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Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion from mammalian lung tissue showing its matrix and membranes.
.
Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components.
^ FIG. 4 is a schematic showing transformation of S. cerevisiae mitochondria in the cell by particle bombardment.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Schematic drawing of the structure of a typical bacterial cell of the bacillus type.
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In animal cells, mitochondria are the only cellular components outside the nucleus that boast their own DNA, which is passed on from mother to child almost in its entirety.
  • Mitochondria Gone Bad - Science News 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

Organelles:
(1) Nucleolus
(2) Nucleus
(3) Ribosomes
(4) Vesicle
(5) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
(6) Golgi apparatus
(7) Cytoskeleton
(8) Smooth ER
(9) Mitochondria
(10) Vacuole
(11) Cytoplasm
(12) Lysosome
(13) Centrioles within centrosome
.In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.^ The ___ is the membrane enclosed structure in eukaryotic cells that contains the DNA of the cell.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction Mitochondria are cellular organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are structures called organelles, separate from the DNA-containing cell nucleus but vital to cellular functioning.
  • Malfunctioning Mitochondria May Cause Heart Disease | Wired Science | Wired.com 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

[1] .These organelles range from 0.5 to 10 micrometers (μm) in diameter.^ After 45 min, these were incubated with mitochondria for 10 min, followed by separation of the organelles by differential centrifugation.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A 40 h exposure to an EE concentration ranging from 0.5 to 10 μM resulted in a 2- to 3-fold induction of CO I, CO II, and NADPH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NADPH-DH1) mRNA [22] .
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.^ It was MBM’s mitochondria, the organelles that supply the energy for cells to function.
  • Mitochondria Gone Bad - Science News 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The energy is temporarily stored in the bonds of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

^ Cellular response - The plant cell wall .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.^ The cell division cycle - - Controlled proliferation .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was MBM’s mitochondria, the organelles that supply the energy for cells to function.
  • Mitochondria Gone Bad - Science News 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.sciencenews.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rustin P: Mitochondria, from cell death to proliferation.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders[4] and cardiac dysfunction,[5] and may play a role in the aging process.^ BEAL, M. F. Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in aging ( 1 ) and other diseases.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria have long been implicated in the aging process – improving the function of mitochondria may turn back the clock and worsened function speeds up decline.
  • Mitochondria Take Center Stage | Health and Wellness News 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.wellnessresources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος or mitos, thread + χονδρίον or chondrion, granule.
.Several characteristics make mitochondria unique.^ Moreover, their typical structural and functional characteristics may make mitochondria a valuable target for xenobiotics ( 30 , 32 ).
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Characteristics of mitochondrial ROS Mitochondria are a predominant source of ROS in most cell types with unique characteristics that may allow it to participate in growth signal transduction.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type.^ Figure 5: Cell types and tissues.
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The invention provides such transgenomic mitochondria and transmitochondrial cells and organisms.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria-rich cells in the branchial epithelium of the teleost, Oreochromis mossambicus , acclimated to various hypotonic environments.
  • Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel -- Hiroi et al. 208 (11): 2023 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria.^ And that’s only for a single cell.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the onset of elongation on, cells contain many more mitochondria (Fig.
  • Plant mitochondria move on F-actin, but their positioning in the cortical cytoplasm depends on both F-actin and microtubules -- Van Gestel et al. 53 (369): 659 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, each cell may have many mitochondria.
  • CLL Topics: Target Mitochondrion – Exciting New Drugs on the Horizon 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.clltopics.org [Source type: Academic]

[6][7] .The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions.^ Viruses upon entry, in order to survive and replicate, need to take control of the various cellular organelles that carry out defense and immune processes.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The present study was carried out to test the hypothesis that sustained hypoxia recruits oxygen dependence of mitochondrial respiration in organelles isolated from the livers of septic rats.
  • Mitochondrial respiration after sepsis and prolonged hypoxia -- Taylor et al. 275 (1): 139 -- AJP - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajplung.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Staehelin, L.A. (1997) The plant ER: A dynamic organelle composed of a large number of discrete functional domains.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix.^ Mitochondrial proteins can be localized to either the mitochondrial matrix, the inner membrane, the intermembrane space, or the outer membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The membrane potential is positive at the outer (intermembrane space) surface and negative at the inner (matrix) surface of the inner membrane.
  • Protein unfolding by mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The outer and the inner membranes thus create two compartments viz., the inter-membrane space and the matrix.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissue and the species.^ Presequence and mature part of preproteins strongly influence the dependence of mitochondrial protein import on heat shock protein 70 in the matrix.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrial proteome varies from tissue to tissue, and it is also possible that DDase is activated or introduced into mitochondria under specific physiological conditions, such as early in apoptosis.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That HSP70 is localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane has been shown in various plant species ( Mooney and Harmey 1996 ).
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.In humans, 615 distinct types of proteins have been identified from cardiac mitochondria;[8] whereas in Murinae (rats), 940 proteins encoded by distinct genes have been reported.^ Number of distinct protein types in cardiac mitochondria .
  • Search BioNumbers - The Database of Useful Biological Numbers 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This nonchromosomal DNA encodes a small number of mitochondrial peptides (13 in humans) that are integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, along with proteins encoded by genes that reside in the host cell's nucleus .
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes.
  • Hsp60 Is Targeted to a Cryptic Mitochondrion-Derived Organelle ("Crypton") in the Microaerophilic Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica -- Mai et al. 19 (3): 2198 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.^ A recently emerging outstanding question is: How do mitochondrial dynamics (and their Ca 2+ regulation) affect their metabolic properties and participation in the regulation of different cell death pathways?
  • Mitochondria: The Hub of Cellular Ca2+ Signaling -- Szabadkai and Duchen 23 (2): 84 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The dynamin-like protein DLP1 is believed to regulate dynamic fusion events between mitochondrial and ER membranes ( 53 ).
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ J. Nilsen, R. W. Irwin, T. K. Gallaher, and R. D. Brinton Estradiol In Vivo Regulation of Brain Mitochondrial Proteome J. Neurosci., December 19, 2007; 27(51): 14069 - 14077.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are able to maintain genomic independence from the nucleus, because of proto-mitochondrial genes having integrated into the nuclear genome throughout evolution.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment of the cells with 1.25 µM latrunculin B causes an abrupt cessation of directional mitochondrion movement and a breakdown of most cytoplasmic strands within 1 h (Fig.
  • Plant mitochondria move on F-actin, but their positioning in the cortical cytoplasm depends on both F-actin and microtubules -- Van Gestel et al. 53 (369): 659 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Further, its DNA shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.^ Figure 3 shows primarily high molecular weight genomic DNA, detected as smearing of the band without laddering 1 day after LPS administration.
  • Postlipopolysaccharide Oxidative Damage of Mitochondrial DNA -- Suliman et al. 167 (4): 570 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The GelStar-stained gel was inverted to improve resolution and to show the integrity of genomic DNA. Each well was loaded with DNA (15 µg/lane).
  • Postlipopolysaccharide Oxidative Damage of Mitochondrial DNA -- Suliman et al. 167 (4): 570 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Contents

Structure

Animal mitochondrion diagram en (edit).svg
.A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins.^ The inner mitochondrial membrane contains proteins with four types of functions: .
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ File:Diagram of a human mitochondrion.svg Simplified structure of a typical mitochondrion A mitochondrion contains inner and outer membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins .
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The composition of proteins and phospholipids of the mitochondrial inner membrane is crucial for mitochondrial function.
  • PLoS ONE: Evidence for Mitochondrial Respiratory Deficiency in Rat Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .The two membranes, however, have different properties.^ The two membranes, however, have different properties.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ However, using two independent assays, no change in caspase activity was observed in the three different ages of animals.
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ X-ray diffraction patterns arising from the mitochondrial cristae -membrane were recorded in the fully dried state and in two different states in humidity.

.Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion.^ Because of this double-membraned organization, there are 5 distinct compartments within mitochondria.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The trypanosome mitochondrion alters the biochemistry of the parasite to facilitate life within the distinct environments of the tsetse fly vector and the mammalian host ( 38 , 40 , 41 ).
  • The Mitochondrion Is a Site of Trypanocidal Action of the Aromatic Diamidine DB75 in Bloodstream Forms of Trypanosoma brucei -- Lanteri et al. 52 (3): 875 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC aac.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The location of O 2 ● within mitochondria is important because O 2 ● does not diffuse across membranes.
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide Antioxidants: Novel Neuroprotective Agents 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is the outer mitochondrial membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner mitochondrial membrane, the crista space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane).^ Mitochondrial/apicoplast outer membrane porin .
  • http://sites.huji.ac.il/malaria/maps/transporters.html 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC sites.huji.ac.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Insets show areas of contact between outer and inner membranes.
  • Zinc-Dependent Multi-Conductance Channel Activity in Mitochondria Isolated from Ischemic Brain -- Bonanni et al. 26 (25): 6851 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Structure and dynamics of the mitochondrial inner membrane cristae.

