Mindfulness (psychology): Wikis

  
  

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Modern clinical psychology and psychiatry beginning in the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on the concept of mindfulness (Pali sati or Sanskrit smriti) in Buddhist meditation.

Contents

Definitions

Psychological "mindfulness" is broadly conceptualized, say Bishop et al. (2004:232), as "a kind of nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness in which each thought, feeling, or sensation that arises in the attentional field is acknowledged and accepted as it is". They propose a two-component operational definition of "mindfulness".

The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward one’s experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance. (2004:232)

The former mindfulness component of self-regulated attention involves conscious awareness of one's current thoughts, feelings, and surroundings, which can result in metacognitive skills for controlling concentration. The latter mindfulness component of orientation to experience involves accepting one's mindstream, maintaining open and curious attitudes, and thinking in alternative categories (developing upon Ellen Langer's decision making research).

History

Although Buddhist meditation techniques originated as spiritual practices, they have a long history of secular applications. For instance, the Tang Dynasty Chan (Japanese Zen) and Huayan scholar-monk Zongmi (780-841) listed "Five Types of Meditation", the first of which is for fanfu (Japanese bompu) 凡夫 "ordinary people". Philip Kapleau explains.

Bompu Zen, being free from any philosophic or religious content, is for anybody and everybody. It is a Zen practiced purely in the belief that it can improve both physical and mental health. Since it can almost certainly have no ill effects, anyone can undertake it, whatever religious beliefs they happen to hold or if they hold none at all. Bompu Zen is bound to eliminate sickness of a psychosomatic nature and to improve the health generally. (1989:49)

Clinical research shows Buddhist mindfulness techniques can help alleviate anxiety, stress, and depression.

Mindfulness was brought to Western attention by Thich Nhat Hanh[1]. Mindfulness and other Buddhist meditation techniques are being advocated in the West by psychologists and Buddhist meditation expert teachers such as Jon Kabat-Zinn, Jack Kornfield, Joseph Goldstein, Tara Brach, Alan Clements, and Sharon Salzberg, who have been widely attributed with playing a significant role in integrating the healing aspects of Buddhist meditation practices with the concept of psychological awareness and healing. Psychotherapists have adapted and developed mindfulness techniques into several promising[citation needed] cognitive behavioral therapies.

Therapeutic applications of mindfulness

Recent research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain (McCracken et al. 2007), stress (Grossman et al. 2004), depression and substance abuse (Melemis 2008:141-157), and recurrent suicidal behavior (Williams et al. 2006). Bell (2009) gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.

Morita therapy

The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment.

Gestalt therapy

Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as "awareness", has been an essential part of the theory and practice.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction

Jon Kabat-Zinn developed the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) over a ten year period at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. He (1990:11) defines the essence of MBSR: "This "work" involves above all the regular, disciplined practice of moment-to-moment awareness or mindfulness, the complete "owning" of each moment of your experience, good, bad, or ugly." Kabat-Zinn explains the non-Buddhist universality of MBSR.

Although at this time mindfulness meditation is most commonly taught and practiced within the context of Buddhism, its essence is universal. … Yet it is no accident that mindfulness comes out of Buddhism, which has as its overriding concerns the relief of suffering and the dispelling of illusions. (2005:12-13)

MBSR has clinically proven beneficial for people with depression and anxiety disorders. This mindfulness-based psychotherapy is practiced as a form of complementary medicine in over 200[citation needed] hospitals, and is currently the focus of numerous research studies funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) psychotherapy combines cognitive therapy with mindfulness techniques as a treatment for Major depressive disorder.

Acceptance and commitment therapy

Steven C. Hayes and others have developed Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), originally called "comprehensive distancing", that uses strategies of mindfulness, acceptance, and behavior change.

Dialectical behavior therapy

Mindfulness is a "core" exercise used in Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan (1993:19), in the sense of "the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis." As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:

This emphasis in DBT on a balance of acceptance and change owes much to my experiences in studying meditation and Eastern spirituality. The DBT tenets of observing, mindfulness, and avoidance of judgment are all derived from the study and practice of Zen meditation. (1993:20-21)

Hakomi

Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.

Learning mindfulness

Mindfulness is simple but not easy (Jon Kabat-Zinn). It is not necessary to become a Buddhist to profit from its practice. But the best way is to learn from a teacher. Or as Edel Maex coined it: "Nobody has learned to play the piano from a book."[2] Mindfulness can be learned quickly but takes a lifetime of practice.

Centers

Mindfulness techniques are now widely available in the Western world. Health care insurers sometimes refund the cost of training.[citation needed] Mindfulness is also taught in a derivative form such as attention or awareness training.

