Millennium Park: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Millennium Park
Millennium Park as seen from the Aon Center (from the north)
Type Urban park
Location Chicago, Illinois
41°52′57.75″N 87°37′21.60″W / 41.8827083°N 87.622667°W / 41.8827083; -87.622667 (Millennium Park)Coordinates: 41°52′57.75″N 87°37′21.60″W / 41.8827083°N 87.622667°W / 41.8827083; -87.622667 (Millennium Park)
Size 24.5 acres (9.9 ha)
Opened July 16, 2004
Operated by Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs
Status Open all year (daily 6 a.m. to 11 p.m.)
Millennium Park (inside black borders) within Grant Park in Chicago's Loop community area

Millennium Park is a public park located in the Chicago Loop community area of Chicago within Cook County, Illinois, United States. It is a prominent civic center of the city's Lake Michigan lakefront. Completed in 2004, it covers a 24.5-acre (99,000 m2) section of northern Grant Park, previously occupied by Illinois Central railyards and parking lots. The park, which is bounded by Michigan Avenue, Randolph Street, Columbus Drive and East Monroe Drive, features a variety of public art. Today, Millennium Park trails only Navy Pier as a Chicago tourist attraction.[1]

Planning of the park began in October 1997. Construction began in October 1998 and was completed in July 2004. Millennium Park, which has become the world's largest rooftop garden, was opened in a ceremony on July 16, 2004 as part of a three-day celebration that included an inaugural concert by the Grant Park Orchestra and Chorus. 300,000 people took part in the grand opening festivities. The park's design and construction won awards ranging from accessibility to green design.[2] Admission to the park is free.[3] The park features the Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Lurie Garden and other attractions. The park is connected by bridges to other parts of Grant Park (BP Pedestrian Bridge, Nichols Bridgeway).

The park is considered to be the city's most important project since the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893,[3][4] and it far exceeded its originally proposed budget of $150 million. The final cost of $475 million was borne both by Chicago taxpayers and private donors. The city paid a total of $270 million and private donors paid the remainder.[5] Private donors assumed roughly half of the financial responsibility for the cost overruns.[6]

The park was finished four years behind schedule and cost approximately three times as much as was initially budgeted.[3] Chicago mayor Richard M. Daley at first placed much of the blame for the delay and cost overrun on Frank Gehry, who designed several parts of the park.[7] Some of the features have changed names due to corporate mergers and acquisitions of Bank One with Chase and SBC Communications with AT&T.[3]



McDonald's Cycle Center BP Pedestrian Bridge BP Pedestrian Bridge Columbus Drive Exelon Pavilion NE Exelon Pavilion NE Exelon Pavilion SE Exelon Pavilion SE Exelon Pavilion NW Exelon Pavilion NW Exelon Pavilion SW Exelon Pavilion SW Harris Theater Jay Pritzker Pavilion Lurie Garden Nichols Bridgeway Nichols Bridgeway Chase Promenade North Chase Promenade Central Chase Promenade South AT&T Plaza Boeing Gallery North Boeing Gallery South Cloud Gate Wrigley Square McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink Crown Fountain Michigan Avenue Randolph Street Rectangular map of a park about 1.5 times as wide as it is tall. The top half is dominated by the Pritzker Pavilion and Great Lawn. The lower half is divided into three roughly equal sections: (left to right) Wrigley Square, McCormick Tribune Plaza, and Crown Fountain. North is to the left.
Image map of Millennium Park. Each feature or label is linked.

From 1852 until 1997, the Illinois Central Railroad owned the right of way that they used for railroad tracks that separated the downtown Chicago from Lake Michigan.[8] Briefly, in 1871, (because of the Great Chicago Fire) the Chicago White Stockings played home games at this location in what was then Union Base-Ball Grounds.[9][10] From 1878-1884, the location hosted the team in both Lake Front Park I and Lake Front Park II, which had a short right field due to the railroad tracks.[9][10] During that Illinois Central Railroad years, the railroad property was forbidden fruit and Grant Park was planned around it by Daniel Burnham in his 1909 Plan of Chicago.[11] In 1997, when the city gained control of the land in the form of airspace rights, it decided to build a parking facility there.[8] Eventually the city realized that a grand civic amenity might lure private dollars that a municipal improvement would not and thus began the effort to create Millennium Park.[8] The park was originally planned under the name Lakefront Millennium Park.[12]

