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State of Missouri
Flag of Missouri State seal of Missouri
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Show-Me State (unofficial)
Motto(s): Salus populi suprema lex esto (Latin)
before statehood, known as
the Missouri Territory
Map of the United States with Missouri highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Missourian
Capital Jefferson City
Largest city Kansas City
Largest metro area Greater St Louis Area[1]
Area  Ranked 21st in the US
 - Total 69,704 sq mi
(180,533 km2)
 - Width 240 miles (385 km)
 - Length 300 miles (480 km)
 - % water 1.17
 - Latitude 36° N to 40° 37′ N
 - Longitude 89° 6′ W to 95° 46′ W
Population  Ranked 18th in the US
 - Total 5,987,580 (2009 est.)[2]
5,595,211 (2000)
 - Density 86.9 (2009)/sq mi  (33.56/km2)
Ranked 28th in the US
 - Median income  $45,114 (37st)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Taum Sauk Mountain[3]
1,772 ft  (540 m)
 - Mean 800 ft  (240 m)
 - Lowest point St. Francis River[3]
230 ft  (70 m)
Admission to Union  August 10, 1821 (24th)
Governor Jay Nixon (D)
Lieutenant Governor Peter Kinder (R)
U.S. Senators Kit Bond (R)
Claire McCaskill (D)
U.S. House delegation 5 Republicans, 4 Democrats (list)
Time zone Central : UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations MO US-MO
Website http://www.mo.gov

Missouri (Listeni /mɪˈzʊəri/ or /mɪˈzʊərə/)[4] is a state in the Midwest region of the United States[5] bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. Missouri is the 18th most populous state with a 2009 estimated population of 5,987,580.[2] It comprises 114 counties and one independent city. Missouri's capital is Jefferson City. The three largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, and Springfield. Missouri was originally acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase and became defined as the Missouri Territory. Part of the Missouri Territory was admitted into the union as the 24th state in August 10, 1821.

Missouri mirrors the demographic, economic and political makeup of the nation with a mix of urban and rural culture. It has long been considered a political bellwether state.[6] With the exceptions of 1956 and 2008, Missouri's results in U.S. presidential elections have accurately predicted the next President of the United States in every election since 1904. It has both Midwestern and Southern cultural influences, reflecting its history as a border state. It is also a transition between the eastern and western United States, as St. Louis is often called the "western-most eastern city" and Kansas City the "eastern-most western city." Missouri's geography is highly varied. The northern part of the state lies in dissected till plains while the southern part lies in the Ozark Mountains a (dissected plateau), with the Missouri River dividing the two. The confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers is located near St. Louis.[7]

Contents

Geography

Missouri, showing major cities and roads

Missouri borders eight different states, as does its neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight states. Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa; on the east, across the Mississippi River, by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; on the south by Arkansas; and on the west by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (the last across the Missouri River). The two largest Missouri rivers are the Mississippi, which defines the eastern boundary of the state, and the Missouri, which flows from west to east through the state, essentially connecting the two largest metros, Kansas City and St. Louis.

Although today the state is usually considered part of the Midwest,[8][9] historically Missouri was sometimes considered a Southern state,[10] chiefly because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as a slave state before the Civil War. The counties that made up "Little Dixie" were those along the Missouri River in the center of the state, settled by Southern migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves.

Residents of cities farther north and of the state's large metropolitan areas, where most of the state's population resides (Kansas City, St. Louis, and Columbia), typically consider themselves Midwestern. In rural areas and cities farther south, such as (Cape Girardeau, Poplar Bluff, Springfield, and Sikeston), residents typically self-identify as more Southern.

In 2005, Missouri received 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks and other recreational areas totaling 202,000 acres (820 km2), giving it $7.41 mil. in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating expenditures.[11]

Topography

A physiographic map of Missouri

North of the Missouri River lie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Here, gentle rolling hills remain behind from the glaciation that once extended from the north jew to the Missouri River. Missouri has many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers. Southern Missouri rises to the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian igneous St. Francois Mountains. This region also hosts Karst topography characterized by high limestone content and the formation of sinkholes and caves.[12]

A portion of the Ozarks in Southern Missouri

The southeastern part of the state is the Bootheel region, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. This region is the lowest, flattest, and wettest part of the state, and among the poorest, as the economy is mostly agricultural.[13] It is also the most fertile, with cotton and rice crops predominant. The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811–1812.

Climate

Missouri generally has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with cold winters and hot and humid summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate borders on a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa). Located in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extremes in temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Missouri Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Columbia 37/18 44/23 55/33 66/43 75/53 84/62 89/66 87/64 79/55 68/44 53/33 42/22
Kansas City 36/18 43/23 54/33 65/44 75/54 84/63 89/68 87/66 79/57 68/46 52/33 40/22
Springfield 42/22 48/26 58/35 68/44 76/53 85/62 90/67 90/66 81/57 71/46 56/35 46/26
St. Louis [14] 38/21 45/26 55/36 66/47 77/57 86/66 91/71 88/69 81/61 69/49 54/38 42/27

History

Missouri state insignia
Motto Salus populi suprema lex esto
(Latin, "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law")
Slogan Show Me (unofficial)
Bird Bluebird (1927)
Animal Missouri Mule (1995)
Fish Channel Catfish (1997)
Insect Honey bee (1985)
Flower Hawthorn (1923)
Tree Flowering Dogwood (1955)
Song "Missouri Waltz" (1949)
Quarter Missouri quarter
Released in 2003
Grass Big bluestem (2007)
Reptile Three-toed box turtle (2007)
Dance Square dance (1995)
Fossil Crinoid (1989)
Dinosaur Hypsibema missouriensis (2004) [15]
Gemstone Aquamarine
Mineral Galena (1967)
Musical instrument Fiddle (1987)
Rock Mozarkite (1967)
The Gateway Arch in St. Louis

Indigenous peoples inhabited Missouri for thousands of years before European exploration and settlement. Archaeological excavations along the rivers have shown continuous habitation for more than 7,000 years. Beginning before 1000 CE, there arose the complex Mississippian culture, whose people created regional political centers at present-day St. Louis and across the Mississippi River at Cahokia, near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Their large cities included thousands of individual residences, but they are known for their surviving massive earthwork mounds, built for religious, political and social reasons, in platform, ridgetop and conical shapes. Cahokia was the center of a regional trading network that reached from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The civilization declined by 1400 CE, and most descendants left the area before the arrival of Europeans. St. Louis was at one time known as Mound City, because of the numerous surviving mounds, since lost to urban development. The Mississippian culture left mounds throughout the middle Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, extending into the southeast as well as the upper river.

The first European settlers were mostly French Canadians, who migrated about 1750 from east of the river to the area of present-day Ste. Genevieve. It was the first European settlement in Missouri. They came from colonial villages on the east side of the Mississippi of the Illinois Country, where soils were becoming exhausted and there was insufficient river bottom land for the growing population. St. Louis was also founded by French-Canadian settlers. St. Louis became the center of a regional fur trade, which dominated its economy for decades. Ste. Genevieve was a thriving agricultural center, producing enough surplus wheat, corn and tobacco to ship tons of grain downriver to Lower Louisiana for trade. Grain production in the Illinois Country was critical to the survival of Lower Louisiana.

Part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase by the United States, Missouri earned the nickname "Gateway to the West" because it served as a major departure point for expeditions and settlers heading to the West in the 19th century. The St. Louis area was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which explored the western territories to the Pacific Ocean. The territory was admitted as a slave state in 1821 as part of the Missouri Compromise. River traffic and trade along the Mississippi were integral to the state's economy. To try to control regular flooding of farmland and low-lying villages, by 1860 the state had completed construction of 140 miles (230 km) of levees on the Mississippi.[16]

The state was site of the epicenter of the 1812 New Madrid earthquake, possibly the most powerful earthquake in the United States since the founding of the country. Casualties were light due to the sparse population.

Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth,[17] the point where the Kansas River enters the Missouri River. The river has moved since this designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary.[18] In 1835 the Platte Purchase was added to the northwest corner of the state after purchase of the land from the native tribes, making the Missouri River the border north of the Kansas River. This addition increased the land area of what was already the largest state in the Union at the time (about 66,500 square miles (172,000 km2) to Virginia's 65,000 square miles (which then included West Virginia.) [19]

As many of the early American settlers in western Missouri migrated from the Upper South, they brought enslaved African Americans for labor, and a desire to continue their culture and the institution of slavery. They settled predominantly in 17 counties along the Missouri River, in an area of flatlands that enabled plantation agriculture and became known as "Little Dixie." In the early 1830s, Mormon migrants from northern states and Canada began settling near Independence and areas just north of there. Conflicts over slavery and religion arose between the 'old settlers' (mainly from the South) and the Mormons (mainly from the North and Canada). The 'Mormon War' erupted. By 1839 settlers expelled the Mormons from Missouri.

Conflicts over slavery exacerbated border tensions among the states and territories. In 1838–1839 a border dispute with Iowa over the so-called Honey Lands resulted in both states' calling up militias along the border. After many incidents with Kansans crossing the western border for attacks (including setting a fire in the historic Westport area of Kansas City),[citation needed] a border war erupted between Missouri and Kansas.

From the 1830s to the 1860s, Missouri's population almost doubled with every decade. Most of the newcomers were Americans, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in the late 1840s and 1850s. Having fled famine, oppression and revolutionary upheaval, they were not sympathetic to slavery.

Most Missouri farmers practiced subsistence farming. The majority of those who held slaves had fewer than 5 each. Planters, defined by historians as those holding 20 or more slaves, were concentrated in the counties known as "Little Dixie", in the central part of the state along the Missouri River. The tensions over slavery had chiefly to do with the future of the state and nation. In 1860 enslaved African Americans made up less than 10% of the state's population of 1,182,012.[20]

After the secession of Southern states began in 1861, the Missouri legislature called for the election of a special convention on secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union. Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson ordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Louis for training. Alarmed at this action, Union General Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state troops to surrender. Lyon then directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrants, to march the prisoners through the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louis in the incident that became known as the "St. Louis Massacre."

