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New Testament manuscripts
Minuscule 69
Name Codex Leicester
Text New Testament
Date 15th century
Script Greek
Now at Leicester
Size 37.8 cm by 27 cm
Type Caesarean text-type (Gospels), Byzantine (rest of books)
Category III, V

Minuscule 69 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 505 (Soden), known as Codex Leicester, or Codex Leicestrensis, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament on paper and parchment leaves. The manuscript palaeographically has been assigned to the 15th century.[1]



The codex contains the entire New Testament with four lacunae (Matt. 1:1-18:15; Acts 10:45-14:17; Jude 7-25; Rev 19:10-22:21) on 213 leaves (37.8 cm by 27 cm). The text of the manuscript skips from Acts 10:45 to 14:17 without a break; possibly a scribe rewrote it from defective manuscript. The text of Rev 18:7-19:10 is a fragmentary. Written in one column per page, 37-38 lines per page.[1]

The codex is written on 91 leaves of parchment and 122 of paper. Usually two parchment leaves are followed by three paper leaves. The paper was very poor quality.[2] The writing is rather rough and inelegant. It was written by a strange hand, epsilon being recumbent and so much like alpha, that it is not clear which was intended.[2] "The whole style of writing resembling a careless scrawl".[3]

Name ιησους is always writing at full length up to John 21:15, where we meet with ις, and in 41 other places, 19 of which are in the Acts.[2]

The headings of Gospels as in codex 178 — εκ του κατα Μαρκον.[4]

Luke 22:43-44 is placed after Matt 26:39. It is typical for the manuscripts of the Ferrar Group.

Original order of books: Pauline epistles, Acts of the Apostles, Catholic epistles, Revelation of John, Gospels.[3] The Pauline epistles precede Acts of the Apostles (like in Codex Sinaiticus).

It has some non-biblical additional material like: An explanation of the Creed and the Seven Councils, the Lives of the Apostles, Limits of the Five Patriarchates (like codices 211 and 543).[5]


Textually codex 69 is very remarkable; it belongs to Family 13, as very important member of this group—according to some scholars even the most important. The Greek text of the Gospels of this codex is representative of the Caesarean text-type. Aland placed it in Category III. In Pauline epistles and Catholic epistles its text is a Byzantine. Aland placed it in Category V.[6] In the Book of Revelation its text belongs to the Byzantine text-type, but with a large number of unique textual variants, in close relationship to the Uncial 046 and Minuscule 61, which appears to have been copied from it.[7] These three manuscripts constitute a subgroup of the Byzantine text-type.


The manuscript was presented to George Neville, Archbishop of York (1465–1472).[2] It belonged to William Chark (or Charc), mentioned in marginal notes of codex 61, and then to Thomas Hayne, who in 1640 gave this codex to the Leicester Library.[3][8] It was collated by Mill, and examined by Wettstein.[4]

The codex now is located in Town Museum, Muniment Room (Cod. 6 D 32/1) at Leicester.[1]

See also


  1. ^ a b c K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack, "Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1994, p. 50.
  2. ^ a b c d Bruce M. Metzger, "Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography", Oxford University Press, Oxford 1981, p. 138.
  3. ^ a b c F. H. A. Scrivener, A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (George Bell & Sons: London 1894), vol. 1, p. 202-203.
  4. ^ a b C. R. Gregory, "Textkritik des Neuen Testaments", Leipzig 1900, vol. 1, pp. 144-145.
  5. ^ J. R. Harris, The Origin of the Leicester Codex of the New Testament (London, 1887), pp. 62-65.
  6. ^ Kurt Aland, and Barbara Aland, "The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism", William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1995), p. 129.
  7. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, "The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration", (Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 86.
  8. ^ S. P. Tregelles, "An Introduction to the Critical study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures", London 1856, p. 209.

Further reading

External links



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