Military of the European Union: Wikis

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The military of the European Union today comprises the national armed forces of the Union's 27 member states, as the area of defence is primarily the domain of nation states. European integration has however been deepened in this field in recent years, with the creation of relevant structures and certain temporary EU defence forces, as well as a number of EU military operations.

Several prominent leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini and former Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt, have voiced support for a common defence for the Union.[1][2][3] This possibility of was formally laid down in the Treaty on European Union with the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009. Additionally, the area of defence has become available to enhanced co-operation, potentially allowing for a defence integration that excludes member states with policies of neutrality.

Contents

History

Map showing European membership of the EU and NATO

Following the end of World War II and the defeat of Nazi Germany, the Dunkirk Treaty was signed by France and the United Kingdom on 4 March 1947 as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance against a possible German attack in the aftermath of World War II. The Dunkirk Treaty entered into force on 8 September 1947. Western European states save Germany, Ireland, Sweden (and Switzerland) joined the NATO later along with the United States. The Treaty of Brussels was signed in 1948.

In the early 1950s, France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries made an attempt to integrate the militaries of mainland Western Europe, through the treaty establishing the European Defence Community. This scheme did however not enter into force, as it failed to obtain approval for ratification in the French National Assembly, where Gaullists feared for national sovereignty and Communists opposed a European military consolidation that could rival the Soviet Union.

Nowadays, as 21 of the 27 EU member states are also members of NATO, some EU states cooperate on defence policy (collective security) albeit primarily through NATO rather than through the EU or aligned groups (such as the Western European Union). However, the memberships of the EU, WEU, and NATO are distinct, and some EU member states are constitutionally committed to remain neutral on defence issues. Several of the new EU member states were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact.

The EU currently has a limited mandate over defence issues, with a role to explore the issue of European defence agreed to in the Amsterdam Treaty, as well as oversight of the Helsinki Headline Goal Force Catalogue (the 'European Rapid Reaction Force') processes. However, some EU states may and do make multilateral agreements about defence issues outside of the EU structures.

On 20 February 2009 the European Parliament voted in favour of the creation of Synchronized Armed Forces Europe (SAFE) as a first step towards a true European military force. SAFE will be directed by an EU directorate, with its own training standards and operational doctrine. There are also plans to create an EU "Council of Defence Ministers" and "a European statute for soldiers within the framework of Safe governing training standards, operational doctrine and freedom of operational action".[4]

Deployments

In 2004, EU countries took over leadership of the mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina from NATO through the European Union Force (EUFOR). The mission was given the branding of an EU initiative as the EU sponsored the force to further the force's image of legitimacy. There have been other deployments such as in Gaza and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2007, the then European High Representative for Foreign Policy, Javier Solana indicated the EU could send troops to Georgia, perhaps alongside Russian forces.[5]

Implications of the Treaty of Lisbon

The entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon triggered member states of the Western European Union (WEU) to scrap the organisation, which had largely become dormant, but they have kept the mutual defence clause of the Treaty of Brussels as a basis for a possible EU mutual defence arrangement.[citation needed]

The Treaty of Lisbon also states that:

The common security and defence policy shall include the progressive framing of a common defence policy. This will lead to a common defence, when the European Council, acting unanimously, so decides. (TEU, Article 42) [6]

Arrangements

The EU primarily acts through its Common Foreign and Security Policy, though Denmark has an opt-out from this and some states are limited by neutrality policies. As a result, forces under EU command have been for peacekeeping, in which European states have already a great deal of experience (under the UN flag).

Expenditure and strength of member states

Were all the member states' annual spending to be taken as a bloc, the figure would amount to over $311 billion, second only to the US military's $713 billion.[7] However the cumulative effect is much less than it seems due to duplication of capacities in individual militaries.[citation needed] There have been efforts to overcome this with joint projects such as the Eurofighter and through joint procurement of equipment.

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Spending

US$ billion
The hypothetically combined EU military
budget compared to other military powers.
Country Defence Budget (USD)  % of GDP Date
United Kingdom UK 69,429,180,000 2.49 2007 est
France France 61,096,740,000 2.34 2007 est
Germany Germany 42,904,200,000 1.28 2007 est
Italy Italy 28,886,160,000 1.36 2007 est
Spain Spain 16,862,220,000 1.16 2007 est
Netherlands Netherlands 11,574,060,000 1.5 2007 est
Poland Poland 8,002,620,000 1.89 2007 est
Greece Greece 7,699,020,000 2.44 2007 est
Sweden Sweden 6,248,640,000 1.36 2007 est
Belgium Belgium 5,198,460,000 1.14 2007 est
Finland Finland 3,576,960,000 1.45 2007 est
Austria Austria 3,541,080,000 0.94 2007 est
Portugal Portugal 3,335,460,000 1.48 2007 est
Denmark Denmark 3,271,600,000 1.5  ?
Czech Republic Czech Republic 2,735,160,000 1.55 2007 est
Romania Romania 2,630,280,000 1.57 2007 est
Hungary Hungary 1,789,860,000 1.28 2007 est
Republic of Ireland Ireland 1,349,640,000 0.53 2007 est
Slovakia Slovakia 1,142,640,000 1.51 2007 est
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,015,680,000 2.55 2007 est
Slovenia Slovenia 687,240,000 1.48 2007 est
Lithuania Lithuania 452,640,000 1.17 2007 est
Latvia Latvia 447,120,000 1.63 2007 est
Cyprus Cyprus 407,100,000 1.89 2007 est
Estonia Estonia 346,380,000 1.62 2007 est
Luxembourg Luxembourg 288,420,000 0.58 2007 est
Malta Malta 49,680,000 0.66 2007 est
European Union EU combined 284,968,240,000 1.69 2007 est

