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.A mineral is a naturally occurring solid formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure, and specific physical properties.^ They have a specific chemical composition and a characteristic crystal form.
  • Minerals of Iowa 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.igsb.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemical compositional variation in minerals is referred to solid solution .
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crystals: The Form Most minerals occur naturally as crystals.
  • Smithsonian Education - Minerals, Crystals and Gems 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.smithsonianeducation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A rock, by comparison, is an aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids, and need not have a specific chemical composition.^ Chemical analysis of rocks involves analyzing an aggregate of minerals.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemical composition - Mineral formulas .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Different chemical compositions result in different minerals.
  • Mineral Identification 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC facweb.bhc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Minerals range in composition from pure elements and simple salts to very complex silicates with thousands of known forms.^ There are thousands of known minerals.

^ Over 200 different forms are known; Commonest of the Epidote Group species.Most of the Epidote group minerals may exhibit a second, poor, cleavage, but it is usually not seen.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some underground salt deposits in Texas and Louisiana, the salt is pushed upwards by an underground force through soft ground and forms arched structures known as "salt domes."

[1] The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
An assortment of minerals.

Contents

Mineral definition and classification

.To be classified as a true mineral, a substance must be a solid and have a crystalline structure.^ Because of this feature, minerals are classified as crystalline solids .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mineral Ceramic minerals have a highly ordered atomic structure and a specific range of crystalline manifestations.
  • Digitalfire Reference Database: Minerals used in traditional ceramics 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC digitalfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-crystalline materials (opal, some hydrocarbons) Organic rock materials Substances that are mixtures of several minerals on a microscopic scale (limonite, bauxite) .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It must also be a naturally occurring, homogeneous substance with a defined chemical composition.^ According to Dana's Manual of Mineralogy, minerals are "naturally occurring, internally structured chemical elements or compounds formed as a product of inorganic processes".

^ NATURALLY-OCCURRING INORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ABOUT 3000 KNOWN 200 COMMON 20 ROCK-FORMING MINERALOIDS .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By its definition as a homogeneous solid, a mineral is composed of a single solid substance of uniform composition that cannot be physically separated into simpler compounds.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Traditional definitions excluded organically derived material. However, the International Mineralogical Association in 1995 adopted a new definition:
a mineral is an element or chemical compound that is normally crystalline and that has been formed as a result of geological processes.[2]
The modern classifications include an organic class – in both the new Dana and the Strunz classification schemes.[3][4]
.The chemical composition may vary between end members of a mineral system.^ Mineral formulas - Compositional variation .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chemical compositional variation in minerals is referred to solid solution .
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemical composition - Mineral formulas .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example the plagioclase feldspars comprise a continuous series from sodium and silicon-rich albite (NaAlSi3O8) to calcium and aluminium-rich anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) with four recognized intermediate compositions between.^ Names for intermediate members of the series, such as "chrysolite" and "hortonolite" are based on chemical composition and should not be used unless the composition is known.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Crust makes up less than 1% of the Earths mass (0.4%) It is made of oxygen, magnesium aluminum, silicon calcium, sodium potassium, iron.

^ At high temperature, complete solid solution exists between Ab and Or, to form the alkali feldspar solid solution series.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mineral-like substances that don't strictly meet the definition are sometimes classified as mineraloids.^ Other limitations of the capsule include the use of complex minerals that are bound to other substances like calcium carbonate.
  • Angstrom Minerals- The Most Minerals For Your Dollar- 99.9% Absorbable 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC angstrom-mineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes minerals form in spaces where there is not a lot of room, so they don't have a crystal shape.

^ I don’t have to miss work, I sleep like a log, I’m happier and more stable all because of one mineral that I was deficient in.
  • Ancient Minerals | Ultra Pure Magnesium Oil, Magnesium Gel, Magnesium Flakes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.ancient-minerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other natural-occurring substances are nonminerals.^ Ancient Minerals Magnesium Bath Flakes are the dry flakes of magnesium chloride and other naturally occurring trace minerals, in a convenient and economical form for utilization in baths and foot soaks.
  • Ancient Minerals | Ultra Pure Magnesium Oil, Magnesium Gel, Magnesium Flakes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.ancient-minerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All other naturally occurring elements are found in very minor or trace amounts.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In geology, the term mineral describes any naturally-occurring solid substance with a specific composition and crystal structure.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Industrial minerals is a market term and refers to commercially valuable mined materials (see also Minerals and Rocks section below).^ Non-crystalline materials (opal, some hydrocarbons) Organic rock materials Substances that are mixtures of several minerals on a microscopic scale (limonite, bauxite) .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the mine is below the aquifer tapped by the well, subsidence of the mine could damage the aquifer, causing its water to drain into deeper rock units.
  • Mineral Rights | Oil & Gas Lease and Royalty Information 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC geology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The websites below contain descriptive information about mineral mining and production in various U.S. states and Canadian provinces.
  • Mineral Rights | Oil & Gas Lease and Royalty Information 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC geology.com [Source type: Original source]