Outer membrane

.The outer mitochondrial membrane, which encloses the entire organelle, has a protein-to-phospholipid ratio similar to that of the eukaryotic plasma membrane (about 1:1 by weight).^ Localization of HCV core protein to the mitochondrial outer membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The composition of proteins and phospholipids of the mitochondrial inner membrane is crucial for mitochondrial function.
  • PLoS ONE: Evidence for Mitochondrial Respiratory Deficiency in Rat Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Protein unfolding by the mitochondrial membrane potential.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.It contains large numbers of integral proteins called porins.^ It contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively large internal channel (about 2-3 nm ) that is permeable to all molecules of 5000 daltons or less.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria contain their own genome, which encodes a number of proteins critical for energy metabolism, particularly in oxidative phosphorylation.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrial inner membrane contains numerous multispanning integral proteins.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

.These porins form channels that allow molecules 5000 Daltons or less in molecular weight to freely diffuse from one side of the membrane to the other.^ Membrane channels - - Facilitated diffusion .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the cells are heteroplasmic, there is a chance that the resulting secondary oocyte will end up with more (or less) of one type of mitochondria than the other cells in the embryo.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ceramide forms channels in mitochondrial outer membranes at physiologically relevant concentrations.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Larger proteins can enter the mitochondrion if a signaling sequence at their N-terminus binds to a large multisubunit protein called translocase of the outer membrane, which then actively moves them across the membrane.^ Signal anchor sequence insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It contains numerous integral proteins called porins , which contain a relatively large internal channel (about 2-3 nm ) that is permeable to all molecules of 5000 daltons or less.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are dynamic and pleomorphic organelles, composed of a smooth outer membrane surrounding an inner membrane of significantly larger surface area that, in turn, surrounds a protein-rich core, the matrix.
  • Mitochondria, Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.sage-hindawi.com [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Disruption of the outer membrane permits proteins in the intermembrane space to leak into the cytosol, leading to certain cell death.^ The outer mitochondrial membrane channel, VDAC, is modulated by a protein localized in the intermembrane space.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondrial proteins can be localized to either the mitochondrial matrix, the inner membrane, the intermembrane space, or the outer membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the same time, protons are pumped across the mitochondrial inner membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space, by complexes I, III, and IV. This process creates an electrochemical proton gradient.
  • Mitochondria, Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.sage-hindawi.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] .The mitochondrial outer membrane can associate with the ER membrane, in a structure called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER-membrane).^ Mitochondrial/apicoplast outer membrane porin .
  • http://sites.huji.ac.il/malaria/maps/transporters.html 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC sites.huji.ac.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Subcellular compartmentalization of ceramide metabolism: MAM (mitochondria-associated membrane) and/or mitochondria?
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MAM and its subsequent transfer to the mitochondrial outer membrane.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is important in ER-mitochondria calcium signaling and involved in the transfer of lipids between the ER and mitochondria.^ These membranes have a defined function in the direct transfer of lipids between the ER and mitochondria.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free Full Text] Csordas G, Thomas AP, Hajnoczky G. Quasi-synaptic calcium signal transmission between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria.
  • Mitochondria: The Hub of Cellular Ca2+ Signaling -- Szabadkai and Duchen 23 (2): 84 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline] Chalmers S, Nicholls DG. The relationship between free and total calcium concentrations in the matrix of liver and brain mitochondria.
  • Mitochondria: The Hub of Cellular Ca2+ Signaling -- Szabadkai and Duchen 23 (2): 84 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Intermembrane space

.The intermembrane space is the space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane.^ There is the outer membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner membrane, the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane).
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Insets show areas of contact between outer and inner membranes.
  • Zinc-Dependent Multi-Conductance Channel Activity in Mitochondria Isolated from Ischemic Brain -- Bonanni et al. 26 (25): 6851 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It also acts as a buffer zone between the inner and the outer membranes.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Because the outer membrane is freely permeable to small molecules, the concentrations of small molecules such as ions and sugars in the intermembrane space is the same as the cytosol.^ The outer membrane also contains enzymes involved in such diverse activities as the elongation of fatty acids , oxidation of epinephrine (adrenaline), and the degradation of tryptophan .
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ At the same time, protons are pumped across the mitochondrial inner membrane, from the matrix to the intermembrane space, by complexes I, III, and IV. This process creates an electrochemical proton gradient.
  • Mitochondria, Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.sage-hindawi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, channel activity in the outer membrane may be modulated by effectors and/or second messengers acting at the intermembrane face of the outer membrane or within the cytosol.
  • Zinc-Dependent Multi-Conductance Channel Activity in Mitochondria Isolated from Ischemic Brain -- Bonanni et al. 26 (25): 6851 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .However, as large proteins must have a specific signaling sequence to be transported across the outer membrane, the protein composition of this space is different than the protein composition of the cytosol.^ Signal anchor sequence insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HCV core protein is not transported across the mitochondrial outer membrane in vitro and in vivo.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Membrane potential the electrical potential difference across a membrane.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.One protein that is localized to the intermembrane space in this way is cytochrome c.^ A Western blot analysis showed that while the FLAG-tagged core protein was readily digested by proteinase K in the absence of TX-100 (lane 2), proteins located in the intermembrane space, such as cytochrome c (Cyto c), and mtHsp70, which is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, were protected.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although reduced by this treatment, substantial Hsp90 reactivity remained associated with mitochondria (FIG. 2C), suggesting that Hsp90 localized to both the matrix and the mitochondrial intermembrane space.
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytochrome c is normally located in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion, loosely bound to the inner membrane.
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]

Inner membrane

The inner mitochondrial membrane contains proteins with five types of functions:[6]
  1. Those that perform the redox reactions of oxidative phosphorylation
  2. ATP synthase, which generates ATP in the matrix
  3. Specific transport proteins that regulate metabolite passage into and out of the matrix
  4. Protein import machinery.
  5. Mitochondria fusion and fission protein
.It contains more than 100 different polypeptides, and has a very high protein-to-phospholipid ratio (more than 3:1 by weight, which is about 1 protein for 15 phospholipids).^ Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is thought that mitochondria contain more than 1,000 different proteins.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He published more than 100 original articles in various scientific and medical journals and has been awarded several patents.
  • How to Give Yourself a Metabolic Tune-up 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

.The inner membrane is home to around 1/5 of the total protein in a mitochondrion.^ The role of the Tim8p-Tim13p complex in a conserved import pathway for mitochondrial polytopic inner membrane proteins.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cytochrome c is normally located in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion, loosely bound to the inner membrane.
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrial inner membrane possesses two translocase complexes that mediate the import of precursor proteins.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .In addition, the inner membrane is rich in an unusual phospholipid, cardiolipin.^ Their effect in mitochondria is to create an additional Ca 2+ efflux pathway in the inner membrane, depleting the matrix of Ca 2+ ( 456 , 475 ).
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The composition of proteins and phospholipids of the mitochondrial inner membrane is crucial for mitochondrial function.
  • PLoS ONE: Evidence for Mitochondrial Respiratory Deficiency in Rat Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The inner membrane, which isolates the matrix, is virtually devoid of cholesterol, is rich in cardiolipin (which binds the proteins of the electron transport chain), and is impermeable to ions.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.This phospholipid was originally discovered in beef hearts in 1942, and is usually characteristic of mitochondrial and bacterial plasma membranes.^ Simplified ion circuitry across mitochondrial and plasma membranes of a typical neuron.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ WAN, B., C. DOUMEN, J. DUSZYNSKI, G. SALAMA, AND K. F. LANOUE. A method of determining electrical potential gradient across mitochondrial membrane in perfused rat hearts.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Blomstrand, R. & Svensson, L. (1983) The effects of partially hydrogenated marine oils on the mitochondrial function and membrane phospholipid fatty acids in rat heart.
  • Dietary Trans Fatty Acids Alter the Compositions of Microsomes and Mitochondria and the Activities of Microsome {Delta}6-Fatty Acid Desaturase and Glucose-6-Phosphatase in Livers of Pregnant Rats -- Larqué et al. 133 (8): 2526 -- Journal of Nutrition 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Cardiolipin contains four fatty acids rather than two and may help to make the inner membrane impermeable.^ The inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to protons , hydroxide ions, and other cations and anions .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ C. After centrifugation at 10,000.times.g for 10 minutes, the supernatant was collected as containing outer membrane and inner membrane mitochondrial fractions (OM & IMS).
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of heme, the transporter is unknown, whereas the [Fe-S] clusters may be exported to the cytosol via the mitochondrial inner membrane transporter, ABCB7 ( Figure 2 ).