The park was originally conceived as a 16-acre (65,000 m2) landscape-covered bridge over an underground parking structure to be built atop the Metra/Illinois Central Railroad tracks in Grant Park.[13] Originally the park was to be designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, but gradually additional architects and artists were incorporated into the plan such as Frank Gehry and Thomas Beeby.[12] Sponsors were sought by invitation only.[14] In February 1999, the city announced it was negotiating with Frank Gehry to design a proscenium arch and orchestra enclosure for a band shell as well as a pedestrian bridge crossing Columbus Drive and that it was seeking donors to cover his work.[15][16] At the time, the Chicago Tribune dubbed Gehry "the hottest architect in the universe" in reference to the acclaim for his Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, and they noted the designs would not include Mayor Daley trademarks such as wrought iron and seasonal flower boxes.[17] Millennium Park, project manager Edward Uhlir said "Frank is just the cutting edge of the next century of architecture," and noted that no other architect was being sought.[15] Gehry was approached several times by Skidmore architect Adrian Smith on behalf of the city.[18] His hesitance and refusal to accept the commission was overcome by Cindy Pritzker, the philanthropist, who had developed a relationship with the architect when he won the Pritzker Prize in 1991. She enticed him in head on confrontations with a $15m funding commitment toward the bandshell's creation, according to John H. Bryan.[19] The choice of Gehry was a key component of having modern themes in the park.[15][18]

Pre-Millennium Park Grant Park (from the southeast)

The initial construction of the park was under the auspices of the Transportation department because the project bridges the railroad tracks. However, as the project grew and expanded, its broad variety of amenities placed it under the jurisdiction of the city's Public Buildings Commission.[20]

In April 1999, the city announced that the Pritzker family had donated $15 million to fund Gehry's Bandshell and an additional nine donors committed a total of $10 million.[21][22] The day of this announcement, Gehry agreed to the design request.[23] In November, when his design was unveiled, Gehry said the Bridge was very preliminary and not well-conceived because funding for it was not committed.[24] The need to fund a bridge to span the eight-lane Columbus Drive was evident, but some planning for the park was delayed in anticipation of details on the redesign of Soldier Field.[25] In January 2000, the city announced plans to expand the park to include features that have become Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, The McDonalds Cycle Center, and BP Pedestrian Bridge.[26] Later that month, Gehry unveiled his first design for the bridge, which included a winding bridge.[27]

Some sources say that the park was the outgrowth of the exuberance of private sponsors,[citation needed] and others say that Mayor Daley used his power to garner corporate supporters.[28] One Time magazine writer describes the park as the crowning achievement for Mayor Daley,[29] while another suggests the park's cost and time overages were examples of the city's mismanagement.[30] The July 16-18 opening gala was sponsored by J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.[31]

The community surrounding Millennium Park has become one of the most fashionable residential addresses in the city. In 2006, Forbes named 60602 as the hottest zip code in the country in terms of price appreciation,[32] with upscale buildings such as The Heritage at Millennium Park (130 N. Garland) leading the way for other buildings such as Waterview Tower, The Legacy and Joffrey Tower. The median sale price for residential real estate was $710,000 in 2005 according to Forbes, ranking it on the list of most expensive zip codes.[33] The park has been credited with increasing residential real estate values by $100/square foot.[34]


Millennium Park from the Willis Tower (before Legacy Tower)

Millennium Park is a portion of the larger Grant Park, the "front lawn" of downtown Chicago. Millennium park itself is one of the larger public parks in metropolitan Chicago, and is a showcase for postmodern architecture. It features the McCormick Tribune Ice Skating Rink, Peristyle at Wrigley Square, Joan W. and Irving B. Harris Theater for Music and Dance, AT&T Plaza, Chase Promenade and Trees in Millennium Park. The park is successful as a public art venue in part due to the grand scale of each piece and the open spaces for display.[35] There are four major artistic highlights: Cloud Gate, Crown Fountain, Lurie Garden and the Jay Pritzker Pavilion.[36] Millennium Park is often considered the largest roof garden in the world, having been constructed on top of a railroad yard and large parking garages. Of its total 24.5 acres (99,000 m2) of land, Millennium Park contains 12.04 acres (48,700 m2) of permeable area. The park has a very rigorous cleaning schedule with many areas being swept, wiped down or cleaned multiple times a day.[37] The park is known for being user friendly.[38] Although the park was unveiled in July 2004, upgrades continued for some time afterwards.[39] In addition to the cultural features above ground that are described below the park has its own 2218-space parking garage.[6]


Jay Pritzker Pavilion

The Jay Pritzker Pavilion is the centerpiece of Millennium Park.

The principal signature of Millennium Park is the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, a bandshell designed by world-renowned architect Frank Gehry with 4,000 fixed seats plus additional lawn seating for 7,000. A Pritzker Architecture Prize honoree and National Medal of Arts winner, Gehry designed such landmarks as the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Der Neue Zollhof in Düsseldorf and the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. Characteristic of Gehry, the Pritzker Pavilion consists of curving planes of stainless steel resembling the graceful blooming of a flower or the unfurling sails of a massive ship.

The Pritzker Pavilion is the home of the Grant Park Music Festival, the nation's only remaining free, municipally supported, outdoor, classical music series. The Festival is presented by the Chicago Park District and the Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs.[40] Winding eastward from Pritzker Pavilion is the only bridge in the world designed by Frank Gehry. The 925-foot (282 m) pedestrian bridge, clad in the same type of steel sheet as the bandshell with a hardwood deck, winds like a fluttering ribbon across nearby Columbus Drive from the bandshell to a section of Grant Park along the lakefront.

