces (Comandante en Jefe de las Fuerzas Armadas) is the President of the Republic. He exercises the political leadership of security and national defence and counts on the advice of the National Security Council.
  • The Ministry of Defense (Ministerio de la Defensa National), is the administrative body of the national defence. The Coordinating Minister of Internal and External Security accords the policies and actions that will be adopted by the following institutions as regards internal and external security: the Ministry of Government and Police, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Defence, and the Secretariat General for the Public administration.
  • The Joint Armed Forces Command (El Comando Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas), is the highest planning, preparation and strategic body of military operations. It advises on national defence and is conformed by the The Chief of the Joint Command of the Armed Forces and the Commanders of all three branches of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces: The Army, Navy and the Air Force.

Ecuadorian Army

An Ecuadorian AS 532 Cougar of the Brigada de Aviación del Ejército during an exercise.
A Leopard 1 Tank hidden in the bushes, a quantity of 30 Tanks was recently ordered from Chile second hand stock.

The Ecuadorian Army (Ejército Ecuatoriano) is well equipped with reasonably homogeneous material. Its 24,135 [8] soldiers are sensibly deployed in relation to the threat from its neighbours. Ecuador cannot match the material resources of Colombia or Peru, but its military forces have performed well in previous conflicts since 1941. The contemporary Ecuadorian Army is qualitatively one of the best in the region, thanks to its jungle and special forces infantry units, only its capability to fight large armoured units in the coastal region is suspect, given that its armoured arsenal includes only light AMX 13 tanks and Armoured personnel carriers (APC)s. The Army tried to rectify this with large and efficient anti-tank forces which include HOT-equipped helicopters as well as a recent order of 30 Leopard 1 V Main Battle Tanks from Chile [9][10]. In 2009 new doctrines regarding: border control, anti-narcotic, anti-smuggler and anti-illegal immigration [5] were introduced, altogether with a 5th Military Defence Zone in the North.

The Ecuadorian territory is currently divided into four "Military Defence Zones", each zone represents an Army Division. Divisions are units with appropriate support to allow independent operations, therefore each "Military Defence Zone" consists of; Artillery, Army Aviation, Engineers and Logistic Support including; Signals, Medical and Military Police units. The Brigades itself, are not numbered consecutively and carry odd numbers in the series of 1 to 27.

Within its Military organization the army operates several detachments worth to be mentioned:

  • The GEO (Grupo Especial de Operaciones) is the Counter-terror unit of the army , trained by the US Navy Seals and the British SAS it maintains the highest standards and remains under operational alert 24/7.
  • The Paramilitary units recruited from local tribes. The Shuar, Iwia and Arutuams are modern equipped warriors and experts in Jungle warfare. Their abilities were demonstrated during the Cenepa War with Peru. Currently some of these units are deployed to the northern border area with Colombia, in order to prevent any incursions and to fight FARC presence on Ecuadorian soil.

Ecuadorian Air Force

Ecuadorian Kfir aircraft droping napalm during exercise "Blue Horizon".
Brand new Ecuadorian Air Force HAL Dhruv helicopters during an Indian Air Show.
Ecuadorian Air Force Kfir CE (C.10). Note the refuelling probe and the characteristic longer nose of this variant.
An Ecuadorian Mirage FI1JA shown here with a Rafael Python 3 AAM, a Matra Magic 2 AAM, and an external fuel tank.

The Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Ecuatoriana), was officially created on the 27 October 1920. However, like in many other countries, military flying activity started before the formal date of birth of the Air Force. The history of Ecuador is marked by many skirmishes with its neighbour Peru. As a direct result of the 1910 Ecuador-Peru crisis, members of Club de Tiro Guayaquil decided to expand their sporting activities into aviation as well. Renamed Club de Tiro y Aviación they started an aviation school. Cosme Rennella, an Italian mechanic and practical pilot, was asked to fly the first aircraft that arrived in November 1912. Surviving a crash during this demonstration flight, Rennella was given the rank of a "Capitán". He went later on to fight in Europe during the I World War. Rennella became a true ace with as many as 17 combat victories and several distinctions. His efforts within the founding phase of Ecuadorian military aviation are still honoured today by naming the Superior School of Military Aviation (Escuela Superior Militar de Aviación) after him.