.A crystal structure is the orderly geometric spatial arrangement of atoms in the internal structure of a mineral.^ Internal structure - - Examining crystal structures .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the minerals forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) and fayalite (Fe 2 SiO 4 ) are members of the olivine group and have the same crystal structure, that is, the same geometric arrangement of atoms.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are 14 basic crystal lattice arrangements of atoms in three dimensions, and these are referred to as the 14 "Bravais lattices". Each of these lattices can be classified into one of the seven crystal systems, and all crystal structures currently recognized fit in one Bravais lattice and one crystal system.^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a variety of ones discussed in this article all the way from the NSI Synergy Once Per Day to the 14 capsule per day Life Extension Mix caps.
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Three cleavage directions one distinct (prismatic), second direction good (basal), and fair to poor in a third, (prismatic); rhombic overall may be difficult to see all three .
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This crystal structure is based on regular internal atomic or ionic arrangement that is often expressed in the geometric form that the crystal takes.^ Minerals display a highly ordered internal atomic structure that has a regular geometric form (see Figure 1 ).
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Internal structure - - Examining crystal structures .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They often promote a "special" method of chelation such as: amino acid chelated minerals in various forms from ionic to colloidal, as superior.
  • MINERAL SUPPLEMENT NEEDED BECAUSE OUR SOIL IS DEPLETED 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.healthylivingintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even when the mineral grains are too small to see or are irregularly shaped, the underlying crystal structure is always periodic and can be determined by X-ray diffraction.^ Many of us could have seriously deficient diets, since many vegetables, produce, fruits, grains and even meats are shockingly low on minerals.
  • MINERAL SUPPLEMENT NEEDED BECAUSE OUR SOIL IS DEPLETED 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.healthylivingintl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way these elements are packed together determines the structure of the mineral.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chemistry and crystal structure together define a mineral.^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way these elements are packed together determines the structure of the mineral.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other materials are blended minerals or they have been processed to remove impurities or they have been altered somehow in their crystal structure (e.g.
  • Digitalfire Reference Database: Minerals used in traditional ceramics 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC digitalfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, two or more minerals may have the same chemical composition, but differ in crystal structure (these are known as polymorphs).^ Illustrating crystal structures - Polymorphism .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Polymorphism - Chemical composition .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chemical composition - Mineral formulas .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, pyrite and marcasite are both iron sulfide, but their arrangement of atoms differs.^ For example, the minerals forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) and fayalite (Fe 2 SiO 4 ) are members of the olivine group and have the same crystal structure, that is, the same geometric arrangement of atoms.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pyrite is a polymorph of marcasite, which means that it has the same chemistry as marcasite, but a different structure and therefore different symmetry and crystal shapes.

.Similarly, some minerals have different chemical compositions, but the same crystal structure: for example, halite (made from sodium and chlorine), galena (made from lead and sulfur) and periclase (made from magnesium and oxygen) all share the same cubic crystal structure.^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium and chlorine.

^ A mineral is the same all the way through.

.Crystal structure greatly influences a mineral's physical properties.^ Physical properties - - Crystal habit and crystal aggregati...
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When you select a mineral name from this index, you will be presented with an information page on that mineral giving it's physical properties and discussing its occurrence, diagnostic features, uses, history and metaphysical properties.
  • New Gemstones Index at mineralminers.com 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.mineralminers.com [Source type: General]

^ A few minerals may have easily tested unique properties that may greatly aid identification.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, though diamond and graphite have the same composition (both are pure carbon), graphite is very soft, while diamond is the hardest of all known minerals.^ Another familiar example of polymorphism is graphite and diamond, two different minerals with the same formula, C (carbon).
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The borates contain triangular BO 3 3- or tetrahedral BO 4 5- , and commonly both coordinations may occur in the same mineral.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This happens because the carbon atoms in graphite are arranged into sheets which can slide easily past each other, while the carbon atoms in diamond form a strong, interlocking three-dimensional network.^ Complex minerals are those like Calcium Carbonate, one calcium atom and three carbon atoms.
  • Angstrom Minerals- The Most Minerals For Your Dollar- 99.9% Absorbable 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC angstrom-mineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She came to the Park because she has a strong and long lasting interest in lamproites, not simply to hunt diamonds as a tourist.
  • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, carbonate shells are minerals because they are identical to compounds formed by purely inorganic processes.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are currently more than 4,000 known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association, which is responsible for the approval of and naming of new mineral species found in nature.^ There are more than 100 mineral elements found on earth.

^ Date of Formation: 1866 Named: For the mineral resources found there.
  • Mineral County history sources 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.wvculture.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A preliminary letter from Dr. Milton indicated that this mineral might be a new species, but because he did not have time to work on it, he turned the specimens over to the Smithsonian.
  • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of these, perhaps 100 can be called "common", 50 are "occasional", and the rest are "rare" to "extremely rare".

Differences between minerals and rocks

.A mineral is a naturally occurring solid with a definite chemical composition and a specific crystalline structure.^ Figure 7: Chemical bonding in crystalline solids.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chemical compositional variation in minerals is referred to solid solution .
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An abbreviated definition of a mineral would be "a natural, crystalline phase".
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals.^ A rock is made up of 2 or more minerals.