AT&T Plaza and Cloud Gate

AT&T Plaza was originally named Ameritech Plaza for Ameritech Corporation, the corporate sponsor. [41] By the time the park officially opened in 2004, Ameritech had merged with SBC Communications and the plaza was called SBC Plaza. When SBC acquired AT&T and subsequently changed the name from SBC to AT&T in 2005, the name of the plaza changed again.

The plaza is home to Cloud Gate, a three-story, 110-ton steel sculpture that has been dubbed by residents as "The Bean". The sculpture is the work of world-renowned artist Anish Kapoor and is the first of his public art in the United States. The piece was privately funded and the total cost was $23 million, which was considerably more than the original estimate of $6 million. The piece is wildly popular.[42][43]

Cloud Gate is a highly polished reflective steel sculpture that is meant to resemble a drop of mercury hovering at the point of landing on a plaza of the park. When Millennium Park opened in 2004, the grid of welds around each metal panel was still visible. In early 2005, workers polished out the seams. The curved, mirror-like surface of the sculpture provides striking reflections of visitors, the city skyline (particularly the historic Michigan Avenue "Streetwall") and the sky. Since its installation, Cloud Gate has probably become the most popular sculpture in the city.[citation needed]

Crown Fountain

Crown Fountain, named in honor of Chicago's Crown family, was designed by the spanish conceptual artist Jaume Plensa, and is the first of its kind in the world. Transparent glass block bricks are used to build two 50-foot (15 m) towers standing at either end of a long, black granite plaza submerged under an eighth of an inch layer of water. Behind the glass bricks are high-tech LED video screens. When the screens are illuminated they show the faces of nearly a thousand individual Chicagoans, which showcases the vast diversity of the city. Playing on the theme of historical fountains based around gargoyles with water coming through the open mouth of the creature, each video includes specific moments where the person purses his or her lips and water spouts from a point in the display, such that it appears as if the person is spitting the water out. This happens roughly every five minutes, and there is also a continuous stream of water that cascades over the images.

Lurie Garden

Lurie Garden is a 2.5-acre (10,000 m2) public garden located at the southern end of Millennium Park designed by Kathryn Gustafson, Piet Oudolf, and Robert Israel.[44] The garden is a combination of perennials, bulbs, grasses, shrubs and trees.[45] It is the featured nature component of the world's largest green roof. The garden cost $13.2 million and has a $10 million endowment for maintenance and upkeep.[36][46] It was named after Ann Lurie.[47] The garden is a tribute to the city whose motto is "Urbs in Horto," which is a Latin phrase meaning City in a Garden.[44]

BP Pedestrian Bridge

BP Pedestrian Bridge is a pedestrian bridge crossing Columbus Drive that connects Millennium Park to Daley Bicentennial Plaza in Grant Park. The girder bridge is the first bridge designed by Pritzker Prize-winner, Frank Gehry, and was named for British Petroleum who donated $5 million to the construction of the Park.[48][49] The bridge is referred to as snakelike or serpentine in character due to its curving form.[50] The bridge's design enables it to bear a heavy load and is known for its aesthetics. Additionally, it serves acoustic needs as a sound barrier and functional needs as a connecting link between Millennium Park and points east.[50]

McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink

McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink is a multi-purpose venue located along the western edge of Millennium Park in the Historic Michigan Boulevard District. It was the first attraction in Millennium Park to open.[13] The plaza was funded by a donation from the McCormick Tribune Foundation.[51] For four months a year, it operates as McCormick Tribune Ice Rink, a free public outdoor ice skating rink.[52] It is generally open for skating from mid-November until mid-March. It is known as one of Chicago's better outdoor people watching locations during the winter months.[53][54] For the rest of the year, it serves as The Plaza at Park Grill or Park Grill Plaza, Chicago's largest outdoor dining facility.[55] The Park Grill hosts various culinary events as well as music during its months of outdoor operation.[55][56]

Wrigley Square

Wrigley Square is a public square located in the northwest section of Millennium Park in the Historic Michigan Boulevard District.[57] It contains the Millennium Monument, a nearly full-sized replica of the semicircle of paired Greek Doric-style columns (called a peristyle) that originally sat in this area of Grant Park, near East Randolph Street and North Michigan Avenue, between 1917 and 1953.[57] The square also contains a large lawn and a public fountain.