All figures are from the List of countries and federations by military expenditures

The total EU GDP is calculated from the figures in the table as G = Σ( di / fi ), where di = (Country i's defence budget), and fi = (Country i's fraction of GDP spent on defence); and the percentage is calculated from that figure as D / G, where D = Σdi. Because both the defence budget figures (di) and the fractional GDP figures (fi) are rounded to the nearest USD 10,000 and 0.01% respectively, this calculation will clearly produce some error in the final figure. An error estimate in the resulting calculation is σ = √ Σ[ (σd (G − D / fi) / G2) 2 + ( σf (D × di) / (G2 × fi2) 2 ], where we have assumed a defence budget error, σd = USD 5,000 and a fractional GDP error, σf = 0.005. This calculation leads to a final figure of (1.687 ± 0.002)%, which we simply give as 1.69% in the table.

Strength

Flag Nation Active Personnel Reserve Force Paramilitary Total Active troops/
1000 citizens
Tanks Combat aircraft Transport aircraft Aircraft Carriers
France France 259,050[8] 419,000 [9] 101,400 [10] 779,450 4.27 1021 482[11] 147[11] 1
Germany Germany 255,500[12] 302,500[13] 45,050[14] 603,050 3.45 1874 371[15] 176[15] 0
United Kingdom United Kingdom 240,400[16] 329,600[17] 0 570,000 3.41 1865 467 162 3
Italy Italy 190,000[18] 68,000 [19] 238,800[20] 496,800 3.42 1180 460[15] 176[15] 2
Spain Spain 177,950[21] 328,500[21] 72,600[22] 579,050 3.49 661 267[15] 110[15] 1
Greece Greece 177,600[23] 291,000[23] 4,000[23] 472,600 16.60 1000 254[24] 35[24] 0
Poland Poland 125,000[25] 234,000[25] 21,300[25] 380,300 4.23 1005 251[26] 87 0
Romania Romania 90,000[27] 104,000[27] 79,900[27] 273,900 4.31 1,258[28] 119[28] 24[28] 0
Czech Republic Czech Republic 57,050[29] 0[29] 5,600[30] 62,650 5.57 179[31] 52[15] 71[15] 0
Netherlands Netherlands 53,130[32] 32,200[32] 3,300[33] 88,630 3.24 119 115[15] 43[15] 0
Bulgaria Bulgaria 39,000[34] 303,000[34] 34,000[34] 376,000 5.1 590 80[15] 46[15] 0
Belgium Belgium 45,800[35] 100,500[35] 0[35] 146,300 3.94 132 68[15] 37[15] 0
Portugal Portugal 44,900[36] 210,930[36] 25,600[37] 281,430 4.25 137 45 33 0
Finland Finland 36,700[38] 485,000[38] 3,100[39] 524,800 5.17 124 63 0
Austria Austria 34,600[40] 72,000[40] N/A 106,600 4.23 237 16 3 0
Sweden Sweden 33,900[41] 262,000[41] 35,000[42] 330,900 3.07 280 166[15] 41[15] 0
Hungary Hungary 33,400[43] 90,300[43] 12,000[44] 135,700 3.31 0 55[15] 30[15] 0
Slovakia Slovakia 26,200[45] 20,000[45] 4,700[46] 50,900 4.05 311 27 24 0
Denmark Denmark 22,880[47] 64,900[47] 61,500[47] 149,280 4.24 57[48] 60 15 0
Lithuania Lithuania 13,510[49] 309,200[49] 14,390[49] 337,100 3.53 2[50] 24[50] 0
Republic of Ireland Ireland 10,500[51] 14,800[51] 0[51] 25,300 5.78 14[52] 0[15] 12[15] 0
Cyprus Cyprus 10,000[53] 60,000[53] 750[53] 70,750 12.80 41[54] 12 0
Slovenia Slovenia 9,000[55] 20,000[55] 4,500[56] 33,500 1.21 54 9 12 0
Estonia Estonia 5,700[57] 220,000[58]/> 20,000[57] 245,700 4.13 0 0 0
Latvia Latvia 5,500[59] 14,050[59] 3,200[59] 22,750 2.13 3 0 3[60] 0
Malta Malta 2,140[61] 0[61] 0[61] 2,140 5.37 0 0 0
Luxembourg Luxembourg 900[62] 0[62] 612[62] 1,512 1.92 0 0 3 0
European Union European Union 1,536,274 4,156,680 791,302 6,484,256 4.36 11,452 3,523 1,349 7
  • Approximate Figures
  • Source of active duty information: Center for Strategic and International Studies 2006 and Jaffa Center of Strategic Studies
  • Source of population information: List of countries by population