^ The earth's crust is composed of many kinds of rocks, each of which is an aggregate of one or more minerals.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly rectangular or sharp angles in prismatic minerals may indicate a Pyroxene Group mineral or one of the Feldspars, while more open angles approximately 120 degrees may indicate an Amphibole Group mineral.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(A rock may also include organic remains and mineraloids.) .Some rocks are predominantly composed of just one mineral.^ Most rocks are composed of several different minerals; e.g.,granite consists of feldspar, quartz, mica, and amphibole.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Diet & Nutrition Glossary minerals Nutrients composed of only one kind of atom.
  • Using Minerals to Improve Body Functions - For Dummies 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If there is a shortage of just one mineral, the balance of the entire bodily activity can be thrown awry.

.For example, limestone is a sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of the mineral calcite.^ Limestone : A sedimentary rock composed mostly of the mineral calcite and comprising about 15% of the Earth's sedimentary crust.
  • Mineral Information Institute - Common Minerals 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.mii.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some elements, like rubidium, have no minerals of their own and occur in nature almost entirely by substituting for more common elements.
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most rocks are composed of several different minerals; e.g.,granite consists of feldspar, quartz, mica, and amphibole.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Other rocks contain many minerals, and the specific minerals in a rock can vary widely.^ Minerals combine with each other to form rocks.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A wide variety of other terms are also used to describe mineral habits.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of extracting the sodium with isopropanol or other toxic solvents like many colloidal minerals and other trace mineral preparations do, it's the "whole thing."
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some minerals, like quartz, mica or feldspar are common, while others have been found in only four or five locations worldwide.^ Mica is the most common mineral.

^ Of the silicates, the aluminosilicates, like the feldspars and clay minerals are the most common.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common minerals are found in uncommon forms.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vast majority of the rocks of the Earth's crust consist of quartz, feldspar, mica, chlorite, kaolin, calcite, epidote, olivine, augite, hornblende, magnetite, hematite, limonite and a few other minerals.^ Most rocks are composed of several different minerals; e.g.,granite consists of feldspar, quartz, mica, and amphibole.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Minerals are not evenly distributed in the earth's crust.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minerals combine with each other to form rocks.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[5] .Over half of the mineral species known are so rare that they have only been found in a handful of samples, and many are known from only one or two small grains.^ Potassium is only one of many minerals lost.

^ Many minerals are commonly found together (e.g.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collectors who have a Geiger counter may find it useful at certain localities, particularly pegmatites where many of the more common radioactive minerals are found.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commercially valuable minerals and rocks are referred to as industrial minerals.^ This includes all valuable rocks, minerals, oil or gas found on or within the Earth.
  • Mineral Rights | Oil & Gas Lease and Royalty Information 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC geology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mineral Environments refers to the "geologic environments" in which minerals occur the types of rocks in which they are found.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ References:     Howard, J. M. and Owens, D. R., 1995, Minerals of the Wilson Springs vanadium mines, Potash Sulphur Springs, Arkansas: Rocks and Minerals, v.
  • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rocks from which minerals are mined for economic purposes are referred to as ores (the rocks and minerals that remain, after the desired mineral has been separated from the ore, are referred to as tailings).^ In cases where a single mineral is too small to provide enough sample, several grains of the same mineral can be separated from a rock and analyzed as a single sample.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This environment is commonly grouped with metamorphic environments, but the minerals that form by this process and the elements that they contain are so distinct from contact or regional metamorphic rocks that it us useful to consider them as a separate group.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mineral Environments refers to the "geologic environments" in which minerals occur the types of rocks in which they are found.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mineral composition of rocks

.A main determining factor in the formation of minerals in a rock mass is the chemical composition of the mass, for a certain mineral can be formed only when the necessary elements are present in the rock.^ According to Dana's Manual of Mineralogy, minerals are "naturally occurring, internally structured chemical elements or compounds formed as a product of inorganic processes".

^ Learning to recognize hand specimens of approximately 100 of the most common rock-forming minerals is an important part of this course.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NATURALLY-OCCURRING INORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ABOUT 3000 KNOWN 200 COMMON 20 ROCK-FORMING MINERALOIDS .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Calcite is most common in limestones, as these consist essentially of calcium carbonate; quartz is common in sandstones and in certain igneous rocks which contain a high percentage of silica.^ Schist is the most common metamorphic rock.

^ Limestone is a rock that contains many fossils and is made of calcium carbonate &/or microscopic shells.