Harris Theater

Harris Theater is a 1525-seat theater for the performing arts located along the northern edge of Millennium Park. It is the city's premier performance venue for small and medium sized performance groups.[58] It is the first new performing arts venue built in the city's theater district or downtown since 1929.[59] The theater was named for its primary benefactors, Mr & Mrs. Irving Harris.[60]

Exelon Pavilions

Northwest Exelon Pavilions (Millennium Park Welcome Center)

The Exelon Pavilions are a set of four solar energy generating structures in Millennium Park. The pavilions provide sufficient energy to power the equivalent of 14 star-rated energy-efficient houses in Chicago.[61] The Pavilions were designed in January 2001 and construction began in January 2004. The South Pavilions were completed and opened in July 2004 and the North Pavilions were completed in November 2004, with a grand opening on April 30, 2005.[62] In addition to producing energy, three of the four pavilions provide access to the park's below ground parking garages and the fourth serves as the park's welcoming center.[61] Exelon and its subsidiary ComEd donated $5.5 million for the Pavilions.[63]

McDonald's Cycle Center

McDonald's Cycle Center is a 300-space heated/air conditioned indoor bike station located in the northeast corner of Millennium Park. The facility provides lockers, showers, a snack bar with outdoor summer seating, bike repair, bike rental and other amenities for downtown bicycle commuters. The Bike Station also accommodates runners and in-line skaters.[64] In addition, the station provides space for a Chicago Police Department Bike Patrol Group.[65]

Boeing Galleries

Boeing Galleries are a pair of outdoor exhibition spaces within Millennium Park located along the south and north mid-level terraces, above and east of Wrigley Square and the Crown Fountain.[66]

Chase Promenade

Chase Promenade during 2005 Revealing Chicago Exhibition

Chase Promenade is an open-air tree-lined pedestrian walkway in Millennium Park. The Promenade was made possible by a gift from the Bank One Foundation.[67] Its 8 acres (32,000 m2) accommodate exhibitions, festivals and other family events.[67] It also serves as a venue for event planning on a rental basis.[68]

Nichols Bridgeway

The Nichols Bridgeway opened on May 16, 2009. This pedestrian bridge connects the South end of the park with the Modern Wing of the Art Institute of Chicago. It begins at the south west end of the Great Lawn and extends across Monroe Street connecting to the third floor of the West Pavilion of the Art Institute of Chicago.[69][70]

2009 Pavilion projects

Pavilion projects opening weekend June 19, 2009

The pavilions by Zaha Hadid and Ben van Berkel were constructed to commemorate the 100th anniversary of Daniel Burnham’s 1909 Plan of Chicago. They are privately funded[71][72] and are designed to be temporary structures.[73]

The van Berkel Pavilion is composed of two parallel rectangular planes joined by curving scoops[74] on a steel frame with glossy white plywood covering it. It is situated on a raised platform which is sliced by a ramp entrance making it ADA accessible.[75] The Hadid Pavilion is a tensioned fabric shell fitted over a curving aluminum framework exceeding 7,000 pieces. It is expected to accommodate centennial-themed, video presentation its interior fabric walls.


The project was known for its notorious delays (it was originally intended to open in 2000 instead of 2004) and tripled costs. Some Chicagoans began to refer to the project deridingly as "next-millennium" park.

During development and construction of the park, many structures were added, redesigned or modified. These changes often resulted in budget increases. For example, the band shell's proposed budget was $10.8 million. When the elaborate, cantilevered Gehry design required extra piling be driven into the bedrock to support the added weight, the cost of the band shell eventually spiraled to $60.3 million. The total cost of the park, as itemized in the following table, amounted to almost $500 million.[76] Much of the fundraising was borne by local business leaders, including the Pritzker family and Crown family.

Park from 340 on the Park
Project Proposed cost Final cost  % of proposed
Garage $87.5 million $105.6 million 121%
Metra superstructure $43.0 million $60.6 million 141%
Jay Pritzker Pavilion $10.8 million $60.3 million 558%
Harris Theater $20.0 million $60.0 million 300%
Park finishes/landscaping N/A $42.9 million
Design and management costs N/A $39.5 million
Endowment $10.0 million $25.0 million 250%
Crown Fountain $15.0 million $17.0 million 113%
BP Pedestrian Bridge $8.0 million $14.5 million 181%
Lurie Garden $4.0–8.0 million $13.2 million 330%–165%
Cloud Gate sculpture $6.0 million $23.0 million 383%
Exelon Pavilions N/A $7.0 million
Peristyle/Wrigley Square $5.0 million $5.0 million 100%
Chase Promenade $6.0 million $4.0 million 67%
McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink $5.0 million $3.2 million 64%
Misc. (fencing, terraces, graphics) N/A $1.6 million

Criticism and controversy

A corporate underwriter's stone marker

The Millennium Park project has been the subject of some criticism since its inception. In addition to concerns about the cost overrun, individuals and organizations have complained that the money spent on the park might have gone to other worthy causes, specifically citing ongoing issues with poverty in Chicago and problems within the city's schools.

Grant Park has been protected since 1836 by "forever open, clear and free" legislation that has been affirmed by four previous Illinois Supreme Court rulings.[77][78][79][80] Aaron Montgomery Ward twice sued the city of Chicago to force it to remove buildings and structures from Grant Park and to keep it from building new ones.[81] As a result, the city has what are termed the Montgomery Ward height restrictions on buildings and structures in Grant Park. However, Crown Fountain and the 139-foot (42 m) Pritzker Pavilion were exempt from the height restriction because they were classified as works of art and not buildings or structures.[82] Some say the Pavilion is described as a work of art to dodge the protections established by Ward who is said to continue to rule and protect Grant Park from his grave.[83] This is why Harris Theater is largely underground.