[6] .Unlike the outer membrane, the inner membrane does not contain porins and is highly impermeable to all molecules.^ The inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to protons , hydroxide ions, and other cations and anions .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ C. After centrifugation at 10,000.times.g for 10 minutes, the supernatant was collected as containing outer membrane and inner membrane mitochondrial fractions (OM & IMS).
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondria used here were Percoll-purified, with a broken outer membrane to allow maximal accessibility to the inner membrane.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

.Almost all ions and molecules require special membrane transporters to enter or exit the matrix.^ Unlike the outer membrane, the inner membrane does not contain porins, and is highly impermeable; almost all ions and molecules require special membrane transporters to enter or exit the matrix.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, at the level of the GIP complex, the transport characteristics of presequence-containing multispanning proteins differ from those of matrix proteins and single-membrane-spanning proteins.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, the most basic unit of energy storage, the adenosine triphosphate molecule (ATP), is the same in all species that have been studied.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

.Proteins are ferried into the matrix via the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complex or via Oxa1.[12] In addition, there is a membrane potential across the inner membrane formed by the action of the enzymes of the electron transport chain.^ Transfer of the Oxa1 preprotein to the inner membrane is not affected by inactivation of the soluble TIM complexes.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Membrane potential the electrical potential difference across a membrane.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ NADH and FADH 2 : the electron transport chain .
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

Cristae

Cross-sectional image of cristae in rat liver mitochondrion to demonstrate the likely 3D structure and relationship to the inner membrane.
.The inner mitochondrial membrane is compartmentalized into numerous cristae, which expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, enhancing its ability to produce ATP. For typical liver mitochondria the area of the inner membrane is about five times greater than the outer membrane.^ Mitochondria are complex organelles bounded by an inner and an outer membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Signal anchor sequence insertion into the outer mitochondrial membrane.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The inner mitochondrial membrane is compartmentalized into numerous cristae , which expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, enhancing its ability to generate ATP. In typical liver mitochondria, for example, the surface area, including cristae, is about five times that of the outer membrane.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.This ratio is variable and mitochondria from cells that have a greater demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain even more cristae.^ ATP/ADP ratio in mitochondria in darkness .
  • Search BioNumbers - The Database of Useful Biological Numbers 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ From the onset of elongation on, cells contain many more mitochondria (Fig.
  • Plant mitochondria move on F-actin, but their positioning in the cortical cytoplasm depends on both F-actin and microtubules -- Van Gestel et al. 53 (369): 659 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Later on, the proto-mitochondria were encapsulated, which gave the cell the advantage of being able to use oxygen to produce some 20 times more ATP. In a similar way, there is also strong evidence that plants developed their plastids (photosynthesis organelle containing chlorophyll) from encapsulation of blue-green algae.
  • A&W/SF: FAQ on Kremer and AIDS 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.aliveandwellsf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These folds are studded with small round bodies known as F1 particles or oxysomes. .These are not simple random folds but rather invaginations of the inner membrane, which can affect overall chemiosmotic function.^ In the presence of a , the transport of Cox18 into the inner mitochondrial membrane was affected neither in tim10 - 2 mitochondria nor in tim8 tim13 mitochondria (data not shown).
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results are obtained with the use of oligomycin, an inhibitor of the F 0 /F 1 -ATP synthases of inner mitochondrial and plastid thylakoid membranes.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Transfer of the Oxa1 preprotein to the inner membrane is not affected by inactivation of the soluble TIM complexes.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[16]

Matrix

.The matrix is the space enclosed by the inner membrane.^ Matrix Main article: mitochondrial matrix The matrix is the space enclosed by the inner membrane.
  • Why is the inner membrane of mitochondria ruffled? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The space bounded by the inner membrane is called the matrix.
  • BSCB :: The British Society for Cell Biology :: www.bscb.org 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.bscb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The matrix – This is the inner space enclosed by the inner member.
  • Function and Structure of Mitochondria - A Look at What the Mitochondria are Like 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: Academic]

.It contains about 2/3 of the total protein in a mitochondrion.^ Mitochondrion movement and positioning was studied in elongating cultured cells of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.), containing mitochondria-localized green fluorescent protein.
  • Plant mitochondria move on F-actin, but their positioning in the cortical cytoplasm depends on both F-actin and microtubules -- Van Gestel et al. 53 (369): 659 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .The matrix is important in the production of ATP with the aid of the ATP synthase contained in the inner membrane.^ Immediately after the ATP content measurements, 10 µl of 2.5 mM ADP was added to the cuvette containing the reaction mixture and mitochondria to determine the rate of ATP production.
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ C. After centrifugation at 10,000.times.g for 10 minutes, the supernatant was collected as containing outer membrane and inner membrane mitochondrial fractions (OM & IMS).
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The ATP synthase is the dominant pathway for the reentry of protons into the mitochondrial matrix.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.The matrix contains a highly-concentrated mixture of hundreds of enzymes, special mitochondrial ribosomes, tRNA, and several copies of the mitochondrial DNA genome.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During an in vivo twitch, the transient increment in Ca 2+ concentration in the mitochondrial matrix is almost as large as the average increment in the cytoplasm ( 56 ).
  • ER-Mitochondria Communication. How Privileged? -- Franzini-Armstrong 22 (4): 261 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Copy number regulation and transmission of the mitochondrial genome is, no doubt, under nuclear control.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.Of the enzymes, the major functions include oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids, and the citric acid cycle.^ Of the enzymes, the major functions include oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids, and the citric acid cycle.
  • Why is the inner membrane of mitochondria ruffled? - Yahoo! Answers 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It contains the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and, in some organisms, the enzymes concerned with fatty-acid oxidation.

^ Of the enzymes, the major functions include oxidation of pyruvate and fatty acids , and the citric acid cycle .
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.Mitochondria have their own genetic material, and the machinery to manufacture their own RNAs and proteins (see: protein biosynthesis).^ DNA: the genetic material - - RNA: replicated from DNA .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria contain their own genome, which encodes a number of proteins critical for energy metabolism, particularly in oxidative phosphorylation.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Further chaperone partners participate in protein import and matrix protein folding in the mitochondria, implicating an indirect role also in Ca 2+ transport (not shown; for reviews, see Refs.
  • Mitochondria: The Hub of Cellular Ca2+ Signaling -- Szabadkai and Duchen 23 (2): 84 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.A published human mitochondrial DNA sequence revealed 16,569 base pairs encoding 37 total genes: 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA, and 13 peptide genes.^ Gorilla gorilla mitochondrial DNA, comlete sequence.

^ A human mitochondrial ferritin encoded by an intronless gene.

^ The human mtDNA has 16,571 base pairs (bp).
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The 13 mitochondrial peptides in humans are integrated into the inner mitochondrial membrane, along with proteins encoded by genes that reside in the host cell's nucleus.^ The composition of proteins and phospholipids of the mitochondrial inner membrane is crucial for mitochondrial function.
  • PLoS ONE: Evidence for Mitochondrial Respiratory Deficiency in Rat Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dynamic subcompartmentalization of the mitochondrial inner membrane.

^ The mitochondrial inner membrane contains numerous multispanning integral proteins.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

Organization and distribution

.Mitochondria are found in nearly all eukaryotes.^ Introduction Mitochondria are cellular organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Acquisition of mitochondria by the ancestor of all living eukaryotes represented a crucial milestone in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell.
  • Analysis of Two Genomes from the Mitochondrion-Like Organelle of the Intestinal Parasite Blastocystis: Complete Sequences, Gene Content, and Genome Organization -- Pérez-Brocal and Clark 25 (11): 2475 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.They vary in number and location according to cell type.^ Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, it seems likely that most type-III cells are transformed into type-IV cells (arrow D), while a certain number of type-I cells may also develop into type-IV cells (arrow C).
  • Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel -- Hiroi et al. 208 (11): 2023 -- Journal of Experimental Biology 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC jeb.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Leukemia is characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the tissues of the body with or without a corresponding increase of those in the circulating blood, and is classified according to the type of white blood cell most prominently involved.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Non specific targets/ events Various other viral proteins interact with mitochondria and they either induce or prevent the cell death.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

.A single highly branched mitochondrion was described in the unicellular alga "Polytomella agilis".[18] Substantial numbers of mitochondria are in the liver, with about 1000–2000 mitochondria per cell making up 1/5th of the cell volume.^ Virtual mitochondrial number per cell .
  • Search BioNumbers - The Database of Useful Biological Numbers 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A method for introducing an exogenous mitochondrial genome into mitochondrion of one or more eukaryotic cells, comprising introducing said exogenous mitochondrial genome into said cells under conditions which permit said exogenous genome to incorporate into said eukaryotic cell mitochondria.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To determine if Hsp90 localized to mitochondria in vivo, immunoblots were performed on mitochondrial extracts obtained from primary testis, lung, spleen, kidney, brain and liver cells.
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .The mitochondria can be found nestled between myofibrils of muscle or wrapped around the sperm flagellum.^ Connections between the cristae and the surface of rat heart muscle mitochondria.