These events heightened Confederate support within the state. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, president of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri State Guard. In the face of General Lyon's rapid advance in the state, Jackson and Price were forced to flee the capital of Jefferson City on June 14, 1861. In the town of Neosho, Missouri, Jackson called the state legislature into session. They enacted a secession ordinance. However, since the pro-Union state convention had been given the sole power to do such a thing, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate, this ordinance is generally given little credence. Nevertheless, the ordinance was recognized by the Confederacy on October 30, 1861.

With the elected governor absent from his capital and the legislators largely dispersed, Union forces installed an unelected pro-Union provisional government with Hamilton Gamble as provisional governor. President Lincoln's Administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal government. This decision provided both pro-Union militia forces for service within the state and volunteer regiments for the Union Army.

Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas and Texas under General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri and suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces had little choice but to retreat to Arkansas and later Marshall, Texas, in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army.

Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted chiefly of guerrilla warfare. "Citizen soldiers" such as Colonel William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson made use of quick, small-unit tactics. Pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers, such insurgencies also arose in other portions of the Confederacy occupied during the Civil War. Recently historians have assessed the James brothers' outlaw years as continuing guerrilla warfare after the official war was over. The activities of the 'Bald Knobbers' of south-central Missouri in the 1880s has also been seen as an unofficial continuation of hostilities long after the official end of the war.

In 1930, there was a diphtheria epidemic in the area around Springfield which killed approximately 100 people. Serum was rushed to the area and stopped the epidemic.

During the mid-1950s and 1960s, St. Louis suffered deindustrialization and loss of jobs in railroads and manufacturing as did other major industrial cities. At the same time highway construction made it easy for middle-class residents to leave the city for newer housing in the suburbs. St. Louis has gone through decades of readjustment to developing a different economy. Suburban areas have developed separate job markets, both in knowledge industries and services, such as major retail malls. In 1956 St. Charles was the site of the first interstate highway project.[21]

Demographics

Missouri Population Density Map
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1810 19,783
1820 66,586 236.6%
1830 140,455 110.9%
1840 383,702 173.2%
1850 682,044 77.8%
1860 1,182,012 73.3%
1870 1,721,295 45.6%
1880 2,168,380 26.0%
1890 2,679,185 23.6%
1900 3,106,665 16.0%
1910 3,293,335 6.0%
1920 3,404,055 3.4%
1930 3,629,367 6.6%
1940 3,784,664 4.3%
1950 3,954,653 4.5%
1960 4,319,813 9.2%
1970 4,676,501 8.3%
1980 4,916,686 5.1%
1990 5,117,073 4.1%
2000 5,595,211 9.3%
Est. 2009 5,987,580 [2] 7.0%

In 2009, Missouri had an estimated population of 5,987,580; an increase of 392,369 (7.0 percent) since the year 2000. From 2000 to 2007, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas–-St. Louis and Kansas City. The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state.

The U.S. Census of 2000 found that the population center of the United States is in Phelps County, Missouri. The center of population of Missouri itself is located in Osage County, in the city of Westphalia.[22]

As of 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population).

Demographics of Missouri (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 86.90% 11.76% 1.08% 1.37% 0.12%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.96% 0.12% 0.07% 0.03% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 86.54% 12.04% 1.03% 1.61% 0.13%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.49% 0.14% 0.07% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 3.23% 6.15% -0.57% 21.83% 10.71%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 2.57% 5.94% -1.34% 21.81% 10.99%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 32.07% 26.42% 10.52% 22.82% 8.09%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (23.5 percent), Irish (12.7 percent), American (10.5 percent), English (9.5 percent) and French (3.5 percent). "American" includes some of those reported as Native American or African American, but also European Americans whose ancestors have lived in the United States for a considerable time.

German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. African Americans are a substantial part of the population in St. Louis, Kansas City, and in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the Missouri River Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the Mississippi River Valley south of St. Louis. Approximately 40,000-50,000 recent Bosniak immigrants live mostly in the St. Louis area.[citation needed]

In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was 65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. 81.3 percent of Missouri residents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home.

In 2000, there were 2,194,594 households in Missouri, with 2.48 people per household. The homeownership rate was 70.3 percent, and the mean value of an owner-occupied dwelling was $89,900. The median household income for 1999 was $37,934, or $19,936 per capita. There were 11.7 percent (637,891) Missourians living below the poverty line in 1999.

The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes.

Religion

Of those Missourians who identify with a religion, three out of five are Protestants. There is also a moderate-sized Roman Catholic community in some parts of the state; approximately one out of five Missourians are Roman Catholic. Areas with large Catholic communities include St. Louis, Jefferson City, Westplex, and the Missouri Rhineland (particularly that south of the Missouri River).[23] The St. Louis and Kansas City metropolitan areas also have important Jewish communities who have contributed much to the culture and charities of the cities; more recent, those same areas have Indian and Pakistani immigrants have created Hindu and Muslim congregations as well.

The religious affiliations of the people of Missouri according to the American Religious Identification Survey:[24]

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 856,964; the Southern Baptist Convention with 797,732; and the United Methodist Church with 226,578.[25]

Several religious organizations have headquarters in Missouri, including the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, which has its headquarters in Kirkwood, as well as the United Pentecostal Church International in Hazelwood, both outside St. Louis. Kansas City is the headquarters of the Church of the Nazarene. Independence, near Kansas City, is the headquarters for the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), and the group Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This area and other parts of Missouri are also of significant religious and historical importance to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), which maintains several sites/visitors centers, and whose members make up about 1 percent, or 62,217 members, of Missouri's population. Springfield is the headquarters of the Assemblies of God and the Baptist Bible Fellowship International. The General Association of General Baptists has its headquarters in Poplar Bluff. The Pentecostal Church of God is headquartered in Joplin. The Unity Church is headquartered in Unity Village.

Economy

Missouri quarter, reverse side, 2003.jpg

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Missouri's total state product in 2006 was $225.9 billion. Per capita personal income in 2006 was $32,705,[11] ranking 26th in the nation. Major industries include aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing, and beer.

The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy products, hay, corn, poultry, sorghum, cotton, rice, and eggs. Missouri is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and 7th for cattle. Missouri is ranked in the top five states in the nation for production of soy beans. As of 2001, there were 108,000 farms, the second largest number in any state after Texas. Missouri actively promotes its rapidly growing wine industry.

Missouri has vast quantities of limestone. Other resources mined are lead, coal, and crushed stone. Missouri produces the most lead of all of the states. Most of the lead mines are in the central eastern portion of the state. Missouri also ranks first or near first in the production of lime, a key ingedient in Portland cement.

Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in importance.

Personal income is taxed in 10 different earning brackets, ranging from 1.5 percent to 6.0 percent. Missouri's sales tax rate for most items is 4.225 percent. Additional local levies may apply. More than 2,500 Missouri local governments rely on property taxes levied on real property (real estate) and personal property. Most personal property is exempt, except for motorized vehicles. Exempt real estate includes property owned by governments and property used as nonprofit cemeteries, exclusively for religious worship, for schools and colleges and for purely charitable purposes. There is no inheritance tax and limited Missouri estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.

Missouri is the only state in the Union to have two Federal Reserve Banks: one in Kansas City (serving western Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Colorado, northern New Mexico, and Wyoming) and one in St. Louis (serving eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and all of Arkansas).[26]

Transportation

Air

The state of Missouri has two major airport hubs: Lambert-St. Louis International Airport and Kansas City International Airport.

Amtrak station in Kirkwood, Missouri

Rail

Two of the nation's three busiest rail centers are located in Missouri. Kansas City is a major railroad hub for BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway, and Union Pacific Railroad. Kansas City is the second largest freight rail center in the US. Like Kansas City, St. Louis is a major destination for train freight. Amtrak passenger trains serve Kansas City, La Plata, Jefferson City, St. Louis, Lee's Summit, Independence, Warrensburg, Hermann, Washington, Kirkwood, Sedalia, and Poplar Bluff.

The only urban light rail/subway system in Missouri is the St. Louis MetroLink which connects the City of St. Louis with suburbs in Illinois and St. Louis County. It is one of the largest (track mileage) systems in the USA. In 2007 preliminary planning was being performed for a light rail system in the Kansas City area, but was defeated by voters in November 2008.

The Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center in St. Louis is the largest active multi-use transportation center in the state. It is located in Downtown St. Louis next to the historic St. Louis Union Station complex. It serves as a hub center/station for the city's rail system St. Louis MetroLink and regional bus system MetroBus, Greyhound, Amtrak and city taxi services.

Springfield remains an operational hub for BNSF Railway.

Rivers

The Mississippi River and Missouri River are commercially navigable over their entire lengths in Missouri. The Missouri was channelized through dredging and jettys and the Mississippi was given a series of locks and dams to avoid rocks and deepen the river. St. Louis is a major destination for barge traffic on the Mississippi River.

Roads

Missouri state license plate as of 2009

Several highways, detailed below, traverse the state.

Following the passage of Amendment 3 in late 2004, the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) began its Smoother, Safer, Sooner road-building program with a goal of bringing 2,200 miles (3,500 km) of highways up to good condition by December 2007. From 2006–2008 traffic deaths have decreased annually from 1,257 in 2005, to 1,096 in 2006, to 974 for 2007, to 941 for 2008.[27]

Interstate freeways

United States Routes

North-south routes East-west routes

Law and government

Missouri Government
Governor of Missouri Jay Nixon (D)
Lieutenant Governor of Missouri: Peter Kinder (R)
Missouri Attorney General: Chris Koster (D)
Missouri Secretary of State: Robin Carnahan (D)
Missouri State Auditor: Susan Montee (D)
Missouri State Treasurer: Clint Zweifel (D)
Senior United States Senator: Kit Bond (R)
Junior United States Senator: Claire McCaskill (D)

Framework

The current Constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the state, was adopted in 1945. It provides for three branches of government: the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. The legislative branch consists of two bodies: the House of Representatives and the Senate. These bodies comprise the Missouri General Assembly.