Although the park's design and architectural elements have won wide praise, there has been some criticism of its aesthetics. Other criticism has revolved around the larger issue of corruption and political favoritism in the city; for example a July 2004 New York Times article reported that an inflated contract for park cleanup had gone to a company that made large contributions to Mayor Daley's election campaign.[3] Concerns have also been raised over the use of mixed taxpayer and corporate funding and associated naming rights for sections of the park. While a large monument in the northwest corner of the park honors the many private and corporate donors who contributed to its construction, entire squares and plazas within the park are named for their corporate underwriters, with the sponsors' names prominently indicated with stone markers (Boeing Gallery, Exelon Pavilion, AT&T Plaza, Wrigley Square); some critics have deemed this to be inappropriate for a public space.

A controversy arose when the park enforced a requirement for professional photographers to obtain a paid permit to photograph the artwork in the park for commercial purposes. In doing so, the city cited the copyrights of the artists who created the works (particularly the popular Cloud Gate sculpture). The copyrights give the artists sole right to profit from their work, and thus applies to images taken for commercial purposes. However, enforcement of the permit requirement was inconsistent and sometimes heavy-handed, resulting in some non-commercial photographers and tourists being accosted while taking pictures of the sculpture, and leading to the incorrect public perception that they are banned from taking pictures of the park they helped pay for.

In addition to weather-related closures in the winter, the bridge has had controversial event-related closures in the summer. The first of these closures occurred in 2005. The initial plan was that the lawn seating at nearby Jay Pritzker Pavilion would be free for all events.[84] However, parking revenue fell short of estimates during the first year and the city charged $10 for lawn seating at an August 31, 2005 Tori Amos concert, leading to protests.[84][85] On the day of the concert, officials closed the bridge—which is generally open to the public—until 7 a.m. the next day.[86]

A Chicago Police Officer blocking pedestrian access to Millennium Park with Pritzker Pavilion visible in the background

The park curfew (the park is closed from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. daily)[87] and obvious presence of security guards is also cited in some quarters as working against the idea of a public park. For example, during the dusk to dawn event Looptopia on May 11 and May 12, 2007, public access to the park was prevented by police enforcement of the park curfew.

In both 2005 and 2006, almost the entire Millennium Park was closed for a day for corporate events. This was controversial for both commuters who walk through the park and for tourists who were lured by the attractions of the public park.[88] On September 8, 2005, Toyota Motor Sales USA paid $800,000 to rent all venues in the park except Wrigley Square, Lurie Garden, McDonald's Cycle Center and Crown Fountain from 6 a.m. to 11 p.m.[88][89] The money was used to both fund free events in the park such as concerts and for day-to-day operations.[89] The events included the Lurie Garden Festival, a Steppenwolf Theater production, musical performers along the Chase Promenade all summer long, a jazz series, children's concerts and other free events.[90] Toyota, as a sponsor, also had its name included on Millennium Park brochures, the park's Web site, and park advertising signage.[89] Since this had been announced in May this closure provided a public relations opportunity for General Motors who shuttled some 1500 tourists to see other Chicago attractions.[88] From Toyota's perspective the $300,000 was a rental expense and the $500,000 was a sponsoring donation. On August 7, 2006, Allstate paid a $200,000 rental expense and a similar $500,000 sponsoring donation. For this price, Allstate acquired the visitation rights to a different set of features and only had exclusive access to certain features after 4 p.m.[91]


The Financial Times describes the park as an extraordinary 21st century park resulting from a unique combination of money and power that liberates artistic expression in the way it creates a new iconic images of the city.[19] Time magazine views both the Cloud Gate and the Jay Pritzker Pavilion as part of a well-planned visit to Chicago.[92] Frommer's lists exploring Millennium Park as one of the four best free things to do in the city,[93] and it commends the park for it various artistic offerings.[94] Lonely Planet recommends an hour long stroll to see the park's playful art.[95] Fodor's describes the park as one of its favorite sunny destinations in the city, with special kudos to the Pritzker Paviilion.[96] The park is praised as a "showcase of art and urban design" by the San Francisco Chronicle.[97] Time refers to it as an artful arrangement resulting from a creative ensemble.[98] The park is considered to be beyond the ambitions of many cities.[99] The park is discussed in the book 1,000 Places to See in the U.S.A. & Canada Before You Die, which describes Millennium Park as a renowned attraction.[100]

"This is not simply a background park, where a series of individual objects exist in a field. The objects here have become the field. It is densely packed like the city itself. This is a different idea of an exterior experience than in most parks. It is closer to a theme park or a shopping mall."