Aviation did not start in earnest until the early forties when an Ecuadorian mission to the United States resulted in the delivery of an assortment of aircraft for the Aviation school at Salinas. Three PT-22 Recruit, six Curtiss-Wright CW-22, six Fairchild PT-19 and three North American AT-6A Harvard arrived in March 1942, considerably boosting the capacity of the Aviation School in Salinas, (Escuela de Aviación Salinas).

The fifties and sixties saw a further build up of the Air Force, gaining more units and aircraft. Meanwhile efforts were made in enhancing the facilities at various airbases. In May 1961 the First Air Zone (I Zona Aérea) with its subordinate unit Ala de Transportes No.11 was founded. The Second Air Zone (II Zona Aérea) controlled the units in the southern halve of Ecuador: Ala de Combate No.21 at Taura, Ala de Rescate No.22 at Guayaquil and Ala de Combate No.23 at Manta as well as the Escuela Superior Militar de Aviación at Salinas. The FAE has a personnel of 6,055 [13] and includes their own Air Force Infantry (Infanteria Area) responsible for a variety of tasks; training of Air Force ground personnel, protection of VIPs and Air Force Bases as well as conduct of combat rescue operations. A Commando unit operates within its structure.

The Air force has a mixture of types on its inventory, mostly from Western origin. The prime fighters are twelve Mirage F.1 [12] and nine Kfir C2, TC2, C7, C10, CE,[12] all based at Taura with Ala 21, (Jaguar Mk.1 were withdrawn from service). For light attack missions, six Strikemaster Mk.89, 90, twelve A-37B are in use at Manta with Ala 23. These aircraft do often operate from airfields within the Amazon rainforest.

The transport wing uses fiveCE 150L, four HS 748, three DHC-6, two types of the C-130 Hercules and two IAI 201. The rotary wing consists of; twenty three UH-1 Iroquois, seven newly acquired Hal Dhruv, four Fennecs and two Alouette helicopters. Ala 11 has its own 'commercial' branch, like in many other South American countries, the Transporte Aérea Militar Ecuatoriana TAME. Besides the military transport aircraft, they also use one Boeing 727 and Fokker F28 aircraft. Flying to locations off the beaten track, mostly lacking service by a commercial airline, TAME provides an additional service to the people of Ecuador. Presidential transport is the tasking of Ala 11; two Sabreliners and one Embraer Legacy 600. Pilot training is carried out on T-34 Mentor fixed wing trainers and on TH 57 Searanger helicopters [12].

The FAE saw action on several occasions. A history of border disputes with Peru saw escalation in 1981 and 1995. During the last conflict (Cenepa War), the FAE managed to down nine Peruvian aircraft, among which were one A-37B , two Su-22 and several Mi-8. Besides the conflicts with Peru, believed being subdued by the 26 October 1998 Brasilia peace treaty, the FAE faces the war on drugs, guerilla insurgency as well as humanitarian missions into the amazon region of the country. Supporting such a relatively large airforce of different types must be a burden. Nevertheless, due to the perils of the past and present, the FAE is to maintain a high profile.

In 2008 the frequent border conflicts with Colombia escalated into a crisis[14]. Ecuador responded with ordering twenty four Brazilian Super Tucano light combat aircraft [15][16], seven HAL Dhruv helicoperts from India [17][18] and acquired a dozen modern Chinese JY 11 low altitude radars [19] to reinforce its borders.

Ecuadorian Navy

Ecuadorian navy FSG Corvette ESMERALDAS (CM 11), equipped with 2 x 3 MM40 Exocet SSM, 1 x 4 Aspide SAM, 1 x 76mm gun, 6 x 324mm ASTI, helicopter on deck (Bell 206), cruises off the coast of Ecuador
An Ecuadorian Marine during an amphibious assault exercise (UNITAS), in the background an US Amphibious Assault Vehicle.