^ These kits contain common rocks and minerals.
  • Elementary & HS in order 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.djminerals.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other factors are of equal importance in determining the natural association or paragenesis of rock-forming minerals, principally the mode of origin of the rock and the stages through which it has passed in attaining its present condition.^ Minerals combine with each other to form rocks.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NATURALLY-OCCURRING INORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ABOUT 3000 KNOWN 200 COMMON 20 ROCK-FORMING MINERALOIDS .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Magmatic mineral deposits are formed when processes such as partial melting and fractional crystallization occur during the melting and cooling of rocks.
  • AP Environmental Science Chapter 10- Minerals - Encyclopedia of Earth 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two rock masses may have very much the same bulk composition and yet consist of entirely different assemblages of minerals.^ The color may be entirely different, or it may be a different shade.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, analysis of minerals is quite different from analysis of rocks.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is there may be differences in the chemical composition of the mineral from its center to its rim.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tendency is always for those compounds to be formed which are stable under the conditions under which the rock mass originated.^ NATURALLY-OCCURRING INORGANIC CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ABOUT 3000 KNOWN 200 COMMON 20 ROCK-FORMING MINERALOIDS .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each of these structures is then a different mineral and, in general, will be stable under different conditions of temperature and pressure.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each is stable under a different set of temperature and pressure conditions, and the presence of one of these in a rock may be used to infer the conditions of formation of a rock.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A granite arises by the consolidation of a molten magma at high temperatures and great pressures and its component minerals are those stable under such conditions.^ Each of these structures is then a different mineral and, in general, will be stable under different conditions of temperature and pressure.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transparent minerals with a high index of refraction such as diamond appear brilliant and are said to have an adamantine luster, whereas those with a lower index of refraction such as quartz or calcite appear glassy and are said to have a vitreous luster.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have heard that Ancient Minerals is beneficial for skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema?
  • Ancient Minerals | Ultra Pure Magnesium Oil, Magnesium Gel, Magnesium Flakes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.ancient-minerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Exposed to moisture, carbonic acid and other subaerial agents at the ordinary temperatures of the Earth's surface, some of these original minerals, such as quartz and white mica are relatively stable and remain unaffected; others weather or decay and are replaced by new combinations.^ Some other minerals that may exhibit weak magnetism are pyrrhotite, ilmenite and franklinite.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When volcanoes erupt and the liquid rock comes up to the earth's surface, then new igneous rock is made.

^ Some were as previously described, being white cleavable masses, whereas a few specimens were much finer grained than originally described.
  • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The feldspar passes into kaolinite, muscovite and quartz, and any mafic minerals such as pyroxenes, amphiboles or biotite have been present they are often altered to chlorite, epidote, rutile and other substances.^ Some Amphiboles and Pyroxenes Micas Gypsum, Epidote Sugar also belongs to this crystal class.
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly rectangular or sharp angles in prismatic minerals may indicate a Pyroxene Group mineral or one of the Feldspars, while more open angles approximately 120 degrees may indicate an Amphibole Group mineral.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other limitations of the capsule include the use of complex minerals that are bound to other substances like calcium carbonate.
  • Angstrom Minerals- The Most Minerals For Your Dollar- 99.9% Absorbable 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC angstrom-mineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These changes are accompanied by disintegration, and the rock falls into a loose, incoherent, earthy mass which may be regarded as a sand or soil.^ Marble is an example of a sedimentary rock that has been changed into a metamorphic rock.

^ Leaching by ground water: water soaks into the soil, picks up chemicals This allows the water to leach or dissolve rocks it comes in contact with at bedrock.

^ Current aggressive agricultural practices commonly deplete the soil of minerals, so you may not obtain these essential nutrients from your food.
  • Using Minerals to Improve Body Functions - For Dummies 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The materials thus formed may be washed away and deposited as sandstone or siltstone.^ Concretionary masses formed by mineral being deposited around a nucleus, may be spherical or rounded but may also be a wide variety of other shapes.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Base forms of calcium like carbonate may increase the chances of kidney stones and other calcium deposits when taken without magnesium.
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The structure of the original rock is now replaced by a new one; the mineralogical constitution is profoundly altered; but the bulk chemical composition may not be very different.^ In contrast to the isomorphous series, it is also common for a single compound (composition) to occur with different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although each of these has the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One day there may be better specimens found but right now, this is one of the finest you'll see anywhere.

.The sedimentary rock may again undergo metamorphism.^ Marble is an example of a sedimentary rock that has been changed into a metamorphic rock.

^ Metamorphic rocks are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been transformed by great heat or pressure.

^ The Stupid Page of Rocks Describes metamorphic, sedimentary & igneous rocks Rocks and the Rock Cycle A well written description of the Rock Cycle.

.If penetrated by igneous rocks it may be recrystallized or, if subjected to enormous pressures with heat and movement during mountain building, it may be converted into a gneiss not very different in mineralogical composition though radically different in structure to the granite which was its original state.^ Metamorphic rocks are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been transformed by great heat or pressure.