See also

References

  1. ^ Italy's Foreign Minister says post-Lisbon EU needs a European Army, The Times. 2009-11-15
  2. ^ Merkel's European Army: More Than a Paper Tiger? by Peter C. Glover, World Politics Review, 2007-04-25.
  3. ^ EU military at Bastille Day celebration
  4. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/eu/4689736/Blueprint-for-EU-army-to-be-agreed.html
  5. ^ Solana raises prospect of EU soldiers in Georgia EU Observer, 27.02.2007
  6. ^ "Treaty of Lisbon". EU. http://europa.eu/lisbon_treaty/full_text/index_en.htm. 
  7. ^ "European - United States Defence Expenditure in 2005". EDA. 2006. http://www.eda.europa.eu/facts/EU%20-%20USA%20Defence%20Expenditure%202005.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  8. ^ III.pdf "Annuaire statistique de la Défense, p.47" (PDF). December 2006. http://www.defense.gouv.fr/sga/content/download/80586/734666/file/chap III.pdf. 
  9. ^ "French Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 112)" (PDF). 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf. 
  10. ^ "French Paramilitary Forces, Tiscali Encyclopedia". 2006-07-25. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/countryfacts/france.html. 
  11. ^ a b French Military Aviation
  12. ^ "German Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 32)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060626_asia_balance_powers.pdf. 
  13. ^ "German Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 117)" (PDF). 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf. 
  14. ^ "German Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 14)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 January 2007.
  16. ^ http://www.dasa.mod.uk/applications/newWeb/www/apps/publications/pubViewFile.php?content=170.121&date=2009-11-26&type=html&PublishTime=09:30:01
  17. ^ http://www.dasa.mod.uk/applications/newWeb/www/index.php?page=48&thiscontent=70&pubType=1&date=2009-11-23&disText=01
  18. ^ http://www.difesa.it/NR/rdonlyres/5EF11493-59DD-4FB7-8485-F4258D9F5891/0/Nota_Aggiuntiva_2009.pdf
  19. ^ "Italian Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 124)" (PDF). 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf. 
  20. ^ "Italian Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 16)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  21. ^ a b "Spanish Military". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Spain-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  22. ^ "Spanish Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  23. ^ a b c "Greek Military". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Greece-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  24. ^ a b Greek Aircraft Inventory
  25. ^ a b c "Polish Military". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Poland-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  26. ^ Polish Defence Ministry
  27. ^ a b c "Romanian Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.mapn.ro/diepa/. 
  28. ^ a b c http://www.mongabay.com/reference/new_profiles/414.html
  29. ^ a b "Czech Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 109)" (PDF). 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf. 
  30. ^ "Czech Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 11)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  31. ^ Czech Republic Equipment
  32. ^ a b "Dutch Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 127)" (PDF). 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf. 
  33. ^ "Uzbek Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Netherlands-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  34. ^ a b c "Bulgarian Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.md.government.bg/en/index.html. 
  35. ^ a b c "Belgium Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Belgium.html. 
  36. ^ a b "Portuguese Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Portugal-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  37. ^ "Portuguese's Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 25)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  38. ^ a b "Finnish Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Finland-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  39. ^ "Finland's Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 15)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  40. ^ a b "Austrian Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Austria.html. 
  41. ^ a b "Swedish Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Sweden-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  42. ^ "Bantat hemvärn får massiv kritik". 2008-05-22. http://www.svd.se/nyheter/inrikes/artikel_1275323.svd. 
  43. ^ a b "Hungarian Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 120)" (PDF). 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf. 
  44. ^ "Hungarian Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 15)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  45. ^ a b "Slovak Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Slovakia-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  46. ^ "Slovakia Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 22)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  47. ^ a b c "Danish Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Denmark-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  48. ^ Financial report for the Danish Military
  49. ^ a b c "Lithuanian Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Lithuania.html. 
  50. ^ a b Lithuanian Air Force
  51. ^ a b c "Ireland Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Ireland-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  52. ^ [1]
  53. ^ a b c "Cyprus Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Cyprus-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  54. ^ JED Site
  55. ^ a b "Slovenia Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Slovenia-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  56. ^ "Slovenia's Paramilitary Forces, ORBAT (Page 22)" (PDF). 2006-07-25. http://orbat.com/site/gd/cwpf_2006/cwpf_display%20version.pdf. 
  57. ^ a b "Estonia Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Estonia.html. 
  58. ^ [http://www.kmin.ee/static/sisu/files/Aruanne2008.pdf Aruanne riigikaitsest osavõtu kohustuse ja kaitseväeteenistuskohustuse täitmise kohta riigis 2008. aastal]
  59. ^ a b c "Latvia Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Latvia-ARMED-FORCES.html. 
  60. ^ Latvian Air Force
  61. ^ a b c "Malta Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Malta.html. 
  62. ^ a b c "Luxembourg Armed Forces". 2006-07-25. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Luxembourg-ARMED-FORCES.html. 

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