The roots of the Ecuadorian Navy date back to 1823 whilst forming a part of the Gran Colombian fleet. In 1832 the by then, Ecuadorian congress established officially the "The Ecuadorian Maritime Department". Today, the Ecuadorian Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana) is a compact, efficient and well-balanced force. However, limited funds hinder any mayor acquisitions and the chances of maintaining a strong force within the Pacific Ocean. The Navy divides the country into three naval districts: Naval District 1 approximates to the Pacific Coast and Galápagos Islands; Naval District 2 approximates to the centre of the country and consists principally of headquarters and administrative units at Quito; and Naval District 3 corresponds to the river systems of the Amazon region. Most sea-going assets are based at Guayaquil. The Navy has a personnel of 7,258 [20] men and protects a coastline of 2,237 km which reaches far into the Pacific Ocean, including the Galapagos Islands. The Navy consists of the following vessels:


1 School ship The Guayas
2 Condell class frigate (armed with Exocet MM40/MM38 SSM, Mark 46 torpedos, AA guns, helicopter deck) [21]
2 Type 209 submarines (upgraded in 2009) [22]
6 Esmeraldas FSG Corvettes (2 x 3 MM40 Exocet SSM, Mark 46 torpedos, 1 x 4 Aspide SAM, 1 x 76 mm gun, 6 x 324 mm ASTI, helicopter deck [21][23])
3 Lürssen Fast Missile Attack vessels from type Seawolf TNC 45 (armed with Exocet MM38 SSM and AA guns)
4 very light armed, support and re-supply vessels

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Naval Aviation

The Ecuadorian Naval Aviation (Aviacióin Naval Ecuatoriana) remains the least effective section of the navy, capable of performing limited maritime patrol missions it consists of fixed wing and a rotary wing element. It includes 12 fixed wing aircraft [12]: four T-35 Pillán, two CASA CN-235, one Beechcraft Super King Air 200, one Beechcraft Super King Air 300, two Beechcraft Super King Air 200 Catpass surveillance aircraft, and two Beechcraft T-34 Mentor trainers. The rotary element consists of eight helicopters [12]: six Bell 206, two Bell 230. It is unclear if the aircraft are operated by escuadrillas or simply divided into an Ala Fija - "fixed wing" and Ala Rotatoria "rotary wing". All aircraft are based at Base Aérea Simón Bolívar in Guayaquil. However, the quantity of missions in support of the other naval units and the coast guard, sees their aircraft deployed to various locations. The most recent acquisition of the ANE are 2 Heron 1[24] and 4 Searcher MK II[25] unmanned aerial vehicles [26][27](UAV) from Israel. These are going to increase the coastal surveillance significantly.

Coast Guard

The Coast Guard (Cuerpo de Guardacostas de la Armada) became fully operational in 1980. Their mission is to control maritime activities on national territory, including all river zones. The objective is the internal security, protection of human life at sea and environmental protection. It disposes of around 250 men and 30 mayor as well as forty smaller, partially very modern patrol vessels [28].

Marines

The Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina) maintains a strength of around 1700 [29] well trained Marines, headquartered in Guayaquil. The are equipped with personal and infantry support weapons, including 60 mm and 81 mm mortars, 106 mm recoilless rifles (RCLs) and High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles. However, it lacks heavy weapons and their amphibious assault and sealift capacity is insufficient. It was formed on 12 November 1962 and is organised into two security battalions, one is based in the Amazon River area (east), the other on the coast (west). There is also a Commando battalion based on the Galápagos Islands. The Ecuadorian Marines are to maintain a high level of alert in order to execute special operations in difficult territory as well as to provide a fast response against amphibious incursions.

Local Engagements

UN Peacekeeping Operations

The Ecuadorian Armed Forces provide Military Observers and troops to the United Nations since 1948. In November 2003, an Ecuadorian United Nations Training Centre was established under the name of: (La Unidad Escuela de Misiones de Paz “Ecuador). As of 2009, Ecuador is deploying over 90 peacekeepers around the globe.