^ Each cell holds hundreds or thousands of mitochondria; they are found in greater amounts in active organs and tissues such as the muscles, heart, and brain.
  • How to Give Yourself a Metabolic Tune-up 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.ultrawellness.com [Source type: General]

^ D : diagram of the close apposition between Ca 2+ release sites and mitochondria in muscle.
  • ER-Mitochondria Communication. How Privileged? -- Franzini-Armstrong 22 (4): 261 -- Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Often they form a complex 3D branching network inside the cell with the cytoskeleton.^ They concluded that the O 2 -sensing function was not intrinsic to the Kv2.1-Kv9.4 complex, on the basis of the fact that only some transfected cells responded to low O 2 concentration ( 45 ).
  • Cellular oxygen sensing by mitochondria: old questions, new insight -- Chandel and Schumacker 88 (5): 1880 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ B cells, called ‘B’ since they form in the bone marrow, play an important role in the manufacture of antibodies in the humoral immune system ( Type-II branch).
  • A&W/SF: FAQ on Kremer and AIDS 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.aliveandwellsf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once inside the host cell they orchestrate various signal pathways and use them for their own benefit of survival and replication.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The association with the cytoskeleton determines mitochondrial shape, which can affect the function as well.^ Transcription of Mitochondrial mRNA and Nuclear mRNA To determine the extent to which LPS altered mitochondrial transcription, steady state mitochondrial mRNA levels were measured as a function of time ( Figure 8A ) .
  • Postlipopolysaccharide Oxidative Damage of Mitochondrial DNA -- Suliman et al. 167 (4): 570 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrial markers may comprise point mutations, deletions, amplifications, and SNPs; alterations in mitochondrial morphology/clustering; and nuclear proteins that affect mitochondrial function.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Fibrous proteins that occur in the cytoplasm, referred to as the cytoskeleton maintain the shape of the cell as well as anchoring organelles, moving the cell and controlling internal movement of structures.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

[19] .Recent evidence suggests vimentin, one of the components of the cytoskeleton, is critical to the association with the cytoskeleton.^ Evidence has emerged suggesting that subunit components of the NADPH oxidase system are expressed in a number of cells known to be O 2 responsive.
  • Cellular oxygen sensing by mitochondria: old questions, new insight -- Chandel and Schumacker 88 (5): 1880 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent evidence suggests that these membranes form transient membrane bridges that support protein movements between the ER and mitochondria.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[20]

Function

.The most prominent roles of mitochondria are to produce ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP) through respiration, and to regulate cellular metabolism.^ The inner membrane of the mitochondria contains a complex series of enzymes and other proteins that are involved in the catabolism of food molecules to liberate metabolically useful energy in the form of ATP. Cellular function is maintained through the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP. The catalytic sites on the F 1 head of the ATP synthase complex, which projects onto the protochemically negative matrix side (N-phase) of the membrane, contain three nucleotide binding sites that undergo a multiphase, catalytic cycle to produce ATP ( 43 ) from ADP and phosphate (i.e., oxidative phosphorylation).
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Immediately after the ATP content measurements, 10 µl of 2.5 mM ADP was added to the cuvette containing the reaction mixture and mitochondria to determine the rate of ATP production.
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, higher maximum respiration of intact mitochondria could represent a homeostatic response to cellular stress during sepsis.
  • Mitochondrial respiration after sepsis and prolonged hypoxia -- Taylor et al. 275 (1): 139 -- AJP - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajplung.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs Cycle.^ The PDH complex is responsible for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl coenzyme A, which is in turn fed into the citric acid cycle.
  • Probes for Mitochondria - Section 12.2 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.invitrogen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immediately after the ATP content measurements, 10 µl of 2.5 mM ADP was added to the cuvette containing the reaction mixture and mitochondria to determine the rate of ATP production.
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of biochemical reactions that occur in an ordered sequence within the mitochondria are responsible for this process of ATP production.

However, the mitochondrion has many other functions in addition to the production of ATP.

Pyruvate: the citric acid cycle

.Each pyruvate molecule produced by glycolysis is actively transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and into the matrix where it is oxidized and combined with coenzyme A to form CO2, acetyl-CoA, and NADH.^ Dynamic subcompartmentalization of the mitochondrial inner membrane.

^ Membrane fluidity - Transport across the membrane .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Co-transport - - Primary active transport .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.The acetyl-CoA is the primary substrate to enter the citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or Krebs cycle.^ The eight-step tricarboxylic acid cycle.
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, the fundamental metabolic systems in living organisms are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, changes in mitochondrial Ca 2+ can regulate tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes ( 367 ).
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the mitochondrial matrix, with the exception of succinate dehydrogenase, which is bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane as part of Complex II.[21] The citric acid cycle oxidizes the acetyl-CoA to carbon dioxide, and, in the process, produces reduced cofactors (three molecules of NADH and one molecule of FADH2) that are a source of electrons for the electron transport chain, and a molecule of GTP (that is readily converted to an ATP).^ Note the various infoldings of the mitochondrial inner membrane that produce the cristae.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The first complex, NADH dehydrogenase , accepts a pair of electrons from the primary electron donor NADH and is reduced in the process.
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Acetyl-CoA transporter .
  • http://sites.huji.ac.il/malaria/maps/transporters.html 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC sites.huji.ac.il [Source type: Academic]

[7]

NADH and FADH2: the electron transport chain

Diagram of the electron transport chain in the mitonchondrial intermembrane space
.The redox energy from NADH and FADH2 is transferred to oxygen (O2) in several steps via the electron transport chain.^ The electron-transport chain .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Formation of the electron donors NADH and FADH 2 .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Formation of the electron donors NADH and FADH2 - - - The electron-transport chain .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.These energy-rich molecules are produced within the matrix via the citric acid cycle but are also produced in the cytoplasm by glycolysis.^ Mitochondria energy-producing structures within cells.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nernstian distribution of [ 3 H]TPMP + between the cytoplasm and matrix, after correcting for the plasma membrane potential ( p ), while pH was measured by weak acid distribution, again controlling for the gradient across the plasma membrane.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ C and carnitine are the foundation then, for pulling into mitochondria long chain fatty acids, which the mitochondria then burn to produce energy for the body to function.
  • DR. BLAYLOCK ON MITOCHONDRIA AND VACCINES - AGE OF AUTISM 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.ageofautism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reducing equivalents from the cytoplasm can be imported via the malate-aspartate shuttle system of antiporter proteins or feed into the electron transport chain using a glycerol phosphate shuttle.^ Protein transport into mitochondria.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Transport of proteins into mitochondria.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The electron-transport chain .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .Protein complexes in the inner membrane (NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c reductase, and cytochrome c oxidase) perform the transfer and the incremental release of energy is used to pump protons (H+) into the intermembrane space.^ Cytochrome c is normally located in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion, loosely bound to the inner membrane.
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Outer membrane rupture will release any inter-membrane protein in addition to cytochrome c .
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At complexes I, III, and IV, the free energy released is captured and utilized to extrude a proton from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space.
  • Cellular oxygen sensing by mitochondria: old questions, new insight -- Chandel and Schumacker 88 (5): 1880 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.This process is efficient, but a small percentage of electrons may prematurely reduce oxygen, forming reactive oxygen species such as superoxide.^ SOD indicates superoxide dismutase; ROS, reactive oxygen species.
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide Antioxidants: Novel Neuroprotective Agents 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During reoxygenation, ATP is once again produced, but reactive oxygen species generated in response to oxidative stress impair function of the electron transport chain (Fiskum et al., 2004 ) and may impair the ability of the mitochondria to condense, hence resulting in matrices with reduced electron density.
  • Zinc-Dependent Multi-Conductance Channel Activity in Mitochondria Isolated from Ischemic Brain -- Bonanni et al. 26 (25): 6851 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Still other studies suggest that NADPH oxidase may decrease its generation of reactive O 2 species (ROS) during hypoxia.
  • Cellular oxygen sensing by mitochondria: old questions, new insight -- Chandel and Schumacker 88 (5): 1880 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .This can cause oxidative stress in the mitochondria and may contribute to the decline in mitochondrial function associated with the aging process.^ During reoxygenation, ATP is once again produced, but reactive oxygen species generated in response to oxidative stress impair function of the electron transport chain (Fiskum et al., 2004 ) and may impair the ability of the mitochondria to condense, hence resulting in matrices with reduced electron density.
  • Zinc-Dependent Multi-Conductance Channel Activity in Mitochondria Isolated from Ischemic Brain -- Bonanni et al. 26 (25): 6851 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, there is a strong possibility that oxidative stress in the hearts of the old animals may partly be responsible for myocyte apoptosis.
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other fragments that may be useful as mitochondrial-penetrating moieties include, but are not limited to, mitochondrial-targeting sequences that are found in proteins that localize to mitochondria.
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.As the proton concentration increases in the intermembrane space, a strong electrochemical gradient is established across the inner membrane.^ The m value is estimated from the gradient of a permeable cation across the inner membrane.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrial inner membrane has to maintain the electrochemical proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain, while numerous metabolites and proteins need to be transported across or into this membrane in order to enable the organelle to fulfill its biological functions ( 18 , 54 , 76 ).
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NICHOLLS, D. G. The influence of respiration and ATP hydrolysis on the proton electrochemical potential gradient across the inner membrane of rat liver mitochondria as determined by ion distribution.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.The protons can return to the matrix through the ATP synthase complex, and their potential energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi).^ The potential energy stored is coupled to ATP synthesis by complex V (ATP synthase).
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide Antioxidants: Novel Neuroprotective Agents 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The inner membrane of the mitochondria contains a complex series of enzymes and other proteins that are involved in the catabolism of food molecules to liberate metabolically useful energy in the form of ATP. Cellular function is maintained through the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP. The catalytic sites on the F 1 head of the ATP synthase complex, which projects onto the protochemically negative matrix side (N-phase) of the membrane, contain three nucleotide binding sites that undergo a multiphase, catalytic cycle to produce ATP ( 43 ) from ADP and phosphate (i.e., oxidative phosphorylation).
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These molecules are the so-called F 1 F 0 ATPase, a complex protein that, transporting protons back into the matrix, uses the energy released to synthesize ATP. The protons then join the electrons and oxygen atoms to form water.
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[7] .This process is called chemiosmosis, and was first described by Peter Mitchell[23][24] who was awarded the 1978 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work.^ A soluble protein called CERT has been described that carries ceramide from the ER to the Golgi apparatus ( 23 ).
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first great wave of mitochondrial research stretched from the 1940s, with the pioneering work of Lehninger, Chance, Slater, Ernster and others through the "chemiosmotic revolution" initiated by Peter Mitchell, to the early 1980s.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Later, part of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker for their clarification of the working mechanism of ATP synthase.^ [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Stock D, Leslie AG, and Walker JE. Molecular architecture of the rotary motor in ATP synthase.
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the present work, unlabeled mt-Atp8 - ATP synthase 8, mitochondrial ( Rattus norvegicus )   [Hold mouse button down for author info.
  • WikiGenes - Mitochondria, Liver 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.wikigenes.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Senior AE, Nadanaciva S, and Weber J. The molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis by F1F0-ATP synthase.
  • Method for measuring ATP production in isolated mitochondria: ATP production in brain and liver mitochondria of Fischer-344 rats with age and caloric restriction -- Drew and Leeuwenburgh 285 (5): 1259 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[25]

