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Partridge Berry
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Mitchella
Species: M. repens
Binomial name
Mitchella repens
L.

Mitchella repens , or Partridge Berry[1][2][3][4], or Squaw Vine,is the best known plant in the genus Mitchella.

It is a herbaceous woody shrub, occurring in North America and Japan, and belonging to the madder family (Rubiaceae). Common names for Mitchella repens include partridge berry (or partridgeberry), squaw berry (or squaw berry), two-eyed berry, running fox, and Noon kie oo nah yeah (in the Mohawk language).

This evergreen plant is a creeping, but not climbing, vine, 15-30 cm long. The evergeen dark-green leaves are opposite, ovate to cordate, with a pale yellow midrib. The petioles are short. Adventitious roots may grow at the internodes, forming loose mats. It is part of the undergrowth vegetation in many forests.

The white flowers are axillary, in pairs, with four petals, arising from one common calyx covered with fine hairs. Each flower has one pistil and four stamens. The flowers are dimorphous: one flower has a long pistil and short stamens (the pin) and the other has a short pistil and long stamens (the thrum). This dimorphy prevents autogamy (but not necessarily geitonogamy).

Partridge Berry (Mitchella repens)
Foliage, inflorescence, and unopened blossom
Berries

The ovaries of the twin flowers fuse, so that there are two flowers for every berry. The two bright red spots on each berry are vestiges of this process. The scarlet berries are edible but very bitter, resembling cranberries (to which they are not closely related). Each berry contains eight seeds. The fruit ripens between July and October. These berries are part of the diets of several birds, such as Ruffed Grouse, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Northern Bobwhite, and Prairie Chicken. The Red Fox, raccoons and White-tailed Deer seem to like it as well.

The most common method of reproduction is vegetative, through division of the roots.

The species is dispersed throughout eastern North America.

References

  1. ^ Peterson, Roger Tory, and McKenny, Margaret. A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North America. ISBN 0-395-91172-9.  
  2. ^ MacKenzie, David, S. Perennial Ground Covers. ISBN 0-88192-557-8.  
  3. ^ Hutchens, Alma R. Indian Herbalogy of North America. ISBN 0-87773-639-1.  
  4. ^ Hall, Joan Houston (2002). Dictionary of American Regional English. Harvard University Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-674-00884-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=i33BWgxbvXgC&pg=PA47&dq=%22Gaultheria+procumbens%22+partridgeberry&as_brr=3&ei=n3c_R42aOIKq6ALhm_jTDA&sig=TephPF-NpndJ_sCuNKIf_5Ghww4. Retrieved 2007-11-16.  
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Mitchella repens

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Gentianales
Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Rubioideae
Tribus: Morindeae
Genus: Mitchella
Species: Mitchella repens

Name

Mitchella repens L.

References

  • Species Plantarum 1:111. 1753
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Data from 07-Oct-06]. 402637

Vernacular names

English: Partridge Berry
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Mitchella repens on Wikimedia Commons.

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