The House of Representatives has 163 members who are apportioned based on the last decennial census. The Senate consists of 34 members from districts of approximately equal populations. The judicial department comprises the Supreme Court of Missouri, which has seven judges, the Missouri Court of Appeals (an intermediate appellate court divided into three districts, sitting in Kansas City, St. Louis, and Springfield), and 45 Circuit Courts which function as local trial courts. The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Missouri and includes five other statewide elected offices. Following the Election of 2008, all but one of Missouri's statewide elected offices are held by Democrats.

Status as a political bellwether

Missouri is widely regarded as a state bellwether in American politics. The state has a longer stretch of supporting the winning presidential candidate than any other state, having voted with the nation in every election since 1904 with two exceptions: in 1956 when they voted for Governor Adlai Stevenson of Illinois over the winner, incumbent President Dwight Eisenhower of Kansas, and in 2008 when they voted for Senator John McCain of Arizona over national winner Senator Barack Obama of Illinois, both by extremely narrow margins.

Past Presidential Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2008 49.39% 1,445,814 49.25% 1,441,911 1.36% 39,889
2004 53.30% 1,455,713 46.10% 1,259,171 0.60% 16,480
2000 50.42% 1,189,924 47.08% 1,111,138 2.50% 58,830
1996 41.24% 890,016 47.54% 1,025,935 11.22% 242,114
1992 33.92% 811,159 44.07% 1,053,873 22.00% 526,238
1988 51.83% 1,084,953 47.85% 1,001,619 0.32% 6,656
1984 60.02% 1,274,188 39.98% 848,583 0.00% None
1980 51.16% 1,074,181 44.35% 931,182 4.49% 94,461
1976 47.47% 927,443 51.10% 998,387 1.42% 27,770
1972 62.29% 1,154,058 37.71% 698,531 0.00% None
1968 44.87% 811,932 43.74% 791,444 11.39% 206,126
1964 35.95% 653,535 50.92% 1,164,344 0.00% None
1960 49.74% 962,221 50.26% 972,201 0.00% None
1956 49.89% 914,289 50.11% 918,273 0.00% None
1952 50.71% 959,429 49.14% 929,830 0.15% 2,803
1948 41.49% 655,039 58.11% 917,315 0.39% 6,274
1944 48.43% 761,524 51.37% 807,804 0.20% 3,146
1940 47.50% 871,009 52.27% 958,476 0.23% 4,244
1936 38.16% 697,891 60.76% 1,111,043 1.08% 19,701
1932 35.08% 564,713 63.69% 1,025,406 1.22% 19,775
1928 55.58% 834,080 44.15% 662,562 0.27% 4,079
1924 49.58% 648,486 43.79% 572,753 6.63% 86,719
1920 54.56% 727,162 43.13% 574,799 2.32% 30,839
1916 46.94% 369,339 50.59% 398,032 2.46% 19,398
1912 29.75% 207,821 47.35% 330,746 22.89% 159,999
1908 48.50% 347,203 48.41% 346,574 3.08% 22,150
1904 49.93% 321,449 46.02% 296,312 4.05% 26,100
1900 45.94% 314,092 51.48% 351,922 2.58% 17,642

Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws

Missouri has been known for its population's generally "stalwart, conservative, noncredulous" attitude toward regulatory regimes, which is one of the origins of the state's unofficial nickname, the "Show-Me State."[28] As a result, and combined with the fact that Missouri is one of America's leading alcohol and tobacco-producing states, regulation of alcohol and tobacco in Missouri is among the most laissez-faire in America.

With a large German immigrant population and the development of a brewing industry, Missouri always has had among the most permissive alcohol laws in the United States. It never enacted statewide prohibition. Missouri voters rejected prohibition in three separate referenda in 1910, 1912, and 1918. Alcohol regulation did not begin in Missouri until 1934. Today, alcohol laws are controlled by the state government, and local jurisdictions are prohibited from going beyond those state laws. Missouri has no statewide open container law or prohibition on drinking in public, no alcohol-related blue laws, no local option, no precise locations for selling liquor by the package (thus allowing even drug stores and gas stations to sell any kind of liquor), and no differentiation of laws based on alcohol percentage. Missouri had no laws prohibiting "consumption" of alcohol by minors (as opposed to possession), and state law protects persons from arrest or criminal penalty for public intoxication.[29] Missouri law expressly prohibits any jurisdiction from going dry.[30] Missouri law also expressly allows parents and guardians to serve alcohol to their children.[31] The Power & Light District in Kansas City is one of the few places in the United States where a state law explicitly allows persons over the age of 21 to possess and consume open containers of alcohol in the street (as long as the beverage is in a plastic cup).[32]

See also: Smoking laws of Missouri

As for tobacco, as of June 2009 Missouri has the second-lowest cigarette excise taxes in the United States (behind only South Carolina) at 17 cents per pack,[33] and the electorate voted in 2002 and 2006 to keep it that way.[34] In 2007, Forbes named Missouri's largest metropolitan area, St. Louis, America's "best city for smokers." [35] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2008 Missouri had the fourth highest percentage of adult smokers among U.S states, at 24.5%.[36] Although Missouri's minimum age for purchase and distribution of tobacco products is 18, tobacco products can be distributed to persons under 18 by family members on private property.[37] No statewide smoking ban ever has been seriously entertained before the Missouri General Assembly, and in October 2008, a statewide survey by the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services found that only 27.5% of Missourians support a statewide ban on smoking in all bars and restaurants.[38] Missouri state law permits bars, restaurants which seat less than 50 people, bowling alleys, and billiard parlors to decide their own smoking policies, without limitation.[39]

Additionally, in Missouri, it is "an improper employment practice" for an employer to refuse to hire, to fire, or otherwise to disadvantage any person because that person lawfully uses alcohol and/or tobacco products when he or she is not at work.[40]

Counties

Missouri has 114 counties and one independent city (St. Louis).

The largest county by size is Texas County (1,179 sq. miles) and Shannon County is second (1,004 sq. miles). Worth County is the smallest (266 sq. miles). The independent city of St. Louis has only 62 square miles (160 km2) of area. St. Louis City is the most densely populated area (5,724.7 per sq. mi.) in Missouri.

The largest county by population (2008 estimate) is St. Louis County (991,830 residents), with Jackson County second (668,417 residents), St. Louis third (354,361), and St. Charles fourth (349,407). Worth County is the least populous with 2,039 residents.

Important cities and towns

Jefferson City is the state capital of Missouri.

The five largest cities in Missouri are Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, and Columbia.[41]

St. Louis is the principal city of the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, comprising seventeen counties and the independent city of St. Louis; eight of those counties lie in the state of Illinois. As of 2008, Greater St. Louis was the 18th largest metropolitan area in the nation with 2.81 million people. However, if ranked using Combined Statistical Area, it is 16th largest with 2.88 million people. Some of the major cities making up the St. Louis Metro area in Missouri include St. Charles, St. Peters, Florissant, Chesterfield, Creve Coeur, Maryland Heights, O'Fallon, Clayton, Ballwin, and University City.

Kansas City is Missouri's largest city and the principal city of the fifteen-county Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area, including six counties in the state of Kansas. As of 2008, it was the 29th largest metropolitan area in the nation, with 2.002 million people. Some of the other major cities comprising the Kansas City metro area in Missouri include Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue Springs, Raytown, Liberty, and Gladstone.

Branson is a major tourist attraction in the Ozarks of southwestern Missouri.

Education

Missouri State Board of Education

The Missouri State Board of Education has general authority over all public education in the state of Missouri. It is made up of eight citizens appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Missouri Senate.

Primary and secondary schools

Education is compulsory from ages seven to seventeen per Statute 167.031, RSMo, states that any parent, guardian or other person having custody or control of a child between the ages of seven (7) and the compulsory attendance age for the district, must ensure that the child is enrolled in and regularly attends public, private, parochial school, home school or a combination of schools for the full term of the school year.

The term "compulsory attendance age for the district" shall mean seventeen (17) years of age or having successfully completed sixteen (16) credits towards high school graduation in all other cases. Children between the ages of five (5) and seven (7) are not required to be enrolled in school. However, if they are enrolled in a public school their parent, guardian or custodian must ensure that they regularly attend. Missouri schools are commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. The public schools system includes kindergarten to 12th grade. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. High school athletics and competitions are governed by the Missouri State High School Activities Association or MSHSAA.

Homeschooling is legal in Missouri and is an option to meet the compulsory education requirement. It is neither monitored nor regulated by the state's Department of Elementary and Secondary Education[42]

A supplemental education program, the Missouri Scholars Academy, provides an extracurricular learning experience for gifted high school students in the state of Missouri. The official MSA website describes the goals of the Academy to be as such: "The academy reflects Missouri's desire to strive for excellence in education at all levels. The program is based on the premise that Missouri's gifted youth must be provided with special opportunities for learning and personal development in order for them to realize their full potential."

Colleges and universities

The University of Missouri System is Missouri's statewide public university system, the flagship institution and largest university in the state is the University of Missouri in Columbia. The others in the system are University of Missouri–Kansas City, University of Missouri–St. Louis, and Missouri University of Science and Technology. Truman State University, Missouri's "premiere liberal arts and sciences university,"[43][44] is the only public institution in the state with highly selective admissions standards.[45][46] A. T. Still University was the first osteopathic medical school in the world. Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, originally the University of Health Sciences, was the first medical school in Kansas City.