Origin

.Mitochondria have many features in common with prokaryotes.^ A. ROS Generation by Isolated Mitochondria Oxidative stress is a common feature of many different forms of neurodegenerative disease (for review, see Ref.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

As a result, they are believed to be originally derived from endosymbiotic prokaryotes.
.A mitochondrion contains DNA, which is organized as several copies of a single, circular chromosome.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In one embodiment, the mitochondrion is substantially free of endogenous mitochondrial DNA. [0007] The invention also provides for a transmitochondrial mammalian cell that contains such a transgenomic yeast mitochondrion.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrion contains a single 16 kb circular DNA genome which codes for into 13 proteins (mostly subunits of respiratory chains I, II, IV & V), 22 mitochondrial tRNAs and 2 rRNAs.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

.This mitochondrial chromosome contains genes for redox proteins such as those of the respiratory chain.^ Mitochondrial respiratory chain.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrion contains a single 16 kb circular DNA genome which codes for into 13 proteins (mostly subunits of respiratory chains I, II, IV & V), 22 mitochondrial tRNAs and 2 rRNAs.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

The CoRR Hypothesis proposes that this Co-location is required for Redox Regulation. .The mitochondrial genome codes for some RNAs of ribosomes, and the twenty-two tRNAs necessary for the translation of messenger RNAs into protein.^ Mitochondria are able to maintain genomic independence from the nucleus, because of proto-mitochondrial genes having integrated into the nuclear genome throughout evolution.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Rough endoplasmic reticulum (Rough ER) is so-named because of its rough appearance due to the numerous ribosomes that occur along the ER. Rough ER connects to the nuclear envelope through which the messenger RNA (mRNA) that is the blueprint for proteins travels to the ribosomes.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ With regard to the coding capacity of the plant mitochondrial genome, 57 genes have been identified in Arabidopsis to encode components of complexes I to V and cytochrome c biogenesis, rRNAs, ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and a few additional open reading frames ( Unseld et al.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.The circular structure is also found in prokaryotes, and the similarity is extended by the fact that mitochondrial DNA is organized with a variant genetic code similar to that of Proteobacteria.^ Structural organization of the nucleus - - DNA packaging .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ribosomes and mitochondrial DNA are found in the matrix.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic organization of the nucleus - - The structure of DNA .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

[26] This suggests that their ancestor, the so-called proto-mitochondrion, was a member of the Proteobacteria.[26] In particular, the proto-mitochondrion was probably related to the rickettsia.[27] .However, the exact relationship of the ancestor of mitochondria to the alpha-proteobacteria and whether the mitochondria was formed at the same time or after the nucleus, remains controversial.^ D ); however the fast movements of mitochondria remained at the same level as in control cells ( Fig.
  • Regulation of mitochondria distribution by RhoA and formins -- Minin et al. 119 (4): 659 -- Journal of Cell Science 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria look and act like bacteria – in fact, they are distantly related to alpha-proteobacteria.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exact role of ANTs remains controversial though ( 75 ) Many viral proteins that alter mitochondrial ion permeability and/or membrane potential have been identified.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.The ribosomes coded for by the mitochondrial DNA are similar to those from bacteria in size and structure.^ Ribosomes and mitochondrial DNA are found in the matrix.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (B) In latrunculin B-treated (4 h) cells DNP has a similar effect on those mitochondria which are not clustered around chloroplasts or ER-structures.
  • Plant mitochondria move on F-actin, but their positioning in the cortical cytoplasm depends on both F-actin and microtubules -- Van Gestel et al. 53 (369): 659 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With these genomes elaborated, it is clear that much of the size variation can be accounted for by coding redundancy and changes in genome structure brought about by high levels of recombination and extraneous DNA integration.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

[29] They closely resemble the bacterial 70S ribosome and not the 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes which are coded for by nuclear DNA.
.The endosymbiotic relationship of mitochondria with their host cells was popularized by Lynn Margulis.^ During the 1980s, Lynn Margulis proposed the theory of endosymbiosis to explain the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts from permanent resident prokaryotes.
  • CELLS II: CELLULAR ORGANIZATION 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.emc.maricopa.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, mitochondrial genomes are exogenous to host cells or host mitochondria when the mitochondrial genomes originate from different cell types or different species than the host cells or host mitochondria.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ UCP1 and UCP2 overexpression both increased the proton conductance of endothelial cell mitochondria, as rigorously determined by the kinetic relationship of respiration to inner membrane potential.
  • Respiratory uncoupling by UCP1 and UCP2 and superoxide generation in endothelial cell mitochondria -- Fink et al. 288 (1): E71 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[30] .The endosymbiotic hypothesis suggests that mitochondria descended from bacteria that somehow survived endocytosis by another cell, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.^ A method for introducing an exogenous mitochondrial genome into mitochondrion of one or more eukaryotic cells, comprising introducing said exogenous mitochondrial genome into said cells under conditions which permit said exogenous genome to incorporate into said eukaryotic cell mitochondria.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ca 2+ entering cell during NMDA receptor activation is largely accumulated into mitochondria.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria single-celled organisms that can exist independently, symbiotically (in cooperation with another organism) or parasitically (dependent upon another organism, sometimes to the detriment of the other organism).
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The ability of these bacteria to conduct respiration in host cells that had relied on glycolysis and fermentation would have provided a considerable evolutionary advantage.^ These mated cells are themselves replica plated onto non-fermentable growth media on which only those mating progeny with full mitochondrial function can grow.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These yeast cells have been referred to as "petite mutants" because they are deficient in respiration and therefore, smaller in size than wild-type yeast cells.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ UCP1 and UCP2 overexpression both increased the proton conductance of endothelial cell mitochondria, as rigorously determined by the kinetic relationship of respiration to inner membrane potential.
  • Respiratory uncoupling by UCP1 and UCP2 and superoxide generation in endothelial cell mitochondria -- Fink et al. 288 (1): E71 -- AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpendo.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.In a similar manner, host cells with symbiotic bacteria capable of photosynthesis would have had an advantage.^ Bacteria single-celled organisms that can exist independently, symbiotically (in cooperation with another organism) or parasitically (dependent upon another organism, sometimes to the detriment of the other organism).
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since estrogen is capable of inducing NOS activity and expression, we postulate that an estrogen induced rise in NO could participate in a similar manner whereby generating mitochondrial H 2 O 2 .
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, e.g., mammalian cells (e.g., tumor cells), yeast, fungi, and bacteria (such as Escherichia coli), and primary and transformed cells, can be host cells.
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.The incorporation of symbiotes would have increased the number of environments in which the cells could survive.^ When the cells elongate, the number of mitochondria increases, especially in the non-mobile part of the population.
  • Plant mitochondria move on F-actin, but their positioning in the cortical cytoplasm depends on both F-actin and microtubules -- Van Gestel et al. 53 (369): 659 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We did not observe an increase in the number of proliferating cells after treatment with EX in any sample examined (data not shown).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Pharmacologic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation sensitizes human leukemia cells to apoptosis induction 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, if sphingosine were generated in one part of the cell, the mitochondrial enzymes mentioned above could consume it and thus increase mitochondrial ceramide levels.
  • Ceramide synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum can permeabilize mitochondria to proapoptotic proteins -- Stiban et al. 49 (3): 625 -- Journal of Lipid Research 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jlr.org [Source type: Academic]