Mindfulness is studied and taught at institutions such as:

In the United Kingdom

  • Breathworks[1], founded in 2004, offering classes in mindfulness such as: "Living Well with Pain and Illness" and "Living Well with Stress".
  • Learn Mindfulness[2], offering in person (London) and telephone/online MBSR and MBCT and mindful coaching
  • Mindfulness Works Ltd. [3], offering regular MBSR/MBCT classes in London

In the US

  • Mindful Awareness Research Center (MARC)[4], founded in 2006 at UCLA, offers classes and conducts research related to mindfulness, both for enhancing general well-being and treating ADHD.
  • Nashville Mindfulness Center[5], founded in 2006, offers Zen mindfulness classes in the methods of Thich Nhat Hanh.
  • The Insight Center[6] , founded in 2007 in West Los Angeles, teaches mindfulness meditation to the general public and provides mindfulness psychotherapy training to health professionals
  • The Santa Clara University Ignatian Center for Jesuit Education[7]
  • Umass Medical Center (Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society)[8], who also offer a stress reduction course.
  • The University of Pennsylvania also offers a Program for Mindfulness, directed by Dr. Michael Baime [9]

References

  1. ^ Thich Nhat Hanh, The Miracle of Mindfulness (1975), Beacon Books, ISBN 0-8070-1239-4
  2. ^ Mindfulness, in de maelstroom van je leven (2007), Maex, Edel, Lannoo, ISBN 978-90-209-6516-2

Bibliography

  • Bell, L. G. (2009). "Mindful Psychotherapy". J. of Spirituality in Mental Health 11:126-144.
  • Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., et al. (2004). "Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition", Clin Psychol Sci Prac 11:230–241.
  • Brantley, Jeffrey (2007). Calming Your Anxious Mind: How Mindfulness & Compassion Can Free You from Anxiety, Fear, & Panic. 2nd ed. New Harbinger. ISBN 978-1572244870.
  • Bernhard, J., Kristeller, J. and Kabat-Zinn, J. (1988). "Effectiveness of relaxation and visualization techniques as an adjunct to phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 19:572-73.
  • Germer, Christopher K., Ronald Siegel, Paul R. Fulton, 2005), Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, The Guilford Press, ISBN 1-59385-139-1 ( The use of mindfulness in psychology, and the history of mindfulness )
  • Grossman, P., Niemann, L., Schmidt, S., and Walach, H. (2004). "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis", Journal of Psychosomatic Research 57:35–43.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). "An out-patient program in Behavioral Medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results". Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 4:33-47.
  • Kabat-Zinn, Jon (1990). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. Dell.
  • Kabat-Zinn, Jon (2005). Coming to Our Senses: Healing Ourselves and the World Through Mindfulness. Hyperion.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. and Chapman-Waldrop, A. (1988). "Compliance with an outpatient stress reduction program: rates and predictors of completion". J.Behav. Med. 11:333-352.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. Chapman, A, and Salmon, P. (1997). "The relationship of cognitive and somatic components of anxiety to patient preference for alternative relaxation techniques". Mind/ Body Medicine 2:101-109.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L. and Burney, R. (1985). "The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain". J. Behav. Med. 8:163-190.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., Burney, R. and Sellers, W. (1986). "Four year follow-up of a meditation-based program for the self-regulation of chronic pain: Treatment outcomes and compliance". Clin. J.Pain 2:159-173.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Massion, A.O., Kristeller, J., Peterson, L.G., Fletcher, K., Pbert, L., Linderking, W., Santorelli, S.F. (1992). "Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders". Am. J Psychiatry 149:936-943.
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Wheeler, E., Light, T., Skillings, A., Scharf, M.S., Cropley, T. G., Hosmer, D., and Bernhard, J. (1998). "Influence of a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA)". Psychosomat Med 60: 625-632.
  • Kapleau, Phillip (1989). The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice and Enlightenment. Anchor Books.
  • Langer, Ellen J. (1989). Mindfulness. Merloyd Lawrence.
  • Linehan, Marsha (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford Press.
  • Massion, A.O., Teas, J., Hebert, J.R., Wertheimer, M.D., and Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). "Meditation, melatonin, and breast/prostate cancer: Hypothesis and preliminary data". Medical Hypotheses 44:39-46.
  • McCracken, L., Gauntlett-Gilbert, J., and Vowles K.E. (2007). "The role of mindfulness in a contextual cognitive-behavioral analysis of chronic pain-related suffering and disability", Pain 131.1:63-69.
  • Melemis, Steven M. (2008). Make Room for Happiness: 12 Ways to Improve Your Life by Letting Go of Tension. Better Health, Self-Esteem and Relationships. Modern Therapies. ISBN 978-1897572177
  • Miller, J., Fletcher, K. and Kabat-Zinn, J. (1995). "Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders". Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 17:192-200.
  • Nemcova, M. and Hajek, K. (2009). Introduction to Satitherapy – Mindfulness and Abhidhamma Principles in Person-Centered Integrative Psychotherapy. Morrisville, Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1409259008
  • Ockene, J.K., Ockene, I.S., Kabat-Zinn, J., Greene, H.L., and Frid, D. (1990). "Teaching risk-factor counseling skills to medical students, house staff, and fellows". Am. J. Prevent. Med. 6.2:35-42.
  • Ockene, J., Sorensen, G., Kabat-Zinn, J., Ockene, I.S., and Donnelly, G. (1988). "Benefits and costs of lifestyle change to reduce risk of chronic disease". Preventive Medicine, 17:224-234.
  • Saxe, G., Hebert, J., Carmody, J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Rosenzweig, P., Jarzobski, D., Reed, G., and Blute, R. (2001). "Can Diet, in conjunction with Stress Reduction, Affect the Rate of Increase in Prostate-specific Antigen after Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer?" J. of Urology 166.6:2202-2207.
  • Siegel, Daniel J. (2007). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being. Norton. ISBN 978-0393704709.
  • Williams, J.M.G., Duggan, D.S., Crane, C., and Fennell, M.J.V. (2006). "Mindfulness-Based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal behavior", J Clin Psychol 62:201-210.
  • Williams, Mark, John Teasdale, Zindel Segal, and Jon Kabat-Zinn (2007). The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1593851286.

See also

External links








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