Trivia

  • The Ecuadorian Civilian Space Agency (EXA) Agencia Espacial Civil Ecuatoriana, is the organization in charge of administering and executing the Ecuadorian civilian space program and conducting scientific research on space and planetary sciences. It is a mixed capital non-profit organization, 50% civilian and 50% Ecuadorian government through the Ecuadorian Air Force. It was established on 1 November 2007 and includes the first Ecuadorian trained astronaut, Ronnie Nader, among its staff members. EXA had its first achievement with Project DAEDALUS, on 6 May 2008, during the EXA/FAE-02 mission when they successfully tested a modified Sabreliner T-39 of the Ecuadorian Air Force flown by FAE pilots and adapted with a device created by EXA to generate microgravity by sustaining cybernetically assisted parabolic flight, becoming the first country in Latin America in developing this kind of technology by their own means.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ a b [4]
  5. ^ a b [5]
  6. ^ [6]
  7. ^ [7]
  8. ^ [8]
  9. ^ [9]
  10. ^ [10]
  11. ^ [11]
  12. ^ a b c d e f [12]
  13. ^ [13]
  14. ^ [14]
  15. ^ [15]
  16. ^ [16]
  17. ^ [17]
  18. ^ [18]
  19. ^ [19]
  20. ^ [20]
  21. ^ a b [21]
  22. ^ [22]
  23. ^ [23]
  24. ^ [24]
  25. ^ [25]
  26. ^ [26]
  27. ^ [27]
  28. ^ [28]
  29. ^ [29]
  30. ^ [30]
  • (English) [31] CIA factbook about Ecuador's Armed Forces.
  • (English) [32] Ecuadorian Armed Forces Almanac from 2004, out-of-date.
  • (English) [33] Study on the most recent Colombo-Ecuadorian border conflict.
  • (English) [34] Ecuador, Landmine Monitor Report 2008.
  • (English) [35] A Comparative Atlas of Defence in Latin America, 2008 Edition on Ecuador.
  • (English) [36] 2008 up-to-date Orbat about Ecuador's aircraft within the FAE, AEE and ANE
  • (English) [37] Ecuador's Military Special Forces information, partially out-of-date.
  • (English) [38] Ecuador orders 30 Leopard 1 V Tanks from Chile.
  • (English) [39] Ecuador orders 30 Leopard 1 V Tanks from Chile.
  • (English) [40] Ecuador upgrades its submarines in Chile.
  • (English) [41] Ecuador acquires seven Hal Dhruv helicopters.
  • (English) [42] Ecuador acquires seven Hal Dhruv helicopters.
  • (English) [43] Ecuador orders 24 Super Tucano Light Combat aircraft.
  • (English) [44] Ecuador orders 24 Super Tucano Light Combat aircraft.
  • (English) [45] Ecuador orders six Israeli UAVs.
  • (English) [46] Ecuador's intention of buying Israeli UAVs and upgrading some of its Kfir fighters to C10 standard.
  • (English) [47] Ecuador acquires Chinese Radar System for the northern border with Colombia.
  • (English) [48] Ecuador's Military Budget going up by 25% in 2008.
  • (English) [49] New high-speed Patrol Boats for the Ecuadorian Coast Guards.
  • (English) [50] Ecuador's new command structure as well as current relationships with its neighbor Colombia.
  • (English) [51] Colombian insurgency in Ecuador.
  • (English) [52] Report of the Cenepa Conflict.
  • (English) [53] The Army Aviation Wing.
  • (English) [54] FAE, AEE and ANE at www.scramble.nl
  • (English) [55] South America's most troubled border.
  • (English) [56] Jane's Ecuadorian Navy Report.
  • (Spanish) [57] Argentinian strategy page with up-to-date news about the Ecuadorean Armed Forces.
  • (Spanish) [58] Ecuador upgrades its naval capabilities with two used frigates and new patrol vessels.
  • (Spanish) [59] Ecuador upgrades its naval capabilities with two used frigates and new patrol vessels.
  • (Spanish) [60] Ecuador upgrades its military hardware.
  • (Spanish) [61] Restructure of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces in 2009.

External links

Media

  • (English) [62] YOU TUBE, Ecuadors fight against the Colombian FARC guerilla insurgency.
  • (Spanish) [63] YOU TUBE, The 9th Special Forces Brigade, Brigada de Fuerzas Especiales No. 9 "Patria".
  • (Spanish) [64] YOU TUBE, The Ecuadorian Armed Forces.
  • (Spanish) [65] YOU TUBE, The Ecuadorian Ministry of Defence.
  • (Spanish) [66] YOU TUBE, Promotional Ecuadorian Army Clip.
  • (Spanish) [67] YOU TUBE, Ecuadorian Army fighting crime in the border areas.
  • (Spanish) [68] YOU TUBE, Ecuadorian Armed Forces compilation.
  • (Spanish) [69] YOU TUBE, Ecuadorian Army Clip.

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