^ Anthracite: Sometimes also called hard coal, anthracite forms from bituminous coal when great pressures developed in folded rock strata during the creation of mountain ranges.
  • Mineral Information Institute - Common Minerals 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.mii.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In contrast to the isomorphous series, it is also common for a single compound (composition) to occur with different crystal structures.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Physical properties of minerals

.Classifying minerals can range from simple to very difficult.^ Only a very few minerals phosphoresce well enough to see in a simple darkened room, and the phenomenon is usually rather short lived.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A mineral can be identified by several physical properties, some of them being sufficient for full identification without equivocation.^ Designed to acquaint the student with mineral identification based on physical properties.
  • Elementary & HS in order 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.djminerals.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-crystalline materials (opal, some hydrocarbons) Organic rock materials Substances that are mixtures of several minerals on a microscopic scale (limonite, bauxite) .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you select a mineral name from this index, you will be presented with an information page on that mineral giving it's physical properties and discussing its occurrence, diagnostic features, uses, history and metaphysical properties.
  • New Gemstones Index at mineralminers.com 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.mineralminers.com [Source type: General]

.In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods, however, can be costly and time-consuming.^ Here we discuss only the more commonly used methods of mineral analysis.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are numerous other properties that are diagnostic of minerals, but which generally require more sophisticated devices to measure or detect.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some complex minerals and colloid supplements are more than likely causing more harm than good.
  • Angstrom Minerals- The Most Minerals For Your Dollar- 99.9% Absorbable 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC angstrom-mineral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Physical properties commonly used are:[1]
  • Crystal structure and habit: See the above discussion of crystal structure. A mineral may show good crystal habit or form, or it may be massive, granular or compact with only microscopically visible crystals.
Talc
.
Rough diamond.
  • Hardness: the physical hardness of a mineral is usually measured according to the Mohs scale.^ It is approximately 5 on the Moh's hardness scale.
    • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A standard scale was developed by Friedrich Mohs in 1812 The standard minerals making up the Mohs scale of hardness are: 1.
    • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mohs Scale of Relative Hardness is used, and is presented here with the addition of a few common materials of known hardness added: .
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This scale is relative and goes from 1 to 10. Minerals with a given Mohs hardness can scratch the surface of any mineral that has a lower hardness than itself.^ It is approximately 5 on the Moh's hardness scale.
    • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A standard scale was developed by Friedrich Mohs in 1812 The standard minerals making up the Mohs scale of hardness are: 1.
    • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Potassium concentrations are about 30 times higher inside than outside cells, while sodium concentrations are more than 10 times lower inside than outside cells.

    .
  1. Talc Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
  2. Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O
  3. Calcite CaCO3
  4. Fluorite CaF2
  5. Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH,Cl,F)
  6. Orthoclase KAlSi3O8
  7. Quartz SiO2
  8. Topaz Al2SiO4(OH,F)2
  9. Corundum Al2O3
  10. Diamond C (pure carbon)
  • Luster indicates the way a mineral's surface interacts with light and can range from dull to glassy (vitreous).^ It is approximately 5 on the Moh's hardness scale.
    • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An example is epidote (Ca 2 Al 2 FeO(OH)SiO 4 Si 2 O 7 ), a mineral common in metamorphic rocks.
    • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Vitreous is often used for glassy luster.
    • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Metallic -high reflectivity like metal: galena and pyrite
    • Sub-metallic -slightly less than metallic reflectivity: magnetite
    • Non-metallic lusters:
      • Adamantine – brilliant, the luster of diamond also cerussite and anglesite
      • Vitreous -the luster of a broken glass: quartz
      • Pearly – iridescent and pearl-like: talc and apophyllite
      • Resinous – the luster of resin: sphalerite and sulfur
      • Silky – a soft light shown by fibrous materials: gypsum and chrysotile
      • Dull/earthy - shown by finely crystallized minerals: the kidney ore variety of hematite
  • Color indicates the appearance of the mineral in reflected light or transmitted light for translucent minerals (i.e. what it looks like to the naked eye).
    • Iridescence – the play of colors due to surface or internal interference. .Labradorite exhibits internal iridescence whereas hematite and sphalerite often show the surface effect.
  • Streak refers to the color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on an unglazed porcelain streak plate.^ The streak plate is used for obtaining a colored (or not) powder streak of the mineral.
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Leaves a colored powder streak on unglazed porcelain?
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A "streak plate" (unglazed porcelain tile a 2 inch square is plenty.
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Note that this is not always the same color as the original mineral.
  • Cleavage describes the way a mineral may split apart along various planes.^ The borates contain triangular BO 3 3- or tetrahedral BO 4 5- , and commonly both coordinations may occur in the same mineral.
    • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Note that the background color in the table changes with each change in the number of cleavages.
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In recent years approximately 100 new mineral species have been described each year, and these descriptions along with reports of physical and optical properties and crystal structure determinations are reported in various mineralogical journals, most of which are published by professional societies.
    • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In thin sections, cleavage is visible as thin parallel lines across a mineral.
  • Fracture describes how a mineral breaks when broken contrary to its natural cleavage planes.^ In nature, this is how we ingest minerals.
    • Mineral: Multi Minerals at Life Enthusiast Co-op 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC life-enthusiast.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Cleavages are also described in terms of their quality: How smoothly and easily the mineral breaks.
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The main thing that needs to be considered in the identification of minerals is whether or not a sample has a cleavage many minerals dont, breaking without producing smooth surfaces.
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Chonchoidal fracture is a smooth curved fracture with concentric ridges of the type shown by glass.
    • Hackley is jagged fracture with sharp edges.
    • Fibrous
    • Irregular
  • Specific gravity relates the mineral mass to the mass of an equal volume of water, namely the density of the material.^ Albert Kidwell, after whom the mineral is named, collected this mineral along with other iron phosphates and furnished the material to researchers at the University of Chicago.
    • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This causes the sharp edges of the rocks to get knocked off & that is why river rocks are so smooth & beach pebbles look polished.

