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Mirza Muzaffar Ahmad
Born 1913
Qadian, India
Died 2002
Washington DC, USA

Mirza Muzaffar Ahmad, commonly known as MM Ahmad (February 28, 1913, in Qadian, India - July 23, 2002) was a Pakistani civil servant and a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.


Education and early life

He was educated first at Government College, Lahore, and later at the University of London and the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. He joined the Indian Civil Service - the ICS - in 1939. Following Partition in 1947, he joined the CSP (Civil Service of Pakistan), this was to mark the beginning of an illustrious and distinguished career within the Pakistan Civil Service. Mirza Muzaffar Ahmad was a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.


MM Ahmad was first posted in Lahore, the capital of the part of Punjab that was attached to Pakistan. Among the positions MM held in Lahore was that of secretary of finance. Later, he went to Islamabad, Pakistan's capital, where he served in a number of senior positions, including secretary of commerce, secretary of finance, and deputy chairman of the Planning Commission. At this juncture in his career, MM was arguably the most powerful civil servant in Pakistan, with supervisory authority over all three ministries. During M M Ahmad's service, Pakistan underwent rapid industrialization and growth. This received acknowledgment both within Pakistan and amongst the international development community.

Within Pakistan, M M Ahmad's contribution to the process of economic development was recognised by President Ayub Khan in a presidential address in 1967, celebrating 20 years of an independent Pakistan. When General Yahya Khan deposed President Ayub Khan and placed Pakistan under martial law, MM Ahmad was appointed adviser to the new president and given the rank of a federal minister. Following retirement from the CSP, M M Ahmad joined the World Bank initially as Executive Director for Pakistan and the Middle East and was elected to become deputy executive secretary of the joint ministerial committee of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, better known as the Development Committee. He retired from that position in 1984.

Significant achievements

MM Ahmad’s biggest contribution was in the signing of the Indus Basin Treaty and the procurement of development assistance from the World Bank for the construction of Mangla and Tarbela Dams as well as a huge irrigation network. At that time he was Federal Finance Secretary. Years later, as Executive Director of the World Bank, he helped in the servicing and rescheduling of these loans after the dismemberment of Pakistan in 1971. MM Ahmad also played a key role in acting as a go between China and the United States, facilitating a meeting between the then U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the Chinese Leadership.

See also



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