Brookings Hall at Washington University

Notable highly rated[47] private institutions include Washington University in St. Louis and Saint Louis University.

Lincoln University in Jefferson City is one of a number of historically black colleges and universities. Founded in 1866, it was created by members of the 62nd and 65th United States Colored Troops as "Lincoln Institute", to provide education to freedmen. It was created on a model of combining academics and labor. In 1921, the state officially recognized the growth of Lincoln's undergraduate and graduate programs by classifying it as a university. The institution changed its name to "Lincoln University of Missouri." In 1954, the university began to accept applicants of all races.

To develop new teachers for needed public schools, in 1905 the state established a series of normal schools at colleges in each region of the state. This was based on the widely admired German model of public education. Normal schools were for the training of teachers of students in primary/elementary schools. The initial network consisted of Southeast Missouri State University in Cape Girardeau, Missouri State University (formerly Southwest Missouri State University) in Springfield, Truman State University (formerly Northeast Missouri State University) in Kirksville, Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, and University of Central Missouri (formerly Central Missouri State University) in Warrensburg. Within several years, the normal school curriculum expanded to a full four years of academic subjects.

There are numerous junior colleges, trade schools, church universities and private universities in the state.

The state also funds a $2000, renewable merit-based scholarship, Bright Flight, given to the top 3 percent of Missouri High School graduates who attend a university in-state.

The 19th c. border wars between Missouri and Kansas have continued as a sports rivalry between the University of Missouri and University of Kansas. The rivalry is chiefly expressed through football and basketball games between the two universities. It is the oldest college rivalry west of the Mississippi River and the second oldest in the nation. Each year when the universities meet to play, the game is coined "Border War." An exchange occurs following the game where the winner gets to take a historic marching band drum, which has been passed back and forth for decades.

Sports

Minor leagues

Former professional sports teams

Teams in Kansas City and St. Louis.

Miscellaneous topics

State nickname

The use of the unofficial nickname the Show-Me State has several possible origins. The phrase "I'm from Missouri" means I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced. This is related to the state's unofficial motto of "Show Me," whose origin is popularly ascribed to an 1899 speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver, who declared that "I come from a country that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." However, according to researchers, the phrase was in circulation earlier in the 1890s.[48] According to another legend, the phrase was a reference to Missouri miners brought to Leadville, Colorado to take the place of striking miners and being unfamiliar with the mining methods there required frequent instruction.[49]

It has also been known as the Puke State, perhaps on account of an 1827 gathering at the Galena Lead Mines. George Earlie Shankle [50] "...so many Missourians had assembled, that those already there declared the State of Missouri had taken a 'puke.'"[51] Within the state, “pukes” referred before the Civil War to impoverished citizens who nonetheless supported slavery, the equivalent of “poor white trash.”[52] Walt Whitman has listed “pukes” as a nickname for Missourians.[53]

Missouri is also known as "The Cave State" with over 6000 recorded caves (second to Tennessee). Perry County has both the largest number of caves and the single longest cave in the state.[54]

Other nicknames include "The Lead State", "The Bullion State", "The Ozark State", "Mother of the West", "The Iron Mountain State", and "Pennsylvania of the West".[55]

There is no official state nickname[56] however the official state motto is "Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto,", Latin for "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law."[57]

See also

References

  1. ^ U.S. Census 2000 Metropolitan Area Rankings; ranked by population
  2. ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 6, 2006. 
  4. ^ Missouri. (2009). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
  5. ^ http://www.census.gov/const/regionmap.pdf
  6. ^ Topic Galleries - chicagotribune.com
  7. ^ Introduction to Missouri - The Show Me State Capital Jefferson City
  8. ^ http://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/pdf/midwestus_nl.pdf
  9. ^ Midwest Region Economy at a Glance
  10. ^ UNC-CH surveys reveal where the ‘real' South lies
  11. ^ a b Almanac of the 50 States (Missouri). Information Publications (Woodside, CA). 2008. p. 203. 
  12. ^ "Missouri's Karst Wonderland - Missouri State Parks and Historic Sites, DNR". Mostateparks.com. 2008-06-06. http://www.mostateparks.com/karst.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  13. ^ Income Inequality in Missouri
  14. ^ "Average Weather for St. Louis, MO - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USMO0787?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared. Retrieved October 15, 2009. 
  15. ^ http://www.moga.state.mo.us/statutes/C000-099/0100000095.HTM
  16. ^ New York Times, "Louisiana: The Levee System of the State", 10/8/1874; accessed 11/15/2007
  17. ^ Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth, Kansas City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2.
  18. ^ MISSOURI V. IOWA, 48 U. S. 660 (1849) - US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez
  19. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05658-3; pg. 437
  20. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1860 Federal Census, University of Virginia Library. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
  21. ^ First interstate project
  22. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  23. ^ Valparaiso University
  24. ^ 2001 American Religious Identification Survey, City University of New York
  25. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports". Thearda.com. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/29_2000.asp. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  26. ^ "FRB: Federal Reserve Districts and Banks". Federalreserve.gov. 2005-12-13. http://www.federalreserve.gov/OTHERFRB.HTM. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ Missouri Secretary of State - State Archives - Origin of "Show Me" slogan
  29. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 67.305
  30. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 311.170
  31. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 311.310
  32. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 311.086
  33. ^ Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, State Excise Tax Rates and Rankings, May 29, 2009
  34. ^ "A burning issue," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 12, 2006
  35. ^ "Best Cities for Smokers," Forbes Magazine, November 1, 2007
  36. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System - Adults who are current smokers", September 19, 2008
  37. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 407.931.3
  38. ^ Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, County Level Survey 2007: Secondhand Smoke for Missouri Adults, October 1, 2008
  39. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 191.769
  40. ^ Mo. Rev. Stat. § 290.145
  41. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Missouri". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-29.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  42. ^ Missouri Department Of Elementary And Secondary Education (2009-09-02). "Home Schooling". Dese.mo.gov. http://www.dese.mo.gov/schoollaw/HomeSch/. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  43. ^ "Truman State University - Best Colleges - Education - US News and World Report". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. 2009-08-19. http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/kirksville-mo/truman-state-2495. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  44. ^ http://governors.truman.edu/images/Chapter%20174%20Missouri%20Revised%20Statutes.pdf
  45. ^ "Welcome to the Missouri Department of Higher Education Website (MDHE)". Dhe.mo.gov. http://www.dhe.mo.gov/mdhe/boardbook2content.jsp?id=296. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  46. ^ "Truman State University". Princetonreview.com. http://www.princetonreview.com/TrumanStateUniversity.aspx. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  47. ^America's Best Colleges 2008: National Universities: Top Schools.” USNews.com: . January 18, 2008.
  48. ^ "I'm from Missouri -- Show Me." http://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/summary3
  49. ^ Origin of "Show Me" Slogan. Secretary of State, Missouri. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp
  50. ^ State Names, Flags, Seals, Songs, Birds, Flowers and Other Symbols, 1938,
  51. ^ "The State of Missouri - An Introduction to the Show Me State from". Netstate.Com. http://www.netstate.com/states/intro/mo_intro.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  52. ^ William G. Cutler, A History of the State of Kansas, Ch 6. (1883).)
  53. ^ A note first published by William White, W. L. McAtee and A. L. H. in American Speech, Vol. 36, No. 4 (December, 1961), pp. 296–301.
  54. ^ Scott House (2005-05-14). "Fact Sheet on 6000 Caves". The Missouri Speleological Survey, Inc.. http://www.mospeleo.org/docs/pr6000.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  55. ^ "Introduction to Missouri", Netstate http://www.netstate.com/states/intro/mo_intro.htm>
  56. ^ "SOS, Missouri - State Archives Missouri History FAQ - Origin of"Show-Me"Slogan". Sos.mo.gov. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 
  57. ^ The Great Seal of Missouri, Secretary of State, Missouri. http://www.sos.mo.gov/symbols/symbols.asp?symbol=seal

External links


Preceded by
Maine
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on August 10, 1821 (24th)
Succeeded by
Arkansas

Coordinates: 38°30′N 92°30′W / 38.5°N 92.5°W / 38.5; -92.5


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Missouri [1] is a state in the American Midwest and it is known as the "Show Me State". The name may be pronounced "missouri" or "missouruh", although the latter is very seldom used or heard outside of Missouri.

St. Louis Area
St. Louis metro area including St. Louis and St. Charles
Kansas City Area
Kansas City metro area including Kansas City, Independence and Lee's Summit
Central Missouri
includes Jefferson City and Columbia
Northeast Missouri
includes Hannibal and Kirksville
Northwest Missouri
includes St. Joseph, Arrow Rock, and Weston
Southwest Missouri
Is in the Ozarks – includes Springfield, Joplin, and Branson.
Southeast Missouri
Includes Ste. Genevieve, Poplar Bluff and Cape Girardeau
  • Mastodon State Historic Site Imperial, MO (636) 464-2976 [2]
  • Ste. Genevieve -- first settlement and oldest brick building still intact today west of the Mississippi River
  • Lake of the Ozarks [3]
  • Truman Lake
  • Table Rock Lake
  • Wilson's Creek National Battlefield
  • Ozarks
  • Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail - Between May 1804 and September 1806, 32 men, one woman, and a baby traveled from th[e plains of the Midwest to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. They called themselves the Corps of Discovery
  • Ozark National Scenic Riverways-- Missouri's only national park consists of the Current, Jack's Fork, and Eleven Point Rivers. This is the best area in the state for an International Backpacker. The park has numerous places to camp. There are many canoe and float trip operators that will provide transportation to and from the river for a reasonable price. While canoeing or floating down the rivers there are many caves that one can explore, but be careful as bats and the occaisional poisionous snake call these home. If you decide to swim in the rivers, be careful and wear some kind of shoe that will stay securely on your feet. The river is full of rocks that are very painful to the feet and the current of the rivers could sweep the shoes right off your feet. It is still a great place to go swimming, especially the Current River. The water on a 6 foot man only rises about neck high in most places and it is spring fed and very cold even on the hottest day. Note: Be prepared if you have an emergency on the river as your cell phone will not work on the river or near it. There are pay phones located at some stores along the river. Bring everything you think you may need. Hospitals are scarce and a good drive to get to in this area.
  • Montauk State Park - Located approx. 20 miles from either Salem or Licking. The top end of the Current River (not located within the boundaries of the national park). Contains a fish hatchery where you can feed the trout being raised there. Also has a lodge, general store, a full service diner-style reataurant, camping and cabins for rent.
  • Mark Twain National Forrest - Located in various parts of the state from south central to the east. Features many campgrounds, hiking trails and lakes. Some sites of note: Council Bluffs on Highway DD about 3 miles north of Hwy 32 in Iron County. Features a full campground, beach swimming, boat rentals and concessions. Loggers Lake approx. 10 miles from highway 72 in Bunker, follow signs as this place is not on any kind of paved road. Features everything mentioned above except concessions.