    ^ TRICLINIC No edges equal, no angles 90 degrees Most Feldspars Kyanite Clay Minerals What if you have one 90 degree angle, or two equal edges?
    • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .While most minerals, including all the common rock-forming minerals, have a specific gravity of 2.5–3.5, a few are noticeably more or less dense, e.g.^ Epidote is the most common mineral of this type.
    • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Schist is the most common metamorphic rock.

    ^ Minerals combine with each other to form rocks.
    • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    several sulfide minerals have high specific gravity compared to the common rock-forming minerals.
  • Other properties: fluorescence (response to ultraviolet light), magnetism, radioactivity, tenacity (response to mechanical induced changes of shape or form), piezoelectricity and reactivity to dilute acids.

Chemical properties of minerals

.Minerals may be classified according to chemical composition.^ Chemical composition - Mineral formulas .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Individual minerals may be chemically zoned.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is there may be differences in the chemical composition of the mineral from its center to its rim.
  • Mineral Chemistry 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.tulane.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are here categorized by anion group. The list below is in approximate order of their abundance in the Earth's crust. The list follows the Dana classification system[1][7] which closely parallels the Strunz classification.

Silicate class

.The largest group of minerals by far are the silicates (most rocks are ≥95% silicates), which are composed largely of silicon and oxygen, with the addition of ions such as aluminium, magnesium, iron, and calcium.^ Learning to recognize hand specimens of approximately 100 of the most common rock-forming minerals is an important part of this course.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best Okinawan coral calcium has about a 2:1 ratio of calcium to magnesium with a large spectrum of trace minerals, and the worst coral calcium has up to a 10:1 ratio or worse.
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people like to take a 2:1 calcium magnesium and provide additional specialized magnesium as needed, such as one of the forms described below: magnesium chloride, magnesium taurinate, or magnesium malate.
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some important rock-forming silicates include the feldspars, quartz, olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, garnets, and micas.^ These include Quartz and the Feldspars .
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CRYSTAL FORM Takes Luck & Practice Well-formed crystals are uncommon Crystal Classification is somewhat subtle FRACTURE GEOLOGIC SETTING Some minerals occur in all geologic settings: quartz, feldspar, pyrite Some minerals occur mostly in sedimentary settings: calcite, dolomite Some minerals occur mostly in igneous settings: olivine Some minerals occur mostly in metamorphic settings: garnet, kyanite SPECIAL PROPERTIES Taste, Magnetism, Etc.
  • MINERALS 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.uwgb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basic igneous rocks (BIR) include basalts, dolerites, gabbros, kimberlites, and peridotites, and abundant minerals in such rocks include olivine, pyroxenes, Ca-feldspar (plagioclase), amphiboles, and biotite.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Carbonate class

.The carbonate minerals consist of those minerals containing the anion (CO3)2- and include calcite and aragonite (both calcium carbonate), dolomite (magnesium/calcium carbonate) and siderite (iron carbonate).^ Bulk minerals include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus.
  • Mineral: Multi Minerals at Life Enthusiast Co-op 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC life-enthusiast.com [Source type: General]

^ There are only two commonly available chewable multiminerals that contain a sufficient amount of magnesium along with calcium.
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Siderite, for example, does not always occur as pure iron carbonate (FeCO 3 ); magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and, to a limited extent, calcium (Ca) may sometimes substitute for the iron.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Carbonates are commonly deposited in marine settings when the shells of dead planktonic life settle and accumulate on the sea floor. Carbonates are also found in evaporitic settings (e.g. the .Great Salt Lake, Utah) and also in karst regions, where the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonates leads to the formation of caves, stalactites and stalagmites.^ Maynard Bixby of Salt Lake City, UT, who compiled a catalog of Utah minerals .

.The carbonate class also includes the nitrate and borate minerals.^ Evaporite sedimentary minerals include calcite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite and sylvite, plus some of the borate minerals.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aragonite is a carbonate mineral with the same composition as calcite, but in a different crystal class.

Sulfate class

.Sulfate minerals all contain the sulfate anion, SO42-.^ All you would need to do would be to give them a mineral supplement which contained all the essential minerals.