This symbiotic relationship probably developed 1.7[31]-2[32] billion years ago.
.A few groups of unicellular eukaryotes lack mitochondria: the microsporidians, metamonads, and archamoebae.^ Furthermore, some major eukaryotic groups don't appear as monophyletic in the network, although they are frequently split into only a few different clusters.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Genome BLAST distance phylogenies inferred from whole plastid and whole mitochondrion genome sequences 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, quite a few subgroups of the major eukaryotic groups are well recovered.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Genome BLAST distance phylogenies inferred from whole plastid and whole mitochondrion genome sequences 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

[33] .These groups appear as the most primitive eukaryotes on phylogenetic trees constructed using rRNA information, which once suggested that they appeared before the origin of mitochondria.^ An intriguing suggestion has been made ( 192 ) that the cytochrome c involvement is an evolutionary relic of the conflict between the original primitive mitochondria and their host eukaryotic cell, ensuring that cells that attempted to damage and reject mitochondria did not proliferate.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These "dense mitochondrial bodies" appear to have distinct mitochondrial membranes, suggesting some degree of integrity of the outer membrane.
  • Ultrastructural Changes of Neuronal Mitochondria After Transient and Permanent Cerebral Ischemia -- Solenski et al. 33 (3): 816 -- Stroke 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC stroke.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite their important role in metabolism, a number of anaerobic eukaryotes appear to lack mitochondria.
  • Analysis of Two Genomes from the Mitochondrion-Like Organelle of the Intestinal Parasite Blastocystis: Complete Sequences, Gene Content, and Genome Organization -- Pérez-Brocal and Clark 25 (11): 2475 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, this is now known to be an artifact of long-branch attraction – they are derived groups and retain genes or organelles derived from mitochondria (e.g., mitosomes and hydrogenosomes).^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carnitine a compound that is required to transport long chain fatty acids across the inner membrane of the mitochondria, in the form of acyl-carnitine, where they can be metabolized for energy.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A truncated form of Trx, Trx80, is reported to be a potent mitogenic cytokine, however, it is not known whether Trx80 is derived from mitochondrial Trx [180] .
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]

Genome

.The human mitochondrial genome is a circular DNA molecule of about 16 kilobases.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When eukaryotic cells are exposed to a DNA intercalator, replication in the circular genomes of mitochondria is blocked, and the mitochondrial genomic DNA is eventually lost.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondrial genome sequences can be produced and manipulated by recombinant DNA technology methods routine in the art.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] .It encodes 37 genes: 13 for subunits of respiratory complexes I, III, IV and V, 22 for mitochondrial tRNA (for the 20 standard amino acids, plus an extra gene for leucine and serine), and 2 for rRNA.^ The remaining genes encode 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs used in the mitochondrial ribosome subunits.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrial genome encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 polypeptides of the electron transport complexes.
  • Postlipopolysaccharide Oxidative Damage of Mitochondrial DNA -- Suliman et al. 167 (4): 570 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of these, 24 (22 tRNAs and two rRNAs) are needed for mitochondrial DNA translation, and 13 encode subunits of the respiratory chain complexes.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] One mitochondrion can contain two to ten copies of its DNA.[35]
.As in prokaryotes, there is a very high proportion of coding DNA and an absence of repeats.^ There is very limited regulatory DNA in mitochondria.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mitochondrial genes are transcribed as multigenic transcripts, which are cleaved and polyadenylated to yield mature mRNAs.^ The mechanism of estrogen-induced mitochondrial gene transcription is not clearly understood.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lu, B., and Hanson, M.R. (1992) A single nuclear gene specifies the abundance and extent of RNA editing of a plant mitochondrial transcript.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

^ RSV, Rose sarcoma virus promoter; OTC, mitochondrial targeting sequence from the ornithine transcarbamylase gene; pA, polyadenylation signal from SV40 virus.
  • PLoS ONE: Ectopic Catalase Expression in Mitochondria by Adeno-Associated Virus Enhances Exercise Performance in Mice 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Not all proteins necessary for mitochondrial function are encoded by the mitochondrial genome; most are coded by genes in the cell nucleus and the corresponding proteins are imported into the mitochondrion.^ Opening the door to mitochondrial protein import.
  • Mitochondria Use Different Mechanisms for Transport of Multispanning Membrane Proteins through the Intermembrane Space -- Frazier et al. 23 (21): 7818 -- Molecular and Cellular Biology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC mcb.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The integrity of the mitochondrial genome is important for normal cell function.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, most of the approximately 200 mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus.
  • Postlipopolysaccharide Oxidative Damage of Mitochondrial DNA -- Suliman et al. 167 (4): 570 -- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajrccm.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .The exact number of genes encoded by the nucleus and the mitochondrial genome differs between species.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are able to maintain genomic independence from the nucleus, because of proto-mitochondrial genes having integrated into the nuclear genome throughout evolution.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Copy number regulation and transmission of the mitochondrial genome is, no doubt, under nuclear control.
  • Higher Plant Mitochondria -- Mackenzie and McIntosh 11 (4): 571 -- THE PLANT CELL 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plantcell.org [Source type: Academic]

.In general, mitochondrial genomes are circular, although exceptions have been reported.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mammalian cells also contain a small circular mitochondrial genome which synthesizes enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial RNAs (mtRNAs).
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The existence of alternative start codons has been reported for rps4 in some plant mitochondrial genomes (Bergthorsson et al.
  • Analysis of Two Genomes from the Mitochondrion-Like Organelle of the Intestinal Parasite Blastocystis: Complete Sequences, Gene Content, and Genome Organization -- Pérez-Brocal and Clark 25 (11): 2475 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[37] .In general, mitochondrial DNA lacks introns, as is the case in the human mitochondrial genome;[36] however, introns have been observed in some eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA,[38] such as that of yeast[39] and protists,[40] including Dictyostelium discoideum.^ Tinca tinca mitochondrial DNA, complete genome.

^ Theileria annulata mitochondrial genome DNA .

^ Human papillomavirus type 7 genomic DNA .

[41]
.In animals the mitochondrial genome is typically a single circular chromosome that is approximately 16-kb long and has 37 genes.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are able to maintain genomic independence from the nucleus, because of proto-mitochondrial genes having integrated into the nuclear genome throughout evolution.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Gallus gallus chromosome 16, whole genome shotgun sequence.

.The genes while highly conserved may vary in location.^ In light of this finding, the highly diffusible H 2 O 2 generated by mitochondria may become a specific signaling molecule as a function of location.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Curiously this pattern is not found in the human body louse (Pediculus humanus).^ "The researchers found that with protocols administered in the mitigated environment, heavy metals were cleared from the children's bodies in a pattern dependent on time and molecular weight.
  • DR. BLAYLOCK ON MITOCHONDRIA AND VACCINES - AGE OF AUTISM 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.ageofautism.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lipids found in the human body include fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Instead this mitochondrial genome is arranged in 18 minicircular chromosomes each of which is 3–4 kb long and has one to three genes.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are able to maintain genomic independence from the nucleus, because of proto-mitochondrial genes having integrated into the nuclear genome throughout evolution.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A method for introducing an exogenous mitochondrial genome into mitochondrion of one or more eukaryotic cells, comprising introducing said exogenous mitochondrial genome into said cells under conditions which permit said exogenous genome to incorporate into said eukaryotic cell mitochondria.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[42] This pattern is also found in other sucking lice but not in chewing lice. Recombination has been shown to occur between the minichromosomes. The reason for this difference is not known.
.While slight variations on the standard code had been predicted earlier,[43] none was discovered until 1979, when researchers studying human mitochondrial genes determined that they used an alternative code.^ Future studies using interfibrillar mitochondria from the left ventricle will attempt to determine if this subpopulation of mitochondria is mainly responsible for oxidative stress and myocyte apoptosis in vivo.
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular, studies assessing various diseases leading to mitochondrial Fe loading have produced intriguing findings.