Understand

According to William Least Heat Moon, in Blue Highways, St. Louis is the last Eastern city and Kansas City is the first Western city.

Missouri is known as the "Show Me State". What that means is a person from Missouri will not believe unless they are shown. The slogan is not an official one, but it does appear on the license plates. It is an endearing statement that people from Missouri say, "I'm from Missouri, you have to Show Me!".

Talk

Most areas of Missouri use the traditional Midwestern dialect of english. In the bootheel region, mainly from Sikeston south, the accent of the people has a southern drawl to it.

English is the official language of state business in Missouri by law.

A few town pronunciations:

Rolla (Raw-Luh) Japan (Jay-Pan) Hayti (Hay-Tie)

Get in

Many major airlines serve both Kansas City and St. Louis. St. Louis and Kansas city do not offer overseas flights. There are a few flights from these two airports from Mexico and Canada. Springfield, Columbia, Cape Girardeau and Joplin also have airports that provide passenger service. Note: A cab ride from the Kansas City airport to downtown is very expensive, costing 35-40 dollars. There are numerous public busses providing minimal stop service that will take you there for much less. Inquire about schedules before you arrive, it will save you a lot of money. From the St. Louis airport you can take Metrolink trains into downtown for $3.75 and it includes 1 transfer. The metrolink stops at many popular destinations such as the Delmar Loop, Forrest Park (zoo), Union Station shopping center, Busch Stadium, The Gateway Arch, Lacledes Landing, and the Casino Queen which is located in Illinois. This is a very economical way to get around.

Amtrak service is provided to St. Louis and Kansas City from Chicago. Also trains provide service to St. Louis from San Antonio texas via Dallas and Arkansas, and to Kansas city from Los Angeles. St. Louis has a brand new intermodal station for train and bus passengers is easily accessible to public transportation.

Greyhound and Jefferson Lines bus also serve Missouri and provide regular service to and from many destinations. Jefferson Lines serves Kansas City from Fort Smith, Arkansas, Dallas, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Fargo, and Winnepeg, Manitoba. Greyhound will bring you in from just about everywhere else. St. Louis is also served by Burlington Trailways from Iowa.

Get around

Numerous interstates and highways cross the state.

  • Interstate 70 connects St. Louis and Kansas City via Columbia.
  • Interstate 55 runs from St. Louis along the Mississippi River south towards Memphis. It serves the cities of Cape Girardeau, Sikeston, and Hayti located in the bootheel region.
  • Interstate 44 runs from St. Louis to Springfield, Joplin, and on into Oklahoma. Most of the route parallels Historic Route 66. It also serves the cities of St. Clair, Sullivan, Rolla, Waynesville/St. Robert/Fort Leonard Wood, and Lebanon.
  • Interstate 35 runs from Kansas City to the northeast towards Des Moines and to the southwest towards the Kansas suburbs of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area and later on into Wichita, Kansas.
  • Interstate 29 runs from Kansas City to the northwest towards Omaha/Council Bluffs. The route begins in Downtown Kansas City and parallels US Highway 71 to the north.
  • Interstate 57 runs a short 20 miles and serves Sikeston and Charleston, then onward to Chicago.
  • Interstate 64 runs through the St. Louis metro area and ends at I-70.
  • US Highway 50 runs east-west through the middle of the state. Cities along include: Lee's Summit, Warrensburg, Knob Noster, Sedalia, Jefferson City, and St. Louis. The portion from Sedalia to Lee's Summit is all freeway. There is new freeway being built West of Jefferson City.
  • US Highway 71 runs north-along the western part of the state from Iowa to Arkansas, and connects Kansas City and Joplin on a 4 lane expressway.
  • US Highway 60 runs along the southern portion of the state running from Kentucky to Oklahoma. Between Sikeston and Springfield, all but 60 miles is divided highway. West of Springfield, a short connector route (Missouri Highway 360) connects the road with Interstate 44.
  • US Highway 61 north of the St. Louis area (wentzville)is a four lane highway that is called Avenue of the Saints. It is a combination of highways linked together that will take you to St. Paul Minnesota. Most of this route is open expressway, except for Hannibal. It serves Troy, Bowling Green, and Hannibal.

Other notable well traveled highways include:

  • US 54 which will take you from I-70 to Jefferson City via an expressway and to the Lake of the Ozarks tourist destination via a four lane highway from there. This is the fastest way to get to these popular destinations from the east (St. Louis, Chicago, Indianapolis).
  • US 63 is being upgraded in many sections. It cuts pretty much through the middle of the state, north to south. It has a considerable amount of freeway. It serves Kirksville, Macon, Columbia, Jefferson City (all of the aforementioned are on a expressway) Rolla, Houston, Cabool, and West Plains.
  • US 67 will take you from St. Louis to Poplar Bluff and then onward to Little Rock. This is expressway from Fredricktown to Interstate 55, just south of St. Louis.
  • US 65 serves as an expressway from Interstate 44 at Springfield to Branson.
  • MO 7 and 13 provide expressway service from Kansas city to Springfield via Us 71 at Harrisonville.

By train

There is twice daily Amtrak service from St. Louis to Kansas city. Stops include Kirkwood, Washington, Hermann, Jeferson City, Sedalia, Warrensburg, Lee's Summit, and Independence. These trains are tax subsidized with state funds and fares are reasonable. The on-time performance of these trains has improved greatly recently with the building of new sidings as this line has heavy freight traffic. Amtrak Operates 2 other lines,

By bus

Greyhound runs Interstate 44 from St. Louis to Joplin with stops at Rolla, Fort Leonard Wood/St. Robert, Lebanon, Springfield, and Joplin. They run Interstate 70 from St. Louis to Kansas City, stopping in Columbia and Boonville along with other intermediate stops. Both of these lines stop at the St. Louis airport going either way. They also run Interstate 55 south of St. Louis stopping in Cape Girardeau and Sikeston. Jefferson Lines runs from Kansas City to Joplin and Kansas City to points north. Please check schedules as not all busses stop at all intermediate destinations. Bus travel can be expensive within the state with a ticket from St. Louis to Rolla running $31-$37 dollars for the 1 1/2 hour trip.

See

In Kansas City:

The Country Club Plaza - The nation's first shopping center, designed for the automobile. It offers high-end shops and restaurants in a quaint European atmosphere. The architecture is modeled after Seville Spain and includes a replica of the Giralda Tower.

The Nelson Atkins Museum of Art - A world class art collection housed in a beautiful 1930s building and a new, critically acclaimed modern wing by Steven Holl.

Liberty Memorial - The Nation's official World War 1 Museums

Union Station - The Nation's second largest train station with ceiling over 100 feet tall!

Crown Center - Home of Hallmark Cards and the Hallmark Visitors Center and Museum.

The Crossroads - Kansas City's art district, called the SoHo of the Midwest by the New York Times. This area offers some of Kansas City's more unique shops and restaurants alongside hip art galleries. Come on a First Friday and see the area come to life with a street part atmosphere.

City Market - A neighborhood of lofts centered around a large farmer's market. Best to visit on a weekend morning

Downtown and the Power and Light District - Downtown Kansas City houses many beautiful art deco buildings as well as examples of mid-century design and modern glass towers. Companies such as H+R Block and AMC (Movie Theaters) have their offices downtown. The Power and Light district is a new development housing restaurants and rowdy bars/clubs.

18th and Vine - Historic Jazz district and home of the American Jazz Museum and the Negro Leagues Baseball Hall of Fame.

Ward Parkway - A tree-lined Boulevard, just south of the Country Club Plaza, that takes you past stately homes. The houses are home of some of Kansas City's elite including the family that owns Russel Stover's Candies and the Applebee's family among others. The historic houses were built in many different styles, inspired by European architecture.

Do

Hiking, Horseback riding, and floating (canoeing or kayaking) are all popular activities in the Ozarks region whenever the weather is pleasant.

Explore Kansas City and Saint Louis. They are both very interesting cities.

Attend a First Friday art crawl in Kansas City's bohemian Crossroads Art District

Eat

Kansas City is known for it's barbeque and it has many different places to choose from. Don't pass this up!!!

St. Louis has a neighborhood known as "The Hill". There are many authentic Italian restaurants to chose from. The Hill is located south of Highway 40 (Interatate 64) and north of Interstate 44 in west St. Louis.

For the rest of the state, expect your typical midwestern fare. Burgers, Steaks, Pork.

Drink

Missouri has some of the most permissive alcohol laws in the country. All types of alcohol are available virtually everywhere including grocery stores, gas stations and even drive up liquor stores are common as Missouri law does not permit dry towns or counties. Open container alcohol in plastic glasses is permitted in the Power and Light district of Kansas City. The Delmar Loop in St. Louis has many bars of many different types and live music is common, especially on the weekends. St. James is home to the St. James Winery. They offer free tours and samples. That area also has various other wineries and they are easily accessible from Interstate 44.