A book entitled Millennium Park: Creating a Chicago Landmark by Timothy J. Gilfoyle was a New York Times Book Review Editors' Choice in 2006.[101] The book was also an editor's choice for the San Francisco Chronicle.[102]

The park was designed so that it only needs a single lift and its accessibility has won its project director the 2005 Barrier-Free America Award in recognition of individual leadership in making our country more accessible for all Americans.[103] In addition, the park was recognized in the Green Roof Awards of Excellence in the Intensive Industrial/Commercial category.[104] Green Roof considers the park to be the largest green roof in the world, as it covers a structural deck supported by two reinforced concrete cast-in-place garages and steel structures that span over Illinois Central Railroad tracks.[105][106] McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink and Jay Pritzker Pavilion both provide accessible restrooms.[107]

In addition to formal critical review, the park is admired as an example of successful urban planning by other mayors such as San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsome, who wishes San Francisco could do the same thing.[108][109] Even the Mayor of Shanghai has enjoyed himself at the park.[110]

Popular culture

Jeff Garlin claims that I Want Someone to Eat Cheese With was the first Hollywood movie to incorporate Millennium Park.[111] The film was not released until after several other movies such as The Weather Man starring Nicolas Cage, which was shot in part at the park's McCormick Tribune Plaza & Ice Rink.[112] The Break-Up shot scenes in the park and had to reshoot some of them because Cloud Gate was under cover in some of the initial shootings.[113] Butterfly on a Wheel shot some scenes in the park.[114] The Lake House also shot scenes in the park.[115] Leverage has filmed in the park.[116] Derailed is another movie that has filmed in the park.[117] The first few episodes of the first season of Prison Break featured shots of the fountain.[118]