^ This page will take much longer to finish loading as it contains all of our on-line selection of gemstones for all minerals!
  • New Gemstones Index at mineralminers.com 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.mineralminers.com [Source type: General]

.Sulfates commonly form in evaporitic settings where highly saline waters slowly evaporate, allowing the formation of both sulfates and halides at the water-sediment interface.^ Tri-salts is also ideal for those who want to mix it with asorbic acid (in water) to make effervescent mineral ascorbates, which is a highly absorbable form.
  • Mineral and Multimineral Supplements 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC eregimens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sulfates also occur in hydrothermal vein systems as gangue minerals along with sulfide ore minerals.^ Sulfide minerals are not stable in atmospheric oxygen and will weather by oxidation to form oxides, sulfates and carbonates of the chalcophile metals, and these minerals are characteristic of oxidized hydrothermal deposits.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sulfides may occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks, but are most typically hydrothermal.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mineral is pink to lavender, very fine-grained, and occurs as films and vein-like seams in wollastonite, along with fluorapatite and rare fluorapophyllite.
  • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another occurrence is as secondary oxidation products of original sulfide minerals.^ Sulfide minerals are not stable in atmospheric oxygen and will weather by oxidation to form oxides, sulfates and carbonates of the chalcophile metals, and these minerals are characteristic of oxidized hydrothermal deposits.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common sulfates include anhydrite (calcium sulfate), celestine (strontium sulfate), barite (barium sulfate), and gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate).^ Celestite is a Strontium Sulfate that usually occurs as geodes in limestone and gypsum rock.

.The sulfate class also includes the chromate, molybdate, selenate, sulfite, tellurate, and tungstate minerals.^ High temperature hydrothermal minerals include gold, silver, tungstate minerals, chalcopyrite, bornite, the tellurides, and molybdenite.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Halide class

.The halide minerals are the group of minerals forming the natural salts and include fluorite (calcium fluoride), halite (sodium chloride), sylvite (potassium chloride), and sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride).^ Salt (sodium chloride) is essential for life.

^ Bulk minerals include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus.
  • Mineral: Multi Minerals at Life Enthusiast Co-op 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC life-enthusiast.com [Source type: General]

^ Schaller showed the mineral to be a hydrous potassium (not sodium) calcium silicate.
  • New minerals unique to Arkansas, Rockhounding Arkansas 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC rockhoundingar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Halides, like sulfates, are commonly found in evaporite settings such as salt lakes and landlocked seas such as the Dead Sea and Great Salt Lake.^ Diet & Nutrition Glossary omega-3 fatty acids Unsaturated fatty acids found most commonly in fatty fish such as salmon and sardines.
  • Using Minerals to Improve Body Functions - For Dummies 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such as minerals like malachite and brochantite most often being found with chalcopyrite and pyrite.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The halide class includes the fluoride, chloride, bromide and iodide minerals.

Oxide class

.Oxide minerals are extremely important in mining as they form many of the ores from which valuable metals can be extracted.^ Generally, ores of metals, coal, oil, natural gas, gemstones, dimension stone, construction aggregate, salt and other materials extracted from the ground are considered to be minerals.
  • Mineral Rights | Oil & Gas Lease and Royalty Information 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC geology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Learning to recognize hand specimens of approximately 100 of the most common rock-forming minerals is an important part of this course.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ores ) flotation ( in flotation (ore dressing) ) oceanic deposits ( in Atlantic Ocean: Mineral resources ; in ocean (Earth feature): Minerals ) ore deposits ( in ore (mining) ; in copper processing: Mineral processing ) nutritional importance .
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.They also carry the best record of changes in the Earth's magnetic field.^ Carrying a small but strong magnet in a field kit is a good idea, even if it only gets used now and then.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They commonly occur as precipitates close to the Earth's surface, oxidation products of other minerals in the near surface weathering zone, and as accessory minerals in igneous rocks of the crust and mantle.^ Minerals combine with each other to form rocks.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The borates contain triangular BO 3 3- or tetrahedral BO 4 5- , and commonly both coordinations may occur in the same mineral.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How does Ancient Minerals compare with other topical magnesium products on the market?
  • Ancient Minerals | Ultra Pure Magnesium Oil, Magnesium Gel, Magnesium Flakes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.ancient-minerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common oxides include hematite (iron oxide), magnetite (iron oxide), chromite (iron chromium oxide), spinel (magnesium aluminium oxide – a common component of the mantle), ilmenite (iron titanium oxide), rutile (titanium dioxide), and ice (hydrogen oxide).^ Other minerals that are critical components of antioxidant enzymes include copper, zinc (as superoxide dismutase), and iron (as catalase).

The oxide class includes the oxide and the hydroxide minerals.

Sulfide class

.Many sulfide minerals are economically important as metal ores.^ Sulfide minerals are not stable in atmospheric oxygen and will weather by oxidation to form oxides, sulfates and carbonates of the chalcophile metals, and these minerals are characteristic of oxidized hydrothermal deposits.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native metals and many sulfides are opaque and reflect most of the light hitting their surfaces and have a metallic luster.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diet & Nutrition Glossary copper This zinc-balancing mineral is important in many enzymes as well as in the production of hemoglobin, the molecule that transports oxygen.
  • Using Minerals to Improve Body Functions - For Dummies 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Common sulfides include pyrite (iron sulfide – commonly known as fools' gold), chalcopyrite (copper iron sulfide), pentlandite (nickel iron sulfide), and galena (lead sulfide).^ One of the most common clinical signs of copper deficiency is an anemia that is unresponsive to iron therapy but corrected by copper supplementation.