Be sure to visit the Anheuser Busch plant in south St. Louis, they offer tours and free samples. It is very easy to get to from Interstate 55.

Be sure to also visit the Boulevard Brewing Company plant near downtown Kansas City, they offer tours and free samples. This is a regional brewery with a more organic taste. It is easily accessible from Interstate 70.

Stay safe

Missouri is generally a safe state. However here are a couple of notes:

Follow the guidelines you would normally follow for city safety.

If you are visiting the rivers in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Salem (population 5,000) is the city that most people have to travel through on the way to the rivers and they have 3 lodging facilities, including 1 major national chain. Lock your doors and take anything, and I mean anything you don't want to have stolen from your car inside your room with you. This city has a very high theft rate, especially from automobiles parked in the hotel parking lots. Chances are your stuff will be missing if you leave it in your car overnight. Also lock your car tight and make sure that if you have an alarm it is turned on as a few vehicles have been stolen in the past year.

  • Kansas - Located to the west of Missouri, Kansas is generally considered the center of the country, at least in geographical terms, and is nicknamed "the Heart of America."
  • Nebraska - Missouri's northwestern neighbor has a rich agricultural heritage, offering visitors a glimpse into America's heartland.
  • Iowa - Rural Iowa lies along Missouri's northern border and provides the opportunity to explore America's agricultural heartland.
  • Illinois - Home of the Midwest's largest city, Chicago, Illinois is located to the northeast of Missouri.
  • Kentucky - Missouri's neighbor to the southeast is known for its rolling hills, horses, and rural inhabitants, offering travelers a less-visited but tremendously beautiful destination.
  • Tennessee - Located to the southeast of Missouri, Tennessee offers natural wonders such as the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
  • Arkansas - Missouri's southern neighbor is "the Natural State", home to the Ozark Mountains in the northwest while the south and east of the state has flatter land and shows more of its agricultural heritage.
  • Oklahoma - The state's southwestern border is shared with Oklahoma, which has been a state since only 1907 and retains some of the pioneer spirit from its early days as a frontier, along with a lot of Native American history and culture.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Missouri

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Missouri

Plural
-

Missouri

  1. A state of the United States of America.. Capital Jefferson City: Postal abbreviation: MO
  2. (geography) The longest river in the United States, flowing from Montana to become a tributary of the Mississippi at Saint Louis.
  3. A Native American tribe that originally lived in the Great Lakes region of United States.
  4. (historical) An organized territory in the United States during the nineteenth century.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Missouri
Flag of Missouri State seal of Missouri
Flag of Missouri SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Show Me State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Salus populi suprema lex esto
Map of the United States with Missouri highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Jefferson City
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Kansas City
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif St Louis[1]
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 21stImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 69,709 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(180,693 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 240 miles (385 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 300 miles (480 km)
 - % water 1.16
 - Latitude 36° N to 40° 37′ N
 - Longitude 89° 6′ W to 95° 46′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 18thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 5,817,211
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 80.27/sq mi 
31/km² (27th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $37,934 (31st)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Taum Sauk Mountain[2]
1,772 ft  (540 m)
 - Mean 800 ft  (240 m)
 - Lowest point Saint Francis River[2]
230 ft  (70 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  August 10, 1821 (24th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Matt Blunt (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Kit Bond (R)
Claire McCaskill (D)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Central : UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations MOImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-MOImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.mo.gov

Missouri (pronouncedImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif /mɪˈzʊri/ or /mɪˈzʊrə/) is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States of America[3] bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. Missouri is the eighteenth most populous state and is made up of 114 counties and one independent city. Missouri's capital is Jefferson City, it's largest city is Kansas City, and four largest urban areas are, in descending order, St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia.[4] Missouri was originally purchased from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase and part of the Missouri Territory was admitted into the union as the 24th state in 1821.

Missouri mirrors the demographic, economic and political makeup of the nation as a mixture of urban and rural culture and has long been considered a political bellwether state.[5] It is a state with both Midwestern and Southern cultural influences, reflecting its history as a border state between the two regions. It is also a blend between the eastern and western United States as St. Louis is often called the "western-most eastern city" and Kansas City the "eastern-most western city." Missouri's geography is also highly varied, the northern part of the state lies in dissected till plains while the southern part lies in the Ozark Mountains, with the Missouri River dividing the two. The confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers is located near St. Louis.[6]

Contents

Etymology and Pronunciation

The state is named after the Missouri River which in turn is named after the Siouan Indian tribe whose Illinois name, ouemessourita (wimihsoorita[7]), means "those who have dugout canoes".[8]. The etymology lies behind Bob Dyer's tribute, "River of the Big Canoes."

The "proper" pronunciation of the final syllable of "Missouri" is a matter of controversy, with significant numbers insisting on a relatively tense vowel (as in "meet") or lax ("mitt" or "mutt"); the most thorough study of the question was done by dialectologist Donald Max Lance. From a linguistic point of view, there is no "correct" pronunciation, but rather, patterns of synchronic and diachronic variation according to such divisions as geography, age, education, rural/urban location.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Missouri

Missouri's borders physically touch a total of eight different states, as does its neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight states. Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa; on the east, across the Mississippi River, by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; on the south by Arkansas; and on the west by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (the latter across the Missouri River.) The two largest Missouri rivers are the Mississippi which defines the eastern boundary of the state and the Missouri that flows west to east through the state connecting the two largest cities, Kansas City and St. Louis.

Although today the state is usually considered part of the Midwest,[9][10] Missouri is also occasionally historically considered a Southern state,[11] the institution of slavery in the state contributing in no small part to this. Residents of cities farther north and the state's large metropolitan areas, including those where most of the state's population resides (Kansas City, St. Louis, Columbia), typically consider themselves Midwestern, while in rural areas and cities farther south (Cape Girardeau, Poplar Bluff, Springfield, and Sikeston), people typically consider themselves more Southern.

Topography

A physiographic map of Missouri

North of the Missouri River lie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. Here, gentle rolling hills remain behind from a glacier that once had extended from the north to the Missouri River. Missouri is made up of many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers. The Ozark foothills begin around Rolla, and the Ozark plateau begins around Springfield and extends into northwestern Arkansas, southeast Kansas, and northeast Oklahoma. Springfield in southwestern Missouri lies on close to the northernmost part of the Ozark plateau. Southern Missouri is the home of the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian igneous St. Francois Mountains.

The southeastern part of the state is home to the Bootheel, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. It is in this part of the state as well as the South Central part that speech patterns comparable to those of Kentucky, Arkansas, and Tennessee still exist. This region is the lowest, flattest and wettest part of the state, and among the poorest.[12] It is also the most fertile. Cotton and rice production are prominent in this area. The Bootheel area was the location of the epicenter of the New Madrid Earthquake of 1811–1812.

Climate

Main article: Climate of Missouri

Missouri generally has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with cold winters and hot and humid summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate borders on a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa). Due to its location in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extremes in temperatures. Not having either large mountains or oceans nearby to moderate its temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Missouri Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Columbia 37/18 44/23 55/33 66/43 75/53 84/62 89/66 87/64 79/55 68/44 53/33 42/22
Kansas City 36/18 43/23 54/33 65/44 75/54 84/63 89/68 87/66 79/57 68/46 52/33 40/22
Springfield 42/22 48/26 58/35 68/44 76/53 85/62 90/67 90/66 81/57 71/46 56/35 46/26
St. Louis 38/21 44/26 55/36 67/46 76/57 85/66 90/71 88/69 80/60 68/48 54/37 42/26
[1]
See also: List of Missouri state parks

History

Main article: History of Missouri
See also: Missouri in the American Civil War
Missouri state insignia
Motto Salus populi suprema lex esto
(Latin, "The welfare of the people shall be the supreme law")
Slogan Show Me
Bird Bluebird
Animal Missouri Mule (1995)
Fish Channel Catfish (1997)
Insect Honey bee (1985)
Flower Hawthorne (1923)
Tree Flowering Dogwood (1955)
Song "Missouri Waltz" (1949)
Quarter Missouri quarter
Released in 2003
Dance Square dance (1995)
Fossil Crinoid (1989)
Dinosaur Hypsibema missouriensis (2004) [2]
Gemstone Aquamarine
Mineral Galena (1967)
Rock Mozarkite (1967)
The Gateway Arch behind the Old Courthouse in St. Louis

Originally part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, Missouri was admitted as a state in 1821 as part of the Missouri Compromise. It earned the nickname "Gateway to the West" because it served as a departure point for settlers heading to the west. It was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth,[13] the point where the Kansas River enters the Missouri River. The river has moved since this designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary.[14] In 1835 the Platte Purchase was added to the northwest corner of the state after purchasing the land from the native tribes, making the Missouri River the border north of the Kansas River. This addition made what was already the largest state in the Union at the time (about 66,500 square miles to Virginia's 65,000 square miles (which included West Virginia at the time) even larger.[15]

Many of the early settlers in western Missouri came from the southern states, and along with them came the institution of slavery. In the area of Independence and areas just north of there, Mormon settlers began arriving in the early 1830s. It wasn't long before conflict arose between the 'old settlers' (mainly from the south originally) and the Mormons (mainly from the north and Canada). The 'Mormon War' erupted and by 1839 the Mormons had been expelled from Missouri. In 1838-1839 a border dispute with Iowa over the so-called Honey Lands resulted in both states calling up militias along the border.

After many incidences with Kansans crossing the Western border (including a fire in the historic Westport area of Kansas City), a border war began between Missouri and Kansas. The tradition continues between the University of Missouri - Columbia and University of Kansas. The rivalry is mainly focused on football between the two colleges. It is the oldest college rivalry west of the Mississippi River and the second oldest in the nation. Each year when the universities meet to play, the game is coined "Border Showdown." An exchange occurs following the game where the winner gets to take a historic marching band drum which has been passed back and forth for decades.