See also


  1. ^ "Crain's List Lartgest Tourist Attractions (Sightseeing): Ranked by 2007 attendance". Crain's Chicago Business (Crain Communications Inc.): p. 22. 2008-06-23. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Kinzer, Stephen (2004-07-13). "LETTER FROM CHICAGO; A Prized Project, a Mayor and Persistent Criticism". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  4. ^ Daniel, Caroline and Jeremy Grant (2005-09-10). "Classical city soars above Capone clichés". The Financial Times. The Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  5. ^ Cohen, Laurie and Liam Ford (2004-07-18). "$16 million in lawsuits ensnare pavilion at Millennium Park". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  6. ^ a b Kamin, Blair (2004-07-18). "A no place transformed into a grand space - What was once a gritty, blighted site is now home to a glistening, cultural spectacle that delivers joy to its visitors". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-08-06. 
  7. ^ Nance, Kevin (2005-05-23). "Snakelike walkway by Gehry dedicated at Millennium Park". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  8. ^ a b c Lewis, Michael J. (2006-08-06). "No Headline". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  9. ^ a b Gilfoyle, Timothy J. (2006-08-06). "Millennium Park". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  10. ^ a b "Untitled (Baseball Park Codes)". 
  11. ^ "Park History". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  12. ^ a b Kamin, Blair (1999-03-18). "Will Too Many Architects Spoil Grant Park's Redesign?". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  13. ^ a b "Mayor Daley, McCormick Tribune Executives Cut Ribbon on Spectacular Skating Rink at Millennium Park" (PDF). Millennium Park News. Public Building Commission of Chicago. Winter 2001-2002. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  14. ^ Smith, Sid (2004-07-15). "Sponsors put money where their names are". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  15. ^ a b c Bey, Lee (1999-02-18). "Building for future - Modern architect sought for park". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  16. ^ "The City". Daily Herald. Newsbank. 1999-02-18. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  17. ^ Warren, Ellen and Teresa Wiltz (1999-02-17). "City Has Designs On Ace Architect For Its Band Shell". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  18. ^ a b Kamin, Blair (1999-04-18). "A World-Class Designer Turns His Eye To Architecture's First City". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  19. ^ a b c Daniel, Caroline (2004-07-20). "How a steel bean gave Chicago fresh pride". The Financial Times. The Financial Times Ltd. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  20. ^ "Following the Money for Millennium Park". Neighborhood Capital Budget Group. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  21. ^ "Millennium Park Gets Millions". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. 1999-04-27. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  22. ^ Spielman, Fran (1999-04-28). "Room for Grant Park to grow". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  23. ^ De LaFuente, Della (1999-04-28). "Architect on board to help build bridge to 21st century". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  24. ^ Kamin, Blair (1999-11-04). "Architect's Band Shell Design Filled With Heavy-Metal Twists". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  25. ^ Kamin, Blair (1999-11-23). "Timing Crucial Plotting Grant Park's Future". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  26. ^ Song, Lisa (2000-01-07). "City Tweaks Millennium Park Design". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  27. ^ Donato, Marla (2000-01-28). "Defiant Architect Back With Revised Grant Park Bridge Design". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-24. 
  28. ^ Thigpen, David (2005-04-18). "Richard the Second". Time. Time Inc..,9171,1050280,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  29. ^ Cole, Wendy (2007-01-22). "In Chicago, t-he Dynasty Rolls On". Time. Time Inc..,8599,1581098,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  30. ^ Isackson, Noah (2004-12-17). "Creative Thinking In Chicago". Time. Time Inc..,9171,1009679,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  31. ^ Ford, Liam (2004-05-21). "City park has friend to bank on". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  32. ^ "Zip Codes With Greatest Appreciation". Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  33. ^ "#404 60602". Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  34. ^ Sharoff, Robert (2006-06-04). "How a Park Changed a Chicago Neighborhood". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-07-30. 
  35. ^ Gilfoyle, p. 344.
  36. ^ a b Freemen, Allen (November 2004). "Fair Game on Lake Michigan". Landscape Architecture Magazine. American Society of Landscape Architects. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  37. ^ Spielman, Fran (2005-12-16). "New amenities for Millennium Park?: Company proposes baby strollers, Disney training for workers". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  38. ^ "New city jewel invites us downtown to play". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. 2004-07-16. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  39. ^ Dardick, Hal (2005-01-10). "Park reflects vision still in its infancy - Upgrades for Millennium site are in the works, with more on way". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  40. ^ GPMF2006
  41. ^ Public Building Commission of Chicago, Millennium Park News, Winter 2001-2.
  42. ^ Lacayo, Richard (2008-06-05). "Anish Kapoor: Past, Present, Future". Time. Time Inc..,9171,1812056,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  43. ^ Carlson, Prescott. "Chicago's Millennium Park". Chicago Travel. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  44. ^ a b "Art & Architecture: Lurie Garden". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  45. ^ "Art & Architecture: The Plant Life of the Lurie Garden". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  46. ^ Herrmann, Andrew (2004-07-15). "Sun-Times Insight". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  47. ^ Raver, Anne (2004-07-15). "NATURE; Softening a City With Grit and Grass". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  48. ^ "BP Pedestrian Bridge". Glass, Steel and Stone. Artefaqs Corporation. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  49. ^ Cohen, Laurie (2001-07-02). "Band shell cost heads skyward - Millennium Park's new concert venue may top $40 million". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  50. ^ a b Kamin, Blair (2004-07-18). "BP Bridge- **** - Crossing Columbus Drive - Frank Gehry, Los Angeles". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  51. ^ "Art & Architecture: McCormick Tribune Plaza and Ice Rink". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  52. ^ "Come Out and Skate". Chicago Park District. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  53. ^ Davey, Monica (2008-01-18). "Winter Day Out in Chicago". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  54. ^ Davey, Monica (2008-01-18). "5 Big Cities, 1 Winter Day (Slideshow)". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  55. ^ a b "Your Outdoor Table". Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  56. ^ "Park Grill Events & Activities". Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  57. ^ a b "Art & Architecture: Wrigley Square and Millennium Monument (Peristyle)". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  58. ^ "Art & Architecture: Joan W. and Irving B. Harris Theater for Music and Dance". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  59. ^ "History of the Harris Theater". Harris Theater for Music and Dance at Millennium Park. 2006. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  60. ^ "I. B. Harris, 94, Philanthropist and Executive, Dies". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 2004-09-28. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  61. ^ a b "Art & Architecture: Exelon Pavilions: Millennium Park Welcome Center and Garage Entrances". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  62. ^ "Art & Architecture: Exelon Pavilions Facts and Figures". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-07. 