^ The Ca 2+ ionophores that have been commonly used in mitochondrial studies are ionomycin and A-23187, which function as electroneutral Ca 2+ /2H + exchangers.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[44] .Many slight variants have been discovered since,[45] including various alternative mitochondrial codes.^ As a consequence, m -dependent functions including mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport and the generation of O 2 · will be maintained, or even increased as a consequence of the slight mitochondrial hyperpolarization.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, it is conceivable that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO may result in increased generation of toxic dicarboxylic acids via microsomal ω-oxidation of excess fatty acids ( 45 ).
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Pharmacologic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation sensitizes human leukemia cells to apoptosis induction 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular, the establishment of an energized m in procyclics results in the generation of ATP, since the mitochondrial F 1 F 0 -ATPase (complex 5) couples m generation with the phosphorylation of ADP ( 1 , 45 ).
  • The Mitochondrion Is a Site of Trypanocidal Action of the Aromatic Diamidine DB75 in Bloodstream Forms of Trypanosoma brucei -- Lanteri et al. 52 (3): 875 -- Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC aac.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[46] Further, the AUA, AUC, and AUU codons are all allowable start codons.
Exceptions to the universal genetic code (UGC) in mitochondria[6]
Organism Codon Standard Novel
Mammalian AGA, AGG Arginine Stop codon
AUA Isoleucine Methionine
UGA Stop codon Tryptophan
Invertebrates AGA, AGG Arginine Serine
AUA Isoleucine Methionine
UGA Stop codon Tryptophan
Yeast AUA Isoleucine Methionine
UGA Stop codon Tryptophan
CUA Leucine Threonine
.Some of these differences should be regarded as pseudo-changes in the genetic code due to the phenomenon of RNA editing, which is common in mitochondria.^ In fact, in the absence of common descent or any other reason to suppose that these two types of trees should be similar, the most likely result by far is that they will be radically different.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A. ROS Generation by Isolated Mitochondria Oxidative stress is a common feature of many different forms of neurodegenerative disease (for review, see Ref.
  • Mitochondria and Neuronal Survival -- Nicholls and Budd 80 (1): 315 -- Physiological Reviews 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC physrev.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not clear if these lower serum glutathione levels are genetic, due to unspecified “toxins” or are simply an artifact.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In higher plants, it was thought that CGG encoded for tryptophan and not arginine; however, the codon in the processed RNA was discovered to be the UGG codon, consistent with the universal genetic code for tryptophan.^ The scientists who cracked the genetic code in the 1950's and 1960's worked under the assumption that the code was universal or nearly so ( Judson 1996 , p.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We also make the strong prediction that all newly discovered species that belong to the known phyla will use the "standard genetic code" or a close derivative thereof.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The few known exceptions are, nevertheless, simple and minor variations from the "universal" genetic code (see Figure 1.1.1) ( Lehman 2001 ; Voet and Voet 1995 , p.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

[47] .Of note, the arthropod mitochondrial genetic code has undergone parallel evolution within a phylum, with some organisms uniquely translating AGG to lysine.^ Hinegardner and Engelberg allowed for some variation in the genetic code, and predicted how such variation should be distributed if found: .
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, some organisms have undergone little change in as much as 100 to 200 million years in rare cases.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some codons do not follow universal genetic code.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

[48]
.Mitochondrial genomes have far fewer genes than the bacteria from which they are thought to be descended.^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Transcription of mitochondrial genomes generally requires the presence of one or more species-specific nuclear genes (e.g., encoding a mitochondrial transcription factor).
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some features displayed by the MLO genome from Blastocystis are unique when compared with the true mitochondrial genomes of the other stramenopiles sequenced so far.
  • Analysis of Two Genomes from the Mitochondrion-Like Organelle of the Intestinal Parasite Blastocystis: Complete Sequences, Gene Content, and Genome Organization -- Pérez-Brocal and Clark 25 (11): 2475 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although some have been lost altogether, many have been transferred to the nucleus, such as the respiratory complex II protein subunits.^ Complex II consists of 4 subunits all encoded from the nuclear genome.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The mitochondrion contains a single 16 kb circular DNA genome which codes for into 13 proteins (mostly subunits of respiratory chains I, II, IV & V), 22 mitochondrial tRNAs and 2 rRNAs.
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been shown that mitochondria have the capability to export mitochondrial-matrix proteins to other cellular compartments such as the nucleus, peroxisome, endoplasmic reticulum, and secretory vesicles [171] .
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

[34] .This is thought to be relatively common over evolutionary time.^ This is thought to be relatively common over evolutionary time.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

.A few organisms, such as the Cryptosporidium, actually have mitochondria that lack any DNA, presumably because all their genes have been lost or transferred.^ Rate of DNA transfer from mitochondria to nucleus .
  • Search BioNumbers - The Database of Useful Biological Numbers 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the course of evolution (it is thought that the mitochondrial association with eukaryotic cells is about 2 billion years old), the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has lost a lot of genes (compared to their free-living alpha-proteobacterial “cousins”) and transferred nearly all of the rest (about 1400) to the nuclear DNA (nDNA) of their host cell.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[49] .In Cryptosporidium, the mitochondria have an altered ATP generation system that renders the parasite resistant to many classical mitochondrial inhibitors such as cyanide, azide, and atovaquone.^ Significance of altered mitochondrial morphology Previous studies have delineated morphological alterations in mitochondria of hippocampal CA1 neurons many days after ischemia.
  • Zinc-Dependent Multi-Conductance Channel Activity in Mitochondria Isolated from Ischemic Brain -- Bonanni et al. 26 (25): 6851 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This process generates an electrochemical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is used by the F 0 F 1 ATP synthase for the generation of ATP from ADP and P i .
  • Cellular oxygen sensing by mitochondria: old questions, new insight -- Chandel and Schumacker 88 (5): 1880 -- Journal of Applied Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jap.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inhibitors of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential abolished the mitochondrial import of SIRT3 and rendered the protein accessible to proteinase K treatment, demonstrating the efficiency of the inhibitors used in this experiment (Fig.
  • Targeting of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein to Mitochondria through a Novel C-Terminal Localization Motif -- Schwer et al. 78 (15): 7958 -- The Journal of Virology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jvi.asm.org [Source type: Academic]

[49]

Replication and inheritance

.Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to bacterial cell division; unlike bacteria, however, mitochondria can also fuse with other mitochondria.^ When cells divide, the mitochondria apportionment between them is random ("heteroplasmy"): one daughter cell may contain primarily normal mitochondria while the other gets a disproportionate share of damaged mitochondria, resulting in a patchy distribution of damaged cells within a tissue.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is becoming clear that the morphological, functional, and genetic differences (heteroplasmy) that exist within the mitochondria population may reflect a division of labor within the cell.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, we observed diaphanous-dependent docking of mitochondria in Drosophila cells that do not contain intermediate filaments (Goldstein and Gunawardena, 2000 ).
  • Regulation of mitochondria distribution by RhoA and formins -- Minin et al. 119 (4): 659 -- Journal of Cell Science 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

[34][50]. The regulation of this division differs between eukaryotes. .In many single-celled eukaryotes, their growth and division is linked to the cell cycle.^ Meiosis - The cell division cycle .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell division cycle - - Controlled proliferation .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cycle of infection results in the death of the host cell and the release of many virus …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, a single mitochondrion may divide synchronously with the nucleus.^ For example, perinuclear mitochondria may generate H 2 O 2 that only transduces signals to the nucleus or the subplasamlemmal mitochondria may only activate signal cascades of plasma membrane origin.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.This division and segregation process must be tightly controlled so that each daughter cell receives at least one mitochondrion.^ The cell division cycle - - Controlled proliferation .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A method for introducing an exogenous mitochondrial genome into mitochondrion of one or more eukaryotic cells, comprising introducing said exogenous mitochondrial genome into said cells under conditions which permit said exogenous genome to incorporate into said eukaryotic cell mitochondria.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, if the mutation makes the mitochondrion slower to grow and divide, it will eventually be “diluted out” by the daughter cells of the non-mutated mitochondria, which are dividing faster.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other eukaryotes (in mammals for example), mitochondria may replicate their DNA and divide mainly in response to the energy needs of the cell, rather than in phase with the cell cycle.^ RNA: replicated from DNA - The organization of cells .
  • cell (biology) :: The mitochondrion -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When cells divide, the mitochondria apportionment between them is random ("heteroplasmy"): one daughter cell may contain primarily normal mitochondria while the other gets a disproportionate share of damaged mitochondria, resulting in a patchy distribution of damaged cells within a tissue.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other fragments that may be useful as mitochondrial-penetrating moieties include, but are not limited to, mitochondrial-targeting sequences that are found in proteins that localize to mitochondria.
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.When the energy needs of a cell are high, mitochondria grow and divide.^ Mitochondria are the energy generators of the cell.
  • Mitochondria Damage & Aging 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.natap.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When the energy needs of a cell are high, mitochondria grow and divide.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, including signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.
  • ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A SINGLE MITOCHONDRION - Patent application 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.When the energy use is low, mitochondria are destroyed or become inactive.^ When the energy use is low, mitochondria are destroyed or become inactive.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is then transported to the cytoplasm of a cell for use in numerous cell functions.