^ High temperature hydrothermal minerals include gold, silver, tungstate minerals, chalcopyrite, bornite, the tellurides, and molybdenite.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Low temperature hydrothermal minerals include barite, gold, cinnabar, pyrite, and cassiterite.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The sulfide class also includes the selenides, the tellurides, the arsenides, the antimonides, the bismuthinides, and the sulfosalts (sulfur and a second anion such as arsenic).

Phosphate class

.The phosphate mineral group actually includes any mineral with a tetrahedral unit AO4 where A can be phosphorus, antimony, arsenic or vanadium.^ Detrital sedimentary minerals include quartz, gold, diamond, apatite and other phosphates, calcite, and clays.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diet & Nutrition Glossary phosphate A molecule made with the mineral phosphorus.
  • Using Minerals to Improve Body Functions - For Dummies 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The phosphates contain tetrahedral PO 4 3- groups as the dominant polyanion.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By far the most common phosphate is apatite which is an important biological mineral found in teeth and bones of many animals.^ Common minerals are found in uncommon forms.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Collectors who have a Geiger counter may find it useful at certain localities, particularly pegmatites where many of the more common radioactive minerals are found.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radioactivity is another property that, while not too common, is found in some minerals and can be useful in identification.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The phosphate class includes the phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, and antimonate minerals.^ Detrital sedimentary minerals include quartz, gold, diamond, apatite and other phosphates, calcite, and clays.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Element class

.The elemental group includes metals and intermetallic elements (gold, silver, copper), semi-metals and non-metals (antimony, bismuth, graphite, sulfur).^ Although most minerals are chemical compounds, a small number (e.g., sulfur, copper, gold) are elements.
  • mineral -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Section II : Minerals with a Non-Metallic Luster & Hardness Greater than 2½ Step 7: Can the mineral be scratched by a copper penny?
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This group also includes natural alloys, such as electrum (a natural alloy of gold and silver), phosphides, silicides, nitrides and carbides (which are usually only found naturally in a few rare meteorites).^ Majorite is a very rare Garnet Group species that can be purplish-violet, but is found in a different environment than pyrope.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Closely related members of the Group include chlorapatite, hydroxyl-apatite, carbonate-fluorapatite and carbonate-hydroxylapatite, which can be difficult to distinguish from fluorapatite but they are rare .
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calderite is a very rare Garnet Group species with color similar to andradite, but it is found in a different mineral environment.
  • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organic class

.The organic mineral class includes biogenic substances in which geological processes have been a part of the genesis or origin of the existing compound.^ Mineral rights also include the rights to any oil and natural gas that exist beneath a property.
  • Mineral Rights | Oil & Gas Lease and Royalty Information 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC geology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Inorganic processes" means that crystalline organic compounds formed by organisms are generally not considered minerals.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Minerals of the organic class include various oxalates, mellitates, citrates, cyanates, acetates, formates, hydrocarbons and other miscellaneous species.^ Detrital sedimentary minerals include quartz, gold, diamond, apatite and other phosphates, calcite, and clays.
  • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other minerals that are critical components of antioxidant enzymes include copper, zinc (as superoxide dismutase), and iron (as catalase).

[3] Examples include whewellite, moolooite, mellite, fichtelite, carpathite, evenkite and abelsonite.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Dana, James D. (06 March 1985). Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis. eds. Manual of Mineralogy (20 ed.). John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 0-471-80580-7.  free older version: 1912 edition
  2. ^ a b Nickel, Ernest H. (June 1995). "The definition of a mineral". The Canadian Mineralogist 33 (3): 689–690. http://www.canmin.org/cgi/content/abstract/33/3/689.  alt version
  3. ^ a b http://www.mindat.org/dana.php?a=50 Dana Classification 8th edition - ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
  4. ^ http://www.mindat.org/strunz.php?a=9 Strunz Classification - Organic Compounds
  5. ^ a b This article incorporates text from the article "Petrology" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  6. ^ http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Pglossary/mineral.html USGS Photo glossary of volcano terms
  7. ^ http://www.minerals.net/mineral/sort-met.hod/dana/dana.htm Dana classification - Minerals.net

External links

.
  • mindat.org Mindat database
  • Webmineral.com
  • Mineral atlas with properties, photos
  • Ontogeny of minerals in drawings. Drawings of crystals, druses, and mineral aggregates.^ In many areas the sale of mineral rights are recorded in the government record in a different deed book or database than the sale of surface property.
    • Mineral Rights | Oil & Gas Lease and Royalty Information 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC geology.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Habit is the general appearance a mineral tends to have whether it is found as blocky crystals, long slender ones, or aggregates of some type, etc.
    • Mineral ID_Key 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC www.rockhounds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This text has good cover age of crystal structures, optical properties X-ray diffraction, and physical properties of minerals, but is somewhat difficult to read and understand at an introductory level.
    • Mineralogy Notes 17 January 2010 8:41 UTC ruby.colorado.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Every work here may illustrate genetic features of minerals (their history, or ontogenesis, and formative processes).

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also mineral, minéral, and minerał

German

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Mineral
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Noun

Mineral n.
  1. (geology) mineral

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Mineral, which are similar to those in the above article.








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