  63. ^ Exelon Corporation (2005-12-15). "North Exelon Pavilions Receive a “LEED Silver” Rating from the U.S. Green Building Council". Press release. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  64. ^ "Art & Architecture: McDonald's Cycle Center". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  65. ^ Kamin, Blair (2004-07-18). "Bicycle Station - *** - Near Randolph and Columbus Drives - Muller & Muller, Chicago". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  66. ^ "Boeing to Fund Open-air Gallery Spaces in Chicago's Millennium Park". Boeing. 2005-03-16. Retrieved 2008-06-10. 
  67. ^ a b "Art & Architecture: Chase Promenade". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  68. ^ "Private Rentals: Photo Galleries: Chase Promenade". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  69. ^ Weiss, Hedy (2009-05-10). "Growing in style - Art Institute's Modern Wing When the $300 million expansion opens this week, visitors will find the museum easier to navigate and see 20th century masterpieces in a whole new light -- from the sun". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  70. ^ Lourgos, Angie Leventis (2009-05-08). "Bridge to the art world - Art Institute's new overhead walkway brings Modern Wing to the rest of the city". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  71. ^ Cohen, Patricia (2008-06-24). "Footnotes". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  72. ^ Newbart, Dave (2009-06-19). "New Angles on Burnham - 2 futuristic pavilions launch tribute to Plan of Chicago designer". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  73. ^ Kamin, Blair (2008-06-22). "2 architects to design Burnham pavilions". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-25. 
  74. ^ Kamin, Blair (2009-06-14). "Pavilion opener awaits another day in park". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  75. ^ Kamin, Blair (2009-06-18). "Populist gem joins 'Cloud Gate' at Millennium Park- Van Berkel's temporary pavilion an interactive salute to Burnham". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  76. ^ Ford, Liam (2004-07-11). "City to finally open its new front yard - Millennium Park's price tag tripled". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  77. ^ Sinkevitch, p. 37
  78. ^ Spielman, Fran (2008-06-12). "Mayor gets what he wants - Council OKs move 33-16 despite opposition". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  79. ^ "The taking of Grant Park". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  80. ^ Spielman, Fran and Art Golab (2008-05-16). "13-2 vote for museum - Decision on Grant Park sets up Council battle". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  81. ^ Grinnell, Max (2005). "Grant Park". The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  82. ^ Gilfoyle, p. 181
  83. ^ "In a fight over Grant Park, Chicago's mayor faces a small revolt". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 2007-10-04. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  84. ^ a b Herrmann, Andrew (September 1, 2005). "Howls over charge for Millennium Park concert // Watchdog contends lawn seats supposed to be free". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  85. ^ "City Charges To Publicly View Its Private Parts". Chicagoist. Gothamist LLC. September 1, 2005. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  86. ^ Wasielewski, Carl (September 9, 2005). "A bad deal all around". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  87. ^ "General Information". City of Chicago. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  88. ^ a b c Ahmed-Ullah, Noreen S. (2005-09-09). "NO WALK IN THE PARK - Toyota VIPs receive Millennium Park 's red-carpet treatment; everyone else told to just keep on going". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  89. ^ a b c Dardick, Hal (2005-05-06). "THIS SEPT. 8, NO BEAN FOR YOU - Unless you're a Toyota dealer. In that case, feel free to frolic because the carmaker paid $800,000 to own the park for the day". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  90. ^ "A day in the park with Toyota". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. 2005-05-10. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  91. ^ Herrmann, Andrew (2006-05-04). "Allstate pays $200,000 to book Millennium Park for one day". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  92. ^ Roston, Eric (2004-10-11). "Windy City Redux". Time. Time Inc..,9171,995369,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  93. ^ "Best Free Things to Do". Frommer's. Wiley Publishing, Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  94. ^ "In & Around the Loop". Frommer's. Wiley Publishing, Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  95. ^ "Millennium Park". Lonely Planet Publications. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  96. ^ "Millennium Park". Fodor's Travel. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  97. ^ Cooper, Jeanne (2004-07-18). "TRAVELERS' CHECKS". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  98. ^ Lacayo, Richard (2004). "Best & Worst 2004: The Best Architecture". Time. Time Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  99. ^ Spanberg, Erik (2008-08-01). "New agenda on open space: Study of uptown park plans is expected to highlight need for more". Charlotte Business Journal. American City Business Journals, Inc..^1677852. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  100. ^ Schultz, Patricia. 1,000 Places to See in the U.S.A. & Canada Before You Die. Workman Publishing. pp. 490–91. ISBN 0761136916. 
  101. ^ "BEST SELLERS: August 13, 2006". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  102. ^ King, John (2006-11-19). "Holiday Goodies Between Covers: Our reviewers' picks of the best books of the season for the readers on your list". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  103. ^ Deyer, Joshua (July 2005). "Chicago's New Class Act". PN. Paralyzed Veterans of America. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  104. ^ "Awards". Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. 2005. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  105. ^ "Contemporary Urban Waterscapes: designing public spaces in concert with nature". Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  106. ^ Bernstein, Fred A. (2004-07-18). "ART/ARCHITECTURE; Big Shoulders, Big Donors, Big Art". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  107. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". City of Chicago.,+engine+has+been+restarted& Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  108. ^ King, John (2005-12-09). "San Francisco: Mayor widens vision to urban architecture. He doesn't want a 'dumbing down of quality' in design". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  109. ^ King, John (2006-08-12). "Mayor of S.F. Looks Eastward For Urban Inspiration: Winds of change blow from Chicago". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  110. ^ "China's image in the heartland". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 2005-05-12. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  111. ^ Goldstein, Meredith (2007-09-30). "Jeff Garlin writes, directs and stars in romantic comedy". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Communications Inc.. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  112. ^ Elder, Robert K. (2006-04-23). "Reel Chicago - Corncob Towers, Brawny Streetscapes and the Endless Lakefront Keep Us on the Movie Map". Chicago Tribune. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  113. ^ Zwecker, Bill (2006-03-30). "Vaughn, Aniston frolic under Cloud cover". Chicago Sun-Times. Newsbank. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  114. ^ Beiks, Ilona (2006-04-06). "Infinity rolls Wheel with Brosnan". Playback. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  115. ^ Barker, Rosalea (2006-07-31). "Stateside Movie Review: The Lake House". Scoop. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  116. ^ "Film "Leverage" filmed". EveryBlock. 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  117. ^ "On Screen Illinois". Illinois Mile After Mile. Universal Studios. Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
  118. ^ Lyons, Margaret (2005-08-24). "Big house on the prairie: TOC goes behind bars for a preview of Prison Break, an arresting TV drama serving time on location around Chicago". Time Out Chicago. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 


  • Sinkevitch, Alice, ed. "Central City". AIA Guide To Chicago (2nd ed.). Harcourt Books. pp. 34–38. ISBN 0-15-602908-1. 

External links


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address