After the secession of Southern states began, the MO legislature called for the election of its own special convention on secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union, but pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson ordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Louis for training. Union General Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the peaceful camp and forcing the state troops to surrender. Lyon then directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrants, marched the prisoners through the streets then opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them, killing unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louis in an incident that became known as the "St. Louis Massacre."

These events caused greater Confederate support within the state. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, president of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri State Guard. Jackson and Price were forced to flee the state capital of Jefferson City on June 14, 1861, in the face of Lyon's rapid advance against the state government. In the town of Neosho, Jackson called the state legislature into session where they enacted a secession ordinance that was recognized by the Confederacy on October 30, 1861. With the elected governor absent from his capital and the legislators largely dispersed, Union forces installed an unelected pro-Union provisional government with Hamilton Gamble as provisional governor. President Lincoln's Administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal government, which provided both pro-Union militia forces for service within the state and volunteer regiments for the Union Army.

Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas and Texas under General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington and losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces had little choice but to retreat to Arkansas and later Marshall, in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army. Though regular Confederate troops staged large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted mainly of guerrilla warfare conducted by citizen soldiers such as Colonel William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson. Such small unit tactics pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers were also seen elsewhere in occupied portions of the Confederacy during and after the Civil War.

Demographics

Missouri Population Density Map


In 2006, Missouri had an estimated population of 5,842,713; an increase of 45,010 (0.8 percent) from the prior year and an increase of 246,030 (4.4 percent) since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians (3,145,584 people, or 56.2%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas–St. Louis and Kansas City.

The center of population of Missouri is located in Osage County, in the city of Westphalia [3].

As of 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population). {{US DemogTable|Missouri|03-29.csv|= | 86.90| 11.76| 1.08| 1.37| 0.12|= | 1.96| 0.12| 0.07| 0.03| 0.01|= | 86.54| 12.04| 1.03| 1.61| 0.13|= | 2.49| 0.14| 0.07| 0.03| 0.01|= | 3.23| 6.15| -0.57| 21.83| 10.71|= | 2.57| 5.94| -1.34| 21.81| 10.99|= | 32.07| 26.42| 10.52| 22.82| 8.09}} The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (23.5 percent), Irish (12.7 percent), American (10.5 percent), English (9.5 percent), French (3.5 percent). "American" includes those reported as Native American or African American.

German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. African Americans are a substantial part of the population in St. Louis, Kansas City, and in the southeastern bootheel and some parts of the Missouri River Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the Mississippi River valley south of St. Louis. The State has a Small Bosniak community mostly living in the St. Louis area

In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was 65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. 81.3 percent of Missouri residents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home.

In 2000, there were 2,194,594 households in Missouri, with 2.48 people per household. The homeownership rate was 70.3 percent, and the mean value of an owner-occupied dwelling was $89,900. The median household income for 1999 was $37,934, or $19,936 per capita. There were 11.7 percent (637,891) Missourians living below the poverty line in 1999.

The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes.

Religion

Of those Missourians who identify with a religion, three out of five are Protestants. There is also a moderate-sized Catholic community in some parts of the state; approximately one out of five Missourians are Catholic. Heavily Catholic areas include St. Louis and Kansas City.

The religious affiliations of the people of Missouri according to the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey:

Several religious organizations have their headquarters in Missouri, including the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, which has its headquarters in Kirkwood, as well as the United Pentecostal Church International in Hazelwood, both outside St. Louis. Kansas City is the headquarters of the Church of the Nazarene. Independence, outside of Kansas City, is the headquarters for the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), and the Latter Day Saints group Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. This area, and other parts of Missouri is also of significant religious and historical importance to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which maintains several sites/visitors centers, and whose members comprise about 1 percent of Missouri's population. Springfield is the headquarters of the Assemblies of God and the Baptist Bible Fellowship International. The General Association of General Baptists has its headquarters in Poplar Bluff. The Pentecostal Church of God is headquartered in Joplin.

Economy

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Missouri's total state product in 2003 was $195 billion. Per capita personal income in 2003 was $29,464, ranking 27th in the nation. Major industries include aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing, and beer.

The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy products, hay, corn, poultry, and eggs. Missouri is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and 7th for cattle. Missouri is ranked in the top 5 states in the nation for production of soy beans. As of 2001, there were 108,000 farms, the second largest number in any state after Texas. Missouri also actively promotes its rapidly growing wine industry.

Missouri has vast quantities of limestone. Other resources mined are lead, coal, Portland cement and crushed stone. Missouri produces the most lead of all of the states in the Union with most of these mines in the central eastern portion of the state. Missouri also ranks first or near first among the production of lime.

Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in importance.

Personal income is taxed in 10 different earning brackets, ranging from 1.5 percent to 6.0 percent. Missouri's sales tax rate for most items is 4.225 percent. Additional local levies may apply. More than 2,500 Missouri local governments rely on property taxes levied on real property (real estate) and personal property. Most personal property is exempt, except for motorized vechicles. Exempt real estate includes property owned by governments and property used as nonprofit cemeteries, exclusively for religious worship, for schools and colleges and for purely charitable purposes. There is no inheritance tax and limited Missouri estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.

Transportation

Air

The state of Missouri has two major airport hubs: Lambert-St. Louis International Airport and Kansas City International Airport.

Rail

Kansas City is still a major railroad hub for BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern, Kansas City Southern, and Union Pacific. Kansas City is the second largest freight rail center in the US. Like Kansas City, St. Louis is a major destination for train freight. Amtrak passenger trains serve Kansas City, Jefferson City, St. Louis, Lee's Summit, Independence, Warrensburg, Hermann, Kirkwood, and Sedalia. The only light rail/subway system in Missouri is the St. Louis Metrolink which connects the City of St. Louis with suburbs in Illinois and St. Louis County. As of 2007 preliminary planning is being performed for a light rail system in the Kansas City area.

Springfield remains an operational for the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway.

Daniel Boone Bridge looking out on the Missouri River early in the morning.

River

The Mississippi River and Missouri River are commercially navigable over their entire lengths in Missouri. St. Louis is a major destination for barge traffic on the Mississippi River.

Road

Current Missouri License Plate

Several highways, detailed below, traverse the state.

Following the passage of Amendment 3 in late 2004, the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) began its Smoother, Safer, Sooner road-building program with a goal of bringing 2,200 miles of highways up to good condition by December 2007. In 2005. the number of traffic deaths in the state increased by 10 percent to 1,241.

Interstate highways

United States highways

North-south routes East-west routes
See also: List of Missouri state highways and Missouri Supplemental Route

Law and government

Framework

Main articles: Law and Government of Missouri and List of Missouri Governors
Missouri Government
Governor of Missouri Matt Blunt (R)
Lieutenant Governor of Missouri: Peter Kinder (R)
Missouri Attorney General: Jay Nixon (D)
Missouri Secretary of State: Robin Carnahan (D)
Missouri State Auditor: Susan Montee (D)
Missouri State Treasurer: Sarah Steelman (R)
Senior United States Senator: Kit Bond (R)
Junior United States Senator: Claire McCaskill (D)

The current constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the state, was adopted in 1945 and provides for three branches of government—the legislative, judicial and executive branches. The legislative branch consists of two bodies—the House of Representatives and the Senate. These bodies comprise the General Assembly of the State of Missouri.

The House of Representatives has 163 members that are apportioned based on the last decennial census. The Senate consists of 34 members from districts of approximately equal populations. The judicial department consists of a supreme court consisting of 7 judges. Superior and inferior courts are also provided. The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes five other state-wide elected offices.

Status as a political bellwether

Main article: Missouri bellwether

One interesting fact about Missouri is its status as a bellwether of national politics. Missouri has a longer stretch of supporting the winning presidential candidate than any other state, having voted with the nation in every election since 1904 with the exception of Adlai Stevenson in 1956. In 2004, George W. Bush won the state's 11 electoral votes by a margin of 7 percentage points with 53.3 percent of the vote. Missouri has a very notable urban-rural split, as Democrat John Kerry only won four of the state's 115 counties: St. Louis City, St. Louis County, Ste. Genevieve, and Jackson County (which contains most of Kansas City).

Missouri has previously been considered a Democratic state, with its most prominent Democrat being Harry S. Truman. However, since the late 1970s the state has trended to Republicans, yet neither party is dominant. Democrats are generally strongest in the inner cities of Kansas City and St. Louis and Columbia, home of the University of Missouri–Columbia. Republicans are strongest in the southwestern areas near Springfield (home of Governor Matt Blunt) and Joplin and southeastern areas near Poplar Bluff and Cape Girardeau (home of Rush Limbaugh) of the state. Many of the rural areas throughout have recently trended to vote Republican.

Missouri is also viewed as a bellwether on hot-button issues such as same-sex marriage and embryonic stem cell research. In 2004, Missouri voters overwhelmingly (71%) passed an amendment to the Constitution of Missouri defining marriage as being the union of one man and one woman. Over twenty states have followed Missouri's lead and effected the same through constitutional referenda. In 2006, a ballot initiative labeled "Amendment 2" regarding embryonic stem cell research drew widespread attention as to the national sentiment on the issue. It also was a factor in the 2006 U.S. Senate race between Republican incumbent Jim Talent, who opposed embryonic stem cell research, and Democratic challenger Claire McCaskill, who supported it. A television advertisement featuring actor Michael J. Fox expressing his support for the measure drew harsh comments and criticism from talk radio host Rush Limbaugh. The measure narrowly passed by 51%-49%. Claire McCaskill also narrowly defeated Jim Talent for the U.S. Senate seat, a race which was considered crucial as to which party would control the Senate.

Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws

The packaging plant at the Anheuser-Busch headquarters in St. Louis, where Budweiser beer is produced.
Main article: Alcohol laws of Missouri

Throughout its history, Missouri has been known for its population's generally "stalwart, conservative, noncredulous" attitude toward regulatory regimes, which is one of the origins of the state's official nickname, the "Show-Me State."[16] As a result, and combined with the fact that Missouri is one of America's leading alcohol-producing states, regulation of alcohol and tobacco in Missouri is widely known to be among the most laissez-faire in the United States.

Missouri always has had some of the most permissive alcohol laws in the United States. It never enacted statewide prohibition, and Missouri voters rejected prohibition in three separate referenda in 1910, 1912, and 1918. Alcohol regulation did not begin in Missouri until 1934. Today, alcohol laws are controlled by the state government, and local jurisdictions are prohibited from going beyond those state laws. Missouri has no statewide open container law or prohibition on drinking in public, no alcohol-related blue laws, no local option, no precise locations for selling liquor by the package (thereby allowing even drug stores and gas stations to sell any kind of liquor), no differentiation of laws based on alcohol percentage, no prohibition on consumption by minors, and no prohibition on absinthe. State law protects persons from arrest or criminal penalty for public intoxication and also expressly prohibits any jurisdiction from going dry. Missouri law also expressly allows parents and guardians to serve alcohol to their children. Along with the French Quarter in New Orleans, the Power & Light District in Kansas City is one of the few places in the United States where a state law explicitly allows persons over the age of 21 to possess and consume open containers of alcohol in the street, as long as the beverage is in a plastic cup.

See also: List of smoking bans in Missouri

As for tobacco, Missouri has the second-lowest cigarette excise taxes in the United States (behind only South Carolina), at 17 cents per pack, as of November, 2007.[17][18] The electorate voted in 2002 and 2006 to keep it that way.[19] No statewide smoking ban ever has been proposed before the Missouri General Assembly, and only 20% of Missourians support such a statewide ban in all public places.[20] In 2007, Forbes named St. Louis as America's "best city for smokers."[17] As of November, 2007, only eleven cities in Missouri have any smoking restrictions at all, and only eight smaller cities have smoking bans in effect for all workplaces, including bars and restaurants.

Additionally, Missouri state law renders it "an improper employment practice" for an employer to refuse to hire, to fire, or otherwise to disadvantage any person because that person lawfully uses alcohol and/or tobacco products when he or she is not at work.[21]

Counties

See also: List of counties in Missouri

Missouri has 114 counties and one independent city (St. Louis).

The largest county by size is Texas County (1,179 sq. miles), Shannon County second (1,004 sq. miles), and with Worth County being the smallest (266 sq. miles). The independent city of St. Louis City is smaller yet, at only 62 sq. miles.

The largest county by population (2000 U.S. Census) is St. Louis County (1,016,315 residents), Jackson County second (654,880 residents), and with Worth County being the least populous (2,382 residents).

Important cities and towns

See also: List of cities in Missouri and List of towns and villages in Missouri

The seven largest cities in Missouri are Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Independence, Columbia, Lee's Summit and Saint Joseph.

St. Louis is the largest metropolitan area in Missouri and is the principal city of the sixteen-county St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area and includes eight counties in the state of Illinois. As of 2004, it was the 18th largest metro in the nation. Some of the major cities comprising the St. Louis Metro in Missouri include St. Charles, St. Peters, Florissant, Chesterfield, Creve Coeur, Maryland Heights, O'Fallon, Clayton, Ballwin, and University City.

Kansas City is the principal city of the fifteen-county Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area and includes six counties in the state of Kansas. Kansas City is Missouri's largest city. As of 2004, it was the 27th largest metro in the nation. Some of the other major cities comprising the Kansas City Metro in Missouri include Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue Springs, Raytown, Liberty, and Gladstone.

Education

Main article: Education in Missouri

Missouri State Board of Education

The Missouri State Board of Education has general authority over all public education in the state of Missouri. It is made up of eight citizens appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Missouri Senate.

Primary and secondary schools

See also: List of school districts in Missouri and List of high schools in Missouri

Education is compulsory from ages seven to sixteen in Missouri, commonly but not exclusively divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school and high school. The public schools system includes kindergarten to 12th grade. District territories are often complex in structure. In some cases, elementary, middle and junior high schools of a single district feed into high schools in another district. High school athletics and competitions are governed by the Missouri State High School Activities Association or MSHAA.

Colleges and universities

See also: List of colleges and universities in Missouri

The University of Missouri System is Missouri's statewide public university system, the flagship institution and largest university in the state is the University of Missouri campus in Columbia. The others in the system are University of Missouri–St. Louis, University of Missouri–Kansas City and University of Missouri–Rolla (which will become Missouri University of Science and Technology on January 1, 2008). Notable private institutions include Saint Louis University and Washington University in St. Louis.

In 1905 the state established a series of normal schools to teach "teaching norms" at colleges in each region of the state. The initial network consisted of Southeast Missouri State University in Cape Girardeau, Missouri State University (formerly Southwest Missouri State University) in Springfield, Truman State University (formerly Northeast Missouri State University) in Kirksville, Northwest Missouri State University in Maryville, and University of Central Missouri (formerly Central Missouri State University) in Warrensburg. There are numerous junior colleges, trade schools, church universities and private universities.

The state also funds a $2000, renewable merit-based scholarship, Bright Flight, given to the top 3 percent of Missouri High School graduates who attend a university in-state.

Sports

Minor leagues

Former Professional Sports Teams

Miscellaneous topics

  • The USS Missouri, a U.S. Navy battleship, was named in honor of the state.
  • The phrase "I'm from Missouri" means I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced. This is related to the state's motto of "Show Me," whose origin is popularly ascribed to an 1899 speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver, who declared that "I come from a country that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." However, according to researchers, the phrase was in circulation earlier in the 1890's.[22]According to another story, the phrase was originally a reference to Missouri laborers being brought to Colorado to quell a miner's strike and requiring frequent instruction. [23]
  • Missouri is known as "The Cave State." In fact, Perry County is believed to have 650 caves, more than any other county in the state.

[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t29/tab03b.xls U.S. Census 2000 Metropolitan Area Rankings; ranked by population
  2. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
  3. ^ http://www.census.gov/const/regionmap.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ua/ua2k.txt
  5. ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0411030358nov03,1,6377649.story?coll=chi-newsnationworld-utl&ctrack=1&cset=true
  6. ^ http://www.netstate.com/states/intro/mo_intro.htm
  7. ^ McCafferty, Michael. 2004. Correction: Etymology of Missouri (restricted access). American Speech, 79.1:32
  8. ^ American Heritage Dictionary: Missouri
  9. ^ http://www.eduplace.com/ss/maps/pdf/midwestus_nl.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.midwest.htm
  11. ^ http://www.unc.edu/news/archives/jun99/reed16.htm
  12. ^ http://ded.mo.gov/researchandplanning/community/misc/sa-1102-1.stm
  13. ^ Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth. Kansas City: Lowell Press. ISBN 0-913504-91-2.
  14. ^ http://supreme.justia.com/us/48/660/case.html
  15. ^ Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800-1867. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05658-3; pg. 437
  16. ^ Missouri Secretary of State - State Archives - Origin of "Show Me" slogan
  17. ^ a b [http://www.forbes.com/business/2007/11/01/tobacco-smoking-north-carolina-biz-cx_tvr_1101smoking.html "Best Cities for Smokers," Forbes Magazine, November 1, 2007
  18. ^ "State Tax Rates on Cigarettes," Federation of Tax Administrators, January 1, 2007
  19. ^ "A burning issue," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 12, 2006
  20. ^ James R. Davis and Ross C. Brownson, "A Policy for Clean Indoor Air in Missouri: History and Lessons Learned," St. Louis University Public Law Review, Volume 13, p. 749 (1994)
  21. ^ Section 290.145, Revised Statutes of Missouri
  22. ^ "I'm from Missouri -- Show Me." http://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/new_york_city/entry/summary3
  23. ^ Origin of "Show Me" Slogan. Secretary of State, Missouri. http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/history/slogan.asp
  24. ^ "Tidbits: Did You Know...", Publishing Group of America (americanprofiles.com), p. 13. Retrieved on 2007-07-11. 

External links

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Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Missouri



CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 38.5° N 92.5° W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Missouri. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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This article uses material from the "Missouri" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Missouri
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Missouri]]
Flag of Missouri Seal of Missouri
Also called: The Show Me State
Saying(s): Salus populi suprema lex esto
Official language(s) English
Capital Jefferson City
Largest city Kansas City
Largest metro area St. Louis
Area  Ranked 21st
 - Total 69,709 sq mi
(180,693 km²)
 - Width 240 miles (385 km)
 - Length 300 miles (480 km)
 - % water 1.16
 - Latitude 36°N to 40°35'N
 - Longitude 89°6'W to 95°42'W
Number of people  Ranked 17th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (27th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Taum Sauk Mountain[1]
1,772 ft  (540 m)
 - Average 800 ft  (240 m)
 - Lowest point Saint Francis River[1]
230 ft  (70 m)
Became part of the U.S.  August 10, 1821 (24th)
Governor Matt Blunt (R)
U.S. Senators Kit Bond (R)
Claire McCaskill (D)
Time zone Central : UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations MO US-MO
Web site www.mo.gov

Missouri is one of the fifty states in the United States. Its capital is Jefferson City. Its largest cities are Kansas City and Saint Louis. Some other cities are Columbia (which is where the University of Missouri is), and Springfield.

Missouri officially became a state on August 10, 1821.

Missouri's edges touch a total of eight states. It is touched on the north by Iowa; on the east, across the Mississippi River, by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee; on the south by Arkansas; and on the west by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (Kansas and Nebraska are across the Missouri River).

References

frr:Missouri







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