^ Let us return for a moment to the presence of mitochondria as exceptionally sophisticated organelles skilled at the use of oxygen to generate energy for the cell’s benefit.
  • The Endoscopy Center of Pensacola :: Role of Mitochondria in Aging and Cancer 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.endo-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In such examples, and in contrast to the situation in many single celled eukaryotes, mitochondria are apparently randomly distributed to the daughter cells during the division of the cytoplasm.^ For example, endogenous mitochondria are mitochondria that are native to a cell.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When cells divide, the mitochondria apportionment between them is random ("heteroplasmy"): one daughter cell may contain primarily normal mitochondria while the other gets a disproportionate share of damaged mitochondria, resulting in a patchy distribution of damaged cells within a tissue.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In many types of cultured cells, mitochondria are distributed throughout the cytoplasm and this distribution depends on the integrity of cytoplasmic microtubules (Ball and Singer, 1982 ).
  • Regulation of mitochondria distribution by RhoA and formins -- Minin et al. 119 (4): 659 -- Journal of Cell Science 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC jcs.biologists.org [Source type: Academic]

.An individual's mitochondrial genes are not inherited by the same mechanism as nuclear genes.^ Mitochondria are able to maintain genomic independence from the nucleus, because of proto-mitochondrial genes having integrated into the nuclear genome throughout evolution.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The mechanism of estrogen-induced mitochondrial gene transcription is not clearly understood.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the mitochondria are more “fragile” than normal – due to a mutation in either mtDNA or the nuclear genes encoding for mitochondrial components – they may be more sensitive ”stressors”.
  • A Photon In The Darkness » Blog Archive » Mitochondrial Mutations and Autism 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC photoninthedarkness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm, the egg nucleus and sperm nucleus each contribute equally to the genetic makeup of the zygote nucleus. .In contrast, the mitochondria, and therefore the mitochondrial DNA, usually comes from the egg only.^ In contrast, the mitochondria, and therefore the mitochondrial DNA, usually comes from the egg only.
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Mitochondrion - Hwiki 18 January 2010 0:38 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitochondria are the only organelles outside of the nucleus that contain DNA. The mitochondrial genome consists of a small circular chromosome that contains a total of 37 genes.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The obvious thing that comes to my mind regarding the information in Reason's post is what affect inserting better DNA repair genes into the mitochondrial DNA might have.
  • Mitochondria Aging - ImmInst.org Forums 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.imminst.org [Source type: Academic]

.The sperm's mitochondria enter the egg but do not contribute genetic information to the embryo.^ Alternatively, a mutant mitochondrial genome can be introduced into mitochondria of an egg or an embryo by a fusion-like process similar to that described above.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using the methods of the invention, mitochondrial genomes containing a mutation can be introduced into the mitochondria of an egg or an embryo using particle bombardment as described herein.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] Instead, paternal mitochondria are marked with ubiquitin to select them for later destruction inside the embryo.[52] .The egg cell contains relatively few mitochondria, but it is these mitochondria that survive and divide to populate the cells of the adult organism.^ When cells divide, the mitochondria apportionment between them is random ("heteroplasmy"): one daughter cell may contain primarily normal mitochondria while the other gets a disproportionate share of damaged mitochondria, resulting in a patchy distribution of damaged cells within a tissue.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The invention provides such transgenomic mitochondria and transmitochondrial cells and organisms.
  • Transgenomic Mitochondria, Transmitochondrial Cells and Organisms, and Methods of Making and Using - Patent application 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Whether these multivalent scaffolds exist on mitochondria is not clear at this time, but these signaling complexes could be a mediator of signals between the mitochondria and the nucleus during cell division.
  • Estrogen, mitochondria, and growth of cancer and non-cancer cells Felty Q, Roy D - J Carcinog 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.carcinogenesis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Mitochondria are, therefore, in most cases inherited down the female line, known as maternal inheritance.^ Celiac disease also known as celiac sprue, celiac disease is an inherited disease in which the intestinal lining is inflamed in response to the ingestion of a protein known as gluten.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nDNA that has been imported into mitochondria.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sprue also known as celiac sprue and celiac disease, it is an inherited disease in which the intestinal lining is inflamed in response to the ingestion of a protein known as gluten.
  • Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC lpi.oregonstate.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This mode is seen in most organisms including all animals.^ The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to a cost threshold in any year and is expected to be included in all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated.
  • PA-08-143: Mitochondria in Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, Diagnosis and Prognosis (R01) 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.However, mitochondria in some species can sometimes be inherited paternally.^ However, some aspects of drug-mitochondria interactions may still be underestimated because of the difficulty in foreseeing and understanding all potential implications of the complex pathophysiology of mitochondria.
  • The role of mitochondria in pharmacotoxicology: a reevaluation of an old, newly emerging topic -- Scatena et al. 293 (1): C12 -- AJP - Cell Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpcell.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most importantly, however, all modern species should have inherited the structures that perform these functions.
  • 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: Part 1 20 September 2009 17:49 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the mitochondria do synthesize some of the proteins essential for their respiratory function ( 26, 27 ).
  • Viruses and Mitochondria 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC homepage.usask.ca [Source type: Academic]

This is the norm among certain coniferous plants, although not in pine trees and yew trees.[53] .It has been suggested that it occurs at a very low level in humans.^ However, very low levels of catalase activity have been detected in cardiac mitochondria ( 32 ).
  • Cytochrome c release from mitochondria in the aging heart: a possible mechanism for apoptosis with age -- Phaneuf and Leeuwenburgh 282 (2): 423 -- AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC ajpregu.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By immunohistochemistry, Hsp60 was undetectable, or expressed at very low levels in normal epithelium of breast, colon, and lung, in vivo (FIG. 13B).
  • MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTI-TUMOR AGENTS - Patent application - Described are mitochondria-targeted anti-tumor agents and methods of making and using the same for the 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Together, these results suggest that catalase overexpression may not eliminate physiological level (low-level) free radicals inside cell.
  • PLoS ONE: Ectopic Catalase Expression in Mitochondria by Adeno-Associated Virus Enhances Exercise Performance in Mice 10 January 2010 17:51 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[54]

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Simple English

File:Mitochondria, mammalian lung -
Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion from mammalian lung tissue showing its matrix and membranes.
File:Biological
Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. Organelles:
(1) Nucleolus
(2) Nucleus
(3) Ribosomes
(4) Vesicle
(5) Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
(6) Golgi apparatus
(7) Cytoskeleton
(8) Smooth ER
(9) Mitochondria
(10) Vacuole
(11) Cytoplasm
(12) Lysosome
(13) Centrioles within centrosome

Mitochondria (Greek mitos, a thread + khondrion, granule) are organelles, or parts of a cell. Their job is to make energy from the food that the cell takes in. It does this with a process called cellular respiration, which makes ATP, a molecule which the cell can use as a source of energy.[1]

It is thought that mitochondria were once independent bacteria, and became part of the eukaryote cell by endosymbiosis.[2]

DNA

Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome. Further, its DNA shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.[3]

Inheritance

Mitochondria divide by binary fission similar to bacterial cell division. In single-celled eukaryotes, division of mitochondria is linked to cell division. This division must be controlled so that each daughter cell receives at least one mitochondrion. In other eukaryotes (in humans for example), mitochondria may replicate their DNA and divide in response to the energy needs of the cell, rather than in phase with the cell cycle.

An individual's mitochondrial genes are not inherited by the same mechanism as nuclear genes. The mitochondria, and therefore the mitochondrial DNA, usually comes from the egg only. The sperm's mitochondria enter the egg, but are marked for later destruction.[4] The egg cell contains relatively few mitochondria, but it is these mitochondria that survive and divide to populate the cells of the adult organism. Mitochondria are, therefore, in most cases inherited down the female line, known as maternal inheritance. This mode is true for all animals, and most other organisms. However, mitochondria is inherited paternally in some conifers plants, though not in pines or yews.[5]

A single mitochondrion can contain 2–10 copies of its DNA.[6] For this reason, mitochondrial DNA usually is thought to reproduce by binary fission. However, there is some evidence that animal mitochondria can undergo recombination.[7] If recombination does not occur, the whole mitochondrial DNA sequence represents a single haploid genome, which makes it useful for studying the evolutionary history of populations.

Links:

References

  1. Henze K. & Martin W. 2003. Evolutionary biology: essence of mitochondria. Nature 426: 127–8.
  2. Lake, James A. Evidence for an early prokaryote symbiogenesis. Nature 460 967–971.
  3. Andersson SG, Karlberg O, Canbäck B, Kurland CG (January 2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "On the origin of mitochondria: a genomics perspective"]. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 358 (1429): 165–77; discussion 177–9. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1193. PMID 12594925. 
  4. Sutovsky, P., et al. (1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Ubiquitin tag for sperm mitochondria"]. Nature 402: 371–372. doi:10.1038/46466.  Discussed in Science News.
  5. Mogensen HL (1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The hows and whys of cytoplasmic inheritance in seed plants"]. American Journal of Botany 83 (3): 247. doi:10.2307/2446172. 
  6. Wiesner RJ, Ruegg JC, Morano I (1992). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Counting target molecules by exponential polymerase chain reaction, copy number of mitochondrial DNA in rat tissues"]. Biochim Biophys Acta. 183 (2): 553–559. PMID 1550563. 
  7. Lunt DB, Hyman BC (15 May 1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Animal mitochondrial DNA recombination"]. Nature 387 (6630): 247. doi:10.1038/387247a0. PMID 9153388. 


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